23 October, 2020

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Sri Lanka’s Descent To Autocratic Rule; As Focus Changes From Abolition To Strengthening Executive Presidency!

By Mohamed Harees –

Lukman Harees

Recently, Sri Lanka woke up to official publication of a draft constitutional amendment that will give the Executive President, the power to dissolve parliament and also offer him full immunity against prosecution. Under the proposed new amendment, there will be no separation of powers, and appointment of members from the Judicial Service Commission to the Police Service Commission will be done by the Chief Executive, which is not a sign of a healthy democracy. The 20th Amendment has also proposed inter-alia, several changes which include the replacement of the vital Constitutional Council (CC) with a new body called the Parliamentary council, which will consist only of members of parliament with no place for civil society representatives. As experts point out, the centralization of powers in the hands of a single person is dictatorial, despotic, autocratic and tyrannical. This proposed amendment was referred to the Supreme Court for a determination whether it will require approval of the people at a referendum. 

Sadly, those who fought to stop this draconian Amendment from being part of the Constitution found no hope at the highest citadel of justice. It now appears that the proposed 20th Amendments have received the blessings of the Supreme Court and with some changes will take a cake walk into the law books through the Parliament by virtue of the ruling party’s two third’s majority. This determination will be a death knell for democracy involving accountability, Justice, Reconciliation, Rule of Law and Good Governance in Sri Lanka. Many legal minds and bodies including BASL Commonwealth Law Associations have spoken about this amendment being a retrograde step, which will run contrary to the rule of law and the basic tenets of the principles of separation of powers. It is interesting to note that our 1978 Constitution which is 42-year-old is reaching its 20th amendment now, when  comparatively the 233-year-old US constitution has been amended only 27 times. This will roll back the spirit of the 19th Amendment which was seen as the most progressive pro-democracy reformist move since Sri Lanka came to be governed under the all-powerful executive presidency in 1978. 19th Amendment inter-alia, depoliticised the government administration by ensuring the independence of key pillars such as the judiciary, public service and elections.

It is sheer dishonesty and political hypocrisy that politicians who came to be elected to this highest seat of power promising to abolish this most controversial constitutional power base which made Sri Lanka into a democratic dictatorship, have let down the electorate in style. Today, the talk of abolition of this office, is not in the card at all. More than 4 decades after then PM JR Jayewardene appointed himself as the first Executive President, with the blessings of his the ‘then’ five-sixths majority in parliament, the Executive Presidency in Sri Lanka seems to be in no danger of being abolished. The last move made hurriedly  to abolish the post by way of the 20th Amendment to the Constitution was in fact, an exercise in futility, being roundly defeated at the Cabinet meeting of September 19, 2009. Instead, the moves are geared towards reversing the process of democratisation, to strengthen the dictatorial powers vested on the incumbent President rather than abolishing the post. Any talk of abolishing the post of the Executive President has today become a public joke. Thus, the much maligned post of Executive Presidency with wide ranging dictatorial powers under Constitution of September 1978, will continue with additional powers, with general public being virtually clueless about its far reaching dangers.  

From its inception, the 1978 Constitution came under fire, especially regarding the extent of executive power devolved on the holder of that post. Other than President Premadasa, who was elected into office when JR’s term expired, all Presidential candidates who contested the Presidency, came to office on a promise of abolishing the executive Presidency and putting in place a new Constitution. President Chandrika Kumaratunga, one of the biggest critics of the 1978 Constitution did make an effort to change the Constitution, but her efforts were defeated in parliament amid scenes of hooliganism in the well of the House. President Mahinda Rajapaksa who followed Ms. Kumaratunge as President, too made mention of abolishing the executive presidency, but made no serious effort to abolish it during his term of office. However on the contrary, he went a step further and brought in the 18th Amendment to the Constitution, to extend his term in office. President Maithripala Sirisena also promised change the Constitution and abolish the post of Executive President. Unfortunately, once in office his greed for power took hold, even attempting to extend his Presidential term and also suggesting he was willing to contest again, although he came to power stating he will be a one-time President. Of course, 19th Amendment was a feather in his cap which reduced the Presidential powers. 

According to some economic experts, one of the prime reasons sought for vesting on more powers on the Executive President was to spur economic development. In fact, at the start, it was thought that the changeover from the Westminster model of a parliamentary system to a de Gaullist type of presidential system was justified on the ground that, for the acceleration of economic development as envisaged by the new regime, a strong and stable government was required. Later, the protracted ethnic war and government propaganda on absolute necessity of powerful government, by extension, of the executive presidential form of government. The imperatives that guided the newly empowered presidency corresponded with Jayewardene’s admiration of the developmental results achieved by his more authoritarian contemporaries elsewhere in Asia. Of course, there were economic successes at that time, but at the heavy cost on the democratic process in Sri Lanka- a country, which was treated as a model “Third World Democracy” at the early stages of its Post-independence era.  

According to a research article by Rajesh Venugopal (London School of Economics) in 2014, he opines, with the benefit of hindsight, Sri Lanka’s executive presidency has failed under its own terms. ‘the high-tide of authoritarianism that Jayewardene personified in the 1980s came about not just because the executive presidency provided him with many powers, but because this was buttressed by overwhelming legislative support. Throughout his term in power (1977-88), Jayewardene had a parliamentary super-majority (140 of 168 seats)inherited as a relic of the previous constitution and its first-past-the-post system. His thought was that ‘no such majority would be possible again under the new proportional representation rules. Nevertheless, by preserving the 1977 parliament, and by controversially extending its life through to a second, unelected term until 1989, Jayewardene afforded himself an unprecedented measure of power over an exceptionally long period of time. (Thus) in his ten years as president, Jayewardene had the luxury of passing fourteen constitutional amendments, each of which required a two-thirds legislative majority. His successor Ranasinghe Premadasa would also pass another two amendments in the dying days of that extraordinarily elongated parliament in December 1988’. Today, even under the PR system, the SLPP under incumbent President Gotabaya Rajapaksa acquired almost 2/3rd majority in the legislature. Thus, PR system did not clip the President’s wings.   

Thus, 20A Amendment basically attempts to take Sri Lanka back to the executive presidency that was put in place by the Constitution of 1978. It was vested with enormous powers and regarded as among the most powerful in the world. An executive presidency is by its very nature undemocratic and in Sri Lanka it was more so as checks on the exercise of presidential power were diluted over the years. This prompted calls for abolishing the executive presidency and reverting to a parliamentary style of government. However, this was easier said than done. This is only a dream as things now. 

Doing away with 19A has been a key item on the agenda of the Rajapaksa family and the SLPP, which it founded and dominates. The Rajapaksas were of the view that 19A was aimed at keeping Mahinda and his brothers out of power. The clearest case of self interest in the abolishing of the executive presidency is that of former President Rajapaksa. There is a history behind this journey into totalitarianism. According to a research article on ‘Authoritarian trends and their continuity in Sri Lankan politics: A study of operationalizing of authoritarianism from 2005 to 2015 Period’ by Upul Abeyrathne, Upali Pannilage and Nelum Ranawaka, ‘In fact, the political development that took place during the previous Rajapaksa regime go beyond authoritarian type of government and has incorporated features a totalitarian rule. The regime since 2005 had sought to gain total control over all aspects of almost everything, both public and private sectors. The then ruling regime took steps to perpetuate totalitarian regime headed by him together with his kith-and-kin since 2005. The specificity of the Rajapakse Regime was that it steered Sri Lanka towards a totalitarian rule through legal and constitutional means while using a cultural mechanism to totalize power in and around the executive presidency and its occupant Mahinda Rajapakse and attempted to perpetuate his rule forever.

In the context of the totalizing power project, xenophobia over ethnic other (minorities) became the central feature of totalizing power mechanism. The regime has effectively co-opted intellectual current known as Jatika Chinthanaya in the process of extreme chauvinism to which it has resorted to gain political power and legitimize totalizing of power in and around him and his family. The regime also had strived its best to weaken other political parties through offering political spoils to leading figures of small parties especially to the ones who were vocal to the needs and fancies of majority community. This process has resulted in potential portrayal of Rajapaksa Regime as the top most protector of dominant Sinhalese heritage and power in Sri Lankan Politics. The ethicized politics in post-colonial Sri Lanka helped Rajapakse Regime to sustain a system of terror and justify and legitimate use of terror to achieve political objectives such as law and order’. This underlines the present realities in Sri Lanka.

Particularly in the Post-Easter period, fears of the ‘other’ overtaking the majority domination in Sri Lanka took hold in the Sinhala-Buddhist mind-set, Resultantly, the cultivated mind-set of the people on the necessity of strong and powerful uni-centre for governing, given in the particular challenges specially national security, gave rise to the election of a President and a legislature on a unprecedented majoritarian mandate. It is obvious that the present President is exploiting these fears to strengthen his hold on power which was diminished by the 19th Amendment. 

It was most unfortunate that there was not much public outcry or political activism or protests on the streets were visible to prevent the passage of this amendment to the law books, except challenging it in the Supreme Courts. There were no constructive programs too to build awareness of the people about the inherent dangers of this toxic Amendment to the socio-political wellbeing of the country. In that respect, the Opposition has failed the country at large. History will put them in the same basket and judge them along with those who brought this disaster to the democracy in Sri Lanka. People were made to believe that this amendment will be beneficial to the country and only time will teach them that it will not, if history is of any indicator. The BASL has expressed fears in ruling circles that the reactionary amendment will produce a ‘mass rebellion’. “If the public do not have access to remedy a grievance against the unlawful exercise of powers by an all-powerful President the only remedy will be to take arms against the State,” it declared. 

A democracy is balanced mainly on the supremacy of law as no one is above law. An anthropologist and writer, once describes the reality today in the Asian nation, characterized by propaganda and slogans inspired by patriotism to maintain power. Sri Lankan democracy is the biggest loser with the enacting of 20A. This recent development raised a serious threat towards the doom of democracy or cause a still-stand for democratic progress in the country. There is no doubt, that a constitutional crisis will prevail in Sri Lanka with this anti-democratic amendment getting  enacted. The democracy will die its own death and the Parliament will become a rubberstamp in Sri Lanka. The rise of constitutional dictatorship, centralization of power and uncontrolled power once again will thus. It is not rocket science to predict that history will repeat itself as then once again Sri Lanka become hyper-presidential state. 

Alarm bells have already rung about the military mind-set of the present President who has a penchant to in tolerate criticism and opposition from any source and not hesitating to do away with any opposition to his ambitious plans, however antidemocratic they may be. Recent instructions to the officials to consider his word as akin to gazette notification can give an inkling about his mind-set to flex his newly acquired power muscles. Of course , changing the course of dictatorships is not easy but as Margaret mead famously said “Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed people can change the world. Indeed it is the only thing that ever has”. Only public activism can reverse this course of history! Or is it too late?

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Latest comments

  • 14
    2

    It’s hard to find another example in modern history where an arduously built momentum over the decades for a much needed constitutional change to safeguard democracy – right at the moment when it appeared to be a real possibility – was reversed in a matter of weeks. All it took was a few church bombings on a single day.

    • 5
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      Ajay
      Church bombing has nothing to do with the change.
      Look at how efficient the current administration in bringing up charges against the opposition MPs ( e.g. Champika et al ) where as ranil’s admin did nothing decisively even over four years. I wous say the main culprit is the imbecile Ranil Wickremasinghe. If any to be held responsible for the current fiasco then it has to that imbecile Ranil. And if anyone to be sent to gallows then it has to be him. We will never get any democratic opposition , which one day will become the ruling party , then we should send that imbecile to the gallows.

  • 7
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    Good article. Authoritarian regimes can deliver expeditiously. Singapore under Lee Kwan Yew is the example often cited. But, it does not apply to Sri Lanka where every President has been a kleptocrat subject to many taints. The problem is that the present President can justify what he is doing because the Sinhala Buddhist people gave him an overwhelming mandate. So, what he says goes. The mandate cannot be withdrawn by the Supreme Court, which does not under the SL constitution function like the Supreme Courts of the US and India where the Supreme Court can invalidate legislation. In Sri Lanka, the Supreme Court is a truncated body with the power to advise as to whether legislation requires a two third majority with or without a referendum. So, no point blaming the Court. The good Sinhala people must think of whether authoritarian rule is what they want. It is up to them to decide. The Sangha has spoken on this now. It is a good sign that there would be rethinking done. Let us hope that there will be no recourse to violence. We have had enough of it over the years.

  • 4
    3

    Mr Harees

    Thank you.

    The abolition of the presidency would have been on the cards if during the last GOSL we all shed the ghetto making names be it language and religions and shown we are strong enough and progressive enough and stood shoulder to shoulder will all other parties.

    Instead we waste all those years on a constitutional assembly further alienating the Sinhalese and Tamils from their future with all kinds of retribution/belittle stuff of no relevance in the real world and called it Peace, Truth and Reconciliation??

    Opposition leader position was wasted as this was provided for the Tamil elected to show credential to be capable of speaking for the entire Nation and the same to the Muslim parties too. No unity even amongst the Tamil and Muslim parties they both pursued their own agendas now the war is behind us loosing all the opportunities given by the masses looking for betterment of their life which has been put on hold for 70years/50 years/then another 10 years after the war to date.

    Based on this evidence alone now we are back tracking not only to ensure the executive presidency but also extending the term too.

    • 0
      1

      Please do not misunderstand the 1978 constitution& Presidential position and powers was all about managing what was presented by the TULF an unpresidented crime whilst having the children being trained in Tamil Nadu since mid seventies and using the same to systematically kill decent in Jaffna an undemocratic and unheard of nature of affairs in SL politics/foreign intervention further normalising matters with JVP attempt to topple our Nations elected government? an audacious event we are still living today.

      The 1981 DDC election was the last stroll if anyone wanted to avoid any blood letting in our beloved Nation the killings fields yet to be brought to the UN and the perpetrators meet the noose.

      Now the Nation is having peace time against all the odds this calculated measure to change the constitution so the Nation will never ever see the same thuggery again is critical and to ensure the same remains in the powers should they be elected will bring consistency in seeing through the changes once and formal so we will not be counting bodies agin.

      • 0
        1

        If you all aching for another battle please give me the names of your children I am enlisting and will send them to Tamil Nadu training camps direct with Indian Government approval/UN approval etc.

        Should you all have an urge to kill instnatly then please start up some causes in the countries you live and have fun sending your children (more underage the better) to do some horrors am sure UN will approve. Should this Nations wish to send you home for your adventures please do not say you are from Sri Lankans so they can send you all somewhere else. Best wished for the religious and language adventures in the countries you live please…we will support you morally always. Love from Sri Lanka.

        For whatever reason you are unable to cherry pick excuses for the animal instinct let us know we will find suitable causes. Please make sure you get approval from the respective governments before the act itself & names and addresses will help.

  • 2
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    Dear Mohamed Lukman Harees,
    .
    I have read through your entire article, but it was AFTER reading the one that must have appeared just before yours:
    .
    https://www.colombotelegraph.com/index.php/withdraw-the-proposed-20th-amendment-amarapura-ramanna-samagri-maha-sangha-sabha-tells-government/
    .
    I feel that you wouldn’t have foreseen that development when you wrote this pessimistic essay. You must have completed your well-written piece, and sent it for publication before this salutary development.
    .
    Let us forget petty differences; the Maha Sangha possibly have sufficient clout to deliver us from the evils that you have correctly described for us. The evil that the Rajapaksas were trying to impose was so flagrant, let us not discount the possibility that defeating them is going to be easier than we imagined.

  • 1
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    To close observers of the political scene the phase starting from 2015 ended with the dither of 3 years. The doom that was to follow was foreseen. What was sighted in 2018 was that JR constitution was quite alive. This year, this month it is coming of age. Rapid growth of iron handedness thereafter. Old vestiges will vanish, the way Weimer constitution disappeared 90 years ago from Germany.

    As may be known, the Fuhrer assumed power democratically with his Nazi following and the Nazi youth. When they, grew their ambitions also grew. They made their aspirations known and Hitler had one of two choices. To side with the Nazi supporters or to take the side of the traditionally strong military. He took the decision in favour of the established Armed Forces.

    Sri Lanka has little time to wait. The poverty stricken masses and the workless and moneyless youth will join hands. The iron hand of the 20th Amendment will then be seen, when the men picked from the establishment. go in defence of the ruler.

    The fate of Indonesians in lakhs in October 1965, will serve as a reminder.

  • 1
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    Alas! Politicians here forget who their masters are. They forget that they were trusted at the point of receiving the majority vote. Practitioners of some religions, before having a meal, thank all who caused it to be on the table. Similarly, if politicians in power, reflect for a moment, as to who gave them the authority and for what purpose, every time they exercise authority, then they don’t have to face the humiliation of a terrible defeat in the next elections. The most recent event was the crushing defeat of the “Yahapalana” government, so much so, that UNP, the founding political party in the independence era, is without a single elected seat. Its own leader has resigned himself to write a book. Telephonists who broke away from the elephant were able to save their political necks. Chances are that had they continued to be elephantine they too would have got drowned in the electoral sea. It is in that context that both NGR and SRP must keep in mind where they stand. Both suffer from terrible impatience. Always be with the people, then, they will not be wrong.

  • 1
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    Ajay: If I am to rewrite that last sentence of your comment, (“All it took a few church bombings on a single day”,) I would write it as All it took a few church bombings ALLOWED to happen by all “Authorities” of Security and Law Enforcement on a single day. Don’t you think that statement is the most TRUTHFUL and APPROPRIATE?

    • 2
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      Simon:
      That’s exactly my point. I’d even argue not only “allowed,” some sections of the “authorities” even had a hand in staging the attacks. But when uncovering hidden truths, I believe it is better to hint rather than state explicitly. That will make the writing more subtle, giving the reader the experience of “figuring it out.” I think that way the writing will have more impact. But I may be wrong.

      • 2
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        Ajay: You are not wrong. That is another way to write and say. A number of religious leaders have adopted it. But some are very “DIRECT” and that is once your understanding of facts is established.

  • 1
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    A mutt on cord(here) said recently that AG’s & CJ ‘s degrees are not prescribed in Constitution. So it is better to have Auditor General released from that condition too. I don’t think in UK, from where we copied, the Law Lords required to prove their qualifications to sit on their bench. But, until 20A, in Lankawe, they have been duly selected from Law Field. Our Mutt’s shot is not about Auditor General. But in reality he is indicating that in future (after 20 A acted) not just Auditor General, even AG & CJ will be fatuous grubs from Rapist Army. As he too is a educated lawyer himself, it may have been paining him that he is in leash cord but Rapist Army is in Law Chair.

  • 4
    0

    The only real power standing between Rajapaksas and 20A is the Sangha. But they disregarded Sangha in 2012 when their kids had a carnival at Dalada Maligawa premises. Paid a heavy price for it. Nothing else stands in their way.

    The only justification of 20A is it makes it easier to exterminate Tamil and Muslim terrorists and win election after election thereafter. Otherwise it is useless.

    One good democracy gets from it is the greedy family knows becoming president is everything. The president gets unlimited power. They will do everything to win the presidential election. Not easy to win by election fraud. They must win the support of most. That will get them to perform for the majority.

    • 0
      1

      Dear Gatam

      We the Sri Lankan makes up the majority…the Sri Lankans who braved the bullets and still live with each other through out the Country.

      We are not defined by the TNA/Muslim parties/Sinhala racist thugs but ourselves……the CT articles create a hallusinated bubble as though we are living somewhere else as we are not.

      “That will get them to perform for the Majority” means they will perform for the Citizens of SL period?? anyone in the way of this delivery of governance are the ones mentioned above and they are the Minority thank you…..as Hon SF stated in response to our Hon CJ in the parliament will stand and anyone who commit a crime against the land should be aware of that always……yes we will be hard hit but we have all learned the lessons of the world politics and the cowards who have seen to the death of the Mother Lankan Children setting them against each other days are may be not over…..but being numbered for sure. A steady and sturdy recovery hence the 20A as a precursor to the rewritten constitution to come that will stick for good for her glorious future as a one unit and not raped and savaged by all the scums of the earth for all she is worth the Mother Lanka.

      • 0
        0

        It is a shame the CT has become a bubble just as what the FP did with the children used them and raped their life just as Trump said “stand back and stand by” the FP did in each stage under the banner of democracy in front of the entire world…a thuggery organisation set out to devils advocate every life that was born free in the land with right to self determine their own future….an audacious act will be brought to the books along with Indian explanation at the Hague as to their part for the foreign sponsored terrorism in another mans country that we will not wish to on any mans children anywhere in the world. Because we are a decent human being have values/ethics and rightiousness built in all we do under any stress.

        • 0
          0

          Have you ever seen the TNA laying flowers to all the fallen Soldiers who saved them from certain death??? One does not have to focus on “bad apples” as we all live and make love/intercourse/breed/breed/attend temples/claim future/enjoy freedom expression/carrier/wealth accumulation/holidays/investments/returns in Nations who sold Armes, trained mercenaries, war after war in the last 40 years alone killed million and millions, robbbed all that is someone else’s…tell me how many of them stop doing all I listed above and left the countries to non sinful places?? protested and participated in campaign for war crimes of their adopted countries head of states…all I see is the white children standing up for the rights of the other…all are a bunch of conmen….blood suckers too.

          • 0
            0

            Did you ever see a single story of the Sinhalese who died in this war or a Muslim who died in this war even by the NGO’s and do you any of you wonder why?? Did the GOSL go around to sell the sob story to the world???? would be the ultimate betrayal of innocent youth the victims be it the armed groups or the soldiers?????

            Why these Genevans spent time doing this belittle write ups for ever and ever stoping others from positively living??? murder this and that corruption this and that……when we are the most lowest forms of all that we describe about others?????slander after slander and we have normalised this unthinkable language we do not even se what is right and wrong anymore?????

            This beginning to sound like war by any other means? then who is doing this and on who’s interest as this kind of referencing is not a norm in any developing countries who want to move forward????? the problem is we have no morals and ethics anymore?? we can all sponsor a child from all walks of life from SL and unite the families/communities/villages/entire Nation??????

            • 0
              0

              If any of this souls want peace for any killings they did..time to confront their fear and face it………”you be honest to yourself” and get some counciling in the Countries you live please???? it is hard to live with the burdens/karma of slaying others when you were kids and now spent time justifying your guilt by barking at someone trying to run a country of 21 million people is not the answer to the pain?? please stop this depressive rubbish and this is what the Suthenthiran paper did all our life and see where we are today????

      • 2
        0

        Dear TV,

        The truth is the SL society is divided by ethnicity when it comes to governance, etc. That is a fact. It hasn’t changed since 1947 and it will not.

        The Sri Lankan identity never really took off since introduction in 1948 because it was never there before. Some Sri Lankans live like Tamil Nadu people while some others live like Pakistani people. They have very little in common with the rest.

        Trying to keep a divided people in an undivided country is a disaster. It is like a husband trying to keep his adulterous wife within marriage. Disappointment, STDs, fights, court and police cases, external intervention, etc. Not worth it.

  • 4
    2

    Let me hand it to the rajapuka’s for once instead of sitting shitting on their brains they had the foresight to rally around a gang or two of disgruntled misled by them members of these undesirable criminal goons who as Ajay clearly stated that the well-planned bombings of the poor folk’s churches and the explosions in many a 5-star hotel had caused many an economic mayhem.
    b.
    At the 2 recently conducted elections the Yakko Buddhists along with the cardinal’s boys and girls blindly voted with their panties down and gave these morons what they were seeking for.
    c.
    Now the best 19th amendment will be one of this forsaken 20th amendment a rajapuk’s desire will be unceremoniously approved by the 151 SLPP criminal racist rogues whose only ambition is to enrichen themselves at the expense of the starving all NOes peasant citizens.
    d.
    If any sane person or two raise their arms in protest the Kalla kallathoni of a much tainted in the negatives war-criminal so-called bullshitting president who just does not know whether he is coming or going will get his fellow like-minded military murdering of the innocents’ gangsters to nip any civil peaceful uprising.
    More blood will be shed if the rajapuka’s have their sadistic ways.

    • 3
      1

      e.
      Till one is able to get rid of the hora boru ganankarraya rajapuka’s this once bright island will be the chieftain in the colony of the beggars.

      • 1
        4

        Hats off to the Great Rajapaksha’s for getting rid of the bloody LTTE

        • 1
          0

          Did they? Or collective forces did the job while Rajapakshe looted it all as they are trained to do so??????? what can they do better than high crimes. ????????????

  • 1
    3

    Sri lanka is going through a process that took hundreds of years in Europe. Basically the ” long day’s journey into the night “. Its finally maturing as a nation. Which means that brutality has to be enforced. GR is our napolean, Hitler, churchill, mao and trumen. Sri lanka will be better after him. The problem is most Lankans don’t understand history or karmic cycles. At 41, I am young enough to dream that I will live long enough to witness an United, prosperous and happy island. A vision that luckman hears and aging generation does not have.

  • 1
    0

    If all various forces come together to block 20A we can even work on removing Rajapakshe from the leadership. People will start throwing stones them as startetd in Lybia, I think this can work???????????????????

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