27 May, 2022


Citizens Cannot Be Bystanders When Their Rulers Are Violating The Social Contract!

By Mohamed Harees –

Lukman Harees

‘Man is born free, and he is everywhere in chains’~ Jean-Jacques Rousseau

The social contract, as theorized by Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau, is an agreement between citizens to form an organized society which relies on the right to secure mutual protection and security. This agreement legitimizes the authority of national governments over certain aspects of citizen’s lives. A key condition of a functioning social contract is that citizens partially surrender their individual rights and adhere to said contract to maintain social order. This social order allows individuals to obtain prosperity, one that is possible with others rather than alone. Furthermore, security refers both to physical security as well as identity security. When a government can successfully provide both prosperity and security to a citizen, the social contract is fulfilled. However, if these two factors are not met, then it opens the door to potentially troubling consequences. A government which fails to meet its side of the bargain loses its moral authority to govern although they were elected on a ‘democratic’ mandate. 

In Sri Lanka. declining faith in government over the years since Independence has been negatively affecting the legitimacy of its rulers, and weakening its ability to carry out its functions such as maintaining order, defending national sovereignty, and managing economic conditions, and can eventually lead to the deterioration of social cohesion, justice, and solidarity. The present regime elected on a majoritarian populist platform, openly making the minorities to feel as aliens, stands guilty for making people to question : Is Sri Lanka almost a pariah State? What will be therefore needed immediatelyis, for a new social contract to emerge, one in which a majority of our citizens across all communities, feel they are getting a fair share of the opportunities and prosperity generated in our societies. Citizens can no longer be bystanders, as the rulers continue abusing their mandate given at the elections, despite much hype created in the run-up, giving credence to the meme; ‘Unuth Ekay – Munuth Ekay’.

Devani Jayathilaka

Close to a year and a half after the election of an ultra-nationalist government, just look at the dismal state of the balance sheet of Sri Lanka’s local and global credibility and image! Globally, Sri Lanka is being crucified as a racist, violent and an unprincipled nation. Locally, the nation is facing many grave crises- rule of law, impunity, chronic corruption at all levels of governance, widening inequality, haphazard sale of national assets, mounting debt, as well as  fragile social relations, uncontrolled deforestation, in addition to gross mismanagement of the economy. Today, a desperate set of rulers, hell-bent on their political survival, appears to be going for the fulfilment of the appetite of a slavish electorate by providing them with a workable diversion tactic-  a palatable anti-Muslim hate diet. Yes! Looking at the oft-quoted ‘69 Lakhs’ (who fell for the ploy of electing a true Sinhala Buddhist leader/ government to cure all ills besetting the nation), it reminds us of a Turkish Proverb ‘The trees kept voting for the Axe as the Axe convinced the Trees that, ‘he’ was one of them because his handle was made of wood.” Today, Rakwana’s Bhagya Abeyrathne and Gampaha’s Devani Jayathilaka are leading the way – to make activists emerge  to expose the uncontrolled deforestation in all natural sanctuaries; not just in Wilpattu as some racists tried to project those days.

Bhagya Abeyrathne

The so-called saviour Gotabaya’s rule itself started off was on a wrong footing, dividing the people he was elected to serve. Due to the serious intelligence oversights which enabled the Easter Attacks in April 2019, Gotabaya Rajapaksa was able to seize on ethnic divisions and highlight his own credentials as the efficient Defence Secretary and was elected on a racist / majoritarian mandate. It was no coincidence that his inauguration ceremony occurred near Ruwan weli-seya, reportedly built by King Dutugemenu—who was best known for defeating ‘Tamil’ Elara. Though the president later wrote on Twitter that he was “now the President of all Sri Lankans, whether they voted for [him] or not and irrespective of their ethnicity or religious beliefs”,  the swearing-in ceremony indicated that the president wanted to interpret his win as a mandate for reinforcing Sinhalese Buddhist hegemony. He reinforced this view at the 2021 Independence speech as well. This interpretation advanced the view that Sri Lankan minorities are invaders or guests permitted citizenry only by the grace of Sri Lanka’s rightful Sinhalese Buddhist guardians. As the old adage goes, the minorities feel  ‘democracy is (thus)  two wolves and a sheep deciding what’s for dinner’. However, as the Divine justice have it, as the events later proved, his accursed divisive approach alienated not only the Tamils and Muslims, but also in the process, even his slavish electorate – the Sinhala-Buddhist voters as well, as stated before. Even his SLPP is polarized and breaking up. Who’s having the last laugh?

Almost fifty years ago, we lived in a world of greater political apathy and yet greater trust in politics. Now comparatively, there is passion and distrust, as the events of the two decades demonstrated all too clearly. In today’s context, the primary game of politics in a democracy is one of vote winning. As a result, many politicians make this Faustian bargain; they sell their soul in order to prolong their political careers. In an era where the winner takes all, the cardinal rule in politics has become either lie or lose.

Probably the main reason for politicians to engage in deception and false promises may be how our party system works. Supporters are totally blind and act slavish to the drum beats of their political leaders and very likely not know what their vision is or what’s their ideology is. Both blues and greens which ruled this nation since Independence actually did not have a political ideology, or a long term vision for the country although they dabble in words and do not take it seriously when they issue election manifestos. They don’t have values they share and therefore how can they support a common goal?. Do people know why the politicians do what they do? Do they know their ideology; therefore they blindly support the ones that gives them the most benefits individually, which is incredibly selfish. None of the major current parties do not have a proper ideology or a vision. What they have is a leader. And whatever that leader think is right, the party cadres think is right which qualifies them as slaves rather than colleagues on one mission. The politicians will always abuse the system as long as such a stupid electorate exists. Unscrupulous politicians make use of the hope that springs in voters’ breasts at times of elections and lure the voters with false promises. Sri Lanka’s elections – and for that matter elections in most democratic countries – are therefore won by false promises. In other words, promises make the difference at elections.

It is thus a shame how the stupid electorate has been allowing the two major parties to go off the hook, by duping the electorate since Independence, using many attractive catchphrases /slogans and promises. If we do not learn lessons from history, and fail to hold our rulers to account and display civic activism even now, our present lot too will take our inaction as approval and continue their age old tricks. People boarded a popular bandwagon this time too – to elect a Sinhala Buddhist ruler-, not learning lessons from a previous political catchphrase Yahapalanaya which was another disaster. Nepotism, cronyism, abuse of financial transactions and conducting government business as if it were a “family company” thus continues allowing the present rulers to once again take the electorate along the garden path. 

Further, for too long, politicians have used the racism and nationalism cards to divide the electorate along racial and religious lines for their petty gains. Gotabaya’s Government has been feeding a diet of anti-Muslim hate to a slavish electorate for political survival. Forced cremation was a clearly racist ploy which they were compelled to reverse after much damage. Now, it is contemplating a range of further socially harmful, anti-Muslim measures such as the Burqa ban, closing of Madrasas, de-radicalisation programmes as well as arrest of Islamic scholars/activists under ICCPR. Drumming up anti-Muslim sentiments has unfortunately become the norm particularly under the present rulers purportedly under ‘The One-Country-One-Law’ slogan, using stigmatisation as a state policy, with the support of some rogue sections of the Media. Right now, the rulers are playing with time, with the country facing a stern test at the UN Human Rights Council, and finding itself in a vulnerable spot. However, especially judging by the inflammatory speeches given by the Public Security Minister, after the UNHRC vote, clear signs are in the horizon, to continue with these punitive measures against the Muslims. This is a dangerous development, which if not arrested may lead to extremely disastrous consequences including aggravating already fragile ethnic fault-lines. 

Further, for too long corruption has been tolerated. For too long, Sri Lankan voters have moved along two party continuum. For long, they have opted for a personality based politics and moved away from policy based politics. Seven decades later, Sri Lanka is in the cesspits of history as a result of this self-centered political class of both sides of the divide. Far too long inequality and poverty are tolerated. Sri Lanka continues to be an eternal developing country!

Government  must be held accountable to the principles of good governance and impunity should be condemned and eliminated. Rule of law should be upheld at all costs and those who appeal to racism should be rejected. Majoritarianism should not be the State policy. Policy based politics should be the guiding light for Sri Lanka’s future rulers. Good governance – addresses the allocation and management of resources to respond to collective problems; it is characterized by participation, “transparency, and accountability, rule of law, effectiveness and equity”. The implementation of the principles of good governance in a country would be futile unless and until the principles of this ideology cascades to all units of the economy. Moreover, the thinking of the people should change qualitatively. In the context of high political polarization and the deterioration of trust in the political system, continuing people apathy will prove suicidal to the future. Mature thinking of the electorate to elect those suitable and public activism to keep the rulers to account is therefore a must. But the first component was missed.

In Sri Lanka, ‘stupidity’ of the people at elections has thus been creating dictators, narcissists, crackpots and corrupts in the past. Electorate unfortunately decided once again who will rule them. As if ‘providing ladders to jumping monkeys’, the present incumbent has also been given dictatorial powers under the 20A too. Lessons are thus not learnt that too much of power in the hand of a person at the top will be suicidal. At a challenging time when the nation is crying out for an enlightened leadership that believes in the plural nature of Sri Lankan society, it is imperative that at least the intellectuals across all racial and religious divides, lead the way for a well-organized campaign to fight against all forms of racism, demonisation, oppression as well as injustice against minority sections among them. Are the people of Sri Lanka ready to think and act afresh even now as a mitigating factor? Further, in the context of globalization, the international community too has a role- to ensure that the Sri Lankan Government do not attempt to justify their divisive approaches against minorities as a domestic matter. Did not Martin Luther King Jr, once say ‘we are all caught in an inescapable network of mutuality, tied in a single garment of identity. Whatever affects one directly, affects all indirectly’.

Print Friendly, PDF & Email

Latest comments

  • 4

    I think she cares for nature, animals perhaps concerned by global warming. She was concerned about deforestation that is going on and being harassed by government official and this is what I say in TV.Wish her all the best and be safe…

    • 2


      “I think she cares for nature, animals perhaps concerned by global warming. “

      Now you have realised what has been happening in this island why don’t you let the ruling leaders (crooks) know about this as if they are completely and conveniently unaware of land grabbing, illegal tree felling, sand horas, ….. like other crimes …..

  • 8

    This young lady is thousand times wiser/powerful than the leader (සීනිසේන අක නන්දසේන ) of the country. The leader of the country has become a slave to his POHOTTUWA crime network. Young lady, Bagaya Abeyratne’s භාග්‍යා අබේරත්න message is crystal clear and would ray across the world as an Xray would traverse through matter. We can be proud of the kind of brave girls. Just listen to her HOW powerful her message has been. She is fearless young girl that would do anything and everything to protect her environment. Pinguththara (psedo monks in sinhala buddhism) Community පින්ගුත්තර ප්‍රජාව stay as if they are fed with Kirimati, while the young lady has been fighting against the destruction of the animals.
    May all gods be on the side of this and the like that stand against today’s state crimes. Rajapakshes should learn something from the kind of young ones. God bless srilanka.

    • 3

      Mr.Lukman, Yes indeed women, like Devani and Bhagya will lead the way to a corruption free Lanka. But please turn your gaze inward and examine the Muslim world and your corrupt leaders who live on Saudi funds, who are the reason that Muslims are universally despised.
      ISIS which was set up by the CIA has thrived because of CORRUPTION in the Muslim community and its leadership. All the Muslim leaders in Sri Lanka got funds from Saudi to turn a blind eye to and protect Zaharan and Gang and the Wahabi-Salafi crap ideology and promote the ISIS narrative. We know that ISIS was set up by US: Check out the book: ISIS is US: The Shocking Truth behind the Army of Terror”. We know that Saudi killed Jamaal Khashoggi in Istanbul but is scot free as it works with the US, the biggest Rogue State in the world.
      The SLMC creep Rauf Hakeem is the master of double speak and betraying truth and the Muslim community. While Kathankudi’s M.L.M Hizbullah and Rishad Bathudeen got billions and they provided Saudi Funds and protected Zaharan.
      All three should be in prison for the Easter Sunday 2019 carnage in Sri Lanka. The Muslim community must hold their leaders accountable. But only HIjaz Hizbullah is in Prison.

  • 2

    “Man is born free, and he is everywhere in chains’~ Jean-Jacques Rousseau”
    I think of Jean-Jacques Rousseau every time I see a woman covered in a black niqab or burqua.


  • 4

    “the present incumbent has also been given dictatorial powers under the 20A too. “
    Let’s not forget that Muslim MPs too supported 20A.


    • 2


      “Let’s not forget that Muslim MPs too supported 20A.”

      Do you know why they supported 20A.
      Is Mahinda sitting on their “Files”, has he caught them by their b***s?
      Do you think just because they supported 20A, 58% of the people have to agree with them?
      What did Mahinda/Gota/Namala … promise them?

      Don’t get yourself entangled with the question of whether Clan’s interests and country’s interests are one and the same, unless of course through 20A you maybe planning realise your own personal interests, personally profit from it, ….

      You ought to unlearn whatever you have convinced yourself so far. Country’s interest is completely different from your own personal interests.

      • 0

        I am not a supporter of 20A.


  • 2

    Lukman Harees: You say: ” Gotabaya Rajapakse has been feeding a diet of anti-Muslim hate to slavish electorate for political survival”. You are well aware that this Government of “GR” did not have a “2/3rd” majority to pass the most controversial “20A” in the Parliament. You are also aware, even the large majority of the “Slave” organizations and leading Buddhist Monks who brought “GR” to power at both the Presidential and Parliamentary elections, “OPPOSED” the contents of the “20A”. You are also aware that those “Leading Buddhist Monks” summoned the leading figures of the constituents of SLPP to their “Temple Palaces” and discussed the issues. They even QUESTIONED and asked: “Who drafted this “20A”? The answer came from “GR”. He said: “I did it and it is mine”. There was a widespread out cry against the provisions of that “20A”. Even “GR” was not sure of it getting through the Parliament, because his Government did not have the required “2/3rd” majority. On the reckoning day, “Surprisingly”, that required majority was “OFFERED” by seven “Muslim” MPs. If not for “THEM” – the Muslim MPs that “20A” which made “GR” – the “Authoritarian” and a virtual “Dictator” would have had a “Still-Birth”.

  • 5

    Well done, Bhagya, you are brave
    You wear your country on your sleeve
    Our “Greta Thunberg”, you go, girl!
    The sky’s the limit, don’t be afraid
    You were questioned, I heard Bhagya
    Don’t be despair, this is Sri Lanka
    My fervent hope is to see many youth,
    Follow your path and speak loud!
    Sinharaja, Muthuraja, Yakkure, Knuckles
    Thamanna, Rumassala, Rambakkan all
    This is our heritage, our heart and soul
    Together we fight and stand tall
    Devani, Bhagya, we need more
    Chamikara, Ranwella, Jananayaka, oh,
    Our valiant monks, I didn’t forget
    All green panthers, come and join
    Every felled tree brings immense grief
    Our majestic trees are “under siege”
    Vedda people were seen weeping
    Enough is enough now, no more felling!
    Oi, President, you hear me out
    You are a coward, you amply proved
    Young Bhagya has more guts than you
    Offer your seat to her and take off!

    • 2

      You speculated this two years ago:

      “””””””Champa / January 14, 2019
      2 5
      Gotabhaya or expats are not racists, for sure. He is a patriot, who was instrumental in eliminating LTTE terrorism from Sri Lanka.
      Your other accusations are unsubstantiated.
      I am against him and wanted someone else, an apolitical man to be the next President, for 3 reasons;
      3) to beat the myth that only Rajapaksas can develop the country.
      2) someone with a definite, clear and right vision to take the country forward in a new direction that has not been followed before, for greater common good, especially for the benefit of rural folks.
      1) to safeguard Buddha Sasana and the Sinhalese nation in Sri Lanka, who are a minority in terms of world population, with decisive and definitive moves.””””””.

      Do you still stand by what you typed some months ago?

      • 0

        Native Vedda
        Yes, I stand by what I said under 1, 2, and 3. Gotabhaya has failed in achieving any good and I knew that would happen.
        About the patriot part, my views on that have changed since. People who had put so much faith into Gotabhaya are devastated by his negligence of people and the environment. Moreover, I find him to be a compulsive liar.

      • 0

        Native Vedda
        Yes, I stand by what I said under 1, 2, and 3. Gotabhaya has failed in achieving them and I knew that would happen.
        About the patriot part, my views on that have changed since. People who had put so much faith into Gotabhaya are devastated by his negligence of people and the environment. Moreover, I find him to be a compulsive liar.

        • 2


          “People who had put so much faith into Gotabhaya are devastated by his negligence of people and the environment. “

          What exactly did you expect from Gota in the first place?
          Please list them.

          What he should have delivered and what he has failed?
          Since he has cheated you whom do you think should replace him, or the best alternative president?

  • 4

    The whole country is dying becuse the cancer called corruption.

    – We salute the citizens who uphold the truth and do their duty without fear of favour.

    First there should be a revolution in the mind.

    We should undestand that we cannot exist as individuals and take care of our selves only by- telling lies – robbing others – destrying the environment – engauge in illegal trade – drug trade , illegal logging etc- murder – slander.

    If our actions destroy another it will destroy the society and the environment we live in.

    As human beings we cannot survive on our own.

    If we cannot trust our government and if we cannot trust one another the country is already doomed.

  • 9

    We were so happy and relieved to get rid of Sillysena, only to find that now we are stuck with Seenisena. How many different kinds of evils are there in this country!

    • 1

      Majority is being represented by various kind of evils. All these are public secret, guess if you hold an election tomorrow, the very same people would repeat the mistake. I believe, it is the condtioned mind set, maintained by srilanken media that stands against indepenedent reactions of the people.

      And the biggest obstacle is the place PINGUTTTHARA COMMUNITY is given inthis society. I wonder why Thailand does not seem to suffer by that yet today.

      Most worst and unique charactor of our people is they dont care much, but wait others to settle everything for them. That would help neither the nation nor the country.

  • 0

    “Globally, Sri Lanka is being crucified as a racist, violent and an unprincipled nation. Locally, the nation is facing many grave crises- rule of law, impunity, chronic corruption at all levels of governance, widening inequality, haphazard sale of national assets, mounting debt, as well as fragile social relations, uncontrolled deforestation, in addition to gross mismanagement of the economy.”

    Globally, Sri Lanka’s reputation is excellent. Excluding COVID-19, tourism is increasing. Check the videos on Youtube, foreigners are having an outstanding experience and recommending others visit. There are internal problems yes, but what did you expect from 30 years of civil war? It will take time to resolve these issues.

    “Today, a desperate set of rulers, hell-bent on their political survival, appears to be going for the fulfilment of the appetite of a slavish electorate by providing them with a workable diversion tactic- a palatable anti-Muslim hate diet.”

    Despite its flaws, Sri Lanka is 110% more democratic than all Muslim nations. The same thing can be said for Tamils. Tamils have more rights in Sri Lanka than in Tamil Nadu. In Tamil Nadu, they are held back by caste. That is why Sri Lankan refugees who went to Tamil Nadu during the civil war never became citizens, despite living in refugee camps for 20 years. Compare with the Indian Tamils (plantation workers) who enjoy full rights and citizenship in Sri Lanka.

Leave A Comment

Comments should not exceed 200 words. Embedding external links and writing in capital letters are discouraged. Commenting is automatically disabled after 5 days and approval may take up to 24 hours. Please read our Comments Policy for further details. Your email address will not be published.