14 July, 2020

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Unanswered Issues On The Border Dispute Between India & China

By Ayathuray Rajasingam

Ayathuray Rajasingam

The issue on India-China border is a conflicting dispute between States, affecting international peace. The dispute began with China’s invasion of Tibet in 1950, as a result China began to dispute the border line dividing Tibet, Sikkim and Uttar Pradesh and extended its claim on the east over Arunachala Pradesh. Today Tibet is treated as an autonomous region that falls under China at a time when Dalai Lama’s government in exile is in India which is likely to irritate China. However, China appears to be interested in the district called Tawang, which borders Tibet and Bhutan. China considers that since Tawang has longstanding historic links with Tibet, it is important for China to settle the border problem.

Since the need of controlling the bordering countries like Nepal, Sikkim and Bhutan as well as Arunachala Pradesh bordering China is of great importance to India, it is interesting to watch the behaviour of States to the dispute, given the fact that India and China are competing for supremacy in Asia affecting the existing world order. The Mc Mohan line was drawn at the Simla Conference in 1914 between Tibet and Britain and accepted by Tibet. It is a demarcating line dividing India and China when there was no country called Pakistan. Now Pakistan being a member of the SAARC will have to be watched how it reacts on this Indo-China border issue. The domination of India in the South Asia is what matters for China. It will be interesting to watch how these countries will react on the India-China border issue.

According to the Simla Accord, Tibet ceded the South Tibet to British India to which China has declined to accept the McMahon line demarcated as the boundary between India and China in the North Eastern Frontier of India between Bhutan and Burma. 

China considers Arunachala Pradesh as a contiguous part of Tibet, when it protested over a loan granted to India for developing Arunachala Pradesh. It should be noted that after the formation of the United Nations that India was recognized as its member within a defined boundary including the Mac Mohan line. It was an acceptance in accordance with the general practice of States. Israel too was recognized within a defined boundary by the UN. 

China should be aware that people always like to enjoy civil liberties within a democratic structure. Any government that leans towards communism is evil and people hate. Communism is also a way of terrorist regime. Against such a background the rising influence of China eventually gave to the birth of Maoists in Nepal and in some parts of China and to the encouragement of the JVP in Sri Lanka creating chaos in these countries. Further India is a multi-racial democratic country with a federal structure whereas China is a communist country where civil liberties are denied. In a changing world, Charter rules of the UN should be given priority which is possible only by countries practicing democracy. If China is interested in some parts of Arunachala Pradesh, what would be China’s position if India is interested in the North East Province of Sri Lanka. Then a plebiscite should be taken to find whether the people in the disputed territory would like to join China. Here is a case where Ladak, Sikkim, Nepal, Bhutan, and Arunachala Pradesh do not want to join China.

It is very difficult to rely on China since it waged a war on India in 1962 after a goodwill visit of Jawaharlal Nehru to China. The manner in which it sieged Tibet, should be condemned without any reservation. Further, the relationship China has with Pakistan, Bangaladesh, Sri Lanka and Myanmar in constructing the harbours, throws a challenge to India as well as to the Western countries. Further, the India-China border talk on the Himalaya region also draws the attention of the UN and the Western Powers to watch the behaviour of the SAARC countries. 

The Line of Actual Control (LAC) emerged out of the 1962 war between India and China. It was sparked by longstanding historical territorial disagreements. Aksai Chin is a part of Greater Kashmir. The 1949 Indo-Pakistan war resulted in the division of India and Pakistan but the border appeared to be ill-defined. 

Ladakh is a mountainous territory situated on the East of Kashmir valley part, of which is controlled by India, but as a semi-autonomous State of Jammu & Kashmir. The creation of Ladakh made China difficult in going to Pakistan because it was a hindrance to China’s infrastructure building. Both China and Pakistan are aware that Ladakh is India’s strategic point. 

The same infrastructure building saw a crisis over the disputed territory of Doklam in 2017. Such Indian fortification is seen as a threat to China’s geostrategic goals in the Central Asia. Apparently, India completed a new all-weather road close to the LAC the purpose of which is to transfer troops along the border quickly and reinforce its position. This is considered as a checkmate of China’s evil motive to threaten India.

However China is interested in Aksai Chin which would be political suicide for any Indian government to cede Indian territory. Now China have bolstered border control measures and made necessary moves and accused India of building defense facilities in the Galwan valley region of the contested Aksai Chin area. While China controls Aksai Chin, India claims that it is part of Indian territory and alleges that China sought to erect a structure in the Galwan valley on the Indian side of the LAC. On the contrary, China alleges that Aksai Chin is part of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region and that Indian soldiers violated the consensus and crossed the LAC for illegal activities. Thereafter there was a fierce physical confrontation between them. As for India, the unity and territorial integrity is of utmost important and that they will try to defend at whatever cost. 

Since the clash, China has accelerated road works and appears to have executed the infrastructure for the accommodation of its troops at Patrol Point 14 an area which was utilized for patrolling only. Even in 2013, the same game plan took place at Depsang Plain after a Chinese platoon set up a camp to the surprise of India. This disputed area has been patrolled by both China and India earlier. Later China withdrew from the disputed area. Since then India has completed its road to Daulat Beg Oldi (DBO) area between Points 10 and 13 increasing the strategic value of the location where again China has now begun creating trouble for India.  

China wanted to nullify the existing McMohan Line on which India was relying because of the strategic importance of the Himalayas, but China rejected it. However, China wanted some diplomatic relations with Nepal. As a result Nepal and China established diplomatic relations for the first time on August 1, 1955, that is, six years after the establishment of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, and four years after the installation of democracy in Nepal in 1951. The Agreement was designed to maintain friendly relations between the People’s Republic of China and the Kingdom of Nepal as well as in the Agreement on trade between the Tibetan Autonomous Region of China and Nepal the customary movement of people and goods along the border has been accepted. This laid the foundation for the friction with India over border dispute between China and India. Later Pakistan ceded a portion of its territory in Kashmir to China in 1963 which eventually has intensified China to create problem with India for the claim of Aksai Chin which borders with China. Aksai Chin is a portion of the Kashmir region of the Northernmost extent of India. It constitutes nearly all the territory of the Chinese-administered sector of Kashmir that is claimed by India to be part of the Ladakh area of the State of Jammu-Kashmir. 

Ladakh is a region, located at a high altitude about 10,000 feet above sea level, in the Indian State of Jammu & Kashmir which currently extends from the Karakoram mountain range to the main Great Himalayas to the South. Ladakh is a region administered by India as a Union Territory and constituting a part of the larger region of Kashmir, which has been the subject of dispute between India, Pakistan and China since 1947 until 2019 Ladakh was a region of the State of Jammu & Kashmir. There is also a strong influence of Tibetan culture in Ladakh. It is predominantly a Buddhist District. Now Radha Krishna Mathur was sworn in as the Lt.Governor of the Union Territory of Ladakh which came into existence after bifurcation of Jammu & Kashmir.

Pakistan recognized Chinese sovereignty over the Trans-Karakorum Tract and Aksai Chin since 1963. India administers Jammu, the Kashmir Valley, Ladakh and the Siachen Glacier. In 1914 the Tibetan Government signed the Simla Accord with Britain, ceding the South Tibet to British India to which the China denounced it as illegal. 

The change of regime in China brought number of complex issues between India and China. Communist China was created on 1st October 1949 under Mao Zedong and Gen.Chiang Kai Sheik fled to Taiwan. Thereafter Tibet was annexed in 1950 by China. However, there is a dispute over Tibet regarding its legal status. China claims that Tibet was an integral part of China. But Tibetan government-in-exile maintains that Tibet is an independent State under unlawful occupation. According to the Simla Accord between Tibet and Britain, South Tibet was ceded to British India, but China denounced it as illegal. However, when Communist China invaded Tibet about 1.2 million Tibetans were killed and several monasteries were destroyed, while others fled. 

After the occupation of Tibet in the 1950s, Chinese leaders have said Tibet is the Palm and now they had to go for five fingers namely Ladakh, Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim and Arunachala Pradesh. In 1917 the Doklam incident took place which borders Sikkim and Bhutan and ended and presently with Ladakh which has turned out to be a violent. These incidents demonstrate that there is a long-term strategy of China’s expansion which it wants to implement. Mention should be made that Hindus are in majority in Nepal and Buddhists are in majority in Bhutan, Sikkim and Ladak and Christians and Hindus are in majority in Arunachala Pradesh. If China has set its target on these five States, will it mean there will be massacres of Hindus, Buddhists and others together with their places of worship, like how China killed 1.2 million Tibetans in Tibet. 

There is also a conflict on the border on Nepal where Nepal alleges that India has systematically stationed its military troops in the Kalapani area further to the west of where the borders of Nepal, China and India meet. But Nepal’s argument is that Kalapani region lies within its territory. Nepal is furious that its own border dispute with India could be sidelined, the result of which shows that Nepal is struggling between India and China. 

The statement in the Global Times quoted by Hu Zhiyong from the Institute of International Relations of Shanghai Academy of Social Sciences that ‘since Pakistan and Nepal are key partners of China under the China-proposed Belt and Road initiative, there are possibilities that India could face military pressure from two more fronts which is far beyond India’s military capability and might lead to a disastrous defeat for India’ cannot be easily ignored in the light of China’s silence on its military capabilities. Recent developments by China close to the border of Rajasthan and Pakistan lend support to this contention. Meanwhile there are reports that Taiwan fighter jets had intercepted China’s intrusion in its air space and the appearance of US war ships in the South China Seas where Philippines, Singapore and Indonesia have joined in the fray against China. Moreover, when the world was crippled with coronavirus pandemic, China flexed its muscle towards India which was unacceptable. 

The transgressions by the Chinese Army along the LAC shows that China had not catered the global loss of trust and faith in the aftermath of coronavirus pandemic. Hence China’s cunning tactics has provided the rest of the world the perfect excuse to dump the ‘One China Policy’ and retaliation. Perhaps this may signal the end of the existence of China’s Communist Party in China. Though the LAC appears to be a complicated demarcation line based on actual ground control of India and China, it should bring to the notice of the proper international forum. China had to realize that one cannot put the clock back. It had to start from where it stops. However, today the situation is different. Every one’s hope is that the matter be solved in a spirit of friendliness. The vital issue is whether China can get away with lot of things because India’s inherent policy has been very defensive. The world wonders whether China is worried about the loss of number of soldiers on both sides other than its territorial expansion on this sensitive issue at a time when there is coronavirus pandemic.

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Latest comments

  • 1
    1

    There is a lot of history to the Sino-Indian border dispute.
    Borders were imposed by British colonialists on China but not mostly accepted by China. The tragedy of India is that it began to see itself as the successor to the British Raj.

    • 1
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      SJ,

      Yes, I agree,

      Why not come out with your version?

      • 2
        1

        Sri
        Do you seriously think that this is the forum for it?

        • 2
          0

          If not, why should we be engage in it?

          • 0
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            Sri
            Some issues arise from the main story others come up in course of discussion.
            Comment is generally brief and aims to affirm, correct or reject views expressed.
            *
            The subject that you propose has been extensively written on and I have named a good source. Such response is adequate here. (I can give more if you come up with the relevant questions.)
            *
            A long essay is a different proposition. I do not think that many here are interested in the subject. (Look at the number who wish to go deep into the subject.)

            • 0
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              SJ,
              Yes a long essay!

              Ayathuray Rajasingam has written a comprehensive article from the Indian viewpoint.

              The readers need an independent Or a pro Chinese point-by-point rebuttal of this article.

              Quality not quantity is our focus, even, if a single reader benefits, it is worth the effort.Or it will be considered as gospel truth

              If not you, who else could do it in this forum?

              • 0
                0

                Sri
                Thanks for the great confidence in my ability.
                But I regret my inability to oblige for reasons already stated.
                Two minor corrections: I am not a spokesperson for any state or organization.
                I am not neutral and do not think that there is any such thing as neutrality in human affairs.
                One can only be objective and true to one’s self.
                ps.
                You yourself have blasted the article as ” a propaganda blitz”. Thus there is no risk of its becoming gospel truth.
                A serious critical comment, like a pinprick is adequate to burst a balloon of falsehood.

                • 0
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                  SJ,
                  Well! neo modernists claim there is nothing called objective..Everything is subjective.
                  Sri

                  • 0
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                    Sri
                    I wonder if anything becomes valid because it is claimed to be neo-modern. (BTW, did you mean postmodern?)
                    *
                    If everything is subjective, there is little to discuss or debate.
                    By that reasoning, I will stick to my objectivity and you can to your non-objectivity.

                    • 0
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                      SJ,
                      Sorry,it is post modern!

  • 2
    1

    This article looks like a propaganda blitz against People Republic of China.

    The McMahon Line is the demarcation line between Tibet and the North-east region of India signed between British and Tibetan representatives. at the 1914 Simla Convention. [

    It is considered to be the legal boundary between China and India.

    Was Tibet a sovereign country at that time?

    It was the colonial period and the British was a colonial imperialist power.

    China and Tibet were very weak at that time.

    Tibet was forced to sign this agreement

    This agreement was signed between unequal parties and entered at gun point, hence could not claim to be binding..

    Tibet has now been considered to be part of China and it is an autonomous region of China.

    It is now irreversible.

    Whereas Macmahon line and Arunachal Pradesh Could be still considered to be disputed territories and could be resolved through negotiation between India and China.

    China and India are soon to be world super economic powers and a peaceful settlement of all contentious issues are in the best interest of world at large.

    • 1
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      Sri
      Thanks for the well needed sobering comment.
      *
      China claims sovereignty over Tibet for seven centuries. The say that Beijing had in Tibet depended on how strong the central state of China was.
      Attempts in the 19th Century by the British to present Tibet as an independent state failed.
      What matters is that even at the time of Chinese liberation in 1949, all world powers (and India) agreed that Tibet was part of China.
      It is some decades ago that the US has become a covert supporter of “Free Tibet”.
      *
      You will benefit from a series of highly informative essays by AJ Noorani in the Frontline on the Sino-Indian border issue, written early this century.
      *
      I fully endorse the view that China and India should settle issues amicably and work together.

  • 1
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    Mr.AR,
    “Any government that leans towards communism is evil and people hate. Communism is also a way of terrorist regime. Against such a background the rising influence of China eventually gave to the birth of Maoists in Nepal and in some parts of China and to the encouragement of the JVP”
    This is a rather lopsided statement, isn’t it? I am no Communist, but isn’t the rise of Communism itself the result of injustice? Would the Russians have taken to Communism if the Tsarist state and the Church had treated the people fairly? Would the JVP or LTTE or Indian Naxalites have arisen if there was no discrimination?Terrorism is is the eye of the beholder, like patriotism. Churchill was responsible for the deaths of 4 million Indians by starvation. He could be called an evil war criminal, but isn’t. As to evil, is Communism in Cuba more evil than the earlier regime?

    • 1
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      OC
      Thanks.
      May I add one little clause to your “As to evil, is Communism in Cuba more evil than the earlier regime?”
      “or for that matter the USA today”

  • 1
    1

    Thank you Sir. After the Indian Foreign Policy debacles in Sri Lanka a sovereign country and friendly nation like ours and Maldives (even Sri Lankan Tamil groups were hired/used as mercenaries to topple Maldives government) the best way for China and India to solve all their problems/insecurities would be to marry each other and make babies to populate the entire planet. (Personally would not like them to fight as we do not want any nuclear fall out in our country thank you).

    Best they use their borders for dating (I know it is very cold and hostile space) unlike the tropical weather like in Sri Lanka but we do not want them to do the love making in our Nation anymore please.

    What an amazing democracy it is indeed when you can poison others children to kill each other as it was done to Sri Lankan children. This may even have been considered in India as a very spiritual event just as what had happened for 70 years since Independence and still happening to the fish stock belongs to Sri Lanka perhaps?.

    In fact we should shift the “south Asian war theatre” to the India /China borders for extra saftey measure please. All the UN Security Council member Nations can all congregate in the same space too to solve all the problems amongst them please.

  • 1
    1

    I read this piece a while ago:
    https://www.alterinter.org/?Modi-Government-The-Proverbial-Snake-with-a-Frog-Stuck-in-its-Throat
    An interesting section from it:
    “What is more mortifying is the fact (confirmed by Indian Army sources) that most of these jawans did not die fighting, but fell down a steep slope after being chased by the Chinese soldiers and got drowned in the Galwan river, or died due to exposure to sub-zero temperatures. Added to the injury is the insult that the Chinese inflicted on Indians by demonstrating their condescending gesture of releasing ten Indian army soldiers and senior officers whom they had captured during the face off.”
    *
    Any comment, author?

    • 1
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      SJ,
      Both India and China had three rounds of negotiations and on the 3rd Round both sides agreed to take steps to defuse the tension. We will have to wait & watch the developments. Meanwhile there is tension in the South China Sea. It should not be forgotten that President Xi Jinping said that China’s armed forces must stengthen their sense of urgency and do everything they can do to prepare for battle. China sees Taiwan as a breakaway Province. China views that Taiwan will eventually be a part of China again, but Taiwan want a separate nation. Now there is a news item US war ships are seen in South China Sea and Taiwan’s jets had already intercepted the intrusion of Chinese planes. Simultaneously, though India and China agreed to defuse the tension, both countries had amassed their tanks and weapons in the Ladakh Region. Israel and France agreed to help India with fighter jets. I do not know whether there is business for selling weapons. No one likes war. But everything depends on the decision of the political leaders.

  • 2
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    Old Codger,
    Article 1 of the United Nations Charter states that the purpose is to maintain International Peace and security and totake effective collective measures for the prevention and removal of threats to peace in conformity with the principles of justice and International Law, adjustment or settlement of international disputes which might lead to a breach of peace. China being a member of the UN Security Council should be aware of this provision. China had to realize that one cannot put the clock back. It had to start from where it stops. After the creation of Communist China under Mao Zedong, China never appeared to be a peaceful State. It was bullying all the weaker States. The latest tactics of China is to use a so-called debt-diplomacy to expand its influences. The terms of China’s loans demonstrate that the benefits flow overwhelmingly to China. Hambantota is a case in point. The Hambantota Port which is built for commercial value is likely become a forward military base for China’s growing blue-water navy. Now I do not know whether Rajapaksas will lean towards China in the event of a war between India and China. But Wimal Weerawansa is there to support China.

    • 1
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      AR
      Kindly name a country that invaded Sri Lanka in modern times; a country that protects poaching in Sri Lankan territorial waters; and a country that imposed conditions that undermined Sri Lankan sovereignty on pretext of resolving the national question.
      (I can extend the list if you so desire to cover other neighbours as well.)

      • 1
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        SJ,
        :
        This is a nice song to the naive people in our country. But truth it is, not many d would know even the location of SRILANKA. Its earlier name – CEYLON is also not known to many today with our TEAs being replaced by that of Kenya and Indian ASAM.

        I think our DEVIOUS leaders know for sure that whole lot of srilankens are born stupid and that is why they shameless come with their so called ” conspiracy theories”. Only conspiracy the people have to grasp is M-A-H-I-N-D-A RAJAPKSHE doctrine based on racism, extremism and foreign invasion. I am ashamed to be a sinhalaya when looking at the manner our people (commoners) easily get caught by FAIRYTALES being explained by Rajapakshes…. why is that ?

        • 2
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          LM
          Ceylon tea still enjoys a great reputation in the Arab world, Iran and Russia. My Taiwanese friend who visited some years ago took with him almost his baggage allowance of Ceylon Tea.
          It will take more than a corrupt family to wreck the reputation. But there are many shady dealers who try to export substandard tea, including sweepings.
          *
          There is, however, need for more imagination on the part of tea produces to go beyond flavoured teas and tea bags to expand the market and recover from loss to coffee.

          • 0
            0

            Lankawe asked Iran to exchange Tea for Oil. But Iran said that they can buy tea from anybody, but Oil must be paid in hard $ bills. So Lankawe went to India until Ambassador Blake got exemption for Lankawe to import Oil with $. When New King put a restriction to Russian asbestos, Russia returned back all tea Lankawe shipped to Russia. New King did all kind pleasing to Russia; including opening new Medical school plus buying the Russian Young-yard ship. Putin gave a rusted sword. CDO Chinnaia refused to recommend the ship. New King fired him. But within that time, US forced to Lankawe a better ship, free and handed it over in Hawaii…… (There is nowhere in the world Lankawe tea is sold as pure Ceylon tea for direct consumption, anymore). Chris Norris was selling Ceylon Tea in UK when he was the ambassador there. But Sajin Vass beat him up on Idiyappam and Arrack party in NJ and chased him out FAM. Jaliya was selling Tea in US. There is expatriation warrant to bring back Jaliya. But US wants him for his frauds in US. Let me know if you need more about the Lankawe Tea story.

      • 0
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        Siri Ma-o had Tamil polices like ASP Shanmugam to guard her when JVP started to attack. It was Siri Mao’s soldiers, the JVP army was. But then instead Tamils guarding her she brought in Sikh Army to guard her. The Indian army was not paid mercenary, but that service was on defense understanding. It was an understanding between Mrs. Gandhi and Siri ma-o for Corporation. Mrs. Gandhi gave the Katchativu to Siri Ma-o, without contest. But by mistake Siri-Mao- thought that she dealing with SJV, the third “Siri Ma-O – Chelva Pact”. Siri Mao- broke the defense pacts and brought in Pakistani Army & lied to Mrs. Gandhi. Mrs. Gandhi didn’t say much, but she prepared Tuticorin Harbor and Vijayawada Airport and went back to Delhi with her plan. But the Siri Mao’s Sikh guards shot her. Still when LTTE crossed Kaithadi, Kathirgamar went to Vajpayee, not to tell India had invaded, but for asking Indian Army and Navy help again to stop LTTE. Vajpayee this time did not honor the Indian-Lanka defense accord. But still he saved CBK from LTTE. 2009 Thero De Silva was on Sonia’s feet to save Lankawe. Now UNHRC Resolution is torn off. I do not know who will have to do the begging of India in March 2012, because recently Communist racist Denesh said In all boarder and Covid issues Lankawe is with China, not with India.

    • 0
      0

      AR,
      “. The latest tactics of China is to use a so-called debt-diplomacy to expand its influences”
      All big states do this. Blame the borrowers for spending the money on useless projects. China’s aggressive nature is a narrative promoted by the US, which got itself a bloody nose in Korea and Vietnam.
      Still, I think sovereignty Vis-a-vis India has its limits.
      We think we are “sovereign” because the Brits told us that in 1948. Before that, we had Indian kings, and most of the population were Indian migrants , “Sinhalayo” included. If the Europeans hadn’t come here, we would have been part of India, which In my opinion would not be a bad thing.

      • 0
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        OC
        If the British did not come, there would not have been an India.
        The Mogul Empire was not quite a nation state and with its decline India was a collection of all manner of states and indigenous territories.
        India would have been like Africa in some respects (I mean this in a most positive sense) and post Medieval Europe in others.
        No unifying native force emerged like in Russia or China.
        It was the independence movement that kept intact what the British put together.
        The British tried other experiments like including Burma and annexing Afghanistan.
        Reason why Ceylon was left alone is partly that it was colonized for three centuries prior.

        • 0
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          SJ
          “If the British did not come, there would not have been an India.”
          That would have made for some interesting times.

          • 1
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            OC
            True.
            Wonder if we would have had the warring states of Tamil Eelam and Sinhala Eelam!

            • 0
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              No Only Eelam.
              General Alahakoon was installed by Malayalee Mapillai traders. Remember, other than some trade rivalries with Jaffna Kingdom, Mapillai Muslims were Tamil Muslims from Kerala. Kotte kept moving to South by Chakaravarthies wars. Kandy was in the hand of Thanjavur Royal Family, who spoke Tamil. Local Marriages of this family was with Aria Chakaravarthies, not with General Alahakoon‘s dynasty. If Don Juan had not given Kotte to Portuguese, General Alahakoon family would have been overrun by Aria Chakaravarthies. By the Marriage relationship with Kandy kings, Aria Chakaravarthies would have pushed whole Sinhalese to Tissamaharama jungles. Fear of that only forced Ehelepola to catch Sri Vikramarajasinhan and hand over to Britain. Same fear made that Kotte to send 6000 Sinhala Mercenaries to capture Chankiliyan and hand over to Portuguese. Did you hear about the legend of Pooththamby, the chief minister of Chankiliyan? He was hanged only to rape his wife, who was said to be many times prettier than princes. Very sad one! I write it another time.

      • 0
        0

        Old,
        Good old points on many parts. But the loans Lankawe got were cane and carrots, not business deals. Nuraicholai is long story from CBK. No points in me repeat it here. When China put together the used machinery with prison labor, it would not run. So Old King threatened China to bring Indian Engineers to fix. Lankawe’s 50 computers, including the Defense, which used to publish drawings of Jayalalitha’s & Manmohan Singh’s compromised situations under King. So Old King signed for all White Elephants and Colombo Pong Cing for China. Ranil dug back again on Colombo Pong Cing. China increased the price by $280 million. Nuraicholai stopped working again. China said it is the CEB engineers are uneducated Modayas. So angered by this, they went, set fire to Transformers. Those were German Transformers put together by Japanese Engineers. So they too sent auditors to find what was going on. New King fearing the Engineers Modayas may do more damages, sent back the German and Japan Engineers not submitting a statement on their investigation. Ranil sold the Hangbangtota Harbor to China. Ranil fooled everybody that he had bought back all the rights of China in Colombo Pong Cing. But that is not true. America and India are not allowing China to possess any sovereign land near to India. So it may go contented with the new lotto $280,000,000from Ranil for nothing.

  • 0
    0

    We have resolved the Tamil/Sinhala issue. lets now help India and China with lessons learnt.

    • 0
      1

      It looks like India is learning, but slowly.

    • 1
      1

      Mrs B had intervened in the 1962 Indo-Chinese war and the result is LAC-the line of actual control.

      • 3
        0

        srikrish,
        Mrs.B is the one who allowed Pakistan to refuel its planes at Katunayake during the war between Pakistan and India in Bangladesh. Brs.B. is cunning and she should not have resorted to this cowardly act after receiving Kachchativu from India with the blessings of the stupid M.Karunanithy. Now Rajapaksas also might adopt this attitude in allowing Hambantota to China for military purposes. This is not diplomacy, but treachery.

        • 0
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          AR
          Indira Gandhi was the Prime Minister at this time.

          This incident has not in no way affected the close personal friendship between Indira and Srimavo.
          .
          They continued to be the best of friends even after the 1977 bitter electoral defeats- the former by Morarji Desai and the latter by JR Jeyawardene.

          Sri

          • 1
            0

            srikrish,
            The close personal friendship does not mean, Prime Minister Indra Gandhi has the right to gift a territory belonging to some State. Would she have the done the same to Bengal. I can recollect that Bengal rose up and protested over gifting its territory. M.Karunanithy is corrupt and an idiot who did not have a policy.
            J.R.Jayawardena as usual was against Indra Gandhi after he faced a humiliation during the India – Pakistan war in Bangladesh. Both Indra Gandhi and Srimavo can be good friends, but the people at that time did not realize. Their faults paved the way for today’s BJP in power. Even this time DMK is worried about its defeat at the hands of BJP in Tamil Nadu. People in Tamil Nadu are rallying after Nirmala Sitharaman and jaishankar Subramaniam both of the BJP and have ignored the DMK..

        • 0
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          AR
          At the time East Bengal was part of Pakistan, which was a friendly government.
          It would have been a hostile act to refuse refuelling, especially under external pressure.
          BTW, the Indira-Sirimavo pact was in 1974 and Bangladesh was founded in 1971.
          Do you suggest that Ceylon should have shown gratitude in anticipation?
          *
          Do not speculate about foreign military bases without basis.
          If at all, only one country invaded Sri Lanka, and only one other is itching to have a strong military presence here through a string of agreements.
          It is yielding to such that is treachery.

  • 2
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    SJ,
    China’s economic corridor to Pakistan & Central Asia passes through Karakoram, which is close to Galwan Valley where this incident occurred. Galwan Valley is close to Aksai Chin Plateau which is claimed by India. There is also an allegation that China occupies 15,000 Sq.miles of Indian territory in the Aksai Chin Plateau in the Himalayas with about 12,000 Chinese soldiers reportedly pushing across the border. There were Chinese advances in the Ladakh region which are deemed to be painful choices for India. Moreover, satellite pictures bear testimony regarding increased Chinese activity at the Galwan Valley. At the same time the approval of some Indian controlled territories in the new map by the Nepal’s Parliament is suspected to be instigated by China at this crucial period. Moreover, it is true that China lost 20 of its soldiers while China maintained silence regarding the loss of its about 40 soldiers. But Satellite pictures show that Chinese soldiers had attacked the Indian soldiers with nailed rods which are unacceptable. The only way is for India and other countries to launch an attack on China and split it into Tibet, Mongolia, Hongkong and mainland China. This will put an end to China’s bullying of weak States and disturbing the international peace, which I think is likely to happen.

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      AR,

      We shall not lose our heads in the midst of propaganda blitz.

      Let saner council prevail.

      Sri

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      Modi himself has claimed that Chinese troops were not allowed to enter Indian territory. So where was the clash then?
      Satellite pictures showing nailed rods? Pretty precise they should be! What is the resolution of the images?
      *
      Kindly read “https://www.alterinter.org/?Modi-Government-The-Proverbial-Snake-with-a-Frog-Stuck-in-its-Throat”
      and the portion that I have cited from it earlier before fantasizing any further on the “great Indian victory”.
      *
      A word of caution: Before you go on to split China, India may tear itself apart under Modi without external meddling.

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    SJ,
    I think you are referring to India. After the formation of SAARC, the scenario at international level began to change. There was Islamic terrorism prior to the Tamil terrorism. The Tamil militants made blunders just before and after the signing of the Indo-Sri Lanka Peace Accord. This related to the suppression of the rights of the Tamil minority for which India wanted Sri Lanka to find a meaningful solution. At the inception India was concerned with the rise of Islamic terrorism in the East of Sri Lanka. At the same time India had problems with Pakistan and India has to look after the interests of the SAARC as well. Simultaneously J.R.Jayawardena had links with Pakistan and the USA. This was a precarious situation which the Tamil Militant Organization failed to observe because of their lack of far-sightedness. India wanted Federalism as the meaningful solution for Sri Lanka’s ethnic problem and entered into the Indo-Sri Lanka Peace Accord. This does not in no way amount to invasion of Sri Lanka. But if Sri Lanka take measures with foreign countries which are detrimental to the sovereignty of India, then India has to take measures which does not mean invasion of Sri Lanka. Neverthless, Sri Lanka was ungrateful to India and resorted to treacherous acts against India on the pretext of friendly relationship with Pakistan. Remember Kachchativu was given to Sri Lanka by India for which Sri Lanka should not have allowed Pakistan to refuel its planes in Colombo during the India Pakistan War in Bangladesh. Even Rajapaksas did a treacherous act when leaning towards China when handing over Hambantota in an improper manner. Sri Lanka has forgotten how its soldiers were saved from the LTTE when they were rounded up. Remember India obtained its independence through bloodshed, but not Sri Lanka.

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      Dear Sir

      Sri Lankan people electing someone whom they choose is a SL right and International law. We did not tell Indians whom to elect and whom to sleep and wake up with to date. Even though I do not support JR party politics at the same time nor will I accept people insigting violence/foreign sponsored terrorism in my Country.

      I will also will not accept anyone taking Indian children and arming them and poisoning them destroy India in the name of liberation either. India had million more problems than SL ever had would never accept anyone else doing the same to India what India did to us in the name National Security. Cold War was all about superpowers assassinating/arming/toping regimes for their ventures/interests and if any other country does the same they need to be called for what they are….why you normalising Indian crime in SL as acceptable please??

      Armed groups in Jaffna was created by the FP/TULF/India….is treason/treachery. I am also a great fan of Indra family and what they did to India but not to SL. Two wrongs does not make anything right. India need to come clean in the Truth and Reconciliation process to make peace with the Sri Lankans for a sustainable future as neighbours.

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        Dear Sir

        (1) India intervened and stopped the SL armed forces from finalising the war then not the Armed forces were saved by the Indians from the LTTE.
        We would have saved lots of SL and Indian soldiers as well as the all other innocent life if it was not for this blunder then.

        (2) LTTE was allowed to further continue matters so the SL is further weekend is what took place. So much for the love of life and dignity. The same imperial books of game was played out in our Nation who’s currency had double the Indian currency value 1970’s.

        (3) I fully respect the observation that Indias concern over 1977 elections of JR so was our concern too about the way TULF was elected for a separate state mandate at gunpoint now all our children were already getting the training in India. This is a chicken and egg situation during Cold War and the pre emotive nature of this Indian operation in SL internal matters were totally unacceptable does not matter what..as we were not the enemies of India. Just the way Cold War was conducted??

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        Agreed. But there is a provision in Chapter 6 of the UN Charter which allows room for other countries to interfere in the event of a persecution of ethnic communities. It is for that reason that India intervened in Sri Lanka when there was a sudden influx of Tamil refugees. However, it is regretted to observe that these Tamil Militant Organizations failed to listen to India and also of their lack of far-sighted thoughts. Indra Gandhi had faith on A.Amirthalingam but on these Militant Organizations which were never united among themselves. Otherwise India would have implemented Federalism. I was there when all these events took place.

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          Dear Sir

          Thank you for the kind response. I am glad you Brough Mr Amirthalingham into the picture whom I know very very well all my life. A man who did not know how to respect people choice/delivered nothing (correction delivers death to us all) to his electorates for 30 years as an MP, openly stood on stages made hate speeches, got our children to become militants in the first place and used them to kill all his opponents and I am sure he was indeed an ideal candidate that the Indian government had faith…well he did indeed deliver what India wanted is the point I have been trying to say for a long time. In my books he is wanted for several crime involving my people in Vaddukottai and my family personally let alone the rest of the North who lost their children to this folly. He brought all that is opposed to what SJV stood for that is violence. May be he was working for foreign agencies in the first place?? Why FP/TULF kill all their opponents just before the elections?? is it because….??? Why do they try to kill and infact killed the elected because???

          You just summarised why we lost our Nation in the first place…..Mr Amir should have just practised law and made a living…then again from my living in Vaddukottai what would he know about upholding the law??? this fellow was our Leader?? kidding me.

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            Dear Sir

            Further more we did not have any problems in Sri Lanka if we did that was just part of getting somewhere that is to become a dignified country managing all evils that did exist for 500 years of colonial rule and solving all the mess that was left behind for us to pick up?? India has done very well for themselves doing just what we are doing that is to give preferential treatments to people who need empowering and our intelligence was not limited by what FP / TULF wanted? We were courteous enough to allow these people to stand up for elections exercising their rights and in return what they were doing was the opposite a Mafia activity that was too eliminate opposition/democratic voice and allow our children to be prostituted by other Nations?? My Father wrote booklets on Indra and India that was before this mafia got the better of us through treachery/treason.

            NPC still did not how to do a city planning an opportunity Hon MR provided?? gone back to making resolutions after resolutions to recover that TNA had lost in the first place? any benchmarking here you agree to please??

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      AR
      “I think you are referring to India”
      Congratulations for getting it in one guess.
      You are making excuses for armed aggression, while ignoring the poaching and bullying of a country to surrender its sovereignty.
      There are too many factual errors including “India wanted federalism”, something which India does not have, and I will not waste time on them.
      *
      You may know Easop’s parable about the wolf and the lamb drinking water from a stream.
      It finishes with :”If it was not you, it was your father or your grandfather.”
      Likewise, there will be no end to your excuses.

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    Continued
    (4) Please write an article about the plight of our people as refugees in India since 70’s and how many of them have become Indian citizens please?

    (5) I know a lot Indians got refugee status in the west saying they were from war affected Jaffna??

    (6) India had to fight for the freedom and lost blood and we did not is an excuse for our demise and we need to accept what the Indians say and do in our Soverign Nation?? where did you get this idea this kind of patronising statements are acceptable to Mother Lankans please?? I am completely lost??

    I am ok that you may not like China but this is a far fetched idea loosing all our self respect is it not??

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    SJ,
    I mean one of the islands (territories) of Bengal where Mamta Banerjee was CM. They protested vehemently and the Central Government dropped the idea.

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    Thiagarajah Venugopal,
    I am not supporting any countries. Now by gones are by gones. We have to accept that this is all due to the fact Sri Lankans have never fought and shed blood to obtain independence. As such Sri Lankas in general failed to realize the value of independence. Had Sri Lankans realized the value of independence there would have been Federalism which is a meaningful solution. Just imagine, Kachchativu was gifted to Sri Lanka by India and today Indian fisherman are being shot as they poach. Can’t the Sri Lankans this problem on a humanitarian angle. They should also realize that Tamils from Tamil Nadu are also citizens of India. There are number of things that could be discussed, but too late as the Sri Lankan politicians are corrupt. The best solution is that Sri Lanka should be annexed as one of the Union Territories of India which would solve all problems forever.

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    old codger,
    That is why I mentioned that if Sri Lanka keeps on dragging this issue and engaged in dirty tactics (lies and deceptions), India might annex Sri Lanka as one its Union Territories and may split into two namely, the North-East Provinces as one and the rest of the provinces as another.

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      AR
      You are replete with gems!
      “The best solution is that Sri Lanka should be annexed as one of the Union Territories of India which would solve all problems forever.”
      “…if Sri Lanka keeps o…India might annex Sri Lanka as one its Union Territories”
      A dream or a threat?
      Not even JN Dixit who acted like a Viceroys during his time in Colombo would have dared to say such a thing.
      *
      “Remember India obtained its independence through bloodshed, but not Sri Lanka.”
      Thanks for that.
      We have been told all this while that MKG did it by performing satyagraha.
      Time to elevate the status of Bhagat Singh I guess.
      *
      “Thiagarajah Venugopal, I am not supporting any countries.”
      I am not too sure of that, but sure that you will love to demolish China.
      *
      “Even now there are people of the same nature among the Sinhalese namely, Ven.Gnanasara Thero, Wimal Weerawansa, Sridharan, Suresh Premachandra, etc.”
      That is a jolly good one– about as precise as much of the essay and your comments thereafter!

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    Thiagarajah Venugopal,
    I must mention one thing clearly. The Tamil MPs, like the DMK in Tamil Nadu, had no vision whatsoever about economic development in the Northern Province, other than inflammatory speeches to mislead the Tamils. I was suggesting about the modernized high-line water canal system that should be constructed from Anuradhapura to Jaffna and about the conversion of Palaly Airport into an International Airport to Lalith Athulathmudali & Gamini Dissanayake in 1989-1990 who readily acknowledged as a good idea with some educated Sinhalese and Tamil Officers with the view to neutralize the growth of Tamil terrorism. This appeared in the Newspapers including the DUNF official publication THE EAGLE. Unfortunately both along with a Tamil Officer were assassinated by stupid people from the Sinhalese & Tamil. Look at the Indra Gandhi Canal in Rajasthan and the happy life of Rajasthan people thereafter. Even now there are people of the same nature among the Sinhalese namely, Ven.Gnanasara Thero, Wimal Weerawansa, Sridharan, Suresh Premachandra, etc. This is the curse of Sri Lanka.

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      Dear Sir

      I read something and comment because it is important we share our journey. We are all individuals with different journey/beliefs and always others right to exopress has to be honoured and responded accordingly.

      For me I am a total believer in “One Sri Lanka” as I have been brought that way now as an adult traveled extensively around the world including very many asians successfully developing countries only shown me my upbringing had some interesting concepts attached.

      I am also believer if we make mistakes we should be man enough to standup and admit to the mistakes…that is the one and only beginning I would do if I am a FP/TULF/TNA supporter (not directed at you please). Not talk the same thing over and over and hope that goes away. I have shared my thoughts extensively as to how we got here does not take away all other Sri Lankans right to share their journey/thoughts I always respect.

      I believe if we can not in open forums exchange thoughts and learn from each other then Nation Building can not happen.

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        Dear Sir

        I am looking to see if our government can ban the religious and language named parties in SL once and for all. We should all pass a Sri Lankan nationality test once more to be in this journey.

        Appreciate your work related to development work and most respected always.

        I have no hate on any country and believe there are bad and good people in the world only. World Nations have something good to offer collectively however much their foreign policies sucks/double standard.

        Now after all the lessons learned we need to get back on track where we left in 1970’s to go through the journey of Nation Building………now we have the opportunity to fact check events better than before……means we can make up for the lost time only if we can have free and fair elctions where we all are forced to present a “development work manifesto” and candidates are based on capabilities/social work track record/economics background to the constituents to ask for vote…….not 56/77/83 riots history lessons…..which are no longer applicable…..history is a history that is all.

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    India-China border conflict shows why we must never have any international or federal borders within this island. Tamils are now fighting for a separate state, but if a separate state is made here, then there will be endless border conflicts, and conflicts about resources including water that there will be violent confrontations and ultimately full-scale wars. The area Tamils demand as a separate state is not a geographical area naturally separated by natural barriers but is an area demarcated just an artificially drawn border by the British and this artificial border is around 750 km. Lets just take the water issue – all the rivers start outside of the north and east and during drought periods the rivers are dried out easily, besides this the Sinhalese can divert the water and stop all the water at anytime we want. As anybody can see its an extremely dangerous situation especially considering the hostile relationship between the Tamils and the Sinhalese. As for India and China, both are two dirty super-powers bullying small countries. And we have totally clueless people like Ayathuray trying to make statements about international issues by doing majour acts of boot-licking the Indians.

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    Dear PP

    People talk about changing parties as bad but the real fact is the parties changed – Ceylon congress/Tamil congress & Federal Party & UNP then UNP and SLFP then FP and Tamil congress join and form TULF with entirely different policies…federalism to Separatism to Federalism now to Federalism with a twist. In the process Mother Lankan children have died and Tamils have lost all they ever had..their children/dignity to a party sold our own children foreign agendas.

    I can write million books on how thuggery was unleashed right under the nose of TULF supervision ever since. The savagery we have seen in the riots is nothing as to the horrible deaths people have been through in Jaffna under the hands of all the armed groups trained in India. If I am an elected MP in the respective constituents I would have objected/attended funerals/written articles/took the matter to the world courts and foreign panels to investigate the slaying of the Tamils in Jaffna by foreign trained killers?? Campaigned for India to be sanctioned from the UN until all hell stopped? Did the FP/TULF do that is what they have to answer not just to Tamils and Sinhalese and Muslims but to the World. JVP need to do the same.

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      Dear PP

      We were penned into become the next centre (Indian Ocean) where all the superpowers congregate a long time ago.

      We will be another Palestine in a larger scale village after village will be barbed wired/walls/boarder posts/watch towers……our sea will be full of various Navies parked and armed to the teeth and UN patrolmen throughout the land too. We will be ‘servicing’ various security nations armed forces and their needs, water will be polluted with chemicals and radio active waste..there is a lot more worse things to come…..hopefully the world Tamil children will come and replace the dead in the North as they have done rows during the 2009 final war from India/Malaysia/Singapore and the west to safe their brother and sisters?? and same for the South too.

      Last sentence was made up as none of them did that as they are the beneficiaries of the SL war……….you do not have to walk the talk.

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