23 April, 2024


Sri Lanka: Paradise Lost?

By S. Chandrasekharan

Dr. S. Chandrasekharan

Dr. S. Chandrasekharan

The month of May brings one memories of the brutal war that took place in what was once described as a paradise (Sri Lanka). It was in those final days of the war (May 2009)  in the Paradise Isle that one saw horrific tales of prisoners being “stripped, humiliated, tortured” before being  executed. It was in the same paradise that in the last days, more than 40 thousand innocent civilians, almost 8 percent of the Tamil population in the north was eliminated! The world is yet to come to terms with this tragedy.

For Indians too, like me, it was an irony that what started as a benign intervention to prevent a military solution of the ethnic crisis ended up in the Indian security establishment supporting a military solution. In the process, India lost one of its finest and promising leaders in the meaningless assassination of Rajiv Gandhi by the LTTE.  On that day, the LTTE lost whatever chances it had to have an “Eelam”.

The book – Sri Lanka: Paradise lost? – is a collection of various articles and reviews of books and films of events in the Sri Lankan context and as said by the author “dedicated to those few Sri Lankans, women and men, who have publicly and persistently stood up for values to make the island a happier place . . . ”

One of the cases cited by the author is Adrian Wijemanne whose dedication was essentially to justice and righteousness and not to any group. The author rightly argues that there were many Wijaymannes who were not pro-Tamil but pro humanity. The author ends his article with a telling statement – that there were no pro-Tamil Sinhalese as such but only “some Sinhalese who never forget that every “you” is also an “I.”

Review of Sarvan’s, Paradise Lost? by Dr. S. Chandrasekharan

Rs. 350/- Author: Charles Sarvan Genre: Politics Publisher: CinnamonTeal Publishing Publication Year: 2015 ISBN: 978-93-84129-76-7

Another article by the author, debunks the statements of some of the Sinhalese in the present context after the elimination of the LTTE, that the “Tamils are happy now.” He points out that it is for the Tamils, not Sinhalese, to come forward and assert that all is well for the Tamils. This he says is more out of ignorance of some of the Sinhalese and also by those who consciously or unconsciously subscribe to the belief of Sinhalese hegemony.

In a related article the author discusses the Sinhala psychosis and the growth of the Bodu Bala Sena that sounds the alarm of the imminent and mortal peril of the Sinhalese race.  It is here that he makes a telling statement of many writers that Sri Lanka has an overwhelming majority with a minority complex (emphasis mine) – and with the sense of insecurity and fear the latter breeds.  This is also my view that this explains many complexities and the behaviour of the majority community in Sri Lanka on the ethnic question.

An interesting comparison of the experience of Jews and the Tamils is made in the article “Alienated at home: Jewish & Tamil Experience”, carried earlier by the South Asia Analysis Group.  He cites the case of one Duleep Kumar who had many Sinhalese friends and perhaps thought that he was among those fully integrated with the majority community. But he was not to be deceived.  In another case a friend of his lamented that the Sinhalese friends when it came to a crunch were either indifferent or succumbed to the prevailing “hegemonic ideas.” A similar situation occurred in Germany where the Jews before the World War had considered themselves fully integrated, only to be deceived and let down by the majority community. A fine distinction is made by the author on integration as different from assimilation.  To me it looks that most of the ethnic conflicts arise when the majority community would look for assimilation while the minority community would seek integration and yet retain its own cultural and linguistic identity. It is a pity that the “Tamils were forced to see themselves not as Sri Lankans who by accident of birth were Tamil but as second class citizens.” (Author)

Professor Sarvan has not spared the Tigers either for bringing enormous misery to the Tamils by their acts. In the article on ‘Tragedy: Letter to a friend’ he says that while one could understand ‘resorting to force’ after exhausting all other means, he cannot excuse the Tigers for the nature of the force used. To quote him: “Their conduct was politically foolish, a crime against humanity . . .  a sin against the gods…. a war that was waged unjustly and unwisely.” What an irony. To quote the author again- “ it had brought down upon Tamils the very fate the Tigers predicted and claimed to prevent… their last act of cruelty was against trapped and terrified Tamil civilians.”

The second part of the book consists mostly of reviews of books on the Sri Lankan situation and also on two documentaries. While one is likely to skip them for being “review of reviews,” I would urge the readers to read them carefully – the reviews are exciting, interesting and intellectually challenging.

I had not read the book by Paul Moorcraft on “Total Destruction of the Tigers” which the author has kindly reviewed in this book.  All one could say was that this was an ugly war where the Sri Lankan Government and the Army functioned like a steam roller flattening everything before it, a luxury the IPKF could not have indulged in. Places of worship were bombed though earlier the civilians were asked to seek shelter in such places of worship. I would repeat the question- Was it deliberate or accidental? A “Go to hell” attitude was adopted towards internal and international humanitarian concerns. The result was the tragedy at Nandikadal in the final stages of the war. A massacre of this magnitude is neither forgettable nor forgivable.

Professor Sarvan’s book should be read by all those like me who were involved at some time or other with the ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka as well as by scholars, analysts, researchers, students as well as decision makers who in their line of duty grapple with the problem of conflict resolution almost daily.

The book is not meant for bedside reading- every article, every paragraph and every reference mentioned need to be studied in detail. The price of this book is not too high for a book of this nature and is not one that can be thrown away after one reading!

Print Friendly, PDF & Email

Latest comments

  • 14

    Integration- Yes; assimilation, a big NO. Let us hope that the new government is slowly but steadily moving towards integration that would yet preserve the identities of the smaller communities in the island. If that happens, the past could be forgiven though very hard to forget!

    Sengodan. M

    • 4

      Dr. S. Chandrasekharan

      RE: Sri Lanka: Paradise Lost?

      Yes, Paradise lost to the Paras, Para-Sinhala, Para-Tamils, Mara-Muslims, Pata-Portuguese, Para-Dutch, Para-malay,Para-English and other paras in the Land of Native (Veddah) Aethho.

      The Vedda Tribe


      They imported their Para-beliefs with no support.

    • 6

      You are wrong. Why do you think smaller communities need integration? What civic rights do these communities lack when compared to the any other community? Do they have a separate set of rules and laws to live by?? What these smaller communities need is assimilation, that is learn new languages, improve their education levels and skills and thereby financial stability to live a comfortable life. Many minority families have done so and most have moved south. Do you think by doing so they can’t “preserve their identities”??

      • 2

        What assimilation are you suggesting?

        Smaller communities have experienced the “assimilation” several times since independence, when they were shipped with not even a rupee in their pockets or a change of clothing. (thanks to Indias help) There are still lot of families who does not know what happened to their loved ones in 1956,1958, 1977, 1983 and so on and worst some of them have seen their loved ones beaten to death, burnt to death in front of them.

        Burning libraries, schools, bombing churches with people inside, bombing the so called “no fire zones” signs of assimilation?

        • 4

          Did every Tamil in SL was subjected to what you describe?
          What was the reason for them to be subjected to those ill treatment? I like to hear your reasons.

          • 2

            In a population, no need to talk about every tamil but about the majority of tamils – PLEASE TALK TO YOU HEARTS and then you will see it right. Pera Alma mater should have gone wrong to let you graduated there ?

            • 3

              The point you are not getting is that the actions of a small minority of a group will lead to greater consequences to the whole group. See how many innocent civilians had to die because of ltte terrorism. The smart option is to have patience and negotiate. No where in the world any group succeeded with violence. Specially, for Tamils in sri lanka there is no reason to agitate because they are treated the same as Sinhalese. If you don’t agree please list what gov. Laws and Rules treat tamils differently than Sinhalese.
              I hope now you know why peradeniya gave me a class too!

        • 2

          True? Lets not forget the innocent pregnant hacked to death, babies whose heads were smashed against walls, suicde bombers who blasted so many civilians to death and so called forty thousand held as human shields by scumbag terrorists. Paradise once lost but, regained by valiant armed forces.

    • 1

      Srilanka is not yet lost, but those crooks such as Rajapakshe and his thugs have ruined the country to no go levels. But current adminsitration will clean all these with the time.

      To the question raised by Dy Minister Ajith Perera, MR has to respond. He should disclose his financial situation. There, people will have all rights.

  • 11

    Actually,the LTTE burnt its boat in 1991 when they assassinated Rajiv Ghandi.

    It took the Indians 18 long years to avenge the death of Rajiv Ghandi!

  • 7

    Yes paradise lost since 1948, Brits gave all powers 2 Sinhala monkeys called Buddhist modayas….what u expect if u give gorgeous parrot 2 damn Sinhala Buddhist monkeys….they know only rape, killing white vanning…many more…my friend native will fill more about these Sinhala Buddhist…

    • 5

      J Muthu

      Look what I found,


      Addressing Eezham Tamil diaspora and representatives from the Sri Lankan High Commission in London a few days ago, Dr. Chandrasekaran, a former Deputy Director of the RAW who was long dealing with Tamil militant organizations said that India never accepted secession in the island. He further said that it may take some time for Colombo to come out with solutions and Tamils should be patient till then, according to a London-based Tamil website of collaboration agenda, which was one of the two organizers of the meeting.

      According to Dr. Chandrasekaran, the Tamil question in the island is not an important issue to fast developing Tamil Nadu since the concentration of Tamil Nadu is on development.

      He also said that integration of the Tamil territories of the North and East is not possible at present times and Tamils in the island are also not very particular about it.

      The following are some of the observations of Chandrasekaran cited by the media:

      “The Indian position is 13+++, and it never promised Tamil Eelam. When arms in the hands of the Tamil movements became dangerous India helped the army of Sri Lanka. India can’t say anything on Sri Lanka keeping its army in the north and east. It is a matter of Sri Lanka’s security, similar to India keeping army in Kashmir. Rajapaksa knows well that India’s security concerns will not allow Tamil Eelam. India will not like UN involvement in the island as UN in Nepal interfered with Indian affairs. India will oppose war crimes accusations against Rajapaksa, as India faces similar accusations in Kashmir. The diaspora should stop politics of confrontation and should come out of ‘both the LTTEs’. India insists that Sri Lanka should come out with solution pre-empting the diaspora from coming out with another struggle, for which the diaspora is capable of.”

      Political observers are of the opinion that Chandrasekaran’s visit to London was to sound the diaspora before the visit of the Indian Foreign Minister, S.M. Krishna to Jaffna to open an Indian High Commission office there. Mr. Krishna is expected to tell something on solution.



      Do you think Dr. Chandrasekaran has a lot to answer about promoting LTTE in the first place and then keeping quiet when innocent civilian were slaughtered?

      You can’t even trust your own Tamil speaking people, can you?

      • 6

        N V And TO mr Chandrasekaran.

        “For Indians too, like me, it was an irony that what started as a benign intervention to prevent a military solution of the ethnic crisis ended up in the Indian security establishment supporting a military solution. In the process, India lost one of its finest and promising leaders in the meaningless assassination of Rajiv Gandhi by the LTTE. On that day, the LTTE lost whatever chances it had to have an “Eelam”.

        my reply to RAW director Chandrasekaran, A Malbari or tamil, As a person who gave his blessing for thousands of humans to death, who will pay his sins in this life or next.
        [ As I am a Buddhist, I believe reincarnation, a Next life after my death]
        as one who Supported Indira Ghandi and Rajiv Gandhi to kill About 150000 Sri lankans.
        “India never accepted secession in the island”.
        My Arse!. They wanted it badly, but later realized that it will beback fired and the The Tamilnaduans also will getup and ask for the Joint EELAM.
        The Centre and the Bureauocrats of Indian administration was adamantly Tried to stop the Sri lanka’s Economical and social development, promoting of the secessioning the nation.
        dividing and inciting racial disharmony between, our nation, the Sinhalese, Tamils and Muslims, using their agents and Bribing Sri lankans with SEX.
        That is one wining plus point for the RAW and succeeded.
        Otherwise Why they Spent /spend Billions of dollars to destabilize other countries who surrounds India.
        But consequences are/ were fatal,
        They Harboured and trained the terrorists And assassination of Rajiv Gandhi by the LTTE was one result.
        INDIANS tried to do Sri lanka,What they did to Pakistan, Afghanistan , Bangladesh, Bhutan and Nepal.
        And it Back fired like a poorly loaded gun and Lost about 20000 Jawans also But gave Bogus figures to Media covering their shame.

        In 1987 When I was visiting Madras, the Tamil militants unloaded 4 nos of railway containers with Arms and ammunitions from New Delhi.
        Those arms and ammunition did not do any help to Tamil lives in sri lanka for up lifting.
        only brought misery to thire lives and those sins paid heavily on Indian jawans and Rajiv also.
        So Chandrasekharan,
        Do not say That You are not Responsible for the Civil war related Killings, and Destruction!.
        Giving 50000 Houses or re-erecting railway lines canot pay for all those Sins.


      • 0

        Mr Chandrasekaran and hariharan represents only what the intellectual think tank imagine,but reality is very different. They represent the so called Indian smart patriotism , not humanity. But Tamils in tamilnadu is quiet opposite to the views expressed.

    • 0

      Then why did riots in 1939 occur?

      • 2

        sach chooooooooo

        “Then why did riots in 1939 occur?”

        What riots?

        Could you give more details about the 1939 riots?

        • 0

          There is something called google, search….dont know about them ne..Havent OTC pasted it all over the comments ? Forget what is inconvenient…dont you?

          • 2


            “There is something called google, search…”

            Please educate me as I don’t to be stupid like you nor a nutter like OTC.

            Please help me to track 1939 riots. Please let me the link.

            OTC a noted plagiarist, liar and a nutter who copies and pastes load of rubbish.

  • 9

    Not so much ‘Paradise Lost’ as a Paradise where the inhabitants took leave of their senses, and allowed their destinies to be dictated by devious politicians and their thuggish, criminal coterie.

    Our politicians conveniently atrophied during the civil unrests of the 50’s, 70’s and early 80’s. The Sinhalese politicians stabbed each other in the back as they jostled for the hearts and minds of the all important Sinhalese-Buddhist vote. The Tamil politicians abdicated leadership of their community to the impatient and violent young, who misguidedly chose the road to ultimate communal suicide. Did it ever occur to the leaders of the LTTE that in the unique setting of Sri Lanka, there was a high probability that the outcome would be inevitable? It was just a question of time, and political resolve.

    First to blame was the several governments of Sri Lanka for dereliction of duty in allowing unchecked the early unrest and civil disobedience in the country, including the north.

    Then, the LTTE as they chose to assassinate Rajiv Gandhi in 1991. (Talk about biting the hand that feeds you!)

    Again, the LTTE when, in 2001, in the aftermath of 9-11, the clarion call was for a ‘war on terrorism’. VP and his advisers refused to foresee how it would affect their fight.

    It was too late by the time the government found the resolve and the resources for a ‘final’ ‘behind closed doors’ ‘no holds barred’ showdown. By then the writing was on the wall.

    There are many lessons to be learnt by everyone (in Sri Lanka, and elsewhere) from all that happened in the first 60 years of our post-colonial independence. But first there is still much evidence remaining to be marshalled.

    Meanwhile, slowly but surely, all the communities that are destined by fate to share this earthly Paradise of ours will work with renewed vigour to reconcile, understand each other, and establish trust and respect.

    There is no alternative.

  • 8

    Sarvan should write also about the two JVP insurrections which were brutally suppressed by the then governments of Sirimavo and Premadasa,
    with the slaughter thousands of young men and women.

    • 1

      oh the fake caring

  • 3

    Yes. It was a “Paradise Lost” during the last thirty years. Now the time has come to regain that and say “Paradise Regained”. For that to happen, everyone in the country must think of a “inclusive” NATION of SRI LANKANS that would include all ethnic communities in a UNITARY STATE. This needs a “Revolutionary Struggle” within the conscious of every individual, in that, a considerable “Sacrifice” has to be made. This change of attitude must not be centered around “Sympathy” but “Fairness” and “Justice”. Let every ethnic community maintain its own cultural, religious, social identities; BUT joined in one effort to formulate a NATIONAL IDENTITY as SRI LANKANS. A CHANGE of heart and mind specially among the political Leadership and other Social Groups is a MUST to direct the people and give them the lead. This change must happen at all levels among the people. With the last Presidential Election held on January 8th we have seen a “silver lining” in the dark cloud that engulfed us for the decades in coming together to elect a President of the Country. This is a good START and let us not be prayed upon once again by the corrupt politicians who are craving for power through a boiling pot of divisions. Let us meet that challenge and drive away such politicians irrespective of their being Sinhala, Tamil or Moor and say at the end “PARADISE REGAINED”.

    • 1

      Losing of the paradise began in the 1950s with the Sinhala Only Act and the accompanying anti-Tamil racism and Sinhala majoritarinism from the state that was required to win elections and stay in power. It didn’t take long for the anti-Tamil racism to turn violent and the complete alienation of Tamils which suited the Sinhala politicians.

      Didn’t the idiot politicians realise that you can continue with one-sided violence only for so long before the victims of violence will retaliate with violence too? For the Sinhala politicians, sharing power or allowing Tamils some level of power to run their own affairs was a threat to them. Hence the implementation of Sinhala majoritarianism and hegemony by any means. Why? the expression majority with a minority complex has been bandied around often including in this article. From the past actions of the Sinhala politicians in positions of power, it maybe true. They probably do not deserve the paradise that was handed to them as a whole in 1948.

  • 9

    “Paradise Lost” when Ceylon became Srilanka.
    There were many loosers if we analyse the period between 1948 & 2015.
    Plantation workers lost their citizenship in 1949.
    Sinhala only ACt of 1956 made SWRD Bandaranaiyakee as the first Sinhalese only leader. Violence against Tamil politicians was initiated with bloodshed of hundreds in the paradise soil. It followed with violence and massacre of Tamils in the Capital of Ceylon. The paradise was ignited and burnt in 1958. SWRD was assasinated by a Buddhist Sinhalese Monk. It is the day Buddhism converted into Brutalism. The cycle of violence and blood bath continued until now. The partners on this cycle lost at some point and this continues even now.
    There are no winners. Sinhalese govts lost, LTTE lost, Indian Govt lost. Western govts lost. Chinese lost! We will wait for the winners! If Tamils Wins Srilanka Win!

    • 2

      Ajith Idiot .

      No it is not Paradise lost , it is Paradise saved . Sri Lanka is still is a paradise . only the Tamil idiots lost .

      Go to Hell .



      • 5

        bla bla blAbhaya

        ” it is Paradise saved.”

        from the clan on 8th January 2015.

      • 4

        Don’t get angry. Go to a Temple and think rationally. Srilanka is not ruled by Sinhalese now according to Mahinda.

      • 4

        Abaya idiot , The term Paradise and Srendib relates to Ceylon. The paradise was lost when Ceylon got independence and lost irrecovably when Ceylon was named Sri Lanka

        • 0

          correction “Irrevocably”

  • 4

    Prof. Charles Sarvan is relatively new to these pages – and indeed to
    the Sri Lankan national discourse. I am told a regular commentator in these pages is responsible for bringing him in in recent times. The Lankan academic with a long spell in Africa and Europe – now is said to be domiciled in Germany. It is sad to learn he had lost close relatives in our dark days of 1958, 1977 and 1983. Perhaps in those tragic days of the recent local “war” since too.

    He is said to be in regular touch with many Lankans – old friends and former class mates and new contacts. Fortunately for us, Sarvan is a very keen watcher of the Lankan scene.

    He brings to the readership the benefit of his enormous studies, research and teaching experience dissecting the contemporary Lankan scene and making his pronouncements without bias or prejudice. It is comforting to learn he is one of the many Sri Lankans in the diaspora sincerely wishing for and working towards the country
    regaining its lost national composure, tranquility and togetherness.

    We look forward to reading him and to learn from his academic depth


  • 0

    Me too.

    I wonder whether Prof: Sarvan was a student of Doric,Ashley Halpe,Ludowyke,or Passe.
    Plato belonged to the times of Prof:Ashley Halpe,though he was not his student in the conventional sense.

    I have been reading the articles of Prof:Sarvan on the CT.A sensitive soul walking down the corridors of History,when this country was truly a Paradise.

    Nostalgia is a funny feeling!
    I hope Prof:Sarvan will continue to adorn the pages of CT.

  • 0

    The late Adrian Wijemanne with his keen analytical mind and his impartiality deserves great praise for his views on the Sri Lankan national question. At least for that reason it quite worthwhile reading Sarvan’s book. Bensen

  • 1

    Dear Editor

    I see the anthology Sri Lanka: Paradise Lost? as having parallels with others such as H.A.J Hulugalle’s, Ceylon of the Early Travelers. My fascination with Hulugalle’s book never dims. The 1969 edition in my possession, discolored and replete with wormholes, is picked up whenever I scan my shelves for yet another peep into Lanka’s ancient past. There I learn what travelers throughout the ages learned and conveyed. I listen to the laughter and tears of those/my people, their fears and fights, legends and myths – all that with the guidance of learned comments by an admirable scholar and chronicler.

    Now and in the years ahead, Sri Lanka: Paradise Lost? though it tends to deal with a specific period and issue, but generally with a body politic, will provide similar opportunity to fortunate readers. They will laugh and cry with us, be amazed by our survival skills, smile at our simplicity. We can never tell if then too there’ll be the same divisions and the same mistakes.

    We must be grateful to Professor Charles Sarvan for sharing with us his thoughts on a wide range of issues that engage us in the times we live through. He has a talent for taking our confused thinking and translating them into clear sentences and ideas, thereby helping us clarify our own opinions, whether in agreement or opposition. That attribute requires fairness and judgment, qualities Sarvan works hard at acquiring.


  • 0

    Not only this guy but also academics in poverty India are not aware that minimum education in Sri Lanka is Grade 9…..and with 4 Credits in Grade 12 exam it is possible to get admission in foreign universities wheres in poverty India the offer degrees at Colleges …even African countries are not accepting this Indian shit degrees.

    The jokers in Delhi then and now think Tamils is Sri Lanka are illiterate ..worship film stars and live in poverty in cottages ….in Indian cities even today foreign car is is an exhibition and even skirt blouse is unknown

    When IPKF landed in North-Eastt they were shocked to see how Tamils live here in individuals houses..with all electronic equipments .and phones…which are only dream in poverty India …

    This bloody poverty Indians when they go overseas watch flashy cars and girls with short dress with open mouth ..

    Poverty Indian can’t fool Tamil here because they are 1000 advanced in education and economy ..this poverty India is today the No:1 illiterate country in the world and HIV is 10 times higher than China…it is very common in villages when people are hungry they catch rats and squirrels roast in fire and eat..

    Indira Feroz Khan died because of her arrogance ..and her 2 sons died because of their foolishness and arrogance …

    What is the qualifications of Indira Feroz Khan ??

    Dismissed from SANTINIKETAN founded by Tagore for her better CONDUCT ……….later shipped to Brillament College in Switzerland to study ..short hand ..typing ..cake making …embroidery … and this Rajiv Feroz Khan ??? what he was doing in Cambridge is unknown except wandering with Italian baby sitter cum bar girl Sonia ..

    Very soon Greater China already surrounded poverty India will teach a lesson…..Greater China don’t have to fire a single shot …simply air drop foreign cigarets and hot fried rice packs ..big stomach Indian army will run to collect these….even today it is common troops of Greater China invade India for weeks then leave…1962 Grater China captured 22,000 Sg.Miles of poverty India and still control this land and ARUNACHAL PRADESH is now in the MAP of Greater China ..people in this area don’t need visa to visit Greater China


  • 0

    Ajith, Native Vedda and Plato want entire The Sinhalese nation and Buddhism that totally eradicated from Sri lanka soil!

    They committed to agitated and propaganda’s on behalf of Tamils, that to be surrender which undermine National Sovereignty of Sinhalese -Buddhist right to exist in Sri lanka.

    That is tragedy of our nation, directly or indirectly help to established Tamil Rough state in North -East. This is Undoubtly new trend of politics has been an introduce 2015 January 9th by MS, UNP-Ranil.w… and CBK which the very survival of their political class and life.

    They want to wipe out d 2600 years civilization of Sinhalese-Buddhist majority in Sri lanka.
    The so-called political project Back by Indian- RAW ,US hegemony and UK re-colonization of Island of Sri lanka.
    The role of traitors against Sinhalese race has been undertaken by Mathiripala Sirisena ,UNP-Ranil W… is born Christain-Anglcan and CBK gens of Tamil blood relationship.

    Three of them advocated that “Sinhalese Hegomoinism” is the root cause of Tamil minority issues in Sri lanka.

    That is why Tamil leaders call Sri lanka being a lost Paradise!

    If Tamil gain whole Island, by dominated their footing in our soil, that country will become Paradise!

  • 0

    Mr.Sirisena Yatawara.

    You have got me wrong.

    How can poor Plato ever dream of the things that you accuse him.
    Plato is a unrepentant Idealist,even at this age.

Leave A Comment

Comments should not exceed 200 words. Embedding external links and writing in capital letters are discouraged. Commenting is automatically disabled after 5 days and approval may take up to 24 hours. Please read our Comments Policy for further details. Your email address will not be published.