20 September, 2020

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Acts Of Betrayal That Broke The Letter & Spirit Of Independence

By Usha S Sri-Skanda-Rajah

Usha S Sri-Skanda-Rajah

Usha S Sri-Skanda-Rajah

The Sinister Acts of Betrayal Against Tamils That Broke The Letter, Spirit And Essence Of Ceylon Independence

The main thrust of this article is to recollect and hone as independence day is here, just some of the many sinister acts of betrayal inflicted on the Tamil people during, in this context, the post independence era; the two salient points for discussion are:

First Salient Point:

The abolition of the safeguard for Tamil people – an essential clause, aimed to protect them, “against the tyranny of the majority” which was written in to the Soulbury constitution, a constitution that the British helped draft to make way for the granting of Ceylon independence, the incorporation of which was the sole reason that the “Tamils acquiesced” to independence from Britain – which has broken the letter and spirit of the very essence of Ceylon independence.

Second Salient Point:

The advent of the 1972 illegal constitution and the “sinister stratagem” by which it was created and the failure on the part of the Federal Party – Illankai Tamil Arasu Katchchi) (ITAK), as the late Tamil legal luminary Mr. Wakeley Paul analyses, to mount a vehement legal challenge and the failure of Mr. C Suntheralingam to carry through his writ of prohibition against the abolition of Section 29 until the end – he surmises made the, “new constitution legal by default!”

A Day Of Pomp And Pageantry & Vulgar Exhibition of Military Might

As the new Sirisena/Wickremesinghe/CBK/JHU/Muslim coalition government together with their people prepare to observe, honour and celebrate independence day with pomp and pageantry, and with no doubt a vulgar exhibition of military might and triumphalism, it’s imperative to remember that for the Tamils it’s a painful reminder, a time for poignant reflection on the horrific events gone by – of the mass atrocity crimes of genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity and ethnic cleansing perpetrated on the Tamil people by the Sri Lankan military and political leaders for which no one has been tried yet; and the subject for examination here in this essay – the sinister acts of betrayal those of which they have suffered in the hands of successive Sinhala Buddhist chauvinistic governments and politicians.

Lest We Forget4th February Did Not Usher Freedom For Tamils

The 4th of February 1948 – observed as Ceylon Independence day did not usher in freedom for the Tamil people of the island. On the contrary it turned out to be the day that Tamils signed their death-knell, precipitating a dark chapter in their history and signalling the beginning of their worst nightmare, that saw the reversal of their fortunes, moving from one colonial master who appreciated, and relied on them to another who systematically marginalised, oppressed and subjugated them, through disenfranchisement and deportation of their kinsmen, the Indian Tamil plantation workers who the British brought over in 1827, through calculated and deliberated colonisation that can be described as “demographic engineering”, through imposition of two illegal constitutions, through discriminative legislative enactments and policies, through perpetration of violence,[1] through the destruction of property, through ethnic cleansing, wars and genocide.

Tamils A Proud Race – Their Origins And Achievements

Looking back at the time of independence, I can’t help but indulge in the self promotion of my race – the proud, intelligent and heroic Tamil race of Ceylon whose ancestors may be traced back to India, for which a date cannot be assigned with certainty, and to the ancient Tamil civilisation that has gone under water, known as Kumari Kandam (Lamoria)mentioned in Tholkappiam an ancient work of grammatical and literary merit, the proof of which is in Graham Handcock’s [2] video that tells the hidden history of the lost terrain now found through the discovery of man-made structures, 70 feet under the sea, the remains of what was a contiguous land mass where Tamil civilisation existed 11,000 even 16,400 years ago. A civilisation that was believed to be swallowed up by the sea due to rising sea levels caused by the end of the last ice age.

This finding is in keeping with Dr. Seran Deraniyagala’s research paper titled Pre-and Proto-historic settlements in Sri Lanka [3] : that conclude that it is impossible to view Sri Lankan prehistory in isolation from India:

During the last one million years, when humans are known to have existed in various parts of India (V. Mishra 1995), Sri Lanka was connected to the sub-continent on numerous occasions. The rise and fall of sea level (due to cold/warm fluctuations in the global climate) determined the periodicities of these connections, the last separation having occurred at ca. 7000 BP (Deraniyagala 1992: 167). Hence it is impossible to view Sri Lankan prehistory in isolation from India. “

Two Different Nations

The indigenous Tamils of Ceylon, known also as the Malabar speaking people were distinctly different from the Sinhalese in many ways which now the famous Cleghorn Minute has established without a doubt.

“Two different nations, from a very ancient period, have divided between them the possession of the Island: the Sinhalese inhabiting the interior in its Southern and Western parts from the river Wallouwe to Chilaw, and the Malabars (Tamils) who possess the Northern and Eastern Districts. These two nations differ entirely in their religion, language and manners.” Sir Hugh Cleghorn, British Colonial Secretary, June 1879.

And stated clearly earlier by Sir Brownrigg, the Governor of Ceylon in 1813. [4]

“As to the qualification required in the knowledge of the native languages, the Portuguese and Sinhalese only being mentioned excludes one which is fully necessary in the Northern Districts as the Sinhalese in the South. I mean the Tamil language, commonly called the Malabar language, which with a mixture of Portuguese in use through all the provinces is the proper native tongue of the inhabitants from Puttalam to Batticaloa northward inclusive of both these districts.. Your Lordship will therefore, I hope have no objection to my putting Tamil on an equal footing of encouragement with the Sinhalese” – Sir Robert Brownrigg, Governor of Ceylon, 1813 Dispatch to the British Colonial Secretary of State, Reported in the Tribune, 12 January 1956) – Courtesy www.tamilnation.com

The Rich Heritage of Tamils – Pioneers In Several Fields

The Thevaaram – Koneswara Pathikham, consisting of a set of ten verses, sung in praise of Koneshwarar, the deity in the Thiru Koneswarar Temple situated in Trincomalee, composed by Thiru Gnana Sambanthar one of four famous Tamil saints of the 7th century, is historic evidence that, “Tamils were a densely populated people in Trincomalee.

There were five famous Hindu Temples of repute, situated in all corners of the island, “long before the arrival of Vijaya.” This according to historian Dr. Paul E Peiris who announced this in 1917 to the Royal Asiatic Society (Ceylon Branch). These five temples were known as the “Pancha Eswaram” and were Thiuketheeshwaram Muneshwaram Thondeshwaram Koneshwaram and Naguleshwaram. [5]

Long before Ceylon independence, Tamils were pioneers in education, in entrepreneurship, in agriculture farming, fishing and cottage industry; in the legal, engineering and medical professions, in the accounting, clerical and civil service – many were land owners, financially well off and belonged to the upper echelons of the Ceylonese society; a substantial number formed what is now known as the home-owning middle class. Tamils were hard working, conscientious and industrious, highly cultured, religious and proud of their language, honest, trustworthy, thrifty and dependable, studious and ambitious taking to educating their children as their life’s priority.

They were well respected for their innate abilities by colonial regimes. Some Tamils made avail of opportunities in British colonies around the world in India, in far off Malaysia (Singapore), Burma, Fiji, South Africa, the Caribbean, Mauritius and other places where they established roots.

Self Sufficiency in Food

Tamils were mostly self-sufficient in food. Agriculture, fishing and farming were the main stay of the rural folk – who were in involved in the cultivation of rice and other grains, tobacco, fruits (even grapes) and vegetables; they were known for using innovative methods when it came to planting. ploughing, irrigating and harvesting. Every home had its own vegetable plot. They utilised every part of the palm tree to support their lifestyle – for food and for making furniture and for the construction of their dwellings, considering not all of the NorthEast had power the people still thrived.

Some Of The Best Schools Were In The NorthEast

The North had the best system of education and good hospitals thanks in part to the American missionaries who “set up schools and health institutions with in the Jaffna Peninsula.” [6]

Also deserving of praise were the Catholic missionaries for their contribution and stalwarts like Sir Ponnambalam Ramanathan who helped to further both Buddhism, Hinduism and education through the establishment of prestigious schools namely Ramanathan College for girls in 1913 and Parameswara College for boys in 1919 which is now the University of Jaffna.

Tamil Leaders – Their Resilience And Regrets For Another Discussion

Some Tamils entered politics and led from the front and became known for their brilliant minds and debating and oratorical skills both in the pre and post independence era, leaving their indelible mark in the annals of Ceylon’s political history. Some of them laid the foundation to and spearheaded Ceylon’s independence movement during the very early days, and were later known to have expressed regret at the way things were going for the Tamils.

Some Tamils emerged as champions and defenders of Tamil rights and freedoms, some following the non-violent and democratic path and yet others resisting violence with violence took to armed militancy that saw the emergence of the LTTE and Velupillai Pirapaharan.

The resilience and regrets of everyone of these “Tamil Greats now dead” : from Ponnambalam Ramanathan, Ponnambalam Arunachalam, G G Ponambalam, SJV Chelvanayagam, A. Amithalingam, Dr, EMV Naganathan, C Vanniasingam, V Navaratnam, S. Kathiravetpillai and M. Thiruchelvam and the unparalleled contribution they have made, is a subject for another essay.

Tamils Not Minorities But A Nation

The rich heritage of the Tamils and proof of their origins had to be said to make it absolutely clear they were not minorities but were a Nation. This was espoused by Mr. M Thiruchelvam at the Trial Bar Sessions in 1976.

That having said, it would be now be right and proper to proceed to discuss the finer points of the subject of this article.

Ceylon Independence Saw A Virulent Form Of Sinhala Buddhist Bigotry That Led To Sinister Acts of Betrayal

The advent of Ceylon independence saw the worst kind of Sinhala Buddhist bigotry and hegemony over Tamils, the passage of the Ceylon Citizenship Act and the ditching of the Soulbury Constitution of 1947 and the blatant and stealthy removal of section 29/2 a clause, [7] by means of an unlawful new 1972 republican

constitution outside of parliament, totally ignoring the 6 point demand of the Tamil ITAK representatives that resulted in them walking out, leading to the abolition of Section 29/2 an inbuilt, supposedly entrenched safeguard for the minorities, drafted by Ivor Jennings later Master of Trinity Hall and Vice -Chancellor of the University of Cambridge, is a sinister, shameful and unconscionable act of betrayal by the Sinhalese who were a majority as a whole against the wider island per se, the Tamil people were the majority in their own native provinces of the North and East.Wakeley Paul’s Analysis: Section 29/2 of The Soulbury Constitution Could not Be Abolished Not Even a Constituent Assembly Could Exercise Powers Vested in ParliamentIllegality Of The Constitution Explained

I have in my article “You are sitting on an illegal constitution” [8] quoted Wakeley Paul a B.A. from Cambridge, a LLM from Stanford, a Barrister from Middle Temple London and an a US attorney who with insightful precision explains the sinister means by which the 1972 republican constitution replacing the Soulbury constitution came to be passed:

Here is Mr. Wakeley Paul’s letter to the Editor of the Sunday Leader on the illegality of the 1972 constitution:

Mr Sarath de Alwis’s assertion that the 1972 Constitution was legal because the coalition which was elected to create a Constituent Assembly won by a 2/3 majority is without foundation. The fact that the Federal party (Tamil) partook in the debate involving its creation without protest, does not make it legal either.  The proper procedure would have been for the 2/3 majority to have abolished the Soulbury Constitution and replaced it with a new one in Parliament, Why then one asks did they not do so? Why this use of a Constituent Assembly, whose right to exist, leave alone pass laws or replace the existing Constitution with a new one  was not recognized by the only existing legal Constitution at the time, which was the Soulbury Constitution. The answer is simple. They could not abolish Section 29[2]which protected minorities from  the tyranny of the majority.  This according to Privy Council in  Bribery Commissioner v Ranasinghe [1966] 2 All England Reports 785  was deemed to be such an integral condition of the grant of Independence, that this provision  alone could not be abolished or amended even by a 2/3 majority, as it was an entrenched and unalterable provision of the Constitution. It was the coalitions desire to illegally eliminate the protections of Section 29[2] that motivated them to adopt the illegal procedure of using a Constituent Assembly to legitimize the 72 Constitution.

As to the treachery of Sri Lankans who participated in this scheming charade whose hands are tainted, it is but one incident in the long history of deception and betrayals by the Sinhalese which typifies the length they would go, driven by their innate Sinhala chauvinism turned hegemony to take over the country as theirs which has brought us Tamils to the paltry position of having to ask them for what is rightfully ours!

A Profound Reading of the Law : It was on the basis of Section 29/2 safeguard that the Tamils acquiesced in the granting of independence in 1948. Britain Has A Duty To Put thing Right

This profound reading of the law, coming from an eminent lawyer is indeed invaluable, not only to be studied by legal analysts, taught to our children and their children and treasured for posterity but more importantly to show that justice is indeed on our side; that we Tamils have to go back and retrace our steps even to pre-Soulbury times; that the Soulbury Constitution itself was thrust on us by a colonial regime who has the moral and legal duty to put things right!

Mr. Wakeley Paul further reiterates that Sec 29/2 prevented parliament from conferring benefits on the majority community and imposing disabilities on the minorities. The Privy Council in Bribery Commissioner vs Ranasinghe had ruled that Article 29(2) cannot be amended even with a two-thirds majority. It was on the basis of this safeguard that the Tamils acquiesced in the granting of independence in 1948. [9]An Expose: Successive Sinhala Government Have Violated Section 29Conspiracy To Use New Constitution To Legislate Against Tamils In Pursuance of a Sinhala Supremacist Agenda To Deny Equal TreatmentHe also drew attention to the fact that successive governments violated section 29/2 of the constitution like, ” the Citizenship laws of 1948 and 49 and the Official Language Act of 1956 among many other Acts which were in express violation of the Constitution of Ceylon.”

This is an expose on the Sri Lankan government’s ulterior motive to conveniently remove the troublesome clause, an obstacle to their genocidal intentions, showing they have been involved in a conspiracy to abolish the provisions of 29/2 to deny the Tamils of their rights and legislate against Tamil Interests in pursuance of a Sinhala Supremacist agenda, which Section 29/2 was there to prevent against.

Failure Of Supreme Court To Rule On The Constitutional Issue

Privy Council Decision Never Carried Out Due To Abolition of Privy Council

Wakeley Paul raises the issue of the Supreme Court of Ceylon’s failure to consider the constitutional issue involved in the 1962 Kodeswaran case where he sued the government on the grounds that the Official Language Act of 1956 violated Section 29 of the constitution and how the case finally never came back to the Supreme Court – although the case went up to the Privy Council which directed the Supreme Court to rule on the constitutional issue – the Supreme Court failed to do so because by that time Mrs. Sirimavo Bandaranaike had abolished all appeals to the Privy Council.

In a two part article: Sinister Stratagems and odd Entanglement part 1[10] and 2, [11] Wakeley Paul dismisses the notion, “of the idea that a Constituent Assembly enables parliament to do what it cannot legally do otherwise. This is a myth and a fallacy which needs to be banished with fables and superstitions of a bygone era.”

Wakeley Paul Express Disappointment For ATAK’s Failure To Challenge The Abolition of Section 29/2 And D S Senanayake’s Ringing Assurance that Gone Forever

Wakeley Paul having some harsh words for the Federal Party condemning the ITAK , “for participating in this illegal Sinhala adventure designed to deny Tamils, Muslims and others of their rights to be treated as equals for good. The battle to establish Sinhala Buddhist Supremacy against all corners was on, sharing his disappointment at seeing D S Senanayake’s “ringing assurance to the Tamils at independence gone forever.”;

“Do you want to be governed by London, or do you want as Ceylonese, to help govern Ceylon….I give the minority communities the sincere assurance that no harm need you fear at our hands in a free Lanka.”

Also Wakeley Paul expresses Disappointment at, Mr C Sunderalingam, a former Minister in the first Senanayake cabinet and now a Member of Parliament for Vavuniya who filed a writ of prohibition in the Supreme Court, requesting the Court to prohibit the Constituent Assembly from passing a new Constitution for later not carrying through his challenge until the very end, “the legal argument was both simple and straight forward.”

I quote:

“The Constituent Assembly Has No Power To Abolish Existing Constitution” Wakeley Paul

“The sole institution that was vested with power to make laws under the Soulbury Constitution was Parliament. The Constituent Assembly was not recognized by that Constitution as a body that had any legislative powers whatsoever. Therefore, not only did they have no power to make simple laws; they had no power to abolish the existing Constitution; and they certainly had no power to draft and substitute a new one in its place”

The “Sinhala Dominated Supreme Court Side Steps The Issue” : Wakeley Paul

“The Sinhalese-dominated court neatly side stepped the issue by asserting that they had no power to stop MPs from gathering together under any name they wished to, adding that the Supreme Court could not act till they did something illegal, which they had not yet done. They brushed the issue away, but not for good.”

“New Constitution Given Religious Sanctity Rather than Legal Validity” : Wakeley Paul

“After the Constituent Assembly had accomplished its goal and came up with a new Constitution, not by repealing the Soulbury Constitution, but by Article 12 Schedule I, effectively abrogating it, Mrs Bandaranaike took it to the Dalada Maligawa to give this new Constitution Religious sanctity in place of legal validation, which it could not and did not ever receive.”

“The Federal Party can never be forgiven for this omission.” Wakeley Paul

“Why neither Mr Sunderalingam nor the Federal Party with its heavy bevy of lawyers did not pursue the legal challenge will remain an unanswered mystery for the future to guess at for all time. The Supreme Court had merely found a temporary expedient for avoiding the Constitutional issue. Now they had no excuse to run away from it, as the Constituent Assembly, whose legal authority was being challenged, had now acted. The failure to challenge this blatant disregard of the law and the existing Constitution, resulted in the Constitution becoming recognized by default. The illegality got an illegal blessing as a result of inexcusable inaction by the representatives of the Tamils. The Federal Party can never be forgiven for this omission.”

End quote.

The above incisive analysis by the late Wakeley Paul juxtaposes the two issues, one of a sinister, shameful and unconscionable act of betrayal by the Sinhalese that proceeded to abolish an entrenched and unalterable clause put there in the constitution to protect the Tamils against the tyranny of the majority Sinhalese that in reality broke the letter and spirit of independence granted by Britain and the other of the Tamil party’s failure to challenge the validity of their actions resulting in an illegality getting an illegal blessing.

The ruling of the Privy Council, the highest Court in Britain in Bribery Commission vs Ranasinghe that [Section 29(2)] represent the solemn balance of rights between the citizens of Ceylon, the fundamental condition on which inter se they accepted the constitution (granting independence) and these are therefore unalterable… should be foremost in our minds as Tamils, and must equally serve as a reminder to the Sinhalese that they have run afoul of moral and legal principles and have a lot also to repent and make amends on this independence day.

[1] http://tamilsforum.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/unspeakable_truth.pdf

[2] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PhGeIxdXorg

[3] http://www.lankalibrary.com/geo/dera1.html

[4] https://www.colombotelegraph.com/index.php/tamil-perspective-dangerous-and-genocidal-dayange-chinthanaya/[4]

[5] http://tamilnation.co/heritage/fiveishwarams.htm

[6] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Ceylon_Mission

[7] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Ceylon_Mission

[8] https://www.colombotelegraph.com/index.php/you-are-sitting-on-an-illegal-constitution-you-have-no-standing-to-lecture-us/

[9] http://www.lankanewspapers.com/news/2008/5/27594_space.html

[10] http://www.sangam.org/articles/view/?id=301

[11] http://www.sangam.org/articles/view/?id=302

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Latest comments

  • 26
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    What is related here may be history with a particular, rather parochial outlook. What we have to do now is to look forward and see how we can move forward from where we are now!
    I am sure the author of this article will agree with me, however reluctantly that the path of separatism is over, once and for all and we have to now look for alternate paths and choose the one that is most practicable rather than continue to live in an illusory past!
    Sengodan. M

    • 12
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      Thanks Usha and Sengodan.

      “we have to now look for alternate paths “
      What (or where) are they? How long?

      • 13
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        ”No Fire Zone is one of the most chilling documentaries I’ve watched…. This documentary raises very serious questions that the Sri Lankan government must answer about what it did to protect innocent civilians.” David Cameron, UK Prime Minister.
        [Edited out]

        • 11
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          @ANPU..please dont come and peddle the LTTE properganda here.. You would have had a shock to see the LTTE brutal work. Just youtube and see.still Only Tamils are Poor Innocent Victime.. These poor innocent victims that Almost Defeated Indian Army, Assinated Indian PM and SL President, Defeated the SL army many many times. WHy no they are COWARD INNOCENTS??????..Maybe Cowards espically the Black tigers. DOnt you think?

        • 11
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          Dear Colombo Telegraph. I think you should Remove this Link by ANPU which is a poilcy violation to promote a cause of this site to raise money. This should be a Informative site and not to be used to Direct people to raise funds to certain causes..If not there will be full of links here to many causese which equally should be given the same supprot. This site must not be used a platform directed to raise funds. Unless a editorial decision has been taken at the Highest palce. Please kindly look into this matter thanks

        • 3
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          Cameron perhaps turned a blind eye to documentaries of England’s bombing of Dresden, Baghdad (twice), transporting of African slave trade and many others. Wren’t innocent civilians killed by the millions by English? Not chilling enough?

      • 15
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        Why do many of these socalled Historians IGNORE the Dutch period of Ceylon. IF USHA ever bother to Read the Documented Travels of Governor Falck touring Ceylon.. USHA would notice the East of the Country was part of the Kandyan Kingdom with sinhala name and places that exist to this day. Inhabitated by Malabars as WELL. When the Falck Traveled north via places such as Sjilauw(chilaw), kalpentijn (kalpitiya), Kalmone (kalmunai) many places and names of sinhala origin changed much later to Tamil names. Mogumale (Mukamalai), Kotagakenie (Karuvaddukkene) and in the Wanni he Met the Representive of that Area DON DIOGO Chief of the WANNIA. and When they arrive at Jaffenapatnam meet the Malabar. How certain Historians espically Tamil espousing the LTTE cause Never Mention these Historic Sinhala name places which still exist today visited by the Portugees and Dutch which have been changed later in the late 19th century to tamil name’s. EVERY PERSON WILL NEVER DISAGREE THERE WAS A TAMIL KINGDOM IN uNDER THE oLD aNCHIENT sINHALA KINGDOM IN JAFFNA. bUT TO SAY THE EAST WAS PART OF THE TAMIL HOMELAND IS LUNATIC.

        • 13
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          Obviously you have not read what Usha has written. Please learn from proper HISTORY books.

          • 2
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            Why should you read reproduction of old stuff, further who has time to read this stuff from a senator from a toy government. This a game they play let them play like school kids. Just ignore her that is the best we can do

        • 7
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          Kandyan Kingdom —

          Please read the whole chapter
          http://www.sangam.org/BOOKS/Book-Arudpragasam/Chapter-4.htm
          (http://www.sangam.org/BOOKS/Book-Arudpragasam/Bibliography.htm )
          The early history of the Kandyan kingdom

          The beginning of the Kandyan12 Kingdom is traced to 1474 when Vikramabahu asserted his independence from the king of Kotte13. During this time there were two competing kingdoms in the island namely Jaffna and Kotte.

          The Kandyan Kingdom, like any other kingdom, rose by specific political conditions that facilitated the rise of smaller principalities into kingdoms. This in the case of Kandyan Kingdom undoubtedly was the arrival of the Portuguese, who sooner brought on considerable pressure to extinguish the freedom and independence of the native rule in the maritime kingdoms of Kotte and Jaffna.

          Under normal circumstances these tsso Kingdoms Would hase competed to take control of the principalities, known as Kanda Uda Pas Ratta (the five counties on the mountain top) that came together as the Kandyan Kingdom. The arrival of the Portuguese changed all this. The oppressive condition the Portuguese created in the littoral areas effectively shifted the centre of native power from the maritime kingdoms to the central high lands and Kandy soon emerged as the bastion of native zeal of all Sri Lankans.

          Kandy had its share of troubles during the initial period when the Kingdorm of Kotte in league faith Portugal and Sitawaka attempted to take control of the Kandyan Kingdom. These attempts had only a limited success.

          Before the emergence of Kandy as a bullvark of native power, the role was effectively filled byJaffna and subsequently by Sitavaka during the time of Rajasingha I (1581 1593). This also saznT the rise of fanatical Saivaism in Sitavaka and banishment of Buddhism and the monks from Sri Lanka.

          Kandy attempted to thwart a Sitavaka take over by aligning with Portuguese power in Kotte leading to a Kandy Portuguese alliance between 15661581. This ended When Rajasingha successfully defeated the Kandyan Kingdom and annexed it in 1581 lvhen the Kandyan king fled to the Portuguese held territory. This also saw the decline of Buddhism in the Kandyan Kingdom. When Konappu Bandara became the king, he managed to forsake the Portuguese and Sitawaka and reestablish the independence of the Kandyan Kingdom.

          Commenting on the missed opportunity in taking over the Kandyan Kingdom by the Portuguese, historian Queroz writes,

          Finally leaving other errors of minor import which can be easily understood from this history, the principal mistake ofthis conquest was its delay; because if we had set about it with the needed forces which were not lacking at that time it would have been achieved even in the times of Kings of Cota or immediately after the death of D.Joao it could have been done with greater ease for good reasons. Because the people of Kandy at that time were not accustomed to the fire lock and musket. Secondly in the time ofthe King of Cota every thing outside the hills was subject to them and the people were more ready to follow the fortunes oftheir native King than a stranger and a rebel, and if the Portuguese forces had been added, the King of Kandy could not have secured himself within a diameter of nine leagues of which alone thatKingdom of the hills consisted and wither we had entered with less forces.
          The Temporal and Spiritual Conquest of Ceylon, Father Femao de (2ueyroz, page 1066.

          During these early times of the Kandyan Kingdorm there 0sTas little opportunity for the Kandyan Kingdom to expand beyond the territory of Kanda Uda Pas Ratta Which •sTas a land locked area above mountains.

          [Insert tradh1.jpg – link tradhm1.jpg]

          With the closing of the Western littoral by the Portuguese) the outlet of the Kandyan kingdom was by the long root through Jaffna from where also came weapons and other imports from South India. The Portuguese were desperate to close this root and this subsequently became a reason for their subsequent expeditions against3affna.

          The death of Rajasingha I brought about the demise of the Kingdom of Sitawaka which was subsequently annexed by the Portuguese with Kotte. With the slow and steady decline of the Kingdom of Jaffna as a result of open war and hostility with the Portuguese, the time was ripe for the emergence of the Kingdom of Kandy as a bastion of independent native power.

          • 3
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            Information on Jaffna Kingdom and eastern province

            ““When the Portuguese and Dutch empires encircled Sri Lanka in the 1500s and 1600s, the easternmost region of the island, centered on the present-day town of Batticaloa, was part of the feudal territories of the Kingdom of Kandy, although local-level politics was firmly in the hands of sub regional chiefs of the dominant Tamil landowning caste, the Mukkuvars. The inhabitants of the region were largely Tamil-speaking, except for some Sinhala and Veddah villages to the west and south” (McGilvray 2007)11 “
            http://www.sinhalisation.com/history/

          • 5
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            ANPU.Thanks for the Lesson of the History of Kandy. So whats your point. Ii have given and show examples of Historic Name and Places Traveled by actual people which still exist today Albit names now changed. Yet the routs are still the same. Yet you have given me a history lesson and USHA. We all know there was a CHOLA hybrid Kingdom. No one will deny that..But Thats why in Jaffna most of the places were sinhala names. The Kingdom was built on top the the Sinhala kingdom before it was conquered. But to say the EAST is Traditional TAMIL HOME LAND is a Joke.. when there are Treaties In Lisbon and Amsterdam with the name of the Sinhala King of Kandy as it’s Ruler and Later MR Boyd the Englismmen.. Did you skip those passeges of Pieris,P.E and spiritual conquest.. Why have you left out the works of Pieris,P.E of Anchient Buddhist remains in Nagadipa.. Ohh i see you have quoted sangam.org.. enough said.. still if you get the Time Read the Journey of Governor Falck and other Dutch Administrator Travellers of the time..

          • 2
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            Mr. anpu,
            Who cares what and when one lived or had a kingdom historically. It is dumb to dwell on ones’ history. History can’t be changed, only thing you can do with History is learn lessons. Think of today and how the future can be changed.

        • 3
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          Mr.Thiwanka: Please read the Tamil Mirror of this month.There you can find the Tamil Kingdom and its existence.Tamils were the first inhabitants of Ceylon.Tamil Kingdom not under Sinhalese but the sinhalese Kingdom.Kandyan Kingdom was ruled by Tamil Kings.Out of 11 people who signed the Kandyan treaty four signatures were Tamil signatures.

      • 5
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        anpu,
        After wasting valuable time and Tamil lives for 30 years, you are looking for alternate paths now?? With all that, you consider USSR and Sengo as your intellectuals and leaders?
        You are asking “How long?” I am sorry to break the bad news. With what Tamil terrorist did for the past 30 years, winning back the trust of Sri Lankans will take a minimum of one generation.

        • 2
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          Eusense,

          Good to see you back on CT. Hope you have have been digesting the collapse of your beloved leader MR ?

          Anyways it s high time you guys to recover now. Gone are the days, you, Leela, Jim softy, and the like could play with the lives of the majority, but nottime has come you to support the new alliance seeking for peace and harmony not forgetting LAW AND ORDER will be given the priority.

      • 1
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        Ampu,

        Good question. Please see my responses to Native Veddah and FAMOUS 449 below.

        Sengodan. M

    • 8
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      Sengodan. M

      “however reluctantly that the path of separatism is over,”

      Could you shed some light on how this was engineered. Do you hold anyone responsible for the end of separatism as propagated by Tamil parties and LTTE which took the cause to oblivion and self destruction?

      What is your considered opinion on the following in respect of interim solution:

      Indo Lanka accord

      Premadasa’s offer of a reasonable settlement (Everything will be given except Eelam)

      Chanrika’s draft constitution (united regions of Sri Lanka) remember she won 62% of the vote on peace platform.

      Ranil’s peace offensive

      Do you blame

      VP, TNA, MR, Norwegian Peace process, Hindia and its faceless little tyrants behind the desk, International Community, Tamil diaspora, Sinhala/Buddhist chauvinism, Vaiko, ……

      for the demise of LTTE and the end of unrealistic demand for a separate state?

      Alternatively what LTTE should have done when push came shove?

      • 5
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        NV,

        It was continuos discrimination and oppression that led the Tamils out of desperation to the separatist path. Tamils cannot be blamed for that.
        VP was good at war but extremely poor in negotiating a practicable solution. His understanding of geopolitics was very poor and he wouldn’t listen to anyone including his trusted lieutenant, Anton Bala. That attitude led to the demise of the LTTE.
        Enough discussions have been held with regard to resolving the national question and solutions very nearly acceptable to the Tamils had been reached in the past, some of which you have listed above.
        Tamils can observe a slight change of heart in the South with the regime change but we still have to go a long way for that change to develop into a political will to resolve the national question once and for all. It will take some time and there is no quick fix.
        Let us have hope and let us keep trying however slow the progress may be.
        Tamil diaspora can do a lot to improve the conditions of the Tamils in the North and East. Even one quarter of one percent of their total earnings will be more than the total budgetary provisions to the NPC and EPC. They should have a will to spare and spare liberally!

        Sengodan. M

        • 3
          2

          (Nations Without States): Mr.Sengodan,You all have shown very clearly that you will continue to carry out the killings of Tamils.Maitripala is only a breathing space.Very soon you all will start again.See the Tamil population.You all have finished off more than half of them since you started the first riot in 1950s.You have colonized quite a big portion of Tamil Kingdom.Then you took away most of the jobs.So how can we live with you.You all will never,ever change these habits.So Diaspora has to work hard to get back our country with the help of Western Powers.

          • 1
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            S. T,

            A very few people are continuing to have a pipe dream that the Western powers will one day ‘liberate’ Tamil Eelam for you. Please wake up from that dream and face the reality. That dream will never ever materialise! Once again this dream reflects a very poor understanding of geopolitics!

            Sengodan. M

        • 0
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          VP was good at war – remember how much of losses he encountered.
          The Tamil people lost everything under him. even the capacity to think. It is time Tamils forget VP and start to look at the world as it is.

    • 5
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      Usha S Sri-Skanda-Rajah,

      RE: Acts Of Betrayal That Broke The Letter & Spirit Of Independence

      Q1. How long did it take the Catholic Church to come to terms the Jewish People that they should not be persecuted by the Church ? 1700 years?

      Q2. How long did it take the British, The French, The Dutch, the Belgian, the Portuguese, the spanish, the Russian, the Turks, etc. that the natives need independence or self governance?

      Q3. How long will it take AFTER Independence for the People of Sri Lanka, especially Sinhala Buddhists and Tamils, to realize that the Citizens need Democracy, Economic relied, security and fair governance> need independence or self governance?

      Acts Of Betrayal That Broke The Letter & Spirit Of Community- Expulsion Especially of Muslims and Sinhala from the North and East, courtesy of LTTE, headed by Mootal Maveeran Velupillai Prabakaran.(மூடல்ஸ் மாவீரன் வெலுபிள்ளை பிரபாகரன்)

    • 3
      1

      @Sengodan: “What are the alternate paths to choose the one that is most practicable” is my billion dollar question put forward to my Tamil brethren to continue to find solutions so that we can live in peace and harmony with the majority Singhala brethren?

      • 2
        1

        Before we go into the matter of alternate paths, we should make ourselves clear about certain matters. In the first instance we should totally renounce the path of separation, simply because it is not workable. Our giant neighbour and rising regional power will never permit it. Unfortunately VP was not enlightened enough to grasp this salient point. In this context we should also avoid speaking too loudly about the right of self determination, though a harmless concept will only unnecessarily frighten the Sinhalese and delay the solution.

        Secondly we have to accept the fact that the solution in any case has to evolve through discussions with the Sinhalese and their leaders and eventually we have to arrive at a solution WITH them. Outside powers may be helpful and we can always explain them our woes but they are NEVER going to deliver a solution!

        O.k. Having accepted the above, what are the alternate paths? Surely, there will be more than one path. Those at the left may suggest a revolutionary path, working in cohort with the workers, peasants and other ordinary people of the South. Those like Douglas may suggest the path of surrender as the only path. To me, it appears that the TNA currently has a mature leadership though occasionally they need some prodding. Over the past few months they seem to follow the correct path. Let us all support them, correct them if they stray and prod them if they are too slow. That seems to me the practical and realistic path to follow.

        Sengodan. M

    • 2
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      We are not asking for separation.We want our country back to lead a happy and peaceful life like the sinhalese people.Thats all.

      • 0
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        Yes, that will happen one day, not overnight. We, Tamils too have comitted mistakes in the past. It will take some time to heal.

        Sengodan. M

    • 3
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      Usha S Sri-Skanda-Rajah

      RE: Acts Of Betrayal That Broke The Letter & Spirit Of Independence

      This land is your land, this land is my land,

      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BGsz0eV-Ckk

      This land is your land, this land is my land,
      From Point Pedro, to the Dondara Head,
      From the Sinharaja Forest, to the Mahaveli Stream Waters,
      This land was made for you and me.

      I roamed and rambled, and I followed my footsteps
      To the sparkling sands of her diamond beachers
      And all around me a voice was singing
      This land was made for you and me!

      This land is your land, this land is my land,
      From California, to the New York Island,
      From the Redwood Forest, to the Gulf Stream Waters,
      This land was made for you and me.

      As I went walking that ribbon of highway
      I saw above me that endless skyway
      I saw below me those golden valleys
      This land was made for you and me!

      This land is your land, this land is my land,
      From Point Pedro, to the Dondara Head,
      From the Sinharaja Forest, to the Mahaveli Waters,
      This land was made for you and me.

      As the sun was shining, and I was strolling,
      And the rice fields waving, and the dust clouds rolling,
      As the fog was lifting, a voice was saying
      “This land was made for you and me!”

      This land is your land, this land is my land,
      From Point Pedro, to the Dondara Head
      From the Sinharaja Forest, to the Mahaveli Waters,
      This land was made for you and me.

    • 2
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      Usha S Sri-Skanda-Rajah –

      This Land is Your Land-Valley View Center 1st Grade

      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bpZB6gfhd1g

      America, Slavery, american Revolution, Civil War, Abolition of Slavary, Civil Rights Act and Black President.

      Sri Lanka, ………, “Independence” Sinhala Buddhist racism and Chauvinism, Civil War, Massacres, and are we into a new Era with the New common “Democratic” leadership?

      Usha S Sri-Skanda-Rajah, look ahead, and learn from the First Graders.

    • 2
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      Usha S Sri-Skanda-Rajah

      RE: Acts Of Betrayal That Broke The Letter & Spirit Of Independence

      “The main thrust of this article is to recollect and hone as independence day is here, just some of the many sinister acts of betrayal inflicted on the Tamil people during, in this context, the post independence era;…”

      Memory Lane… Ceylon Independence (1948) Rare Footage

      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UosArxZtK_c#t=30

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    Ms. Usha,

    You seem to be quoting some who-gives-a-crap books and make it sound such a sad story. What you need to remember is none of it matters. In the grand scheme of things you are just reciting a sorry story over and over and nobody gives a damn. I hate to rain on your parade.. but trust me you are just reciting a story that nobody in SL gives a damn about.

    If you want to be somebody in SL.. just move on and make something of what is the new reality in Sri Lanka and stop crying over spilt milk.

    The British made your life miserable by giving you prominence over a proud Sinhala race and when the British left you had to face the true reality of Sri Lanka. The Tamil diaspora seem to not be able to give up a pipe dream and keep trying to hold on to some unrealistic and untruth of the great Tamil homeland, etc., etc. Just forget about it. Just move on..

    If you can’t live in SL just join your [Edited out] Tamil Diaspora all over the world. If you want to be in SL join the regular SL people and try to make something of yourself.

    Nobody has been given handouts in SL (outside of MR and his close circle). Everyone in SL is trying to make it the best they can. You should get over your so called grievances and move on and join the regular folks trying to make something of yourself. If you believe in yourself you can be anything you want in SL.

    Of course I know you are after all a part of the [Edited out] Tamil Diaspora and all these words I speak are falling on deaf ears..

    • 4
      3

      You are saying like surrender to British rule and I know United Nation is a peace of sh! t I recommend you to comment peoples who struggling like Tamil example comment telling Hongkong to join China etc. Or you’r saying Tamil to the join Freemasons.

  • 14
    4

    Usha, will you please come out here and join us in the struggle to establish a law governed state? We all know that things were done in very terribly wrong ways in the past. We all learn from our mistakes. It is a constant struggle to make things better.

    So bring your intelligence and come and join us as we start from scratch.

    • 5
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      Yup …let’s move on..instead of pressing the self destruction button again

    • 3
      2

      If she is to take up your suggestion Crazy Old Man, her Lankan citizenship has to be restored, if that is not possible what other alternatives do you suggest?
      All this poppycock about dual nationality has to go overboard and let any Lankan return to join in with you in response to your call.
      Many will return provided they are assured of their safety and that no white vans will take them away to unknown destinations for engaging in anti establishment political activity to make the country better and a safe place for all to live in irrespective of race or religions

      • 1
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        Uthungan, I am unaware of anyones citizenship having been removed. Please brief me on how Ushas citizenship was removed. Please bear with my ignorance in this matter and bring me enlightenment. If there is an issue here then it will be necessary to work towards the remove the 6th amendment so that all brave Tamil Nationalists will be able to enter the democratic process and advocate their goals.

        I cannot guarantee that white vans will not come after her just as I could never guarantee that white vans would never come after me and those who share my approaches and yet I and all of them take that chance and continue to work for a law governed state just like many many others.

        We are all vulnerable to being killed BUT we will all die too someday. It is better to die building the kind of world that we would like to live in and like to leave for our children than to die of doddering old age having preserved our safety.

        Everyone has the freedom to choose and if Usha wants to stand on a distant shore and throw stones at those on the battlefield then that is her choice. To me it seems like the choice of a spoiled and petulant child unwilling to engage reality and yet demanding that the gods deliver paradise on a platter rather than joining in the task of building a better world.

  • 5
    2

    Can any one tell me where and when this photo was taken?
    Was it in 1961?
    When we matched from school to Jaffna katcheri to participate in the satyagraha in front of the Jaffna Kacheri we were stopped by the army/police on palaly road ….

  • 2
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    Thanks Ms S.

    You have demolished our Native Vadda’s theory that Sumane shares the same genes with LTT proxy Sambandan clan…

  • 0
    4

    A bit too early to be negative as usual. Bensen

  • 5
    4

    But why doesnt anyone mention about the many Sinhalese, Muslims, Burghers and Tamils who were killed – not by Tamils – but by TERRORISTS. Sri Lankan presidents, ministers, etc were killed – not by Tamils – but by TERRORISTS.

  • 2
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    “It was on the basis of Section 29/2 safeguard that the Tamils acquiesced in the granting of independence in 1948. Britain Has A Duty To Put thing Right”

    The legal basis for David Cameron’s insistance on Independant International inquiry,Nisha Biswas’s visits as a coalition member of NATO etc.

    T

  • 6
    5

    The tamil caste and christians were favoured by the british. The sinhala buddhist communities were destroyed in the period of foriegn rule.Lnd of the temple and sinhal pople were taken over.Land that the british and facvioured got was as waste land. We united to gain Independence.The first member elcted in the council was Ponnambalam Ramanathan. The tamil community was rich and educated because of this,

    Do not be communal minded. It is a crime. Make best use of this opportunity. The World treated us badly in the early years. Colonial ofice was at its worse. In 1915 the sinhala buddhist were penalised. It was the sinhala christians and tamil community they came to there aid. Do not forget Independence. We suffered under British rule. While the favoured few enjoyed life . the people suffered. The privileged class may still look back.But you must think of all the people.
    There is a door open for the tamil people. The diaspora can bring finance and technology and manpower. We must not have jealousies or suspicion.

    We must unite on this Independence day as in 1948. This may be our last chance. chance.

  • 2
    2

    USS mentions,

    “It was on the basis of Section 29/2 safeguard that the Tamils acquiesced in the granting of independence in 1948. Britain Has A Duty To Put thing Right”

    The legal basis for UK Prime Minister David Cameron’s insistence on Independent International inquiry,UK Parliamentary debate on Tamils of Srilanka, Kamalesh Sharma’s visit as commonwealth secretary,US undersecretary Nisha Biswas’s visits as a coalition member of NATO, all falls into place if one understands this.

    The legal basis for India’s Involvement/insistence on 13th amendment are based on Indo Srilanka Accord.

    Even Ranil Wickramasinghe mentioned some of these facts before presidential elections when he talked about a new constitution.

    Crying foul by the Sinhala supremacist like MR/GR/GR/JHU/WW/DJ etc are for local sinhala mass consumption, which has no legal basis in international treaties.

    The Tamil question was internationalized long before independence of Ceylon, Sinhala/Majority politicians should come to terms with this and find SOLUTION/answers within international laws.

  • 3
    3

    Form reading the responses to the article. Many have responded with the idea that the tamils were a favoured and privileged minority. I personally think this is not true.

    The reason why the tamils were overly represented in the civil service was simple. It was because they were more open to the missionaries and learning the english language. People will ask why was this?? why were the sinhalese not as open to the missionaires.

    Again the reason is simple. In the case of the sinhalese bhuddists the bhuddist monks or the bhikkhus led an organised oppositon against the english langauge and the missionaires. This probably had a detrimental effect on the sinhalese in the long run.

    Also If the tamils and christians were truly a priviledged minority why did many prominent tamils and christians come to the aid of sinhalese bhuddists when they were being penalised. `if tamils and christians were a truly priviledged minority they would have behaved like how some of the whites/ boers did in south africa.

    Also if you want to talk about racism it was many of the sinhalese leaders who started the idea that the sinhalese are an aryan race. eventhough in reality most sinhalese do not have aryan blood in them and are not that different from tamils.

    Infact the biggest racist was probaly vijaya. Why do I say this. Well basically the ruling classes of bengal/orissa where vijaya came from are categorised as Aryans/indo europeans. Most begalis oriyans are mongoloid dravidians. However the aryans conquered these peoples and implemented a caste system to control them. When vijaya and his friends landed in sri lanka they being aryans wanted to control and implement a caste system like they had done to the natives in India. I dont know why people in sri lanka consider him a hero.

    So first of all before you start to question british racism in the subcontinent first question aryan racism in the subcontinent which is much older.

  • 1
    2

    Form reading the responses to the article. Many have responded with the idea that the tamils were a favoured and privileged minority. I personally think this is not true.

    The reason why the tamils were overly represented in the civil service was simple. It was because they were more open to the missionaries and learning the english language. People will ask why was this?? why were the sinhalese not as open to the missionaires.

    Again the reason is simple. In the case of the sinhalese bhuddists the bhuddist monks or the bhikkhus led an organised oppositon against the english langauge and the missionaires. This probably had a detrimental effect on the sinhalese in the long run.

    If the tamils and christians were truly a priviledged minority why did many prominent tamils and christians come to the aid of sinhalese bhuddists when they were being penalised. `if tamils and christians were a truly priviledged minority they would have behaved like how some of the whites/ boers did in south africa.

    Also if you want to talk about racism it was many of the sinhalese leaders who started the idea that the sinhalese are an aryan race. eventhough in reality most sinhalese do not have aryan blood in them and are not that different from tamils.

    Infact the biggest racist was probaly vijaya. Why do I say this. Well basically the ruling classes of bengal/orissa where vijaya came from are categorised as Aryans/indo europeans. Most begalis oriyans are mongoloid dravidians. However the aryans conquered these peoples and implemented a caste system to control them. When vijaya and his friends landed in sri lanka they being aryans wanted to control and implement a caste system like they had done to the natives in India. I dont know why people in sri lanka consider him a hero.

    So first of all before you start to question british racism in the subcontinent first question aryan racism in the subcontinent which is much older.

  • 1
    1

    Form reading the responses to the article. Many have responded with the idea that the tamils were a favoured and privileged minority. I personally think this is not true.

    The reason as to why the tamils were overly represented in the civil service was simple. It was because they were more open to the missionaries and learning the english language. People will ask why was this?? why were the sinhalese not as open to the missionaires.

    Again the reason is simple. In the case of the sinhalese bhuddists the bhuddist monks or the bhikkhus led an organised oppositon against the english langauge and the missionaires. This probably had a detrimental effect on the sinhalese in the long run.

    Also If the tamils and christians were truly a priviledged minority why did many prominent tamils and christians come to the aid of sinhalese bhuddists when they were being penalised. `if tamils and christians were a truly priviledged minority they would have behaved like how some of the whites/ boers did in south africa.

    Also if you want to talk about racism it was many of the sinhalese leaders who started the idea that the sinhalese are an aryan race. eventhough in reality most sinhalese do not have aryan blood in them and are not that different from tamils.

    Infact the biggest racist was probaly vijaya. Why do I say this. Well basically the ruling classes of bengal/orissa where vijaya came from are categorised as Aryans/indo europeans. Most begalis oriyans are mongoloid dravidians. However the aryans conquered these peoples and implemented a caste system to control them. When vijaya and his friends landed in sri lanka they being aryans wanted to control and implement a caste system like they had done to the natives in India. I dont know why people in sri lanka consider him a hero.

    So first of all before you start to question british racism in the subcontinent first question aryan racism in the subcontinent which is much older.

  • 4
    5

    Tamil greed is the root cause of Tamil unhappiness. There is no other race that is self-centred as Tamils. If only Tamils open their eyes and see others and give consideration to needs of others there will be much happiness for everybody. Sinhalese will not give in to demands of the greedy and are ready to protect the integrity of the motherland. Child killing cowardly, barbaric terrorists have no place in Sri Lanka.
    Great photo above but where were the brave Tamils (terrorists) in May 2009? Where was this writer Usa in May 2009?

    • 4
      1

      Well said sir, selfishness and greed of Tamil politicians have destroyed the trust that Sinhala people had for Tamils in Jaffna and EP. It’s time they analyse themselves and come down from their high horse and be willing to be equal partners of sri lankan society. You are not a superior race! Remember what Hitler did to Germans!!

    • 2
      5

      what the hell are u bubbling here ? What right you have got to generalize that tamil in general are in greed. I think ours are the over greedy at anything and everything not being able to rightly convince the majority of the folks about the federalism. Even though the election victory claimed by MY3 led alliance was not at all exclusively by minitory votes, they the racial have been making every effort to paint the picture in favour of them. Even political heavy weights such as DeW Gunasekara et al keep saying among those 5.7mio that voted for MR are coming from very poor background and they had been kept away from ground realities of MR politics. Latter resulted them to vote for MR. Had they been adequatley informed about facts and figures of the MR administration, they election outcome would have been over 60% for MY3.

      • 3
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        I am not a politician, but I can see how warped your thinking is! Are you a spokesman for Tamil diaspora for not to understand what I have said?

  • 5
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    What is the point in dwelling in the past. Leadership is looking into the future from where we are today and moving forward. Yes its not only Tamils but all Minorities (religious, races, cast etc) need equal rights. There is no doubt about it. But if we are going to look at the past, that too look at events selectively, then there will be no solution ever for the minority issues. Who can predict even if the North and East get a separate state there will be peace in those areas, I do not think so and most minorities do not think so.

    Today in SL, things are different. Nowhere in the world there is a political system such as what is there today in SL. First time, after a very long time minorities have supported wholeheartedly a majority leader. Lets give a chance to him to provide a just solution to all minority issues.

    TNA today is headed by strong individuals Sampanthan, Justice Wigneswaran and Sumanthiran are politically savvy and strong individuals and they know what they want and how to get it. Similarly the Government of SL is headed by Maithripala, Ranil, Chandrika, Rev. Rathana Thero (who now wants a solution to minority issues) and Anurakumara, who are also smart politicians.Let us give them a chance. None of them are like the earlier politicians who were not genuine.

    Further, Usha is a person who stands in front of a LTTE Tiger Flag and wants to preach. We do not want her surmon. Let the leaders on the ground handle the issues.

    An unexpected political revolution has taken place in SL. Let us salute the minorities who were instrumental for this revolution. Lets look forward not backward. We do not want any divisional ideologists to tell us what should be done.

  • 4
    6

    can anyone explain why sinhalease follow 110% of Kerala food ,dress,cultural practice? before 4th century todays Kerala was Tamil Sera kingdom …even today there is a coastal town called Panadura in Kerala ..so it is an open secret that Sinhalease came from Kerala not from imaginative Orissa ..

    Can anyone tell why there was no New Year Celebration for Sinhalease before 75 years ‘? indeed there was no such celebration ..but having noticed this monks made this Tamil New Year as Sinhala new year ..ask anyone who are 80 years old in Sri Lanka .

    Kandy Pearahara was started as a Hindu festival later because of the advice of the Monks from Siam changed into Buddhist festival .

    European landed here only during 18th Century but before this trincomale and Thirukovil in the east were well known towns with regular shipping services under Tamil administration.

    In the east tere is a place called Kathiraveli which has got evidences that Tamila lived here even 2000 years ago .

    Mahavamsa is a fabricated political story without any historical or scientific evidences if you all believe this it is not others fault

    • 3
      2

      ” European landed here only during 18th Century “

      Thank you clearing that up. These Portuguese and the Dutch have been lying to us all this time.

      • 1
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        We Thamizh history – one of the very few things with more holes than an LTTE monkey who didn’t understand what “FRONT TOWARD ENEMY” meant :D

    • 0
      0

      Cholan,

      This I found on the web, I am posting it only for the knowledge.

      The Kerela (Malayalam) – Sri Lanka Connection

      Migration to Sri Lanka from India began from time immemorial and almost all the Sri Lankan except the aboriginal (Veddas), Malays, Burgers, and a few others, are immigrants from India. Even though Buddhism, the Pali language and the Buddhist culture were brought from North-East India, a very large number of Sri Lankan (Sinhalese, Tamils and Muslims/Moors) are actually South Indians who either migrated from time to time or were brought down for many different purpose by the kings and later by the colonial rulers from the Coromandel (Tamil Nadu) and Malabar (Kerala) regions of South India. Even the genetic study on Sri Lankan population proves beyond doubt that the Sinhalese, Tamils and Muslims are from South India (descendents of Indian Tamils and Malayalees).

      In fact, until the 7th century A.D. there was no difference between Tamil and Sera (Malayalam). Only after that Malayalam emerged as a different language and the scripts too changed due to the influence of Prakrit/Sanskrit from the North. The name Malayalar itself is a Tamil word for the people from the hills. Malai in Tamil means Hills. Malayalam is derived from that. The areas covered by one of the Three Tamil dynasties, the ‘Sera Kingdom’ became Kerala later.

      The early colonists (Europeans) did not see the difference between Malayalam and Tamil and due to their early familiarity with the Malabar Coast, termed even Tamils as Malabars and the Tamil language as Malabarish Language.

      Malayalam has retained more of the classic Tamil words than the present Tamil spoken in Tamil Nadu.

      Not only the Flora and Fauna but the cultural connection between Sri Lanka and (god’s own country) Kerala was once vibrant. There used to be extensive commerce through the ports of Cochin and Calicut/Kozhikode, which also enabled regular flows of migrants to the island.

      Over the course of the centuries, the people from Sera/Kerala who migrated to Sri Lanka have become part of the Sinhala community, adopting local names and Buddhist practices. Given the multiple shared features of the two communities, many have felt it easier to merge with the dominant local groups, rather than to try to maintain separations. In areas such as Lunuwila, Wennappuwa and Marawila, there are many descendants of Kerala migrants who today feel culturally and socially closer to the Sinhala people than they do to the Sri Lankan Tamils.

      It is also believed that the Sinhalese from the castes Karawa (fisherman), Durawa (toddy tapper) and Salagama (cinnamon peeler) were decedents from Kerela who got naturalized (Sinhalized) during the course of time.

      Roughly around 25% of the Sinhala words are of Tamil origin but more than 50% of the Sinhala words are identical in both pronunciation and meaning to Malayalam.
      Even the Malayalam alphabets (script) resemble the Sinhala alphabet a lot more than Tamil.

      If you take a Sinhala Dictionary and readout the words to an educated Malayali (from Kerela), he will give you the exact meaning of at least 50% of them, but if you speak to him in Sinhala colloquial, he may not understand a word.

      Anyone who says Malayalam is not a part of SL language needs to talk to a Kattadiya in the south, specifically Matara and ask the guy for his roots (Malayaala Manthiram).

      More than the language, you will find something strange when you visit Kerela. When you go to the rural villages, they look exactly like Sri Lanka, with plenty of paddy fields and coconut trees, the people, their appearance, features and complexion are identical to Sinhalese, their food is exactly similar to the Sinhalese food, Kavum, kiribath, pol sambol, aapa, idiappa, pittu, pol rotti and most others were very similar, and the best part is the dress worn by the remote village women in Kerala, it is retha/hetta what the Sinhalese women wear. For a moment, you may wonder that you are in a Sinhala village. You may even wonder if their ancestors were Sinhalese. Unfortunately, most of them are not familiar with their history.

      It is surprising to hear that the Osariya (sari that the Sinhalese women wear) also came from Kerela, the style of wearing saree by the early Kerala women was exactly what the Sinhalese women wear now (Osariya).

      The Osari and Rathe hatta are still worn in some parts of Kerela, and most of the food the Sinhalese cook/eat including the sweet meats such as the Kavum is Kerala’s cultural cuisines.

      Religious practices such as the Pattini deity worship (as well as the worship of Natha, Vishnu, Kataragama, Saman and Vibhishana) were also introduced to Sri Lanka from Kerala. Sinhala classical poems such as the ‘Perakumba Sinha’ and ‘Kokila Sandesaya’ also bear the Kerala stamp.

      There is a fishing community in the Negambo area which speaks Malayalam at night and Sinhalese in broad daylight. “Names we now consider Sinhala, like Kodippili, Samarappili, Samarakkodi, Kuruppu, Samaradivakara, Samarasinghe, Tennakoon, and many more are Malayalam.The Alakeshwara family, for instance, belonged to a Kerala dynasty that grew very close to the royalty of the 14th century Gampola kingdom.

      Many families modified their Kerela names into Sinhala, for example the Marappan family became Marapana. There were also many Muslim families, for example the Markar family (Bakeer Markar, Markan Marker and so on) are all from Kerela. Markar is a common name in Kochin / Ernakulam area in Kerala. Even the name ‘Maraikkar’ is actually a Malyalee name.

      It was the Cochin Markar who traded in cinnamon with Sri Lanka and sold them to the Portuguese in Cochin and Calicut (Kozhikode). They are the ones who took the ‘Parangiya to Kotte’ when the Portuguese wanted to meet the King of Kotte and you know how the Parangiya went to Kotte.

      Wattilappam is a Kerala dish introduced to Sri Lanka by the Malayaalee Muslims. Since then it has got modified in Sri Lanka and certain amount of its tastes has changed. Even the banana known today as Koolikutu was originally from Kozhikode, Kerela.

      The Sri Lankan Muslims used to practice martial arts called ‘Cheena Adi.’ They still continue it in places like Trincomalee, another evidence of Malayalee influence among Sri Lankan Muslims.

      The Sinhalese women loved to have Malayalis as their husbands, during the early 20th centaury. Some well known Sinhalese women eloped with the Malayali men, one such example was the wife of the famous Trade unionist A.E. Gunasinghe.

      When the Sinhala actress Anoja Weerasinghe was invited to act in a Malayalam movie, what she said was, ‘I cannot see any difference between them and us.’

      Ayurveda medicine (the Sinhalese call it Sinhala medicine) was brought to Sri Lanka from Kerela. Even today the Ayurvedic doctors (Wickramarachi, etc) in Sri Lanka used to go to Kerela for further higher studies.

      Kalarippayatt is the ancient martial art of Kerela and is said to be the mother of all martial arts and dates back some thousands of years.

      It is believed that many traveling monks, merchants, and especially Ksatriyas (warrior class), including the Buddhist monk, Bodhidarma studied this art and imparted these skills throughout South East Asia, and China at the Soong Shan monastery.

      The ancient Sinhalese even practiced martial arts similar to Kalari Payat. An earlier martial art form of Angampora had been introduced by Tamil mercenaries from Kerala.

      In fact, Angampora was heavily influenced by Tamil Martial art that is now famous in Tamil Nadu and Kerala (Kerala = then it had been called Tamil Sera Kingdom). Kalarippayattu had evolved itself in to a different form of martial art in the Island.

      The Tamil mercenaries had been assimilated into Sinhala ethnic group and also the martial art too. The word Angampora could be divided into two separated words as Angam + Por.

      Here, the words’ meaning in Tamil

      Angam = Body parts / Body
      Por = War / Combat

      That means Body combat or combat using body parts.

      The members and /or masters of this martial art school have been called ‘Panik Rala’ in Sinhala.

      The word ‘Pani’ means ‘work’ in Tamil. In Malayalam they have been called ‘Panikkers’ (Pani + Kers).

      It is the Kerala martial arts that spread to china etc. Kalari Payat (Kalari Payattu) originated in Kerala in the ancient period and it is the mother of all martial arts. A Buddhist monk learnt it there and taught it to people in China. Thereafter it spread to other countries such as Korea and Japan and took various forms and names such as Karate and Kung Fu. In the Malaysian ‘Silat’ and Indonesian ‘Pencak Silat’ you find a lot of similar techniques.

      Malayalis have a knack for martial arts which is used to knock down the opponent by inflicting 2 or 3 jabs in the nerve points. This is called VARMAM, Varma adi.
      They were also responsible for imparting such knowledge, from its martial techniques in injury, medicine, and pressure point (marman) striking skills.

      It will take a student more than 15 years to start learning the Varma Adi. If the Guru does not trust you, you may never get it. However, even without the varmam it can be quite dangerous and has all sorts of fighting systems such as bare hand, silambam, sword fighting, throwing and wrestling.

      The Sinhalese also practiced these martial arts during the ancient period. The martial art shown in the Sinhala Tele-drama Dandubasnamanaya is actually Varma adi.

      The renowned Sri Lankan social anthropologist, Prof. Gananath Obeysekere has done research on the Sri Lanka-Kerala link. However historians and scholars should start doing more research to find more about the Sri Lanka- Kerela connection.

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    All those past and very resent events, it was the leaderships and the media used by them to blame and yes we just cant move on without a proper inquiry and analysis to find the root cause of the problem and this may be the best time to do it. But yet everybody is taking small steps because the racist elements are still awake and they will interpret the message wrong as they always do.

    Most hardest part is to solve this rotten issue based on our cultural differences is while still promoting elements like culture / ethnicity / religion etc. People are retard on these social childhood brainwashed practices whatever their education / knowledge and that’s nature as Dr Dawkins say the selfish Gene.

    To cut short the current media has a vital part to do. Today’s media is infected by so many virus’s and moderation is vital. We have to remove the remaining thugs in Parliament by next election and bring more sound minded people friendly politicians for a fair govern. I hope the media will expose the criminals and open a wide door for that. And we should watch where the media is going and expose them too.

  • 4
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    What are different races.The myth that the sinhala people are descendant from Vijaya is not true. At different periods A mixture of People came from south india. Even in Kerala you get different groups of People.Moghuls coming to bengal and pakistan migrated to ceylon. People in difficulty and those seeking refuge migrated. Malay chinese arrived in Jaffna And there features are prevalent there. and Jaffna welcomed missionaries and other and there is burger blood among northern Tamils. People of different caste were of different races in some instances. There was the mixing of people in India because of Invasion changed the demography of India and therefore Sri Lanka. Most races cross married in sri lanka. Many people who are proud of their ancestry have something to hide. The coast has people who came at later times. In the hill country their has being cross breeding with typical hospitality.There was epidemics and disease that caused population to decrease.

    Let us all be Sri Lanka and seek to eradicate discrimination where ever it is.

    TESTS on the genome could be done and will give a supprising result. We can go into Race, Ethnicity,gender, Culturakl group and relise identity through common cultural group. Now a days the peope in the city, the village, therich the poor form groups. The main result is we should not be biased and get together to banish inequalities from our land.

  • 1
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    ” During the last one million years, when humans are known to have existed in various parts of India ”

    When the humanoids are estimated to have left the African continent around 150000 years ago, the above statement is clearly absolute rubbish.

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    The Sinhala-Tamil debate must be the most time-consuming debate in the country!It goes on and on notwithstanding the fact that both parties originated from the same point-South India.

    In a letter to the New-York Times in 1983,Prof;Gananath Obeysekera the renowned Anthropologist of Princeton University had this to say…..

    Indeed,it would not be a distortion to say that if it were possible to trace the present day Sinhalese populations ancestry far enough,all lines would in major part lead back to SOUTH INDIA.

  • 2
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    All this history of what happened to Tamils in Sri Lanka, will serve nothing as what happened cannot be altered. There will be endless debate about it.

    “The moving finger writes,and having writ,
    Moves on: nor all thy Piety nor Wit,
    Shall lure it back to cancel half a line,
    Nor all thy Tears wash out a Word of it”
    Omar Khayyam

    The Sinhalese youth too, were massacred during two insurrections
    by their own kind in uniform.
    Tamils helped overcome tyranny and have elected a new president who promises democracy.
    Let them look to the future – which too may not be as they desire,
    within this generation – justice for any nation takes a long time.

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    USSR,
    It is unfortunate that you are highlighting and keep reminding historical failures of Tamils. You need to add the 30 year failed terror insurgency which you were a part of too. Here is my advice: forget the past think of the future and move forward with true negotiations.

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      Plesae go and stand in front of mirror and ask who have paved the creation of Tamil arm struggle …Tigers never jumped from the sky suddenly .

      History has got many answers for todays problem in Sri Lanka therefore distorted history should be corrected.

      Got it ?

      • 1
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        cholan,
        How and why LTTE was born is here:-

        http://www.nesohr.org/files/Lest_We_Forget.pdf

      • 5
        1

        Cholan,
        Keep correcting history until you are 6 feet under. If you think arm struggle was the solution you haven’t learnt a dam thing yet!

  • 3
    4

    sorry for the error Potugease arrived in Sri Lanka during 1505

    The last king Sri Wicrama Ranasinghe has signed in Tamil when he made an agreement with British why?

    During the end of 18 century British officers who did a census in Anuradapura have clearly mentioned people live here speak Tamil language ..who are these people ? What happened to them ?

    After independance a buddhist monk who has entered then jungle covered Polanaruwa met people who spoke Tamil language who are these people ? What happened to them ?

    Shell map printed in 50 s show the Batiicaloa district boundary was Arugambay …there was no Gal Oya or Ampara then.

    Can anyone tell why big Buddhist statues in Sri Lanka has got nose resemble greek feature?
    Because it was the Greek who ruled the world then made not only this but also big dams in Sri Lanka but Mahavamsa cleverly hid this .

    People read Mahavamsa after 200 years will think Kotmale,Mahaweli diversion all done during the reign of Emperor Jayawardana with advanced sinhala engineering ..certainly Mahavamsa would have omitted European companies Skanska ,Belfour beatty Nutell who have constructed this and world bank funding.

    The same Mahavamsa will say it is the brave Emperor Rajapksa and brave Sinhal Army the best and powerful in Asia during 21st century defeated Tigers, completely omit about the help of 34 countries who have supplied weapons,planes,,ships,military personal ,satellite ,chemical weapons .

    People who still believe that Sinhabahu born as a result of relationship of a Princess and a Lion will definitely believe these stories.

    • 5
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      cholan

      “During the end of 18 century British officers who did a census in Anuradapura have clearly mentioned people live here speak Tamil language ..who are these people ? What happened to them ? “

      They were the descendants of Vellaikkara Padei, South Indian mercenaries.

      They were assimilated into Sinhalese.

      Next time a Sinhala/Buddhist thug attacks you ask him whether he was a descendant of mercenary, probably of Chola or Kalinga Maha’s army.

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        Really…????? You are intelligent ….so only Tamil mercenaries lived in Anuradapura ? British officers never met a single Sinhalease ?

        So who are these Veddas..how come they practice Hindu rituals even have names like Kandasamy?

        Assimilated ? Indian Tamil live among Sinhalease over 200 years couldn’t assimilated and become Sinhalease ????

        Mahavamsa is really con book with tons of imaginary stories ….and you all believe eh?

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          In those days Sinhalese were illiterate in Reading, Writing, Spoken and in Wisdom. So they never thought they were anything but Elu, else Heluva (beautifully+naked, Ar.Sinh.), the Elu were shepherded by anybody who Invaded this Eluva land. Thus from the time known the Elu abhorigines of Lanka were time and time again raped by the colonialists of their own identity.

          Did I say anything about them that they are out from the Beauty & the Beast?

          • 0
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            before 10th century there was no alphabet for Sinhala language ..after independence there was just only 3 encyclopedias in Sinhala Language

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    There is but one race-HUMAN!The Human Genome Project has shown that we all share 99.7% of the genes.All these divisions created by man is due to Greed.So get rid of ME/MINE/OURs and we live in peace!

  • 1
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    Usha,

    Sri Lanka has a bloody history not only since independence but from time immemorial. Pacifist religions such as Buddhism has done little to stem the bloodlust in our hearts. Bloodlust is so pervasive even the monks are running amok with their saffron robes tucked high.

    I hope upon hope that we can find a path to lasting peaceful co-existence or a truly egalitarian society. The idea of separate enclaves for separate minorities borne out of bloodshed and endless strife is certainly not the answer for the long haul. Separate states can lead only to even more vicious conflicts.

    At the moment the light at the end of the tunnel continues to be a mirage only. The Sri Lankans are an unfortunate lot who have been endowed with short sighted politicians who are full of greed, vicousness, racist and uncompromising attitudes.

    Even My3 who was voted in with so much hope is slowly but surely teading on the same path taken by his horrible predessesor.

    The future is bleak indeed.

  • 3
    1

    In the Gampaha district ethnic Tamils have historically inhabited the coastal belt where as in the neighboring Puttalam district, until the first two decades of the twentieth century it had a substantial ethnic Tamil population of whom majority were Catholics and a minority were Hindus.

    According to L.J.B.Turner, although the distinction between Sinhalese and Tamils of the present day Sri Lanka is so marked but in the past there was considerable fusion between these ethnic groups. According to him the results of this fusion are most obvious on the western coast between Negombo and Puttalam, where a large proportion of the villagers, though they call themselves Sinhalese, speak Tamil, and are, undoubtedly, of Tamil descent. They were mostly fishermen (paravar) and converted Catholics brought by the Portuguese in the 16th century for security purposes. According to local legends their ancestors being captives from India or imported weavers and other artisans.

    Bishop Edmund Peiris who was well versed in both Thamil and Sinhalese like his father was instrumental in changing the medium of education from Tamil to Sinhalese resulting in the assimilation of Thamils. Today they call themselves Sinhalese although they speak the Thamil language with a heavy accent. This was the latest assimilation from Thamils to Sinhalese. Earlier arrivals from Kerala and Thamil Nadu got assimilated in course of time. Hence the names like Senanayake, Bandaranayake, Tissanayaka, Dahanayake etc. Surely there are no nayakas in Bengal, Orrissa or Gujarat places supposedly from where Sinhalese originated.

  • 2
    2

    I wish to add one more to Thiwanka’s list of names with Sinhalese origins. Vancouver must have been Vancouvaya! And therefore the Canadians in British Columbia must have had Sinhala ancestors!

    • 4
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      Ancestry

      The Hela people come from Helsinki.

      Battaramulla was known as Paththar Moolai (Gold Smith Corner)

  • 3
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    A good history lesson and as expected the anti-Tamil responses, unable to criticise the article at an intellectual level are resorting to the usual racist and revisionist rubbish.

  • 3
    5

    (Nations Without States):First I say “Thank you to Comomno Telegraph”.The article by Hon. Usha Sriskandarajah is a beautiful article written after well researched,well defined and well thoughtout on the subject under consideration.There is no doubt that our leaders were played out by D.S.Senanayake.I am only thinking what happened to the intelligence and legal knowledge of leaders like C.Suntharalingam,G.G.Ponnambalam ,C.Vanniasingam and others.Why din’t they take action when the sinhalese leaders took away Section 29(2) from the constitution as ILLEGAL.The fact remains that our Kingdom of Jaffna was passed on to the Sinhalese without the consensus of the Tamil people and the British Empire was responsible.So,Gt.Britain has an obligation to put it right..

  • 14
    3

    This woman has gone nuts!

    People in Jaffna are celebrating Independence Day right at this moment. This kind of drivel only appeals to “nobodys” in the bleak diaspora.

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