18 September, 2020

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Sri Lankan Foreign Policy In The New Decade

By Chamindra Weerawardhana –

Dr. Chamindra Weerawardhana

Part One: Managing Big-Power Relations: a story of rocks and hard places

In this series of articles, this writer seeks to shed light upon certain salient aspects of managing Sri Lankan foreign policy in the 21st century’s third decade. This series is penned from a perspective of foreign policy analysis and management, with a strong focus on realpolitik and the challenges that we face, right here and now. 

Veteran diplomat and External Affairs Minister of the second Modi ministry, Dr Subrahmanyam Jaishankar once noted that good foreign policy requires practitioners of diplomacy to be practical, hard-headed, but also ethical. In the sector of foreign policy, when it comes to ‘people-to-people’ ties between diplomats and policymakers, chemistry goes a long way. When it comes to relations between states, what matters most is credibility. It is in a spirit of this nature that Sri Lanka ought to navigate the current US-Lanka foreign policy ferment [which invariably includes defence and security agreements in the context of the ongoing US focus on the ‘Indo-Pacific’, trade issues and people-to-people ties]. Credibility is an absolute must. This invariably involves being credible to the Sri Lankan people, to Sri Lankan interests, and also to our international partners. This is especially the case when it comes to the big powers we are forced to deal with. Managing foreign relations in today’s world requires tough negotiations, compromises, and a constant commitment to seek the best possible outcome for one’s country. 

In articulating his foreign policy priorities during his first ministry, Prime Minister Narendra Modi made it a point to give high-level positions to Indians with years of experience in the United States. This also included the appointment of Dr Jaishankar as Foreign Secretary back in 2015. This move has multiple explanations – geopolitics and power politics in the SAARC region and in the broader South/Southeast Asian region being non-negligible factors. Strengthening Delhi’s relations with Washington DC and ensuring that the most qualified people were given the opportunity to manage India-USA relations can be considered as a key factor that has facilitated Prime Minister Modi’s political successes. In terms of ensuring the effectiveness of foreign relations, this principle can be further expanded. As Dr Shashi Tharoor has repeatedly noted in relation to the Indian Foreign Service [IFS], Sri Lanka could also hugely benefit by institutionalising entry into foreign affairs for mid-career professionals, and to people with country and subject-specific expertise. 

Sri Lanka: No chance to pick and choose

 In a multipolar world, a small country like ours cannot pick and choose one superpower over another [this, in hindsight, was a monumental mistake committed by the Mahinda Rajapaksa administration, especially during its second term of office, and was a major factor that contributed to its nemesis]. Strategically speaking, there is a clear need to situate ourselves at a juncture in which we [re]adapt the old legacy of non-alignment to suit the needs, priorities and geopolitical trends of the present time. 

Firstly, the foremost step in such a process is to take stock of the obvious – that we can no longer be non-aligned, in any reasonable respect. 

Secondly, there is a clear need of constant revisiting and re-examining of how we manage our relations with big powers.  While it goes without saying that we need to uphold Sri Lankan interests as much as possible, it is extremely crucial to take all possible cautionary steps to avoid scenarios in which relations with one superpower negatively affect relations with another. The task at hand is beyond challenging, to say the very least. Navigating it imperatively requires bringing together the best talent we can muster to manage our foreign policy. The appointment of Dr Jaishankar, a multilingual and seasoned diplomat as well as a strong negotiator, as Minister of External Affairs is an example of how the Modi Government works to maximise the best available talent. There are Sri Lankan precedents to such talent-maximising in high politics – the most notable from the last few decades being the appointment of the late Lakshman Kadirgamar as Minister of Foreign Affairs in 1994. Indeed, having Kadirgamar as foreign Minister was a key factor that enabled the Kumaratunga administration to navigate foreign affairs against many odds, with secessionist terrorism holding sway and the Tamil diaspora’s anti-Sri Lanka mobilisation at its peak.

Above: During the Cold War years, Ceylon/Sri Lanka would veer from one side to another depending on who was in power in Colombo. President J.R. Jayewardene’s close ties with the USA do not require any reiteration. This article is also not the place to discuss the merits (or lack thereof) of Sri Lanka-USA relations under the Jayewardene administration. However, this photo stands out as a crucial reminder of the good relations that have long existed, and of the importance of ‘taking due care of’ Colombo’s relations with Washington DC when managing Sri Lankan foreign policy. This photo was taken on the evening of the state banquet hosted by President and Mrs Reagan during President and Mrs Jayewardene’s state visit to the USA [17th to 20th June 1984]. The importance of this photograph is further increased by yet another factor that is suggestive of the work that needs to be put in: to date, this remains the ‘most recent’ state visit by a sitting Sri Lankan head of state to the USA (©Ronald Reagan Presidential Library and Museum, USA National Archives].

With, and not Against, Washington DC? 

In terms of managing relations with global superpowers, there is one point that requires reiteration. It is absolutely crucial that Sri Lanka positions herself very clearly at a place where we work with, and not against, US interests in the Indo-Pacific. This does not, in any way, imply a call to sideline our relations with China or Russia, or for that matter with any other emergent superpower. What this means is a rational, realpolitik-based approach to foreign policy, in which situations of major collision are avoided with Washington DC, given the absolutely vital importance of Lanka-USA relations, in every perceivable aspect. Managing this relationship cautiously is inherently linked to national security and the upholding of Sri Lanka’s best interests on the world stage.

The challenge, then, is that of going about this task while maintaining and strengthening ties with other global superpowers, in a variety of areas. Managing relations with superpowers is always much more of a challenge to a small country than it is to a bigger and more influential power. Bargaining chips may not always be on our side, to say the very least. It is here that multi-pronged creative approaches intended at amplifying  strong negotiating skills, soft power, and public diplomacy become highly useful. Even more importantly, it is vital to deploy civil society and ongoing rights movements within Sri Lanka to our distinct advantage in the sphere of foreign policy. Unfortunately, this continues to be a woefully unexplored terrain. 

The Key To It All: Delhi  & the Ethnonational Question

It goes without saying that maintaining healthy relations with any world power is nigh impossible in the case of shortfalls in our relations with Delhi. The best benchmark to measure how successfully [or not] we are managing our foreign policy is to look at the state of our relations with India. There is a clear need to take more steps to strengthen and enhance the productivity and vibrancy of Colombo’s existing relations with Delhi. The Gotabaya Rajapaksa administration has taken a very commendable first step – of providing a clear reassurance that it will not take any action that hinders relations with Delhi. This is an excellent basis for more work, in terms of bilateral cooperation, stronger trade ties, better sea and air transportation links and steps towards a durable, mutually beneficial and dignified resolution to the fisheries crisis of our northerly waters – to name but a few. Indeed, the elephant in the room here is Sri Lanka’s ethnonational question. It is an absolute imperative to work towards developing a consistent policy framework on post-conflict development, reconciliation, transitional justice, national language policy, the Sri Lankan diaspora, and political/constitutional reform. What policymakers are somewhat slow to take stock of is the extent to which domestic and external politics are intertwined. If Colombo is to communicate one message to India and to the wider international community and other [and oftentimes conflicting] messages to different demographics locally, the cracks and inconsistencies of such a policy approach will soon begin to show home and abroad, taking its toll on our credibility on the world stage. 

To conclude, suffice to add a word about keeping the peace ‘closest to home’. When formulating Sri Lanka’s India policy, focusing on Delhi alone is far from sufficient. A key part of managing Indo-Lanka relations in the next decade ought to involve a series of cogent steps to change the deeply estranged dynamics of our relations with Tamil Nadu. Despite the long-standing presence of a Deputy High Commission in Chennai, we are yet to succeed in developing a mutually beneficial, cosmopolitan and well and truly 21st century brand of relations with Tamil Nadu. Envisioning Tamil Nadu in an antagonistic perspective is extremely unhelpful to bilateral relations, especially in the present-day regional and global context. In sum, minimal conflict with Delhi, passant par better ties with Tamil Nadu, and working with [and not against] Washington DC are absolute musts, if not the 2020 ground rules, if Sri Lanka is to keep herself on the right track, and avoid tragedies [such as that of Easter Sunday 2019], and externally orchestrated efforts to bring weak governments to power in Colombo. 

To be continued. 

*Dr Chamindra Weerawardhana [@fremancourt] is a writer, political analyst and gender justice activist. She is the author of Decolonising Peacebuilding: Managing Conflict from Northern Ireland to Sri Lanka and Beyond, and most recently, of ‘Erasure at the “Tipping Point”? Transfeminist Politics and Challenges for Representation’, in, Fiona Macdonald and Alexandra Dobrowolsky [Eds] 2020 Turbulent Times, Transformational Possibilities: Gender and Politics Today and Tomorrow. Toronto: University of Toronto Press [forthcoming]. 

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Latest comments

  • 11
    0

    Having Kadirgamar as foreign Minister was a key factor that enabled the Kumaratunga administration to navigate foreign affairs against many odds, when in some in minority is appointed to speaks siding a sri lanka the world set in attention mode then listens, the world looks when minority speaks stronger than the majority, amplifying strong negotiating skills, accountability and human rights.
    it is an evident to accepts the country is maintaining equal privileges and equal rights, The reading Speech At UNHRC, Human Rights Chief said the system is not Not Convinced and as risks setting back efforts to advance reconciliation one

    • 4
      4

      JR had it even better. SL got away with July 1983 scot-free!

      But JR stopped short of offering Trinco to US for the next Okinawa. Had he done so, SL would have exterminated Tamil terrorists long ago with complete impunity. The milk rice moment would have arrived 25 years prior.

      • 4
        1

        Dr.Chamindra has pointed to Indian practices in appointing persons with country specific experience to important positions. But is this applicable here?
        Udayanga Weeratunga would head the Russian desk. Basil would head the Chinese one (or at least 10% of it). And of course the Boss is already a US citizen.
        The difference is that the Indian establishment is highly educated whereas ours is barely literate.
        As another contributor has mentioned, we must improve relations with Tamil Nadu, our closest neighbour. TN is now a booming industrial powerhouse, not the shit-hole that our ignorant population seem to think it is. It has highways, Metros and airports, free of foreign debt. There is much we could learn about debt-free development.

  • 7
    2

    to the best of my knowledge, India has a better and well organized foreign policy program/department for many a decade.
    they are manned by the best available career diplomats who have been nothing but an asset to this nation and they still are.
    =
    sadly in sad sorry Lanka, it’s always on the reverse down the many a pallan mode.?
    for the last 72 years ever since independence one can count on his fingers as to how many competent souls have been on merit allowed to bring glory and sunshine to this beleaguered lost cause of a nation.
    =
    if only Great Britain was allowed to continue to be the masters, we will not be a hook, line and sunk case as Lanka today has the privileged prestigious negative always down in the dumps isle which is in debt to every mother’s son and daughter.?
    =
    whom you are close to with the right political connection guarantees a DPL posting and on completion of such an incompetent tenure, he or she is assured of bringing down tons of luxurious duty-free items which include the latest models of the available motor vehicles.
    the foreign office ever since 1956 became the elite of the swabasha elite and even today after the biggest of them all poll on the 16th November 2019 have been converted into a banda seizing the plum office positions, the nathawo ape minusoo who are on the right side of the family tree and many an uncouth unsavory criminal undesirable characters are now ruling the roost in these much sought after capitals of the globe.
    =
    it is whiter Sri Lanka time and only a short period of time is needed to make it the best Kota Uda laughing stock nation in the world…
    A BIg ALLELUIA and many a thank you to the SLFP, LSSP, MEP< CP who along with the minority individuals or political parties whose valiant efforts have made this once well respected adored isle.

    • 3
      2

      the present office holder of this coveted office is nor has even been a yokel who is an incompetent senile nut job who is well past his use-by date.?
      the same are too is with his assistant the current foreign secretary
      =
      it is now a jumble in a kunuba kunu thel bottalle.?.
      =
      it is soon to be an RIP case, even then the corrupt incompetent mirth-less souls will keep on and on driving recklessly till death do them part.
      sooner the better I can state.?

    • 5
      3

      ROHAN JOHNPILLAI

      I understand that Jawaharlal Nehru who when he visited Sri Lanka in the 1950s warned S W R D Pandaranayakam that Ceylon could not afford to have an independent foreign policy.

      As far as Hindians are concerned Sri Lanka is the Sinhala State of Hindia.
      Full stop.

    • 7
      0

      Until 2009, the war destroyed the nation. Since 2009, triumphalism is doing the damage. Whenever Sri Lanka and the Lankans understand & accept that we are a poor, weaker nation, that will be the day we will start to become a stronger nation.

  • 1
    5

    Chamindra sounds just like another colombo centric liberal activist.

  • 6
    1

    It is good to know that Sri Lanka has a foreign policy that requires a succession of articles. It was cooked up by flippers of hamburgers, relatives and friends of sundry politicians including ex petrol pump attendants and fixers of a load of scandalous overseas transactions. In between, the strategy has been to hock the country to China because they have loads of money. So, we have Hambantota and the Port City handed over under secret agreements for 99 years with the Mahanayakes, the great protectors of the island, totally silent because they have their benzes. Indians are cheesed off as are the Yanks. They will react. No need for deep analysis here. The people are just grass in this game. Charlatans like Kadirgamar were just window dressing. They did what the large guys wanted them to do.

  • 4
    1

    Bravo! This is an excellent analysis and prescription of what our foreign policy for the future should be.
    /
    I just can’t believe that you havefailed to pay attention, and omitted, the issue of eliminating discrimination against L.G.B.T.Q.I.A. community. This should be a vital part of our foreign policy if we are to become a respected member of the international community promoting Jewish values internationally.
    /
    Marriage among all sections of LGBTQIA should be allowed without any limitation and you should start and lead a campaign for this purpose.

  • 3
    1

    No, No No. We shouldn’t think about Tamil Nadu.
    If we do then our brains might ask questions about our origins.
    If we think about our origins then we might have to change our history.
    If we ever change the narrative of our history then it would trigger race, religion based animosity among communities. Many enterprises built on this concept have to financially and intellectually go to bankrupt.
    Shall we bother to wake up a sleeping giant?
    It took well-coordinated effects from so many champs to force the giant to go to sleep.
    No, No No. We shouldn’t think about Tamil Nadu.

    • 4
      0

      Mr. SG,
      Very well put. Totally agree with you.

  • 6
    0

    SL foreign policy is based on who gives the highest bribe. We have seen how Rajapakse family milked China and bent over backwards to give into Chinese whims and fancies. At least the Yahapalana Govt tried to neutralize it but they too failed. Now Gota-Mahinda-Pohottuwa Govt has ruined what Yahapalana Govt did by withdrawing from the UN Resolution. We will soon see the international response to it. All SL present Govt had to do was to appoint “an Independent Public Inquiry” with foreign media permitted to observe. One step forward they could have even given UN observer status. This would have resolved and would have given a chance to prove, as the Rajapakse Govt says, SL armed forces did not commit war crimes. But Gota-Mahinda-Pohottuwa Govt is hell bent on saying SL armed forces did not commit crimes is not a correct stand.

  • 1
    2

    It is funny when JRJ visited USA both of the visitors are on the CEment floor, The hosts are on the Carpet.

    • 4
      0

      Cement floor? I beg your pardon. It was Carrera marble, and very nice too, possibly grander than the red carpet.

  • 1
    1

    Can Sri Lanka have the foreign policy that it wants to have or does it have to be of some thing that how very small dish behave in the middle of very larger fish. See how many other countries far larger than sri Lanka are manoeuvring. Sri Lanka’s foreign forces should come only crossing the sea, mostly via India. But, there are countries surrounded by the land all around the country. Yet they behave much independent than those in Sri Lanka with respect to the interactions with bigger fish. Only difference is they had to fight for independence but Sri Lanka got independence, becuase, kalusuddhas in sri lanka doing it good for them and as they had to leave (from Afghanisthan to burma) little island was not useful. Probably American missionary church had liad foundation for their program to progress.

    • 0
      0

      Previous govt did it very finely in terms of external affairs. Srilankans are another hunger nation to the westerners even if BPs of the country make every effort to put them above.

      It was really nice the way, Mangala et al, settled the issue in the begining of 2015. Our self proclaimed political analyst was speechless not being able to see, the manner ;Mangala settled it. If not for previous govt, BPs of Rajapakshes family would have now been hung by their balls. Now again, we have no doubt, BPs provoked UNHRC and make every effort to create new problems.
      Those bps close to Sirisena should be made accoutable for the mess created in the country today.
      Entire europe is aware that RAJAPAKSHES are idiots. They are only killer friendly people. They dont care about any human values but their own pockets.
      Local press is now made silent by Baseil Rajakshe… media should be ashamed not to have uttered a single word about the political stagantion in thie country today. Those men in previous govt within 100 day, did and achieved lot more for the benefit of the nation. There had been press freedom unlike the case today.
      Today, university students are attacked. Some shop keepers are attacked and killed. Nothing like that were heard during the previous govt.

  • 1
    1

    Chamindra Weerawardhana:

    When JRJ visited USA to show Sri Lanka’s full 100% allegiance to USA as a courtesy, they must have laid the carpet in perpendicular direction and must have accommodated this man and woman from the little Island. That is compassion in our psyche. But, they showed that the Almighty is the most superior and unsurpassed to any one else on earth. That is how they showed their greatness. Look childish. How can you have a foreign policy with that mindset. I am thinking whether JRJ felt stupid.

  • 4
    1

    Hello Sri Lankans,

    When will you all give up comfort and change SL politics forever. When will you bring an end to this day light robbery and saluting the thieves?

    Please think of your children and future generation. Get on to the street, end this circus.

  • 2
    1

    Sri Lanka is sandwiched between all regional and international powers …sk what could we do..
    Nothing but to change policies to avoid confrontation…

  • 6
    4

    Srilanka cannot have a successful foreign policy or national policy because the main factor that restricts or barrier is the violent Buddhist Fundamentalism is tightly connected with the governments. The current government is an anti Indian, anti American and anti minorities.

    • 0
      3

      ajith you are writing rubbish to bolster your long term hatred for the Sinhalese Buddhists. You are beginning to sound like our resident idiot Johnpillai. No country has a completely independent foreign policy, not even the US or China. Everything is compromise although some like India are stronger than others like Sri Lanka. .

      • 1
        0

        Adrianna –
        like all the yaks you by not being able to have a successful online duel with a high-class quality Tamil vagabond, you in your frustrations and mediocrity have to resort to personal insults which are truly untrue.
        =
        chee,chee, chee how inferior you feel.?
        =
        if you are able to pursue my Facebook page under my name, one will be able to ascertain for their own good selves as to which community that I feel very very comfortable with.?
        =
        I have tons of yak play-girl bunnies than my own ilk.
        =
        why should one ask.?
        =
        I am not a racist do not hate the Sinhalese personally, but do love to have a go morally and legally to set their ire’s right.
        I despise the foolish politicians of every race, the petty fundamentalists the saffron-clad so-called rowdy monks and those who by their petty-mind actions and works are still driving the once rich now a Kota uda bankrupt hell-hole.?
        =
        Adrianna, my love am I right or wrong>?
        =
        cheers, R. J.

      • 1
        0

        Adrian,
        I am a follower of Buddha’s teaching, not Mahinda’s teachings. If you are a supporter of a murderer governing this country, you are not fit to be a Buddhist. I only hate who create hatred against those who disadvantaged in the island. If you understand the meaning of compromise, the country would not have bloodshed since 1958.

  • 3
    1

    What ever the foreign policy is, Sri Lanka’s prime objective of everything must be to make the country a better place for it’s citizens. Any foreign policy which does not achieve that objective is futile. Sri Lanka is highly intertwined with india, then Asia etc,etc, we need to consider that too. In order to achieve that objective Sri Lanka must have some basic or bottom line policy frame work. Any foreign that obstructs those objectives are useless. You can discuss so many thing just beating around the bush and can include lot of tough terminology. But, everything is nonsense.

  • 3
    6


    American Policy for Hindians is totally different to American Policy for Lankans-

    American wants Hindians to buy their good and services to keep the the US Economy ticking…
    And Hindians to help America to protect them from Chinese Economics and Trade dominance at present .
    And the protection from Chinese Military Power going forward.

    In contrast America wants SriLanka for many reasons which have nothing to do with their above needs..

    America wants parking spaces for their 7th Fleet first and , to keep an eye on Magampuara and its Chinese Assets , going forward.
    And prevent Magampura becoming the single most important and valuable and strategic Chinese Real Estate out side the Mainland.
    America wants the Harbor and the whole of Trinco …
    America wants to Change the current Political and Admin system in Lankawe in order to help their mates the UNP and its Rich Buddies, to be able rule at least parts of the country perpetulaly. where the strategic, political and economically important parts of the land which are of interest and benefit to the Americans are located
    And they are all in there in the MCC.. .

    EU and British Policies in Lankawe are again totally different in the main focus.

    EU and the UK are mainly interested in War Crime Trials, Federalism to create Homelands,and create social unrest to degrade the Political Influence of the great majority of the inhabitant population , which they consider as a hindrance to their agenda of helping the Diaspora and their buddies in Lanka getting their Homelands.

    I hope this explains why we can’t do what Modi and his Mates do with the Americans the EU and the UK…………………

    • 3
      1

      KASmaalam K.A. Sumanasekera

      Lets forget the foreign policies of USA, UK, EU, Australia, Japan, Canada, China, Hindia, ……. Singapore, Malaysia, Nigeria, Israel, Iran, …………………. towards each other for a second.

      Tell me if there is Sinhala/Buddhist Halal domestic policy at all in this island?
      After and before every fresh elections the domestic policy always defaults to its own Sinhala/Buddhist policy and practice of more racism, more bigotry, more race riots, looting the state, war crimes, human rights violation, …. more unethical activities of Saffron Brigade, ………………….

      What else do you have achieved in the past 72 years other than destruction?
      Go keep carrying the most brutal war criminals b***s, you will find his foreign and domestic policies.

      By the way my ELDERS tell me Jawaharlal Nehru once told S W R D Pandaranayakam Ceylon could not afford an independent foreign policy. Full Stop.

      • 0
        0

        Dear Native,

        I know there must have been Converts , But did Lankawe have any real Sinhala Buddhists brought up in the Villages who could read and write, when old Jahawal Nehru met Bandaranayakam and his delegation? .

        However You got to give it Bandaranayakam for letting the real Buddhists in the Villages to at least start learning properly and getting into Politics .

        But then the great UNP took care of poor Banranayakam and sent that innocent Somaraman to the Gallows.

        They didn’t stop at that .
        And went on to try and take over the Government by a Putsch., which failed because some Sinhala Buddhists had graduated then , to be able to wield some influence .
        And saved the Nation..

        It is so ironic that Jaharlal’s own daughter who was totally dependent on the Russians after the Chines beat the crap out their Javans. used her Foreign Policy skills to breed and train the LTTE .

        And sent her fave boy Velupulle to mold the Foreign Policy of Lankawe..

        Perhaps the Daughter got cue from the dear old Daddy and wanted to enforce her own Foreign Policy in Lankawe..

        The rest is history as they say..Isn’t it Native .

        BTW On a more interesting note.
        All the big ass crooks now are not the graduates from our Village Schools which Bandaranayakam started in Lankawe .
        They are all from the old Establishment Anglican Schools which were started by the Colonials to train our Political Leaders to take the reins from them..

        I just heard Mr Karunanayakam and his Mate Aloysious beat the CID and became non fugitives?.

        But you throw up your Bile erveryday crying that there are Human Rights and No freedoms and it is all heading for Dictatorship.

        May be the current PM is not as strong as the previous PM who briefed the CID every morning during the Yahapalana with Weliyamuna Dr Rajitha and Mr Ranwaka,
        And the CID had no problems arresting even Buddha’s Monks .

        Has Nandasena diluted the CID ?..

  • 1
    1

    This author begins the article, writing about Modi’s “political successes” and listing the ‘American-centric’ Dr Jaishankar’s appointment as a good thing for Indian foreign policy. But is it?
    Here are a few examples which have ended in outcomes negative to Indian interests as a result of Modi’s foreign policy:
    The recent US deal with the Taliban on Afghanistan facilitated and enabled by Pakistan. The Taliban is a sworn enemy of India and the return of the Taliban to govern Afghanistan (even in a coalition) will be a disaster for India. The Indians have cultivated good relations with the US imposed governments in Kabul since 2001 and all that will be completely irrelevant once the Taliban returns to government. The deal also makes Pakistan (not India) look like a regional peace enabler.

    India dumping the purchase of cheap Iranian oil as a result of US pressure. How the purchase of more expensive oil from the Saudis and UAE to replace Iranian supplies is in Indian economic interests is baffling.

    In 2017, India decided to take on the Chinese in Doklam, Bhutan, challenging the Chinese encroachments. The standoff lasted months. Even though India had supported Trump’s Indo-Pacific strategy, deploying the Indian navy at times to support the US, in the standoff with China in Bhutan, the US and other western nations were neutral, leaving India all alone against China. So much for reciprocity, what a disaster.

    The Modi foreign policy establishment is not necessarily the example Sri Lanka should follow.

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