15 August, 2022


No Bourgeoisies, No Democracy

By Sarath de Alwis –

Sarath de Alwis

“It was not Marx’s aim to discover the “eternal laws” of economy. He denied the existence of such laws. The history of the development of human society is the history of the succession of various systems of economy, each operating in accordance with its own laws. The transition from one system to another was always determined by the growth of the productive forces, i.e., of technique and the organization of labour. Up to a certain point, social changes are quantitative in character and do not alter the foundations of society, i.e., the prevalent forms of property.” ~ Leon Trotsky in ‘Living thoughts of Karl Marx’ 

In the dark, forbiddingly bleak topography of our dysfunctional democracy, the emergence of the  National People Power coalition, is a refreshingly propitious development. 

The center left intelligentsia could not resist comparing it to the mass rally of the United Left Front that bought a similar multitude enthused by the possibility of a solid socialist solidarity in a coalition led by NM, Dr. Wicks and Philip.

The first speaker, old Samasamajist Lal Wijenayake recalled that Galle face was the launching pad for the great ‘Hartal ‘of 1952, organized by the left movement against the UNP’s comprador bourgeoisie regime.  

What struck me, was that none recalled the incident on Galle face where our pioneering left stalwarts produced Mark Anthony Bracegirdle after filing a habeas corpus petition preventing his deportation. 

As far as I know, no Supreme Court judge recused himself from hearing the writ application on the ground that he played bridge with Governor Stubbs who ordered the deportation.  

This event in 1937, eleven years before our independence was an epochal reiteration of a citizen’s right to free speech and liberty. With that skirmish with the ‘Raj’, our island nation was   catapulted in to  modernity and the age of universal human rights.   

It was our first brush with the true spirit of universal civic citizenship – a principle which one of the main contenders for the presidency wishes to erase from the books.  

Colonialism despite its wickedness introduced some fundamental principles that evolved during the age of enlightenment. 

Forgetting Bracegirdle is natural. We have no historical memory of struggle in the evolution of democracy, its processes and institutions. The British gave us universal franchise and a parliamentary democracy. 

Our C.W.W. Kannangara is forgotten just as Ambedkar is forgotten  India! We don’t care for equality or champions of social justice. Democracy is horizontal. Our intrinsic cultural ethos is vertical and so is the mechanism of state.  

Reason, tolerance, autonomy, conception of the rights of man, the imperative of applying scientific methods in our social and political thinking, instead of priestly witchcraft are distinctive values that we have adopted and practice with reluctance. We blabber about Lichchvi rulers engaging in democratic debate purely to hide the truth that democracy is a colonial legacy. 

Karl Marx said it for all time. “Colonial transformation brought about “the only social revolution ever heard of in Asia.” 

No wonder, we do not remember how we ended up with the right of Habeas Corpus!  

The message of the people power movement is very simple. Everybody has a vote. But yet a large swathe of our populace remains beyond the pale held hostage by clientelist politics, constantly negotiating allegiance in exchange for state patronage.   

What is refreshing about the new movement is that it dramatically differs from mainstream political actors who during times of electioneering adopt short term target centric methods of conscience arousal of the common people – the hoi polloi by herd hysteria (invisible enemies) or mass mesmerizing (Cornucopia round the corner). 

It is a pathbreaking attempt by the Janatha Vimukthi Permuna to broaden its political base beyond the ideological territory of Marxist Leninism that they claim to profess. 

The germinal idea for this brief essay occurred to me on seeing a huge red flag with the hammer and sickle – the communist insignia which in the public psyche is more associated with Stalin’s dictatorship than with a promised dictatorship of the proletariat. 

On the stage was, vivacious Samanalee Fonseka of the ‘Aluth Parapura’ movement, one of the constituent groups of the movement. It is decidedly an alliance that includes the bourgeoisie or the town’s people living in urban high-rises with trendy pantries with empty refrigerators. 

Catechism of ‘people’s power’ was explained by Professor Liyanage Amarakeerthi  of the Department of Sinhala,  Peradeniya university and accomplished academic in western  literary theory. 

He explained the reasons for the founding of the movement labeled ‘power of people’. 

The raison d’etre of the coalition of 28 activists groups was to educate the indifferent, mobilize the marginalized and to effectuate a mass consciousness to find way forward for a nation in drift. Restoration of a parliamentary democracy was its imperative. 

What does this proposition suggest? The JVP has unhesitatingly arrived at the realization that the task ahead is to bring about changes within the existing parliamentary democracy.   

The people power movement intends to challenge the holders of power and motivate the entire society to redress deep-rooted social grievances. It is a protest against inequality and injustice. It seeks to restore critical civil society values and social norms.

By directly appealing to the mass consciousness of a society it attempts to overpower tribal, parochial prejudices. It fosters the idea of a meaningful democracy – system of governance by and for the people. 

In his classic work “Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy” Joseph Schumpeter describes democracy as “that institutional arrangement for arriving at political decisions in which individuals acquire the power to decide by means of a competitive struggle for the people’s vote”. 

A more precise or succinct definition of democracy in the context of competitive party politics would be nearly impossible. 

Now here comes the acid test for the Presidential Candidate Anura Kumara Dissanayake and his party the JVP. 

As the renowned political theorist Seymour Martin Lipset points out, we cannot ignore the umbilical link between a market economy and democracy. It is a simple, absolute actuality conceded by Marxist encomiasts as well as Capitalist economists. Modern democracy is a product of the capitalist process.  

Here comes the rub. No Bourgeoisie, no democracy! The famous adage is by Barrington Moore in his seminal work ‘Social Origins of Democracy and Dictatorship’. 

I should contextualize these theoretical excursions in to the current and contemporary political circus.  Minister Patali Champika Ranawaka has told the US ambassador that General Shavendra de Silva is our Ulysses Grant- the Civil War hero of the Americans. 

The irony is inescapable. The founding fathers treated slaves as property. The US civil war made true democracy possible. In our land civil war made us a family fiefdom. I won thirty-year war in three and half years. He! He!  

Tracing the link between democracy and the urban middle-class, sociologist Moore demonstrates how the ‘southern landed aristocracy opposed the northern bourgeoisie’s democratizing efforts, sparking the civil war. 

Post-civil war commercial farmers and urban town dwellers fostered capitalism and democracy in that order. 

Now this may sound a bit impudent. Comrade Anura and the JVP must rediscover Marx in the context of the 21st century.  Capitalism has its intrinsic contradictions. Socialism has had its successes and setbacks. 

As South African socialists have painfully discovered … perennial questions about how and when humanity may advance to ‘a unique equilibrium without social antagonisms’ requires’ an ongoing transparent interrogation. In that there should be no doctrinaire holy cows. The Hammer and sickle emblem were out of place. Stalin made it the equivalent of the Swastika. 

I think Samanalee Fonseka on the stage was sporting designer sunglasses. Atta girl go for it. 

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  • 4

    “I think Samanalee Fonseka on the stage was sporting designer sunglasses. Atta girl go for it.”

    Time has not dimmed your eyesight, Sarath! …….. A lustful romantic heart beats in there …….. Atta way to go boy!! :)))

    • 4


      The romance was the sight of young vibrant soul standing up in a universe of grief to create happiness for all of us. .

      • 0

        You are absolute correct on romance but utterly wrong on. Trotsky is not the right person to look for interpretation on Marx; for, he had reformed view of Marxism which is referred to as Trotskyism AKA non-ending revolution suggesting that regression to new orthodoxy after a revolution create needs for new ones. On the contrary, Marx believed strongly that the communist socialism is the final stage of Human Civilization.

        However, revisiting relevance of Marxism to modern day political economics is like trying to revive Lamarckism to understand evolution. Today, Lamarck’s theory is mentioned only as a failed theory in footnotes. Despite the proud claim by Marxists I have proved that it is not even a materialistic theory; for, any theory with a human value judgement as one of the fundamental explanation cannot qualify to be classified as a materialistic theory!

        I don’t know how far AKD & JVP have moved away from their original Marxism b’cos they have never explained in explicit terms. But I believe that, despite becoming “cold” from the original “Fire” tactic, their devotion to principles remains unchanged. The reason for my conclusion is Marx’s own tactic of building alliances with existing anti-establishments movements for progressive gains until the final kill. It is clear that JVP political strategy follows this same pattern. For example, AKD explicitly said that they would support the UNP led Gvt only to get what they want. In other words, for them, NPPM is only another weighing station. On the democratic front, this tactic can produce good results but their demands on economic front is devastating.

      • 0

        I my reply, the first sentence should read, “You are absolutely correct on romance but your are utterly wrong on Marxism”.

        By the way, Marx used the term Petit Bourgeois to define a class of people such as merchants, small land owning farmers etc., who are unwilling to join the revolution of working class. In modern economic (not social b’cos they don’t behave as a coherent social group) terms, it is the middle class which include many job categories that were considered as labor class jobs during Marx’s days. Nonetheless, your general assessment is still valid.

        However, there is a strange irony here: The larger the middle class becomes at the expense of the lover class, the good for the democracy but bad for the class struggle of Marxists making their slogans increasingly redundant. For example, will AKD’s son who works for Air Lanka will ever follow dad’s footstep? If they can’t convince their own second generation of the fruits of what they do, what can they teach us?

  • 1

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  • 1

    if this leopard can change its spots so be it

  • 0

    No Bourgeoisie, No Democracy?but

    What about bourgeoisie democracy?

  • 0

    Mr. Sarath de Alwis,

    As usual, a fine piece from you. Let me do some nitpicking. “The great ‘Hartal ‘of 1952”? It was in 1953 – to be precise, it was 12 August 1953. In 1952, UNP assumed office after election.

    • 0

      Yes.1953. I stand corrected.

  • 5

    Sri Lanka has no genuine Bourgeoisie, only an artificial creation of pretenders.

    The capabilities and the philosophies of the bourgeoisie that created the Western civilisation is completely missing here. What we have here are two penny imitators with neither the skills nor the ethics of a middle class.We only see a determination to escape their rural idiocy by getting a Colombo job, foreign scholarship and a car with a driver while been corrupt and inefficient.

    So we cannot have a true democracy

  • 0

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  • 2

    Agree with Sarath de Alwis {“No Bourgeoisies, No Democracy”}
    Nowadays it is the Bourgeoise who discuss Democracy in earnest at cocktails.
    Bourgeois-Democracy is an oxymoron!
    The first line mentions ‘our dysfunctional democracy’
    We never had ‘democracy’. The founding fathers created the language-divide which gave rise to the two-tier citizens. Not surprisingly turned into language/religion-divide and is now the Sinhala-Buddhist SLPP.
    We agree that {“National People Power coalition, is a refreshingly propitious development”}.
    It is a force to be reckoned with. Will certainly reward us, layLankans, in due course.
    PS: Successive GoSL have shown that coalitions do not work. National People Power must consider coalescing.
    Saerath mentions {“….Minister Patali Champika Ranawaka has told the US ambassador that General Shavendra de Silva is our Ulysses Grant- the Civil War hero of the Americans…….”}
    Champika is telling both sides “I am ready to hop the fence”.

  • 0

    What a hard selling of “Anura Communism”!
    A joke is said about Tamil grocery stories. It goes like this:
    Client: Boss, Do you have the rice “XYZ-brand Basmati”?
    Owner: We do carry that too sir.
    Client: Can I take two bags of it?
    Owner: Sorry, I just finished it, that man in front of you took last bag. But it is coming next week.
    Client: Is ok if I come next Wednesday?
    Owner: Normally it should be fine, because that rice delivery man comes on Wednesday Mornings. But my problem is that guy didn’t show up for last three weeks. So I am not able to say anything sure for you on that.
    Client: Ok, let me try somewhere else. Thank you. (The client is trying to leave.)
    Owner: Sir, I have very good Chinese white rice. I give you for a special price. You rice price is $20 a bag. I give this for $10. It is better than yours, sir.
    Client: But Chinese rice is $5 a bag. Are you saying it is $10.
    Owner: This is not what you buy at other places. Just try once to see if you would like it. Then you can save $10 for each bag.
    The client bought that rice by the hard sales of the owner and cooked it. It was one pot full of white, Chinese glue. He checked his bill hoping to return the rice. There was in fine print “We do not accept opened grocery bags for return”.
    What the Marxist Intellectuals are doing is using an Australian, Bracegirdle’s name to market their local frauds. I asked this question already. Can one tell me who is/was last honest left in Lankawe (Not Australian)? From NM, Colvin to Vasu, DEW, Tissa (leave aside Bahu and Srithunga of NSSP) ……. Why these Marxist Lankaweyans are selling their own version of Asian Miracle, but not just want to follow a disciple of Ceylon, Lee Kwan Yew, who followed the example of Ceylon? Singapore is true Asian Miracle.

  • 0

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  • 1

    It is strange that one who wants to emphasize that there are no eternal laws of economy by quoting Trotsky, pronounces ‘no bourgeoisie, no democracy’ almost as a law by quoting Barrington Moore in the title!

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