5 December, 2020

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Observations On The Visits Of The Chinese & The Americans

By C.V. Wigneswaran

Justice C.V. Wigneswaran MP

Someone asked: What are your observations on the visits of the Chinese and US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo in recent times?

My response was: I am frankly alarmed. We have stepped into a Geo-Political game taking place in the Indo-Pacific region where Sri Lanka is a key chess piece in the rivalry among big powers. Sri Lanka must remember it was its unfortunate emotive anti Tamil stance that has got it into this mess. One of its objectives is to deprive India of the power to bring about a just solution for the Tamil people. However clever we think our Foreign Policy is going to be, we cannot rule out the possibility of violence breaking out in this region within an year or so.

Let me go back.

After 1919 when the British told Ceylon they were going to give self-rule to the Ceylonese the Sinhalese Leaders who were very friendly with the Tamil Political leaders until then, started to hatch plots to take over the entire Country to themselves. It probably was a reaction to the important position Tamils had held under the British. When my mother’s relative Sir Ponnambalam Ramanathan returned in 1915 after a successful audience with the Queen of England on behalf of the Sinhalese prisoners who were to be released from incarceration  by the local Police, the Sinhala Leaders pulled  him in a chariot themselves discarding the Horses to show their gratitude. They pulled his chariot from the Port to his house at Horton Place. 

But within 4 years everything changed. The reason was the then Governor had informed the Ceylonese of the British intention to give self-government to Ceylon. 

Until then the Tamil Leaders occupied the Centre stage in Administration and Politics. There must have been a silent antipathy in the minds of the Sinhalese Leaders as to why a minority community should hold such an important position in administration and other fields when the Sinhalese were the majority. But the British believed in meritocracy and chose the fittest for all positions from among the Natives. The Tamils were docile, religiously bent, studious and conscientious. That is why even today the Tamils occupy important positions the world over.

The idea must have dawned among our Sinhalese Leaders that they should take over Leadership as soon as possible in the light of the willingness on the part of the British to give self-rule to Ceylon. 

The setting up of the Pan Sinhala Cabinet in the 1930s was symptomatic of their secret desire and antipathy towards the Tamils. The interesting thing about the Pan Sinhala Cabinet was that it was the brain child of a Tamil Mathematics’ Professor C. Suntharalingam who was later the irrepressible Eylom Suntha in politics.

Thus as time went on, the idea became crystalised among the Sinhalese that Tamils were not to be allowed to rule the roost anymore. Many Doctors, Engineers, Lawyers, Public servants and so on were majority Tamils at the time of Independence. So thereafter steps were taken to weaken the Tamils and strengthen the Sinhalese. Disenfranchisement of the Up Country Tamils, Sinhala Only, Standardization were all directed against the Tamils to weaken them. In addition pogroms were staged to drive out the Tamils from the Southern Areas (South of the Northern and Eastern Provinces). Some went abroad. Many were sent to the North and East by boats by the Government itself. They recognized the North and East were Tamil speaking areas. They recognized the North and East were the traditional homelands of the Tamils.

But the Sinhalese Leaders were not contented with driving the Tamils out of Sinhala areas or disenfranchising them. They set about to expropriate traditional Tamil homelands. Colonization of traditional Tamil areas with Sinhalese took place in a big way. When Tamils reacted they were called Terrorists and massacred. Over a Million Sri Lankan Tamils fled the Island and are now in various Countries. They are being recognized by those Countries even though the Country of their birth drove them away.

So the present situation is that there are Resolutions before the United Nations against Sri Lanka. They relate to the genocide, war crimes and other International crimes committed by the Sri Lankan Politicians, Officials and its Forces. 

In this light the Sri Lankan Government has found it difficult to extricate itself from the heavy debt they incurred due to the war from the Criminal activities they were involved in during and after the war. They therefore looked around for friends in the International Arena to help them economically and politically. China which needs a firm foothold in the Asian Pacific region found Sri Lanka to be an ideal vassal. The Chinese have played their cards well. They know the weakness of the Sinhala Leaders and Sri Lanka. These Sinhala Leaders and a powerful part of their Intelligentsia are prepared to cut their noses to spite their faces. Their obstinate and intransigent actions based on an anti Tamil perception might transform this area into a Conflict Zone. These are the leaders and so called intelligent persons from among the Sinhalese who believe the Tamils and Sinhalese have been traditional enemies for centuries. They forget this antipathy towards each other is a creation of recent years by those who wanted to thrive selfishly by the propagation of this false view. 

If only there is one responsible person amongst the Sinhalese Leaders he would ask “Are we going on the correct path?”. “Instead of reconciling with the Tamils why are we treading a dangerous path which might bring suffering to all? After all we have decimated the Tamils, chased them out of Sinhala areas, we have forced many Tamils and others to flee abroad, we have colonized and taken over Tamil areas to a large extent, we have denied them the contiguity of the North and East, we have put up Buddhist Dagobas and Temples of worship in traditionally Tamil areas and we have fully controlled the Tamils of the North and East and brought them under the over- lordship of our Armed Forces. What else have we to do?” 

To my mind there are two choices – we could reconcile with the Tamils and make this Country a peaceful and prosperous area overnight or we could continue with our dream of making this Country Sinhala Buddhist and in pursuance of our dream discriminate against all minorities and take all steps to undermine them in all manner whatsoever. My hunch is that many of the present Sinhalese leaders from both sides of the Parliament are confident that they have come close to destroying the Tamils and the Muslims and therefore they must pursue the pan Sinhala Buddhist path studiously.

This is a wrong perception from a truly Buddhist standpoint. They must remember that every Sinhala Leader of whatever hue will have to pay for what he or she had done to brutalize the minorities. Killings of the Tamils or any others for whatever selfish reasons will not go unheeded by Karma.

Gananath Obeyesekere, Emeritus Professor of Anthropology at Princeton University, said that “in the Buddhist doctrinal tradition… there is little evidence of intolerance, no justification for violence, no conception even of ‘just wars’ or ‘holy wars.’ … one can make an assertion that Buddhist doctrine is impossible to reconcile logically with an ideology of violence and intolerance”.

Those with military background or civil or religious background if they consider themselves Buddhists have no justification to continue with violence despite their varied perceptions. The Buddhist doctrine “is impossible to reconcile logically with an ideology of violence and intolerance”.

Thus there is still a chance to reverse the process of hatred and violence. That is to reconcile with the Tamil Leaders (not the boot lickers who are powerless to function on behalf of the Tamils) and set up fully  fledged devolved unit in the North and East recognizing the fact that these areas have been the traditional homelands of the Tamils. By providing a just solution to the Tamil people, Sri Lanka does not have to antagonise any country and does not have to put itself in a dangerous situation. The only way to keep Sri Lanka a paradise and pursue a genuine non-alignment policy is to devolve power to the Tamil people. There need not be any misgivings about the future of the several Sinhalese who have occupied during the past fifty years or so within the traditional Tamil speaking areas. So long as the North and East are recognized as Tamil speaking areas, those in power there would expect the denizens of those areas to conduct their businesses in Tamil just as Sinhala is used in the South. Just as much as the Sinhalese want to preserve their language, religion and culture in Sri Lanka, the Sri Lankan Tamils too want to do the same with their heritage. After all the Tamils are the original inhabitants of this Country having lived here for more than three thousand years continuously. The Cholas and others only added to their numbers in later times. The Sinhala language only came into being in the 6th or 7th Century after Christ. The oldest Sinhala Grammar Sidatsangarawa was written only in the13th Century AD. The Mahawansa was not written in Sinhala but in Pali.

Therefore in answering your question as to what I think of the visits by the Chinese and the Americans lately I would say unless the leaders of our country take immediate steps to reconcile among themselves by devolving full powers to those who occupy specified areas for centuries and bring about cordial relationship among ourselves we are going to fall into the whirlpool of geo politics which may take us to a position where vital decisions on our behalf cannot be made by ourselves but by others on our behalf whether we like it or not.

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Latest comments

  • 16
    6

    Good article . Happy to know that you and I have a common distant ancestor

    • 11
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      R25
      All of us have a common distant ancestor if you believe Charles D.

      • 0
        0

        Thanks for that known information SJ but common ancestor is just a few generations old, the other common ancestor is millions of years old

        • 5
          1

          R25
          There is a little problem here.
          Women can and do cheat.

          • 0
            0

            LOL . You are funny SJ . Yes it is true so but I can go only according to official records and what is recorded legally as my ancestors

            • 0
              0

              R25
              It may sound funny, but I am deadly serious.
              What legal paperwork says is one thing but what some mother did along the line nobody knows.
              How can one be sure?
              *
              BTW, you are so sure of low-caste ancestry of people without legal paperwork.
              *
              However, what good old Charlie seemed certain about was our very ancient ancestor. We can get the route wrong but the ancestor is the same.

          • 0
            0

            SJ,
            I am sorry I made a mistake in identifying (physical/emotional features) in the last thread. R25 is from a Hindu Vellalar family and a distant relative of Sir Ponnambalam Ramanathan, PK is from a Christian Protestant Vellalar family and a distant relative SJV Chelva, SSS is a very light skinned Brahmin. These are 3 different people, but each one plagiarising the other. I should apologise for the mistaken identity. I am telling you because you are more tolerant and receptive.

            • 0
              0

              Satire is a heck of a ridiculer…

              • 0
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                LC
                I am all for good entertainment even at my expense.

                • 0
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                  SJ
                  A mistake again by me, PK is from a very prominent Protestant Christian Vellalar family and a distant relative of Lucky Kadir.
                  Glad that you are enjoying satire…

            • 3
              0

              I am from a Christian Protestant Vellalar family but not at all related to SJV . My ancestral village is from Vadukottai . Venu Kunju’s village. , and from a prominent Protestant Christian Vellalar family from this area. I belong to a family that was quite powerful a generation or two ago. Also distantly related to that late Tamil traitor minister., that all Chingkallams love. A cricket stadium , a cricket trophy , as well as a street was named after them. I admit to openly plagiarising from Sivan Sankaran’s posts( He HE He) and come here for kicks

  • 14
    6

    HLDM, Udhaya Ganapathipillai, Wimal Sangili Karuppan Weerawansa, Champika, ………………….. soma, Evil Blind Eye, …….. Govinda (Gevendu) ……. C V Wigneswaran writes:

    “The Sinhala language only came into being in the 6th or 7th Century after Christ. The oldest Sinhala Grammar Sidatsangarawa was written only in the13th Century AD. The Mahawansa was not written in Sinhala but in Pali.”

    Let us have some fun.
    SJ is ready and willing to help you lot.

    • 11
      16

      Fake Vedda,
      There is nothing new. He is repeating what racist separatist Chelvanayakam who entered Sinhale illegally during British rule and his team said when they realized Demala people who are the descendants of laborers brought by Portuguese/Dravida invaders/Kthonis have no historical or archeological evidences in support for their bogus claim ‘Traditional Homeland’. Ridiculing Mahawanse was their first act.

      • 2
        1

        Eagle Brain Dead Blind Eye

        “Demala people who are the descendants of laborers brought by Portuguese/Dravida invaders/Kthonis have no historical or archeological evidences in support for their bogus claim ‘Traditional Homeland’.

        They may be descendants of Portuguese/Dravida invaders/Kthonis however it appears ancestors of you and your fellow racists were brought to this island by the Dutch/Brits and slave traders between 1640 and 1840.

        We appreciate pain and suffering of your ancestors however we cannot compensate you lot by handing over the entire country to you, your fellow racists, Gota’s clan, ….

        In the meantime it appears Mahinda is in lot of pain due to kidney failure. If true why don’t you walk on your hands from Kataragama to Tirupati as penance to save his life and sooth his pain?

    • 8
      2

      Native,
      CVW missed getting 400 comments with his last article. Do you think he’ll do it this time, now that Shavendra sir has got us all locked up ? He knows he’s onto a good thing.

      • 2
        1

        old codger

        ” Do you think he’ll do it this time, now that Shavendra sir has got us all locked up ? “

        Careful, what you think, what you say, what you write, what you smell, what you like, what your sexual preferences are, what you eat. …. because Shavendra’s goons are watching your every move in addition to Manori Unambuwa’s electronic surveillance of Gota’s supposed enemies.

        Regarding number of comments the old man has brought his thinking process in focus. I also think he should be heard by both sides of the divide. I was expecting Diana, Udhaya, and their fellow dumbasses to take up his challenge in the parliament, and prove him wrong if they are capable of gathering their evidence and submitting them in a convincing and coherent way. As for 400 comments it’s difficult to say. Most of the readers are happy they could catch up with old films.

        Take care.

      • 4
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        OC
        Hard to achieve the target with a replay, unless you get somebody to go at a tangent and stir a hornet’s nest.

      • 1
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        OC,
        .
        This time, it looks different. But the problem is writer would not grasp it… but will come with the next.. in a day ahead of now… also focusing on his own theories about which race was the inhabitants of the god punished island.
        .
        Btw, OC, why dont you add anything about Mr 10% becoming the MOST POWERFUL wondermaker to the parliament with effect from 12th Nov ? Is that not against GOTLERs lecturers repeatedly made to WIYATHMAGA sessions ? ….. not a single person within Rajapakshe circles would be promoted under him etc…. ha ha ?


        As I know, BASIL is the god father of all money laundering acts and MEDIA mafia in the country today…. ANd people dead silence about his rise, today, is becoming allergic to me.

  • 13
    4

    “Observations On The Visits Of The Chinese & The Americans”
    typical CVW his observation was on the Tamil History of Sri Lanka.

    only one sentence in the last paragraph he makes a comment on The Visits Of The Chinese & The Americans .

    but he managed to name drop his connection to Sir Ponnambalam Ramanathan

    kudos to you CVW!

    • 8
      4

      Dear Rajash,
      this is what reminded me instantly, as I read his current article.

      As is the case with GLP – as a former Law Professor would not fit to srilanken politics, Wiggie is not a match at all. He could add fuel to the buring fire. Besides, not many tamil srilankens would agree with him mostly. Nevertheless I agree with him about the history in most of what he has been adding, but it does not fit to the title really.
      :
      I wonder how he could perform his duties as a JUDGE ?
      The very same manner, I question myself, how could GLP do his job at the University ?

      This is category of so called srilanken academics that obviously ignore – an elephant is in the room, but nobody talk about.
      :
      As some young tamil politicians make it clear, WIGGIE should not have gone to srilanken politics. He did nothing actually…. just being that WASIDEWA s massina-brother in law he could do lot more – if he knew the term “pragmatism”:

  • 2
    1

    The Geo-Political game taking place in the Indo-Pacific region started some time back. We notice it now, because of a sudden flurry of moves. The pawn, Sri Lanka, poses the threat of queening!

  • 9
    9

    Justice Vigneshwaran,
    “Many were sent to the North and East by boats by the Government itself. They recognized the North and East were Tamil speaking areas. They recognized the North and East were the traditional homelands of the Tamils.”

    Where did you and your family live during three decades of Tamil terrorism?
    Did the Government send you to Yapanaya to be safe in the so called ‘Traditional Homeland’ of Tamils?
    The Government sent Tamils to North East not because they recognized North East is the ‘Traditional Homeland’ of Tamils but because they were working for LTTE and a threat to security. At the same time Government allowed thousands of Tamils from North to move to South abandoning the ‘Traditional Homeland?’ because they felt safer to live amongst Sinhalayo. Many of them never returned to the ‘Traditional Homeland?’ Tamil terrorists killed Tamils also not only Sinhalayo.

    • 1
      1

      The need for the Tamils to Come to Colombo was due to lack of developments in the North and east. They did not come to colonize and change the Texture of the population as done by the Sinhalese in the North East with the help of the Government grant. It was said that
      if there was no Churutu Kade (Cigar Boutique) in a Sinhalese village, it will lack development. As churutukades were a one man show, the mudalalis, visited their homes only once an year. In between they had Sinhalese mistresses with or without the knowledge of their wives. Similarly the Sinhalese mistresses with or without the knowledge of their husbands. Every thing went off well till we got the freedom.’ The strangest situation is the Sinhalese have no objection in leasing out lands to the Chines in the South but not to the Tamils- their own home lands . Why not lease out the N/E to the Tamil/diaspora and watch the development? without interference.

      • 3
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        There is a school of thought that the Tamils were clever, ready to learn, industrious, honest, pious, law abiding, and hardworking (the Tamil work ethics – work is worship). Wigneswaran also says that the Tamils were docile, religiously bent, studious and conscientious, the reason why the British chose them for important position in administration. However, the fact is something else.
        The American Missionary that arrived in Jaffna in 1812 built well-equipped leading schools which helped the Tamils to receive an English education, an advantage they had over the Sinhalese when it came to white collar government jobs under the British. When the British arrived in 1815 and took over the country from the Dutch, they found that the Ceylon Tamils were well educated in English, the reason why British colonial rulers employed the English educated Ceylon Tamils not only in the Ceylon Civil Service but also in the British held Malaya (Malaysia and Singapore). That is how the Ceylon Tamils ended up as Doctors, Engineers, Lawyers, Accountants, Postmasters, Railway Station Masters, Police OICs, PWD overseers, Colombo School Head Masters, University Professors, and most of the Executive Officers in the public/civil service in the whole country (even in remote Sinhalese village government dispensaries, the Doctors were Tamils) whereas the laborers, attendants, peons, and drivers were the Sinhalese. That is why SWRD Bandaranayake brought ‘Sinhala Only’ replacing English.

        • 0
          0

          LC,
          Thank you, but Wikipedia says “The Ceylonese (mostly Tamils with smaller numbers of Sinhalese and Burghers) started arriving in Malaya with the advent of the 19th century”.
          This means it could not have been a long enough stayby many enough when the British set foot in Ceylon.
          Also I saw an essay title “The Tamil Migration Cycle, 1830-1950
          Christophe Z. Guilmoto, Economic and Political Weekly
          Vol. 28, No. 3/4 (Jan. 16-23, 1993), pp. 111-120 (10 pages)
          That refers principally to Tamil labour from Madras, I guess.
          *
          Can you please check on these?

          • 1
            0

            SJ,
            Please refer my comment, I said
            “the British colonial rulers employed the English educated Ceylon Tamils not only in the Ceylon Civil Service but also in the British held Malaya (Malaysia and Singapore)”.
            The Wikipedia says,
            “In the late 19th century, educated Tamils from the Jaffna peninsula migrated to the British colonies of Malaya (Malaysia and Singapore) and India to assist the colonial bureaucracy. They worked in almost every branch of public administration, as well as on plantations and in industrial sectors. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sri_Lankan_Tamils).
            I cannot understand what you are trying to tell me here,
            the English educated Ceylon Tamils migrating to British held Malaya (during the British period) to assist the colonial bureaucracy and the British choosing/employing them in administration, the reason why SJV Chelvanayakam was born in Malaysia but to the Jaffna Tamil parents who were expatriates in British held Malaya. The former foreign minister and deputy prime minister of Singapore (Sinnathamby Rajaratnam) was born to Jaffna Tamil parents.

            • 0
              0

              When the British set foot in Ceylon, the Ceylon Tamils were already educated in English, thanks to the American Mission who arrived during the Dutch period.
              Please don’t mix up the significantly large number of Tamil labour from Madras in the British held Malaya (Malaysia and Singapore).

            • 2
              0

              LC
              You said that “When the British arrived in 1815 and took over the country from the Dutch, they found that the Ceylon Tamils were well educated in English”
              You add that “The American Missionary that arrived in Jaffna in 1812 built well-equipped leading schools which helped the Tamils to receive an English education,”
              Lading schools in Jaffna (starting with Jaffna Central in 1917) were are built after British arrival.
              What made me wonder is how “Ceylon Tamils were well educated in English” when the British arrived in 1815.
              *
              I was wondering if you were suggesting that Ceylon Tamils learned their English elsewhere under British rule, perhaps Malaya. But the Wikipedia story made that implausible. That was the purpose of the comment.
              *
              The story I heard from the late historian Dr Vamadevan Kanapathipillai of UoP, a specialist on that period of transition, was that the British did not want American missionaries in the South, especially Colombo. The missionaries went to the North therefore. There is also a claim that the purpose of the missionaries was to train Tamil converts to carry out their mission in South India.
              *
              I was puzzled by the claim that “When the British arrived in 1815 and took over the country from the Dutch, they found that the Ceylon Tamils were well educated in English”.

              • 3
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                SJ
                Got your point, what I was trying to convey was that the American missionary preceded the British. It is incorrect to say, “when the British set foot in Ceylon, the Ceylon Tamils were already educated in English”, I stand corrected.

                • 1
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                  LC
                  Thanks for the decency.

                  • 1
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                    SJ,
                    May be you are right about the rest…
                    Subject: Kamala Harris-Her maternal ancestry is Jaffna!
                    Kamala Harris is not an Indian. Her grandfather Mr P. V Gopalan is from Manipay, Jaffna and Gopalan’s wife Mrs. Rajam Gopalan is from Batticaloa, Sri Lanka. In the late 19th century, educated Tamils from the Jaffna peninsula migrated to the British colonies of Malaysia, Singapore, and India to assist the colonial bureaucracy. Mr. P.V Gopalan was a civil servant under the British govt. He moved to South India and her daughter Shymala Gopalan was born in South India. Thereafter they moved to New Delhi and thence to California, where Shyamala married Donalad Harris-a Jamaican. Their daughter is Kamala Devi Harris. She was born in Oakland California. Her father was an economics professor at the prestigious Stanford University in California, where he taught and carried out research. He is a naturalized U.S. citizen. Her mother was a breast cancer researcher. Both are highly educated and hold PhDs. Kamala was brought up in the Hindu tradition. She married a Jewish man, now she is a “nominal Christian”.
                    ===========
                    Kamala Harris Family Tree

                    • 0
                      0

                      SJ,

                      Mr P. V Gopalan must be a Brahmin and a distant relative of SSS. May be SSS can Shed light on this.

        • 2
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          LC,
          “When the British arrived in 1815 and took over the country from the Dutch, they found that the Ceylon Tamils were well educated in English”
          Don’t you think it unlikely that the Dutch were teaching English to Tamils?
          Be that as it may, it was not only in Jaffna that there were good missionary schools.St. Thomas’,
          St Joseph’s/Benedict’s/ Wesley/Carey all in Colombo, St. Aloysius in Galle and Ratnapura, TCK in Kandy, and many more excellent schools. It is a myth that Tamils had an advantage, except in an innate desire to learn. I don’t know what it is about Tamils, but they consistently out-perform. Just consider Tamil Nadu. With only 5% of the population, it produces more than a third of industrial output in India. I don’t think any missionaries were involved.

          • 3
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            OC,
            So, you think that when it came to white collar jobs in the Ceylon Civil Service the British gave preference to the Ceylon Tamils not because they were English educated (even before the British came) due to the American Missionary but because the Tamils were clever, ready to learn, industrious, honest, pious, law abiding, hardworking (the Tamil work ethics – work is worship) and consistently out-perform.
            I am not sure if it is right to compare with the Tamils of Tamil Nadu (you meant 5% of the Indian population), of course they really out-perform locally and abroad. For example, the Google CEO Sundar Pichai is one of them. Consistently featuring in Forbes ‘The World’s 100 Most Powerful Women’ is the CEO of Pepsico Indra Nooyi Krishnamurth, again one of them. Tamil Nadu has produced many such CEOs around the world, don’t compare them with us.
            However, the Sri Lankans are definitely much more advanced than them, we have already sent tens of thousands of (more than a million) Rocket Scientists to Arabia alone (our main foreign exchange earner).

            • 1
              0

              LC,
              I stand by my assertion that Tamils out-perform.
              As to Jaffna Tamils, both
              Emil Savundra and Raj Rajaratnam were Jaffna Tamils. So you can say Jaffna Tamils are all-rounders !

      • 1
        1

        Kanapathy Varunan
        Colonizing is done by ‘Para’ people. Sinhalayo who are the Native people in Sinhale did not have to colonize their own country. Sinhala Kingdoms Anuradhapura and Polonnaruwa were in the North East of the country. These Kingdoms were destroyed by Dravida (Deamala) invaders forcing Sinhalayo to abandon that area and move to safer areas. After that ‘Para’ Dravida invaders colonized NE. Later, Portuguese brought hundreds and thousands of Dravida coolies to work in tobacco plantations to Yapanaya. During British rule the descendants of those Dravidians were settled in North Central and East of the country. It is Demalu who colonized Sinhala land in NE. Please vacate Sinhala land and return to your ancestral homeland.

        I have repeated this many times in this forum but unfortunately the message does not get registered in the brains of racist Tamils who want to distort the history of Sinhale to justify their bogus claim ‘Traditional Homeland’.

    • 4
      2

      Eagle,
      Was there an LTTE in 1958? This is not Jaffna history.com, you know. Senility is no excuse for invented history.

      • 2
        2

        Old Codger,
        “Was there an LTTE in 1958?”

        There was no LTTE in 1958 but there were Tamil thugs who attacked Sinhalayo in Yapanaya.
        1958 ethnic riot was started by Tamils attacking Sinhalayo in Yapanaya. Don’t put the blame on Sinhalayo. Sinhalayo were not that crazy to attack Tamils for fun.

        • 1
          0

          Eagle,
          “There was no LTTE in 1958 but there were Tamil thugs who attacked Sinhalayo in Yapanaya”
          Ah, so the solution was to send more Tamil thugs to Jaffna by ship? Brilliant!
          Take a break, Eagle, your age is getting to you.

        • 1
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          Thuggery is the forte of of the Sinhalese people and their governments. 1956,1958,1961,1977, 1983 riots speak volumes Eagle is blind to these facts.

      • 2
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        OC,
        This is cruelty to wild life.

        • 1
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          SJ,
          There is doubt whether viruses are alive.

    • 1
      0

      Yes, safety from the bombing of the North and East by the army.

  • 5
    5

    Dear CVW, you are talking about a national matter. Please leave national matters to the master of SL. When did they ever consult others on any national matter? Never, isn’t it? So thank you but no thank you.

    • 1
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      G
      Who is the master of SL?
      Some say Xi Jinping; some say Donald Trump; yet others say Narendra Modi.
      It is all very confusing.

      • 0
        1

        Masters of any country (SL is no exception) are the rulers since independence. I can list them but trust you know their names. The presidents and PMs.

        Most Sri Lankans do not object to SL’s deals with China and USA, even India (except one).

        e.g. Most Sri Lankans voted for the same person who signed military deals with USA. They once again voted the same person who signed so many deals with China. Of course they also voted for the same person who signed the Sirima-Shastri pact too!

        All national matters of SL shall continue to be decided only by the masters. Sorry SJ. This is the bitter truth and you know it.

        • 1
          0

          G, You haven’t the foggiest idea of who the masters are.
          Our masters never gave us real independence, what we do is determined by people seated far away from us.
          Do you seriously think that this country is independent?
          We survive at best by pitting one master against another.
          *
          BTW, what persuaded JRJ to go on his knees to Rajeev Gandhi, I wonder.
          *
          The point is that you breach your own ‘rule’ by discussing ‘national matters’.

    • 4
      1

      It is not a national matter anymore.
      The political instability in the country due to the Tamil National issue invited the International interference (India, US, UN, UK, EU, etc.). Now the International Geo-politics is also linked with the Tamil National issue. If there is no peace for the Tamil minority, there won’t be any peace for the Sinhala majority either. The International interference will continue as long as the Tamil National issue is not solved.

  • 8
    7

    Justice Wigneswaran is correct in saying that Tamils were in the island 3000 years ago.

    There are records in Israel to confirm that: King Solomon traded with Tamils in Sri Lanka through the port of Mannar. Peacocks (thohai in Tamil) are mentioned in these records. Sinhalese language or Buddhism didn’t exist at the time.

    There is false history being propagated by many in the Sinhalese community.

    Mahavamsam is also suspect as a truthful historical record.

    • 8
      4

      “There are records in Israel to confirm that: King Solomon traded with Tamils in Sri Lanka through the port of Mannar.”
      *
      T, can you give us a translation of the text?
      *
      Proto Sinhala was there in pre-Christian times. Do some searching in the Internet.
      Many confuse script with the language itself.
      All South Asian script have a common ancestor owing its sources to the Phoenecians.
      Sanskrit was very much an oral language and writing stared much after Tamil. That will not make Tamil older.
      The spread of writing in India owes much to speakers of certain Prakrits.
      We can fool ourselves by exchanging among ourselves stories about how ancient our language and culture are and jumping at every shred of evidence however flimsy.
      Even if Tamil is a million years old, is it capable of meeting the challenges of modernism? I doubt. We are stagnant and are living in an imagined past.
      Let us wake up, modernize Tamil and popularize modern knowledge in Tamil. Bharati said “
      மறைவாக நமக்குள்ளே பழங்கதைகள் சொல்வதிலோர் மகிமை இல்லை;
      திறமான புலமையெனில் வெளிநாட்டோர் அதை வணக்கஞ் செய்தல் வேண்டும்.
      (Nothing is great about exchanging old tales among ourselves. If there is true scholarship, it should be saluted by foreigners.)

      • 2
        0

        SJ

        “(Nothing is great about exchanging old tales among ourselves. If there is true scholarship, it should be saluted by foreigners.)

        Well you too need to shed your Jaffna pride and arrogance if you are going to advice others hence update your knowledge or lack of it by learning from scholars of various disciplines:
        https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wdr5jGMBmkE&feature=emb_logo
        https://www.youtube.com/c/ARANwebTV/videos
        https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G8pzoAYOUnE&t=793s

        • 2
          0

          NV,
          ***update your knowledge or lack of it***
          You must be joking!
          How can you expect those with traditional (backward/obsolete) thinking to update themselves?
          Some people never accept their own short comings and weakness but always have the urge to do the nitpicking on tiny details/slips of others.

      • 2
        1

        SJ

        “We are stagnant and are living in an imagined past.”

        True, if you are a Sinhala/Buddhist.
        Perhaps, you are.

        • 2
          0

          Excerpt from:
          Tracing the origin of Tamili, the scripts of the Tamils
          The Times of India
          M T Saju | TNN | Oct 29, 2019




          However, the recent findings based on accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) on the materials excavated from Keeladi, the date of Tamil Brahmi script has been arrived to the 6th century BC. Many scholars and epigraphists take this seriously, as it gives the clue that Tamili is the earliest known script in India which was prevalent among the people of today’s Tamil Nadu as people’s script.

          The scientific date for the Tamili script arrived through an analysis at Beta analytical centre at Florida indicates that the script is three centuries earlier than the Asokan Brahmi which was so far considered to be the earliest known script of India, according to S Rajavelu, senior epigraphist and author.

      • 2
        0

        “Let us wake up, modernize Tamil and

        Hear, hear!

    • 4
      5

      3,000 years living under Sinhalese? That is some achievement.

      • 2
        0

        G
        What is the total duration of this country’s being under a single ruler?
        Of that how many years had Sinhalese rulers?

      • 3
        3

        Poor delusional person who cannot count . 3000 years under Sinhalese! The Sinhalese people and the Sinhalese language only came into definite existence around 7AD . This is not 3000 years . Second the Tamil north , east and the north west coast , had their own rulers and were never under Sinhalese rule until 1948 . This means 70 years of Sinhalese rule. It was the other way around The Sinhalese ruled by Tamil or Tamil origin dynasties and aristocracy.

      • 2
        0

        GATAM
        ***3,000 years living under Sinhalese***
        Are you actually ignorant or pretending to be ignorant?
        According to the Pali chronicles, beginning from Sena & Guttika, 19 Tamil kings have ruled the island before the Jaffna Kingdom was created. Elara ruled Anuradapura kingdom for 44 years. Raja Raja & Ragendra Cholan ruled the island for 70 years.

  • 8
    9

    “By providing a just solution to the Tamil people”

    The Government of Sri Lanka and Sinhalayo who are the native people of this country gave a ‘JUST’ solution to Demala people (Tamils) who are the descendants of Dravida laborers (with few exceptions) brought to Sinhale by colonial rulers and abandoned in Sinhale turning them to Stateless people by giving citizenship in this paradise island instead of sending them back to from where their ancestors were forced to come to Sinhale.
    Instead of being grateful to Sinhalayo for their kind gesture, a group of Malabar Vellala politicians who got special treatment during British rule wanted to create their own empire so that they can continue to keep their dominant position oppressing low caste Tamils (Dalits). ‘Separate State’, ‘Federal System’, ‘Devolution of Power’ are the aspirations of this handful of elite Tamil politicians and not what ordinary Tamils who are the majority want.
    So best thing is to ignore this small clique and help ordinary Tamils to stand on their own feet.

    • 2
      1

      Eagle Brain Dead Blind Eye

      It appears that you too have joined your fellow dumbasses such as Gota, Mahinda, Anuradha Yahampath, Udhaya, Wimal, Gunadasa (the most unhappy man), Shenali (the most unhappy woman), Sarath Weerawansa, Gevendu ……………………………… in promoting an idea of Tamil Eelam, and advocating for actual separation.

      Tamils seem opposed to the idea yet you lot are desperately offering them their Tamil Eelam on a platter.
      Can you explain why?

  • 5
    0

    The title of this article is out of sync with the content, as was the case with the last article by CVW here on CT.

    This article is better titled as “Pathogenesis of Sri Lanka as a key chess piece in the geopolitical power play of the Indo-Pacific region”.

    Don’t know if anyone else had previously presented CVW’s thesis as below, but CVW seems to have supported his thesis statement. Perhaps it was a glaring point that anyone could have made; the point being the wedge created by SriLanka between itself and India because of its Sinhala-Buddhist nationalist agenda.

    “Sri Lanka must remember it was its unfortunate emotive anti Tamil stance that has got it into this mess. One of its objectives is to deprive India of the power to bring about a just solution for the Tamil people.”

  • 4
    2

    Mr. CVW
    You end up saying – may take us to a position where vital decisions on our behalf cannot be made by ourselves but by OTHERS on our behalf whether we like it or not. (Objecting – not ok ??)
    But at the beginning you say “ One of its objectives is to deprive India of the power to bring about a just solution for the Tamil people.” (Conceding – yes ok??)
    So India is excluded in “By OTHERS” presumably.

    • 3
      1

      CVW
      You are averse to others (US & CHINA) taking decisions on SL but accepting that India be given power to take decisions for a “just solution”.
      Hmmm.

  • 4
    8

    Nothing to worry about old fool . The Buddhist tamils will save u

  • 5
    2

    I am in agreement with him when he says that the situation is alarming at the start of his article and at the end to imply that there should be no division amongst the people of Sri Lanka in voicing its stand to the International arena. Leaving author’s historical narration aside, the author intermingles ethnicity to land and implies that properly devolving authority to such landmasses can unite people. In this game of International politics, the author forgets how a political party or a coalition of it came to power in 2015, ultimately gave an entire port on lease to the very power it voiced against before elections. Let us give quite a lot of authority to all the provinces and neighbor India believes that the activities of one province is a serious threat to its security and the central government is hapless to control it. One has to expect incursion of foreign troops. A resident of the Eastern Province told me that when IPKF was there women had to be dressed in such a manner that they are easily raped. Does the author like a repetition in history? Then India will want us to perform another Kashmir.

  • 4
    4

    Ask him one question and he answers another. He needs therapy, all the country’s problems do not revolve around his distorted and bigoted views of the Sinhalese.

  • 8
    4

    Poor CVW, he is totally out of his depth in international matters– not that he is any different with linguistics or history or archaeology.
    *
    His best answer to the question “What are your observations on the visits of the Chinese and US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo in recent times?” would have been:
    PASS

  • 4
    2

    Dear CVV,
    Your analysis of why China, India and USA play their geo politics is very good. There is nothing wrong in the part of China, India and USA use Srilanka to do their politics because they are super powers and each of them want to lead the world under their control. Oppression of minorities (based on numbers) is very common in any country under the existing democratic political system. Over the period of 500 years Sinhalese never had a ruling power in this island. Until 1972, it is a British colony. So they had their rule for only 50 years. Of the 50 years, nearly half of the period they had no control over all part of this country. Even after they took control it has become now under the rule of China. We should note that before the arrival of USA Sec Pompeo, it is China who spoke against the visit of pompeo, not Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka did not deny or accept China’s or USA’s or India’s intervention. This is because the country is not controlled by Srilankans.
    We also should remember almost all Srilankan leaders are one time voluntarily converted to Christianity to get the benefits of British. Even Gotabaya was gave up his citizenship in favour of USA benefits. But Sir Pon. Arunachalam or Ramanathan did not change their religion. Why India came? Why China came, Why USA came? Only reason because of oppression of Tamils by Buddhist Sinhala.

    • 3
      2

      Ajith,
      “Only reason because of oppression of Tamils by Buddhist Sinhala.”

      BS!!!
      Sinhala Buddhists did not oppress Demala people (aka Tamils). When Sinhalayo gave citizenship to descendants of Dravidian coolies brought by colonial rulers, they gave equal rights. The Constitution of Sri Lanka says those persons who got citizenship by registration (Demala people of Indian origin) enjoy same rights as those who got citizenship by descent (Sinhalayo).
      It is not Sinhala Buddhists who oppress and discriminate Tamils. It is Malabar Vellala Tamils who oppress Tamils based on caste. I understand that low caste Tamils (Dalits) are not allowed to drink water from wells belong to Vellala Tamils. Is it true?
      When Dalits come to south, Sinhalayo treat them same as Vellala Tamils. That could be the reason why more and more Dalits leave the so called ‘Traditional Homeland’ and come to south and live amongst Sinhalayo.

      • 1
        1

        Eagle,
        Are your Sinhalayo Dalit relatives allowed to become Malwatta Mahanayakas?
        Why not fix that first?

        • 3
          0

          OC,
          Tens of thousands of Dalits from South India who were settled in the Southern parts of Sri Lanka got converted to Catholics and adopted the Portuguese surnames to avoid the Hindu caste discrimination and eventually became Sinhala Catholics. During the Buddhist revivalist period instigated by Anagarika Dharmapala (who was born into the same Sinhala Catholic family), many of the coastal Catholics (Sinhalese and Sinhalised Tamils) converted enmass to Buddhism.
          However, the traditional Govi caste-oriented Buddhist organizations (Asgiri and Malwathu) refused entry of these newly converted Buddhists of dubious caste origins into their organizations which made them create their own Buddhist organizations (Amarapura and Ramanna).

      • 5
        1

        Eagle Eye,
        .
        I am each time ashamed to call me sinhalaya whenever I read your ultra racial public statements.
        :
        No doubt you guys live out of the country, being taken another citizenship, nevertheless to expression your thoughts against the minorities being offered the citzen rights. Any legally migrants entered to europe, us, canada, australia or any other nothern eurepean countries have the rights to claim for their citizen rights asking for citizenship…. with this being the facts in such civilized countries, you the buggers, go on saying that you offered the rights to INDIAN coolies ?::: they may be less fortunate, but not coolies, If they aer coolies you guys too should be coolies.
        President Rajaakshes should be an another coolies to claim his US citizenship..after begging to the authorities of that country.
        :
        Please be awake, you the kind of [edited out] would hurt the wounds of the SRILANKENS as a whole. I really dont know who gave births to you or the like ULTRA racists. I am born sinhalaya, as many of you have been.. but I never treated minorities the way you guys have been upto.:::

    • 1
      0

      Ajith
      “Your analysis of why China, India and USA play their geo politics is very good.”
      Kindly tell me where I can find this “analysis”.
      ps.
      Re your own comments, have you not heard what Pompeo kept saying about China even before the Chinese diplomat opened his mouth.
      The following is from
      https://thediplomat.com/2020/10/pompeo-concludes-anti-china-tour-in-vietnam/
      “Pompeo’s “anti-China roadshow,” as the Associated Press termed it, began in India, where he denounced the Chinese Communist Party as “no friend to democracy, the rule of law, transparency, nor to freedom of navigation – the foundation of a free and open and prosperous Indo-Pacific.” In the Maldives, he lashed out at China’s “lawless and threatening” behavior, of “trashing the environment” and seeking to entrap small nations in skeins of debt.”
      *
      If that reflected the purpose of his visit, he deserved to be humiliated.

  • 4
    4

    Wiggie, ever heard of the British Raj and Divide and Rule, using minorities against the majority? The British assassinated Mahatma Gandhi and then divided India and Pakistan, as they did Aung San who had united Burma’s diverse ethnic communities before independence to divide and control Burma.
    They assassinated SWRD who had nationalized the ports and airports from the British who then went to the Chagos Islands and evicted those folks..
    The Easter Attacks 2019, were staged by the US Special Operations Forces and claimed by CIA owned ISIS – to set up military bases in Sri Lanka. Please read the book : ISIS is Us: the Shocking Truth behind the Army of Terror” by a panel of experts.

    This time India and US are in the same game of weaponizing religions to cause divisions and take over large chunks of Lanka. WHy do you think Modi is giving 15 million USD to promote Buddhism? So the Hindus and Buddhist can get together and go after the Muslims.. with Divide and take over Lanka being the motto.
    SL Tamils have been used and played by India’s RAW and IB for a long time and now RAW works with CIA.. Please wake up Wiggie and smell the toast!

    • 3
      0

      Dinuk,
      Were you at the spot of murder when Mahathma Gandhi and SWRD murdered by British? Were you in the Srilankan intelligence service?
      British may or may not have had divide and rule but why should India, Sri Lanka or Pakistan should do the same for past 75 years? Do you know why India used Sri Lankan Tamils? Is it because Sri Lanka gave equal rights to Tamils or Is it because SriLanka oppressed Tamils and murdered Tamils and destroyed their businesses and properties?
      It is not Wigge to wake up, it is Buddhist Sinhala should wake up and share the power with Tamils and Muslims. You should remember that it is not Tamils but the whole nation is under threat.

    • 1
      1

      Dinuk
      “The British assassinated Mahatma Gandhi and then divided India and Pakistan,” Is that the age old Mahawamsa Jaffnahistory.com or new Indiahistory.com?

      ” British who then went to the Chagos Islands and evicted those folks..” Still better deal than Don Stephen’s Up Country deportation. That is why we said, if Up Country Tamils have to be deported, it should have been in the same term of Chagos, where Britain when it was removing the people it colonized in coconuts Estates in Chagos Island, paid for their properties, and secured citizenship somewhere else. See China, just replanting Uyghur Turks from Xinjiang.

      ” India and US are in the same game of weaponizing religions “ Why did you miss China? Are you naively thinking, like that you can get back Hangbangtota or Colombo Pong Cing? Dont’ even dream that.

      ” WHy do you think Modi is giving 15 million USD to promote Buddhism “ Are you fearing this time your bosses are going to be bought by India? I doubt it; they deposited $18B from China, they will still see slaving to China more profitable.

      ‘Please wake up Wiggie and smell the toast! “ Man your toast is nauseating; foul smell from melting tar and burning human tissues mixed together.

  • 2
    0

    If It is a romantic love story between the Sinhalese and the Tamils,once the misunderstandings among the races are ironed out, it will be an emotionally satisfying peaceful end.
    Everyone will live happily thereafter.
    Wow! .
    The visits of Chinese and US foreign dignitaries to Sri Lanka are due to geopolitical compulsions. It was the consequence of imperialistic design of super powers to carve out spheres of influence to exploit the resources unhindered without any rivalry in the region. Two plus two dialogue and Quad are the US response to Chinese belt and road. “Asian Arc of Democracy,” that in time will draw Sri Lanka into the arc.. This is counter to the Chinese belt and road initiative. The battle line is drawn with Japan, Australia, India and US on one side and China and Iran? on the other.

    Where is the nonaligned and neutral Sri Lanka located with or without a resolution of the national question!

    Only C.V.Wigneswaran could clarify. .

  • 3
    0

    It is the Sinhalese leadership that invited India via IPKF following resistance from LTTE to control LTTE at the behest of the planners in the South Block. But they sent Sikh soldiers who thought they were in Pakistan. Disagreement ensured with Tamils. It was the LTTE that sent them back. India had grudge on LTTE and wanted to ensure LTTE is eliminated. Its the finest Machiavellian mechanics of isolating India and Ceylon Tamils. And Sinhalese behave as though they are from China.

    If Cholas can go to all the way to Thailand to Cambodia and Sumatra in the 11th century, Ceylon was just within a walking distance. There was no record of any subjugation of the local people other than to inculcate the local population and set up best irrigation system and temple construction.
    Silly logic; look all Ceylonese have some connections to India at one time or another. Yes, Ceylon Tamils are an ancient people in Sri Lanka with absolutely distinct social system and the old Tamil. Ceylon Tamils always had cordial relationship with brethren Sinhalese. Their value system is identical and distinct from that of the people of India. That’s why CVW’s children are married to Sinhalese.

  • 2
    0

    D
    “The British assassinated Mahatma Gandhi and then divided India and Pakistan”
    I will recommend this version of history to Modi.
    He will have to change the dates of independence of India and Pakistan or the date of assassination of Gandhi.
    Not a big deal. After all, that will absolve Nathuram Godse.

    • 2
      0

      S.J,
      Doesn’t D sound suspiciously like that garrulous young lady with a fixation on conspiracy theories?

      • 3
        0

        OC
        Garrulous– true.
        Young– perhaps, but I have my doubts.
        Lady– my foot!
        *
        Was it GBS who said “Woman is a fact; lady is a judgment”?

  • 2
    1

    What really mattered is not only to observe the movements of Chinese and American political leaders to visit Sri Lanka and finally by the Indian political leader, but what the Tamil political leaders’ next step. At this stage it should be observed that Pompeo’s remark that US has credible information of about 45,000 disappearance cases. When the Indo-Sri Lanka Peace Accord was tabled before the General Assembly of the UN and applauded by the US and its allies, the Tamil political leaders should have brought it to the attention of the West that Sri Lanka was reluctant & deliberately dragged the issue and now attempting to suppress it with China’s assistance indirectly. They should have sought an interview with Pompeo or call for a Press media and express that the only option available is to become an Independent Territory within the Union of India with the view to beat the geo-politics of China. It is time for Tamil leaders to realize that a separate entity in Sri Lanka is meaningless & cannot be accepted, when there are two Tamil regions in India, namely Tamil Nadu State & the Union Territory of Pondicherry. Merely mentioning that Tamils were docile, religiously bent, studious and conscientious and occupying important positions throughout the world, will not in any way helpful to Tamils, when the Sinhala politicians are still bent on destroying the identity of the Tamils.

    • 0
      0

      For the last 5 years, the most cunning Ranil Wickramasinghe put the Tamils to sleep with his never happening ‘new constitution’. Unlike all other Sinhala political leaders who came up with pacts and promises but finally gave nothing to the Tamils other than breaking their promises, Ranil cheated them in style silencing all the Tamil politicians (TNA & others), the Tamil Diaspora and the emotional TN politicians.

      • 0
        0

        It is time for the Tamils (locally and abroad) to WAKEUP from their deep slumber (the entire Tamil community should rise) and become active again (should act and act fast before things become worse) with Propaganda, Lobbying, Protests (non-violent campaigns with direct action), etc. to fully implement the 13A+, human rights issues, etc. and make sure they cannot pull the Tamils down to hell. Every opportunity should be grasped by the Tamil people, parties and organizations to establish links with the International community (especially India and US) in defeating majoritarianism (Sinhala-Buddhist Supremacy) and replacing the present Unitarianism with a confederative structure. This, in a plural society such as ours, is the only suitable vehicle for democracy, equality and tolerance at all levels of government and society and culture and liberating the down-trodden and oppressed, so that they may live in peace, dignity and concord, where there is scope for all without one (majority) subsuming the others (minorities).

      • 0
        0

        It is time for the Tamils (locally and abroad) to WAKEUP from their deep slumber (the entire Tamil community should rise) and become active again (should act and act fast before things become worse) with Propaganda, Lobbying, Protests (non-violent campaigns with direct action), etc. to fully implement the 13A+, human rights issues, etc. and make sure they cannot pull the Tamils down to hell.

        • 0
          0

          Every opportunity should be grasped by the Tamil people, parties and organizations to establish links with the International community (especially India and US) in defeating majoritarianism (Sinhala-Buddhist Supremacy) and replacing the present Unitarianism with a confederative structure. This, in a plural society such as ours, is the only suitable vehicle for democracy, equality and tolerance at all levels of government and society and culture and liberating the down-trodden and oppressed, so that they may live in peace, dignity and concord, where there is scope for all without one (majority) subsuming the others (minorities).

  • 0
    0

    For the last 5 years, the cunning fox Ranil Wickramasinghe put the Tamils to sleep with his never happening ‘new constitution’. Unlike all other Sinhala political leaders who came up with pacts and promises but finally gave nothing to the Tamils other than breaking their promises, Ranil cheated them in style silencing all the Tamil politicians (TNA & others), the Tamil Diaspora and the emotional TN politicians.
    It is time for the Tamils (locally and abroad) to WAKE UP from their deep slumber (the entire Tamil community should rise) and become active again (should act and act fast before things become worse) with Propaganda, Lobbying, Protests (non-violent campaigns with direct action), etc. to fully implement the 13A+, human rights issues, etc. and make sure they cannot pull the Tamils down to hell. Every opportunity should be grasped by the Tamil people, parties and organizations to establish links with the International community (especially India and US) in defeating majoritarianism (Sinhala-Buddhist Supremacy) and replacing the present Unitarianism with a confederative structure. This, in a plural society such as ours, is the only suitable vehicle for democracy, equality and tolerance at all levels of government and society and culture and liberating the down-trodden and oppressed, so that they may live in peace, dignity and concord, where there is scope for all without one (majority) subsuming the others (minorities).

    • 0
      0

      Oh dear, sorry for the duplicate posts. Since I cannot edit/delete please ignore the duplicates…

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