Is There A Cadmium-Toxicity Health Risk In Eating Sri Lankan Rice?

Filed under: Colombo Telegraph,MORE OPINION,Opinion |

By Chandre Dharmawardana

Dr. Chandre Dharmawardana

Dr. Chandre Dharmawardana

A few years ago a newspaper report (Sunday Times, 2013) stated that Sri lankan rice took second place in a twelve-country list of rice containing high amounts of the toxic metal known as cadmium. Many people even now claim that Sri Lankan rice has excess cadmium (Cd), and that this must be a recent problem because “our fore-fathers” ate three meals of rice with no Cd toxicity showing up.

In my view, the actual circumstances are very different. There has probably always been cadmium in our soil, and in our rice. Yet it is quite safe to eat, for a number of reasons, as seen from a most recent study of the chemical components in rice published by researchers in the geology department of the Peradeniya University led by Prof. Rohan Chandrajith and by Dr. S. Premarathne of the agriculture department. In the Geology department study they compared the cadmium dietary load for residents of the dry zone (DZ), intermediate zone and the wet zone (WZ). In fact WZ-rice is found to have more cadmium than DZ-rice.

This study shows that although there seems to be significantly more Cadmium per kilo of rice than the safe limit stipulated by regulatory agencies like the WHO, there is also a thousand times more Zinc (Zn) in the rice. Now, it is known that Zn completely inhibits the toxic action of Cadmium. An excellent simply worded review of Cadmium toxicity and mitigation by zinc is given in the following link: ARL : Cadmium Toxicity

An Authority on Nutrition and the Science of Balancing Body Chemistry Through Hair Tissue Mineral Analysis! Prou…Paddy Rice

For instance, oysters and other sea foods containing quite high amounts of cadmium are allowed to be sold in European markets as long as they have an access of Zn. Having a thousand-fold excess of Zn atoms over each Cadmium atom is like having a thousand guards to keep check of a single criminal. Zn is good for the human body in the amounts present in rice and other food stuffs of Sri Lanka. In fact, a recent study by S. Premaratne (Ph.D thesis, Dept of agriculture, University of Peradeniya) shows that not only rice, but most Sri Lankan vegetables have this protective shield of Zn in them, when ever there is cadmium in them.

Hence, because of the presence of Zn, all varieties of Sri Lankan rice are probably very safe. Another
substance which competes with cadmium and nullifies its toxicity is selenium. The Peradeniya team has shown that Sri Lankan rice has not only Zn with its well-known protective action, but also selenium.

Further more, all the cadmium in rice cannot be absorbed by the body, because usually more than half the cadmium is in a form that is not available to the body. Such bio-unavailable cadmium is excreted out of the system. So only about 50% of the cadmium content in rice is relevant, and this is in any case neutralized by the presence of zinc and selenium.

In my view, the Cadmium in our soil may not be anything new, and is a result of geological processes. It could have been there even in ancient times, but with a “protective shield” due to the presence of Zn in the rice, just as it is the case today. In 2013 we did not know that there were such protective shields (i.e., presence of Zn and Se) in our rice. Hence there has been much speculation and even worry that there is a definite health risk all over Sri Lanka due to dietary intake of cadmium via rice and other foods. In fact the WHO and NSF (national science foundation) sponsored study (2013) of kidney disease in the North Central Province speculated that the kidney-disease epidemic may be linked to ingestion of cadmium-containing food. At that time it was not known that Sri lankan foods contained zine, i.e., a protective element against cadmium toxicity.

In my view, recent studies, and especially the recent work of the Peradeniya geology and agriculture researchers have done much to dissipate such fears.

Please remember that prior to this cadmium scare, there was much fan fare about there being arsenic in Sri Lankan rice, and this was even claimed to be a communication to the effect by God Natha. However, subsequent research has shown that there is no significant amount of arsenic in our soil or water, even in the Rajarata villages stricken with chronic kidney disease.

What about cadmium contaminated “cheap” fertilizers brought into Sri Lanka? Let us consider as an example, a shipment contained, say, 50 milli-grams of Cd per kilo of fertilizer (while the allowed amount is an order of magnitude smaller).

It is normal to apply 25 kilos of fertilizer per hectare of land. If the fertilizer is spread into the soil to a depth of 15 cm, the total soil volume is 1.5 trillion liters. Its dry weight would be roughly 0.5 trillion kilos.

The total amount of cadmium per kilo will be (25×50) mg of cadmium divided by the soil dry weight. Thus we find that even a sample of “highly cantaminated fertilizer” only adds 2500 nanograms of cadmium per kg of dry soil. This is thousand of times smaller than the WHO threshold for soil contamination with cadmium, and it should take five to ten centuries for the soil to become Cd-toxic via the application of fertilizers. Note that if we allow for monsoonal wash away and other effects, it will take even longer to have any ecological impact. Hence the claim sometimes made, that cadmium in soil is a recent problem due top the use of cheap contaminated fertilizers is completely untenable.

So, in my view, Sri Lanka rice is safe to eat, and even good to eat as its ingestion is accompanied by the ingestion of adequate amounts of zinc and selenium into the body.

A majority of scientists and Nephrologists do not believe that there is a “cadmium threat” in Sri Lanka although there may be some long-term hazard. They believe that the kidney disease rampant in the North Central provice is casued by the consumption of contaminated water in shallow household wells used by poor farmers who live at a significant distance from reservoirs (Weva), rivers and irrigation canals. Those who use use water from tanks, rivers and canals do not contract kidney disease, although they consume the same rice and vegetables as those farmers who use their own well water and get kidney disease. Hence a small program of providing water to farmers where rain water is harvested has been introduced and seems to be a successful method.

However, only a few rainwater storage tanks have been installed so far due to lack of funds, as much of the government funding has gone to the installation of expensive reverse-osmosis (RO) machines. The cost of each such installation is sufficient to help about 200 times as many affected people via the rainwater collection project.

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72 Responses to Is There A Cadmium-Toxicity Health Risk In Eating Sri Lankan Rice?

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    An interesting piece this is.It comforts us rice eaters, that all is well. If I may, I think the heading shouldn’t have been ‘framed’ in the negative option. It should have just said, ‘Rice, Zinc and Cadmium’. or ‘Rice and it’s protective layer of Zinc’ On water management and CKD, Al Jazeera ran a good piece on how we are reclaiming our ancient lake system. RO must be the quick and easy solution. Costly too. I hope the rain water project will continue to be invested upon. Best wishes to the folks in the effected regions.

    vishvajith
    December 23, 2016 at 1:40 pm
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      Reverse Osmosis is massively expensive and there is far cheaper means to harvest water. If RO machines are being used in Sri Lanka it is because of CORRUPTION. Someone got a bribe from the RO machine corporation and this should be investigated because it is a huge wast of tax payers funds. Thanks for bringing this to our notice!

      Dinuk
      December 23, 2016 at 2:43 pm
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        Reverse Osmosis is the cheapest and quickest water purification method available to remove As, Cd, Fl, heavy metals, Bacteria, Viruses, Algae and all the Agrochemical residues in one shot. Reverse Osmosis method adopted to prevent CKDu in Rajarata costs about 1000 Rs a family. Rainwater collection system 75,000 Rs a family. Rainwater harvesting is a good system, which is what our forefathers did by constructing reservoirs. But agrochemicals polluted those forcing people to go for expensive and ineffective household rainwater collection.

        Harsha Kumar
        December 24, 2016 at 11:08 pm
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      I will read the article laters. Can anybody please tell me if there are statutory threshold values for each heavy metal in ground water (SL) ? European countries have used round up for the last two decades. Even today they use them in their crop controls. But they have also controls on statutory threshold values of the heavy metals in the ground water. These controls should be carried out on a regular basis. I believe, had our regional agric controls done the job, we could control those cadmium and other heavy mentals accumulating in ground water.

      Dan Fernando
      December 24, 2016 at 2:25 am
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      It is not a secret that during the recent past the number of cancer patients is rising alarmingly. Also in Rajarata there has come out a strange epidemic named CKDu, killing thousands of people a year. We are a nation who ate rice for thousands of years. People enjoyed longevity and healthy life until agrochemicals were forced in recently. Imagine, if there are toxins in food. Where could it have come from? Agrochemicals, most likely. Imagine, if there are toxins in rice, what should we do? Should we hide it and allow people to continue to consume toxins or open it up and force governments and all others to take immediate and urgent actions to remedy it? Who would want to hide the fact of toxins in food if there is any? One group is definitely the agrochemical businesses. Soon the facts are revealed there will be a huge uproar from the society and banning all the agrochemicals will be likely. Furthermore, the news would spread to rest of the world and huge agrochemical markets right around the world will collapse. Would not agrochemical businesses hire many professionals to mislead the public?

      Harsha Kumar
      December 25, 2016 at 1:05 am
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        Harsha, why most likely ? That is a fact that those chemical accumulations found in food chains are through the use of chemical in agriculture. The problem is until recently, so called leaders never took it serious. If Yoshita or Namal baby was met Kidney or other failurse, they the Rajaakshe siblings would have done anything any everything the manner they eliminated terror within the nation as they repeatedly boast even today. Irrespective of the number of UKWKD rose exponentially, that did not matter them. The new regime though took immediate actions banning Glycophosat going an extra mile – entire world commended that even Germany and other countries have failed ot bann import of Glyphosatby today. Today there are all exceeding levels of heavy metals in ground water. That then automatically enter to the bodies of poor farmers since they dont have any good water to consume. Besides, their cultivations in contaminted fields so rice and vegetable are all contaminated with Cadmium and arsenic. Like it is the case for developed coutnries, there is no regular controls on the regional threshhold values of those elements in ground water. So, the danger is really high in Developing countries.

        Sinchuappu
        December 25, 2016 at 3:15 am
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        Harsha, ” ” We are a nation who ate rice for thousands of years. People enjoyed longevity and healthy life until agrochemicals were forced in recently.” This is an absolute myth. Till the 1950’s, there were frequent food shortages . Life expectancy was around 50 or even less 100 years ago (it is around 80 now. MILLIONS of people died of flu in 1918. Others died regularly due to TB, Polio, smallpox, mumps, infected wounds (no antibiotics). Do we have people dying of these today? In 1934, many thousands died of malaria in SRI LANKA. At the time , infant mortality was 228 per 1000 births , believe it or not. So , the idea that our ancient populations lived a long and healthy life has no facts to support it. Whether Weedkillers are causing kidney disease is still unproven. But what is certain is that without these and other chemicals, a lot more people would be dead! Would the critics be prepared to reduce the population by 60%, so that it could survive on organic food only? I think not.

        old codger
        December 25, 2016 at 12:36 pm
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          Old codger, yours is interesting. You know it the tradition of lankens go on saying about the boasts of their folks. I sometimes feel our folks just exaggerate about anything and everyting about own people. Not only in SL, there were unexpected deaths experienced in the EUROPE due to Malaria. To control that only they the researchers found DDT as a successful insectiside. However, european chemists proved that the use of DDT on long term could be even more injurious people s health – since the chemical was cancerous. However, lankens and other devleopoing folks continued to use DDT even if the west banned it decades earlier in their soils. The very same fate was the case with other agro chemicals too. What the developed countries loudly ban are being imported by our greedy business men being together with lanken politicians. No matter human losses would have been the consequences they the Rajapakshes and othermen obssessed their kind of politics should let it go. Over the last two decades while the civil war issues had blocked normal day today life, selifish politicians too had fished in muddy waters but showing the palatable to the nation. like it isthe case after Chenobyl disaster, all the health problesm arose in the country srilanka after few decades of full ignorance agro-imports. I think we have to put the entire blame on the politicians and their lovely business men that paid blind attention in tones of puchases of chemicals to the country. I thank the current president to have been that blod in banning Glyphosat to the country – even european researchers and politicians cite him and his actions in this regard, while EU has been unable to get it ban yet. Those men work for Monstanto (Manufacturer of Glyphosat) prove to have nothing worst occured according ot them, but those anti-monsanto prove Glysposat can stillbe the key factor even lanken to be caught by CKDu. However, Glyposats direct involvement in lanken CKDU is not yet clear. Lanken local researechres though add their thoughts in the line of Cd-Glyphosat compounds could have damaged the kidneys of ones met with them -regardless of age, diabetes, hypertension (high blood pressure)among poor farming community of SL.

          Desperate Lanken
          December 27, 2016 at 6:37 pm
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      Quote//The total amount of cadmium per kilo will be (25×50) mg of cadmium divided by the soil dry weight. Thus we find that even a sample of “highly cantaminated fertilizer” only adds 2500 nanograms of cadmium per kg of dry soil. This is thousand of times smaller than the WHO threshold for soil contamination with cadmium, and it should take five to ten centuries for the soil to become Cd-toxic via the application of fertilizers. Note that if we allow for monsoonal wash away and other effects, it will take even longer to have any ecological impact. Hence the claim sometimes made, that cadmium in soil is a recent problem due top the use of cheap contaminated fertilizers is completely untenable //Unquote To justify that fertilizers would not contribute Cd-additions to the soil is not what the researchers in general should do. They should rather support warning the people standing against those illegal users of cd mor arsenic rich fertilizers or other chemicals that farmers are introduced today. Even on the rich western coutries avoid and block all the sources that add Cd and other harzadous heavey metals not mixing with ground water. That way they have made every efforts to protect the people and the probable health threats that could occur through Cd entering the human body.

      Sama
      December 25, 2016 at 5:52 pm
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      Sri Lankan Agricultural Nephropathy (SAN), a new form of chronic kidney disease among paddy farmers was first reported in 1994. It has now become the most debilitating public health issue in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. Previous research studies showed SAN is a tubulo-interstitial type nephropathy and exposure to arsenic and cadmium may play a role in pathogenesis of the disease. People in disease endemic area exposed to multiple heavy metals and glyphosate. Results are supportive of toxicological origin of SAN that is confined to specific geographical areas. Although we could not localize a single nephrotoxin as the culprit for SAN, multiple heavy metals and glyphosates may play a role in the pathogenesis. Heavy metals (cadmium, asenic and other metals) excessively present in the urine samples of patients with SAN are capable of causing damage to kidneys. Synergistic effects of multiple heavy metals and agrochemicals may be nephrotoxic.

      Dunken Leutheuser
      December 26, 2016 at 6:57 pm
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        Bit of plagiarism reported here in this comment. This is copied from Jayasumana et al., 2015 (DOI: 10.1186/s12882-015-0109-2). Dunken needs to acknowledge the source.

        Ajantha
        January 2, 2017 at 5:44 am
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      Dear Dr Dharamwardhana, Greetings to you – in these happy holiday season from Germany. I found the article is very interesting. Just happenecd to search for the topic and related- and found the following. Latest is as some researchers in the field together with EU counterparts feel – Glyphosate-Heavy metal complex (chelation of the organic compound with heavy metals) can be the long awaiting cause that damage the kidney tissues. The particular Glyphosate-Heavy metal complex lattice hypothesis as some researchers already postulated, gives rational and consistent explanations to the many observations and unanswered questions associated with lanken CKD of unknown nature. The fact that Germans are proved to be contaminated by Glyphosat all but 0.4% of the population but no CKD of lanken nature have been noticed in that population. Germans in general control their waters regionally not letting those heavy metal cations to go beyond the threshhold values. Furthermore, I believe the Glyphosate-Heavy Metal complex may explain the similar epidemics of CKDu observed in Andra Pradesh, India and Central America. Although glyphosate as a biomolecule alone does not cause an epidemic of chronic kidney disease, it seems to have acquired the ability after being bound to those metals destroying the kidney tissues of those poor farmers when such high MW complexes with regional environmental factor (hardness /kiwul jayala) and nephrotoxic metals (As, Cd and others). If LANKEN authorities would not take due measures on such controls, knowin the facts that almost everyone eats rice in the country will have to count with kidney problems. Researchers believe to find out other farming areas where excessive use of glyphosate and facing the similaries compared to lanka and the contamination of ground water and food with nephrotoxic metals have overlapped in causing kidney damage.

      Simon De Silva
      December 26, 2016 at 11:37 pm
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      All will remain as it is – until Rajaakshe men are met with Renal problems. Until then they make every effort to spread lies in favour of them. Be it regarding import of Agro chemicals, tobacco or medical drugs where billions are being played for the business, Rajaakshe men mediate directly since they grab the commissions. No matter lanken farming folks would have been suffered by the illness, those selfish business men would continue- this is the so called buddhist mentality in this country.

      Sama
      December 27, 2016 at 10:36 pm
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    Is this for real? Dr Dharmawardana seems to be quite impressed by an opinion on Cd toxicity (that its ok to eat a lot of Cd, if its accompanied by Zn!) apparently given by two ‘geologists’! They may come from the university of Peradeniya, but they have no expertise in human health or toxicity. sscientists based in Sri Lanka as well as overseas, who seem to recommend that Sri lankans eat toxic chemicals, weedicides and pesticides without any qualms. It is unsure whether they themselves will consume these chemicals as they are advocating to the poor in Sri Lanka. Mr Dharmawardana may want to soak his rice in Cd/Zn solution before cooking, but many in Sri Lanka are sceptical about ignorant health ‘experts’ carpet beggars doing the job for the chemical industry. Shame, Dr Dhnarmawardana.

    Skeptic
    December 23, 2016 at 2:03 pm
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      If the skeptic does not want to eat rice that is fine. But Dr. Dharmawardana (and his colleagues like Dr. Tuly de Silva, Dr. Wijenayake, and their students like Dr. Baunuarachchi) developed the food science program at Vidyodaya university in the late 1960-early 1970ies; they were pioneers of food science in Sri Lanka. I was a student there and I know about that period. As for the protective action of Zn over Cadmium, that is well accepted in Europe when they allow Oysters which contains ten times more Cadmium than our rice to be sold in the market as long as there is protective Zinc or Selenium. Also, I urge Dr. Dharmawardana to not to get involved with that “Professor” Nalin de Silva in debates as the man does not know any chemistry or biology, as he himself boasted in an Island Newspaper article in October 2013. His physics Ph.D was also a sham given to him after 18 months, during which time, according to his own admission, he spend most of his time working as an activist for the British Labour Party. Many say that the British University was very glad to see him go? Nalin de Silva challenged me to come to a debate with him, and he even claimed to be ready to pay my ticket!!! He wrote to me saying that I have to demonstrate to him the existence of a gravitational force, while he will demonstrate (“Penvanava”) God Natha!!! So,to me this is a rank insult to God Natha, because he is claiming power over the God, as if he were an “ahikuntikaya” (Gypsy) who shows the Cobra that he has in his “madissale” (Knapsack). I told Nalin de Silva to buy a bag of flour from the Angoda junction Food City store and keep it on his head and walk along the Angoda road, and then he will feel the force of gravity. If not he can buy two bags, and carry both on his two shoulders. each step will demonstrate the force of gravity. Nalin de Silva then claimed that I should demonstrate the existence of an “abstract force of graviy” and not that kind of garvity!!!! So you see, is there any point in trying to hold debates with people who are ready to even insult God Natha and prevaricate their stance? Furthermore, scientific differences of opinion have to be settled by doing investigative experiments and NOT by debates.

      Bodhi Dhanapala
      December 23, 2016 at 7:56 pm
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        This comment was removed by a moderator because it didn’t abide by our Comment policy.For more detail see our Comment policy https://www.colombotelegraph.com/index.php/comments-policy-2/

        Rathnawali
        December 24, 2016 at 4:58 am
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        Oh! The food science program at Vidyodaya Piriwena(then Vidyodaya University, now sri Jayawardenepura university), the pioneers of food science in Sri Lanka. Have they done any productive work? Big no. They produced only bullshit.

        Nimal
        December 24, 2016 at 9:59 am
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          Nimal All these scientists are paid to bring out some useless theories researched and proved “” by good for nothing Scientists . Only in SL you will find the Biggest Crocodles and the Smallest Crocs in the world. That’s how the Research funds are wasted to do useless Research while the daily problems in the country is not touched for eg: Chronic Kidney Disease , Arsenic in the ground poisoning the Water and the Rice cultivation , How Diabetes can be minimised among the young and old, many many more Research projects can be Researched by these scientists. Another way to waste Funds and plundering in the name of USELESS RESEARCH PROJECTS. WONDER OF MODAYAS!! Cock a Bull Research papers to HOODWINK THE GULLIBLE MODA POLITICIANS AND THE MODA PUBLIC. SHAME ON THEM. Down with Scientific researches.

          Analyst
          December 25, 2016 at 3:39 am
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        The problem is as it is the case with blind folded sinhala buddhists, thoughts being added by Dr. Nalin De Silva is well established in lanken society. As it is the case for Rajaakshes too. No matter facts lie aside, AVERAGE would not resecpt them mainly because of not having proper knowledge to realize the gravity. Most talk about Nalin de Silva and praise anything coming from him when he adds ” this is the only country we the sinhala people have got to live- we need to protect it by any means”. But he is an another person who stands against western theories, but sending his children or he himself to the west to expand their education. These men are real extremists even if they have believed to have earned higher degrees. To have worked for aPhD means he should have the expertise in that field, but he must not necessarily be genious to twist the society. Now in terms of Cd-Zn protective mechanisms still need more research. I think it is no CORRECT if any researchers not warning general public about chemicals that contain those hazaardous elements. Even if our soil was reported to have cd from earlier period on, exponential rises of health problems have been reported during last 15 years only. In that period, the country imported varied kind of banned chemicals NOT regarding the gravity of the problems that the farming communities would face in the future. As it is provable by the documents – almost many areas of the country are connected with illegal business mafia networks – agro chemical sector is too affected by them. Those million business men should be accoutable not mitigating the authorities worked for them to continue them.

        Dan Fernando
        December 25, 2016 at 6:17 pm
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        Uncle Bodhi, do not lie! We did follow what had taken place through ‘The Island’ between you and Dr. Nain. You, like an eel, moved away from Dr. Nalin when he challenged your stupid writings. Be in the cool climes of Canada and continue writing crap. Because no one is there to take you seriously.

        max
        December 30, 2016 at 11:48 am
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    Dr. Chandre, you have been challenged to come for an open debate by Dr. Nalin de Silva again and again. Since you have been in Sri Lanka now, you can accept it and show the public what you say is right. Instead “paalu gei walang bindeema”, think about it if you have any guts to face him.

    max
    December 23, 2016 at 3:58 pm
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      Dr Chandere, just ignore this fool who is “inspired” by NATHADEIYO.

      MrRetort
      December 23, 2016 at 8:17 pm
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        So MrRetort are you “inspired” by Yohowa deviyan wahanse? :p

        max
        December 27, 2016 at 12:59 pm
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      Dr Nalin De Silva is against science and western medicine. So why to argue with him ? Max, you seem to associate only the kind of gurus why ? Are u suffereing from an uknown kind of mental syndrome ?

      Sinchuappu
      December 24, 2016 at 1:57 am
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        Sincho, why a argument or a debate if both parties believe the same thing? Are you a that much of a dumb Sincho?

        max
        December 27, 2016 at 1:00 pm
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          I thought you could come up with a constructive.. unfortunately the same rubbish. Max, I wish you all the best in the dawn year. Hope your stupidity filled thoughts would turn to those of average healthy -then only we can see a life in this country.

          Sinchuappu
          December 27, 2016 at 6:57 pm
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    max “Dr. Chandre, you have been challenged to come for an open debate by Dr. Nalin de Silva again and again.” That would be interesting. Battle of two mad men.

    Native Vedda
    December 23, 2016 at 5:11 pm
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      That debate can take place in Angoda with a team of Psychiatrists as stand by, to give emergency anti-psychotic treatment to both of them.

      Dr. Gnana Sankaralingam
      December 24, 2016 at 2:23 am
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      This comment was removed by a moderator because it didn’t abide by our Comment policy.For more detail see our Comment policy https://www.colombotelegraph.com/index.php/comments-policy-2/

      Subra
      December 24, 2016 at 4:56 am
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      The “battle” can be refereed by native Veddaa, the very first Mad Hatter and our own கிறுக்கன் ?

      manoharan
      December 24, 2016 at 5:07 am
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      Native V, I am thinking of sending a packet of Punnakku to Max. Do you know his address ? The boy is not providing us with the address even if we begged him on that several times.

      Leelawathie
      December 24, 2016 at 10:37 pm
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        Leelawathie “I am thinking of sending a packet of Punnakku to Max. Do you know his address ?” You can send the punnakku parcel addressed to Max Moron Gnanasara’s Amude Sri Lanka. He will definitely receive it provided you affix sufficient value of stamps.

        Native Vedda
        December 25, 2016 at 1:23 am
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      Happy holidays to you Native Vedda. Frohe Weihnachten! schöne Feiertagen ! Berlin

      Simon De Silva
      December 24, 2016 at 10:39 pm
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        Simon De Silva Vielen Dank Merry christmas zu Ihnen und Ihrer Familie und Freunden. Und Ihre Herrin. Thank you very much Merry christmas to you and your family and friends. And your mistress

        Native Vedda
        December 24, 2016 at 11:36 pm
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          I am not sinhala buddhist or bbs sympathiser to have a mistress – hi hi .. Simon

          Simon De Silva
          December 25, 2016 at 4:42 am
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            Simon De Silva “I am not sinhala buddhist or bbs sympathiser to have a mistress – hi hi .. Simon” Thanks for your clarification which I appreciate. Have fun.

            Native Vedda
            December 25, 2016 at 2:59 pm
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      NV, scoffing of opponents may be your favorite. But, that will only bring you a temporary relief. If your a that much of a prodigy, why dont you represent Chandre and face the challenge? As a favour, I will arrange a mobile lavatory for you when the debate starts, knowing the end results! You can take Leelavathis, Simon de Silvas and the like minded along with you for the debate! And NV, a suggestion out of this topic. Talk to Lal Wijenaike, Jayampathi W and join in their team of making the “new constitution” which aims to bring what you have been trying hard to achieve. Good luck.

      max
      December 29, 2016 at 2:53 pm
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    Avoid all these headache, the government should mandate all householders and businesses to have rain water harvesting. During the monsoon months there is so much rain, and the rain water get wasted. Before seawater desalination, in the Maldives, they got their fresh water from rain water harvesting, even now they do get most of it from rain water harvesting. The other is in the dry zones to set up solar power plants with the dual purpose of producing electricity and freshwater by desalination of the seawater.

    Anura
    December 24, 2016 at 12:47 am
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    This comment was removed by a moderator because it didn’t abide by our Comment policy.For more detail see our Comment policy https://www.colombotelegraph.com/index.php/comments-policy-2/

    Subra
    December 24, 2016 at 4:56 am
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      Subra Super typing. Thanks

      Native Vedda
      December 24, 2016 at 1:37 pm
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    The arsenic kalliya, led by Nalin de Silva was sabotaged by Jayasumana whio became a new kalliya which downgraded arsenic and pushed forward the banning of the popular herbicde known as Glyphosate. Unfortunately for the farmer, the government, pushed by Venerable Ratana (who just sold his Toyota Land cruiser for 33,000,000 rupees) and Champika Ranavaka banned the herbicide. So do you see what has happened? 1) The farmer cannot sell his rice because of the propaganda that the rice is full of cadmium. 2) The farmer cannot grow anything else except under enormous cost (due to cost of manual labour) because there is no effective weedicide. 3) The farmer has no clean water and he is getting Kidney disease. 4) The farmer abandons the lands and moves south, just like the rich Tamils who abandon their “homeland” the moment they get a bit prosperous to join the ranks of Native Vedda types and come to live in Wellavattai and Dehiwalai. 5) The Eelamists move in the NPC lands abandoned by the farmers and claim that it is their “traditional homeland”. Girandurukotte gets renamed to ThiruvanthuraiKoddai. A Jaffna University professor finds the name in an Old Sangam manuscript, and also finds a potsherd with tamil Brahmi letters to prove that tamils lived there before Raavana and had left a lot of cadmium behind each time they made holy ash. 6) The US Baanana growing companies like Dole come along and offer to grow bananas 7) The government and Mr. Sampanthan are very happy and hand over the “land of the homeland” to the US companies. 8) Ranil and Sampanthan run the country as a banana republic under the Americans, and a new type of banana known as the Trump Banana will be planted. Sirisena occasionally expresses his displeasure but begins to like bananas. 9) The Indians are not happy. 10) The Indians are offered free baanana leaves to eat their Dosai and Chapathi. 11. They are happy. 12) Editorial writers complain that the country has gone bananas.

    Edward
    December 24, 2016 at 5:29 am
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      Edward “tamils lived there before Raavana and had left a lot of cadmium behind each time they made holy ash.” Is it because they were scientists who thought it was a substance to control Sinhala/Buddhist flux in hair fission? Thanks for your praise of ancient Tamils. However, the Sinhala/Buddhists continue to split hair and the holy ash seem ineffective.

      Native Vedda
      December 24, 2016 at 5:25 pm
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      Edward The champion of proletariat or is it lumpen? “So do you see what has happened?” You seem surprised. No I don’t see anything new or abnormal. The management did change yet its business as usual in every aspect of governance. I am not surprised at all.

      Native Vedda
      December 24, 2016 at 5:33 pm
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      Edaward, what I felt after reading your comment is -you the like ilk would never praise anything. Accordingl to you we poor folks should see it independently, how ? Each and every way of our life is affected by US, EU and Indians. Just become swollen not knowing who we really are – cant achieve anything for the sake of future folks. Btw, Getting Glyphosat banned in lanka is highly recognized by entire world. Some questioned me since I was also an activist going Monsanto company even if Bayer bought sharees in monsanto merging lately, which was paradoxal though. Germans glyphosat activitists are now met with cross roads. However, Germans have still been struggling to get it banned even if each and every house hold is highly affected by Glyphosat being found in their urine according german researechers. However, unlike the case in developing countries, developed countries are well alert on threshold values being found in ground water. They continue with the kind of control avoiding them exceeding in ground water. Besides, even farming communities on the west are accessed to clean water comsuptions.

      Desperate Lanken
      December 25, 2016 at 12:12 am
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    People talking about the writer’s integrity should go to his website that Sinhalize well established Tamil village names. E.g. He says Iranaimadu was Ranamaduwa. Almost all Tamil villages have been Sinhalized in his website.

    Thiru
    December 24, 2016 at 4:11 pm
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    Thiru does not seem to know that the Tamilized names and their original names collected by Dr. Dharmawardana in one of his websites is a compilation of what is in Rasanayagam, K. Velu Pillai in Yalpana Vaibhava Kaumudi, Kathigesu Indraratne, KaseiChetti, Tambimuttu and other Tamil writers. Our Muslim Historians should also look into Muslim village usurped by Tamils using force and evicting Muslims from their rightful villages given to them by King Senerath. See Tambimuttu’s 1949 Observer article entitled: Had the Tamil North a Buddhist background? by Paulinus Tambimuttu

    Bodin
    December 24, 2016 at 6:39 pm
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    Bodin “See Tambimuttu’s 1949 Observer article entitled: Had the Tamil North a Buddhist background? by Paulinus Tambimuttu” Yes, I have seen it. What do you deduce from the article? “Tamilized names and their original names collected by Dr. Dharmawardana in one of his websites is a compilation of what is in Rasanayagam, K. Velu Pillai in Yalpana Vaibhava Kaumudi, Kathigesu Indraratne, KaseiChetti, Tambimuttu and other Tamil writers.” Could you cite original references to Rasanayagam, K. Velu Pillai in Yalpana Vaibhava Kaumudi, Kathigesu Indraratne, KaseiChetti, Tambimuttu.

    Native Vedda
    December 24, 2016 at 7:42 pm
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    UN body on toxic safety identifies chronic kidney failure as the ‘factor for health risk assessment for chronic exposure to cadmium. For lead it is neurodevelopment in children, and for arsenic, it is hyper and hypopigmentation of the palm or the sole of the foot. Over 90 percent of cadmium exposure in general population is considered to be due to diet by the UN body and EU food safety agency. Sri Lanka does not have any safety standards for individual food items or for the diet as a whole. UN body standards are based on the Probability of exposure model based on a diverse diet and the identification that high cadmium items such as kidney, liver and and some sea crustrations are not eaten regularly. The level is 25 micrograms per kg body weight per month. EU standard is based on the protection of groups that consume certain type of food regularly. Level is 11 micg per kg bw per m. US is 6. In SL our diet is highly ‘Persistent’. Eat the same stuff every day. This is more so in rural communities. It is not only rice that matters, but from all sources. NCR soil is now highly toxic due to accumulation of Cd from hill country agriculture. This started in 1950s. Irrigation water though low in Cd but at a rice-water footprint of 2000-5000 l/kg rice makes it a deadly combination. Kidney disease is not the only health condition. There are infants young as 6 month with oral cancer. Likely source is mothers milk. Cadmium is a carcinogen identified by the UN body.

    Dr Kamal Gammampila PhD, MPhil, DIC
    December 24, 2016 at 9:58 pm
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      Dr. Gammanpila, I agree with you here. But I reallydont think that you re related to that ultra nationalist – culprit number one in Joint Oppo -Udaya Gonmanpila. Yes indeed, they even those so called professionals back in home country seem not caring about the threshhold values of heavy metals in ground water. Actually, this they can monitor easily. I believe they have enough Agric graduates and the like professionals to keep alert on those grenzwerte (threshhold values of diverse toxicants being added to ground water). We need to introduce them a system so that they the agra authorties need to be alert on them than anything else. Not only Cadmium but also other hazadous elements could accumulate in poor man s body if the health and agra authorities would not do their job well. In Germany, they control varied kind of contaminants anywhere peoples association is high. They also have food controllers that do the job for health and Food ministries. I believe we have enough insitutions in the country if country wide alert system should be instroduced for regular monitoring of those toxicants. What it matters is the quantity – those farmers who are vulnerable to UKNKD have no other options than rely on the much less resources they are given. I think not only helping them with better medication, but also uplifting their living standards only we can see the number go down.

      Rarityminds
      December 24, 2016 at 10:34 pm
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    Mr. Chandra Dharmawardena is knowingly making false statements. His last statement comparing the cost of RO and rainwater harvesting is an ideal example. RO machine sufficient to provide drinking and cooking water for 1000 families would cost government Rs one million, which is Rs 1000 per family. Whereas household rainwater harvesting cost about 75000 Rs per family. Rainwater harvesting system is 75 times more expensive than RO water system per family. Mr. Chandra Dharmawardena knows this fact very well but continues the wrong statements misleading the public.

    Harsha Kumar
    December 24, 2016 at 11:24 pm
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      Also, all potable water must have certain amount of dissolved solids for it to be safe. rain water is devoid of any dissolved solids and is like distilled water. Distilled water should not be drunk without the addition of the required amounts of solids. Regarding RO, that is a process used in ME to produce drinking water. It is also used in ships. The membranes are very expensive I am not sure that the costs given here are right.

      EDWIN RODRIGO
      December 27, 2016 at 5:39 pm
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        Best would be to provide those farmers too with pipe borne water by introducing more branches of water boards in all bezirks regions of the country. And as some commentators added above, they the water board authorities should be well alert on regular controls on waters. Actually,we have enough professionals appointed for the responsible positions, if they do their duties well. We talk about turning this country a singapore -but not being able to provide the all 21 millions with the cheapest food item-which is clean water; politicians and authorities stay talking only. It is high time them to start working if we really want to become a healthy nation. Those who neglect guidelines in terms keeping enviroment clean must be subjected to all high punishments (like it is the case 500dollars each for anyone who just leave behind the apple peels any city limits in Singapore).

        Dan Fernando
        December 27, 2016 at 9:32 pm
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    to keep alert on those grenzwerte (threshhold values of diverse toxicants being added to ground water).” The professionals back home have done all the needed analysis of the soil and water. The person talking about grenzwert (threshold values) cant read the WHO-NSF funded report from 2013, or the kawakami atlas of heavy metals in Sri lankan Geology, or the earlier (1997) study by Prof. C. Dissanayake. Furthermore, there are studies by Nanayakkara and a Japanese team, all published in peer-reviewed journals and Mr. gernzwert can look them up. I haven’t read all these but I have seen a review article giving this information and references. So what is the result of this chemical analyzes? 1)Three or four independent research groups have unanimously shown that the NCP water and soil DO NOT HAVE any metal toxins in excess of the threshold values stipulated by the regulatory agencies. 2) The rice and vegetables do have excess cadmium, and this was a worrying thing. But this article by Prof. Dharmawardana is very timely as he has drawn attention to the fact that YOU CANNOT JUST LOOK AT CADMIUM ALONE, and hence we need not be scared to eat rice because there is plenty of selenium and zinc in our rice. This is very comforting news. We have to thank Prof. Dharmawardana for drawing attention to the new work coming from the LOCAL PROFESIONALS at Peradeniya University that the public may not get to know. 3. As some witty person (Edward) has indicated how we are becoming a banana republic, (a) the farmers are told that their rice is toxic and full of cadmium and arsenic, when this is false, (b) they are prevented from using an effective and safe herbicide, namely Glyphosate because the government follows idiotic advise and bans the glyphosate (c) farmers can’t sell their produce and don’t have clean water because of foolish advise.

    Local professional
    December 24, 2016 at 11:29 pm
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      Dear Local Professional@ We don’t need to divide but to work on the issue collectively. I read yours and appreicate your response. However, I feel lanken research groups have now been divided in finding real causations on the etiology of CKDu. You may enjoy the writer s thoughts regarding ” I believe lanken rice CANT be Cd-toxic”. However, I cant do so, not knowing the facts yet. And according to the last para of yours – you feel Glyphosat IS no such threat but could further be imported, irrespective of a set of evidences keep emerging more about the harm of its further use –regardless of the geo locations (Germany, Nikaragua, Andrapradesh, Costarika etc).The fact is yet Cadmium toxicity and Glyphosat are No separable parameters in terms of the etiology of lanken CKD. If those 3 or 4 research groups have evidently proved that no excessive amounts of heavy metals are available in soils/water of the endemic regions, why at all these chemists talk about Cd toxicity or contaminations with rice or vegetables ?Yes indeed, those farmers may have been misled by politicians for their political agendas. Those business men that imported the agro chemicals costing billions over the years are today against the current regime for Glypo ban, although EU countries regret not being able get Monsanto herbicide-round up(Glyphosat) banned easily. German activists work diehard to get that done, but for various reasons it has failed sofar. And research groups work for both proxy and anti Glyphosat parties since their focus is to publish their thoughts getting fund allocations for own research projects. So needless to say abou the divisions within the country, I have no doubt they may have divided into two groups Namelya) Proxy Monsanto-agro chemicalsb) Anti- Monsanto –agro chemicalsFacts becoming clear to many today, not only renal diseases but also various other health problems (Alzheimer, other nerve related symptomps) have been reported after 40 years use of Glypo –. European researchers proved lately glypo is found in everyones body, in Germany 99.6% are found to be glyp positiv. However, Europeans in general are well alert on their food controls not letting any contaminations occure going above threshhold values. So the theories Glyph-X compounds cant work for gERMANs even if they would come with renal problems.

      Rarityminds
      December 27, 2016 at 8:58 pm
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      WhatI am interested in is why you guys calling yourself ” local Professionals” but stand against Glyphosat ban in the country ? Are u too working for Monsanto Proxy Research groups ? Even if Glyophosat and its compound building with heavy metals are no yet proved to be the renal damaging factor CKDU patients, almost entire world is now becoming clear that Glyphosat can not be harmless.

      Desperate Lanken
      December 27, 2016 at 9:37 pm
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    s it a deadly combination. Kidney disease is not the only health condition. There are infants young as 6 month with oral cancer. Likely source is mothers milk. Cadmium is a carcinogen identified by the UN body. Dr. Gammampila cannot be a medical doctor, nephrologist or even knowledgeable about Cd toxicity if he thinks that oral cancer in infants is due to cadmium. Cadmium takes a long time to act. Oral cancer is due to well known other causes. Please check what you write instead of spilling out medically unsupported nonsense. Dr. gammmpila says that there are no “safety standards for individual food items or for the diet as a whole”. There are enough saftey standards stipulated by the WHO that we can adopt, and so we know ehat they are. It is in “INTERPRETING” this that people like Gammampila and Dharmawardana seem to differ. Gammampila thinks there is Cadmium and this is dangerous; Dharmawardana thinks that there is Cadmium AND Zinc and the latter (i.e., Zinc) acts to shield the cadmium. Can some one tell us who is right. The Link on cadmium toxicity given in the article ARL : Cadmium Toxicity http://www.arltma.com/Articles/CadmiumToxDoc.htm favours what Dr. Dharmawardana says. But if there are other experts (other than gammmpila or dharmawardana) they should give their opinion.

    Vedamaththaya
    December 24, 2016 at 11:40 pm
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      Vedamahaththayo, you need more reading. None of those gentlemen added things the way your commented above. They are researchers and are well aware of what they ve been talking about while you seem to be have added all nonsence. Like politicians are divided in our poor country, even researchers do behave so divided. One says something just becasue his colleagues support his thoughts. These researchers too are biased as I felt it. Anyways, those poor farming folks are the ones who suffered by such behaviours, since it is still not clear what causes lanken CKDu. Arguments here and there are in air, but nothign is yet clear if Heavy metals alone or being combined with glyphosat attack the damage to kidneys of the poor people.

      Don Juan Appuhamy
      December 27, 2016 at 9:09 pm
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    Harsha Kumar “Mr. Chandra Dharmawardena knows this fact very well but continues the wrong statements misleading the public.” When was he right at least once?

    Native Vedda
    December 24, 2016 at 11:41 pm
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      Mr Native Vedda In scientific facts, no one ever is exactly right even once. they are all approximations. So Dharmawardana need not be right at least even once. If gammmpila is a scientist, he too need not be correct even once. On the other hand, in politics, politicians are never wrong. Native Vedda, being a politician peddling the Tamil Militant cause while pretending to be a vedda, is always right. Venerable Ratana, peddling the Sinhla militant cause, is also always right. Mr. harsha kumar, seems to be dubious (as he hasn’t written here before, as far as I remember), but when he gives a fixed figure for an imported item like Reverse Osmosis machines in a country where the rupee is falling, I doubt what he says. Parts for the RO machines have to be imported. There are running costs for electricity. What is the price of a liter of Reverse-Osmosis water? Rainwater is free once a tank is built with clay available to the farmer, or purchased at the price that Dr. Dharmawardana gives, and that must be an upper value, because I can’t understand why it should cost so much. One can make a tank with cement and bricks for half the price.

      bodin
      December 25, 2016 at 12:42 am
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        ,b> Dark Matter and Cadmium bodin, you say, “In scientific facts, no one ever is exactly right even once. they are all approximations. So Dharmawardana need not be right at least even once. If gammmpila is a scientist, he too need not be correct even once”. Do you realize the seriousness of the issues discussed here? We are not discussing things like the existence of dark matter, or gravity waves here. Even if one happens to be wrong in those it does not matter because, they do not affect our day to day lives and secondly, even if they do, there is nothing we can do about it. Our option then is to leave it to God. But Cadmium is a matter of life and death and things we do can affect the issues in profound ways. So we have to do th eright thing. There is no margin for error here. So, if the author is wrong, I am not going to allow him to go saying ‘Ok, better luck with your next theory”. Also there are no scientific facts, as you say. Only observations and theories which lead up to predictions, more observations and improved theories in a never ending cycle.

        EDWIN RODRIGO
        December 28, 2016 at 12:55 am
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    A responsible government would have carried out the investigations and reassured the people. The govenments we have is so corrupt they are only interested in making money by the way of commissions. What can you expect from a bunch of evil men .

    vas
    December 26, 2016 at 7:28 am
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    I am shocked by the way the author handles this critical question. (e.g.) he says, “This study shows that although there seems to be significantly more Cadmium per kilo of rice than the safe limit stipulated by regulatory agencies like the WHO, there is also a thousand times more Zinc (Zn) in the rice”. He never mentions any figures, which makes me highly skeptical about his other claims. With many vested interests having huge stakes in this matter, I will not be surprised if even professionals fish in troubled waters. In matters like this, a professional must always be guided by data and studies carried out on the affected population. There is nothing worthwhile here on those lines, except to say so and so says this that or the other. This is a matter of life and death for all of us Sri Lankans, especially the farmers who are the backbone of our economy and we have to be very carful in our judgments. I may be wrong but I smell something fishy about this article. It is better to doubt it and be safe than to trust it and slowly kill yourselves and others.

    EDWIN RODRIGO
    December 27, 2016 at 10:34 am
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    How we were poisoned: It all started with the Sirima Shastri pact on the problem of Plantation Tamils of Indian origin. As you all know, they were brought here by the British under conditions perhaps worse than those of African slaves. They were poor, humble and helpless human beings and were brought because the Sinhalese villagers refused to work in the plantations. One thing has to be understood though. They were very hard working and were poorly paid and did not have citizenship in Sri Lanka. With the Sirima Shastri pact, a certain percentage of them were sent back to India while those remaining here were given Sri Lankan citizenship. As a result of the repatriation of Tamil workers, the following sequence of events was triggered. 1- A shortage tea plantation workers was created. 2- Before, the weeds were removed manually by workers using mamoties. No weedicides were used. 3- With the shortage of workers, plantation mangements started to use weedicides containing toxic metals. 4- These chemicals were washed away by rain water and flowed to Raja Rata through the system of irrigation canals and tanks. 5- On reaching the tanks they got deposited at the bottom and the concentration of toxins started to increase gradually reaching dangerous levels. 6- Now Sirima is gone and so has Shastri. The karma of sending back these downtrodden humans is borne by the innocent farmers. It is a classic case of Ditta Dhamma Vedaneeya Karma. I as a another human being feel strongly for them because the funds required for giving me a free education from kindergarten up to the University came partly from the blood and sweat of these people.

    EDWIN RODRIGO
    December 27, 2016 at 4:50 pm
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      Typical EDWIN style-responses :( What has this to do with “Sirima Shastri pact – on the problem of Plantation Tamils of Indian origin” ???? – koheda yanne malle pol style responses ? Anyways, I too feel that the current article is still incomplete. But still I beleive this must not be a research paper with all the numbers included to the article because CT readership is heterogenous. Anyways, I know writer is a senior Prof. in Chemistry. Even in the recent past he came with few articles on CKDu (chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology). Now with the total ban of Glyphosat to the country, some reasearch groups have still been continuing their research being partial to Monsanto (manufacturer company of Glyphosat). Links: https://www.colombotelegraph.com/index.php/whole-some-agriculture-for-a-toxin-free-nation/ https://www.colombotelegraph.com/index.php/how-the-glyphosate-ban-will-trigger-political-violence-in-the-hill-country/

      Dan Fernando
      December 27, 2016 at 5:30 pm
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        Dan Fernando, actually the whole thing started around 4000 years ago with Adam eating the poisoned apple under the orders of Eve. But I thought, though relevant, it may be too long for low IQ Sri Lankans and decided on the above version of about 30 lines, which I think would be within the capability of average Sri Lankans. Those who think it is still too long, perhaps they can go straight to the last dot. I am sure they will not loose much by doing that.

        EDWIN RODRIGO
        December 27, 2016 at 7:52 pm
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          What about your IQ – you may be adding this and that not knowing much about what writer has been trying to say. Edwin, please read it and then come to commenting phase. Surely, that can then help us the readership if anything what you add is meaningful. Good luck.

          Don Juan Appuhamy
          December 27, 2016 at 9:13 pm
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            Sorry Buddy. I know that I am a joker. Just wait for my next comment – RO and Cd for Dummies. Don’t miss it OK?

            EDWIN RODRIGO
            December 27, 2016 at 10:24 pm
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      Edwin, “One thing has to be understood though. They were very hard working and were poorly paid and did not have citizenship in Sri Lanka.” “It is a classic case of Ditta Dhamma Vedaneeya Karma. I as a another human being feel strongly for them because the funds required for giving me a free education from kindergarten up to the University came partly from the blood and sweat of these people.” Brilliant analysis of our recent history. But I think some people may not like your calling a spade a spade.

      old codger
      December 27, 2016 at 6:19 pm
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        One good thing about this type of forum on the web is that no one can so much as throw a pebble at another.

        EDWIN RODRIGO
        December 27, 2016 at 10:44 pm
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    Cadmium and RO for Dummies Cost of RO: Small salt filters that fit on a faucet cost $199 USD at Budget Water USA. Larger RO (reverse osmosis) desalination systems for boats, such as a 12-24 volt desalinator that produces up to 70 gallons of potable water a day, may cost between $4980 and $7960 USD (from Echotech in Trinidad). Edwin’s comment: This is the initial cost. We have many RO plants in the Middle East. I am not an expert, but having done some work in them I know what they are like. RO requires extremely high pressure pumps, expensive membranes etc. etc.. The maintenance costs are very high. Recently we scrapped a large SWRO (Sea Water Reverse Osmosis) plant because it was very expensive to operate and availability was low. The cost of a liter of potable water was more than that of gasoline. The membranes were from DuPont and extreme care has to be taken about water that goes in. One mistake and the membranes would be gone. The plant was a huge loss and hence scrapped. I wonder whether those people here who talk about RO have ever seen one even from a distance. RO may be OK for removing Nacl but For Cd I think it is like using a very expensive battle axe to kill a fly. Look for other methods is my non expert advice. Many health agencies have set exposure standards designed to protect the general public from excess cadmium exposure from various sources. FDA • Maximum limit of cadmium in bottled water: 0.005 mg/L. ATSDR • Chronic durational oral minimal risk level (MRL) of 0.1 µg/kg/day of cadmium based on its renal effects. • This MRL standard states how much cadmium can be taken in orally chronically without risk of adverse health effects (ATSDR 1999). EPA • Food – Reference dose is 1 x 10-3 mg/kg/day (ATSDR 1999). • Water – Reference dose for human exposure is 5 x 10-4 mg/kg/day. • Reference dose (Rfd) is an estimate of a daily exposure to the general population (including sensitive subgroups) that is likely to be without appreciable risk of deleterious effects during a lifetime (IRIS 2006). World Health Organization (WHO) Tolerable weekly intake for cadmium at 7�g/kg/body weight/week Edwin’s comment: You decide how much Cd is enough to kill you or give you CKD or cancer. Buy your own titration kit from Ali Baba and make a small lab in a back room of your home to test the water and to decide how much Zn is to be taken. Hope to see you soon in one of the 6 Deva Lokas. I hear Parinirmitha Vasavartiya is the best.

    EDWIN RODRIGO
    December 27, 2016 at 10:19 pm
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    Dear All, I talked to someone who is highly experienced in large scale RO plant here in ME. He is in charge of 4 MGPD (million gallon per day) plant here. He recommends RO. They said the prices are coming down and maintainability is not an issue any more with new designs.

    EDWIN RODRIGO
    December 29, 2016 at 3:32 pm
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