15 November, 2018

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Winning The Battle Of The ‘Fifth Domain’

By Sara Dissanayake

Dr. Sara Dissanayake

While the nation commemorated the 9th anniversary of the eradication of terrorism from our soil, news reports revealed that an entity calling itself as the ‘Tamil Eelam Cyber Force’ commemorated the occasion by hacking numerous Government and corporate web portals on 18 May. Notable targets included the Embassy of Sri Lanka in China, Ministry of Tourism Development and Christian Religious Affairs, and Batticaloa Municipal Council. In a nutshell, the message referred to the Sri Lankan government’s alleged war crimes, along with posting several graphic images from the final phases of the war. The message was signed off with #OPSrilanka. 

The US Military doctrine delineates cyberspace as the fifth dimension of warfare, which complements the four classical dimensions: land, sea, air, and space. Undeniably, the Tiger’s land, sea and air wings have been annihilated in our soil, but its invisible cyber wing has never been isolated and defeated. In the wake of the said cyber attack and with the ever-growing focus on the national cyber security strategy, it is imperative that we understand its context and the larger implications to our national security. This piece attempts to shed light on the Tigers’ incessant battle in the fifth domain, what it holds for the trajectory of the Eelamist movement today, and how best to confront it.

Tigers’ cyber strategy & ‘Virtual Eelam’

Cyber warfare is certainly not alien to the Tigers. The Internet Black Tigers, an offshoot of the notorious suicide squad LTTE Black Tigers, made history with its first known case of cyber terrorism against the state. At the height of Operation Jayasikurui in August 1997, they executed what they referred to as ‘suicide email bombings’, which essentially constituted of Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks. The squad successfully bombarded the Sri Lankan embassy networks around the world with 800 spam emails per day over a 2-week period. In the same year, the Internet Black Tigers pulled another spectacular stunt by compromising a computer system in Sheffield University in the United Kingdom, hacking into faculty members’ email accounts and disseminating messages requesting to donate to pro-LTTE charities in Sri Lanka. Just days before their defeat in May 2009, the cyber squad hacked the Sri Lankan Army’s website and replaced it with graphic images of civilians said to have been killed in military action in the final stage of the war. 

For the LTTE, the cyber domain was a critical component in complementing their operational strategy on the battleground, as they tactfully exploited the online network both as a ‘disruptive’ function (executing direct attacks against the state), as well as an ‘enabling’ function (support operational aspects such as fundraising, communication and propaganda). 

Initially, the cyber attacks constituted as a part of their power projection tool by showcasing its ability to disrupt both virtual and physical environments. Towards the end of their lifecycle as they were losing the battleground, cyber attacks signified as a weapon of last resort and desperation while serving as a medium to propagate the alleged war crimes committed by the Sri Lankan state. 

The virtual domain had much more significance to the Tigers than as a mere fifth domain of warfare. During the war, websites such as tamilnet.com and eelamweb.com, among many others, successfully served as platforms to disseminate ‘on-the-ground’ news and updates of ongoing military campaigns. Online newsgroups and e-forums offered a space to discuss and foster the Eelamist movement. To a great extent, the Internet was a critical lifeline for the Tigers to allow global networking among the pro-LTTE Diaspora communities. This ‘Virtual Tamil Eelam’ served as a glue to reinforce separatist sentiments- a sense of community and belonging among the Tamil Diaspora communities- by linking across different political and geographic boundaries.  

Retaining its legacy

Following the end of militancy in Sri Lanka, the virtual domain has remained a vital lifeline for the Eelamists, not for its disruptive function but rather for its enabling function. The cyber platform reinforces the separatist ideology among the pro-LTTE Diaspora communities in many ways, in order to justify and fuel their pursuit of Eelam. Especially with the emerging role of the social media, the post-2009 Eelamist movement saw an unprecedented level of digital Eelam marketing and branding in the virtual space.

One way in which secessionist movements seek to gain legitimacy in the contemporary setting is to have its country domain or Top Level Domain (TLD- e.g .lk for Sri Lanka, .in for India) registered under their claimed territory. Established in 2009, New Nations is an online community project that creates TLDs for ‘unacknowledged nation-states’. They have provided the .te domain for Tamil Eelam, and many existing pro-LTTE sites have been registered under the domain (although the .te links are inactive at the time of writing).

Further, the pro-Tigers activists capitalise on the Diasporas’ strong attachment to symbols and imagery of the nationalist struggle. With decades of war, the face of Prabhakaran and the Tigers’ logo became synonymous to the separatist movement. To date, its symbolic significance has not been diluted, which is clearly reflected in repeated use of the LTTE flag and/or the supremo’s images in almost every commemorative and political events held around the world. One example demonstrating the Eelam branding effect is an online shop based in Denmark that was established in 2015. The eelamshop.com website showcases a variety of ‘patriotic’ goods featuring Prabhakaran’s picture, the Tiger’s logo, or the Eelam map, and ships worldwide in registered post. 

Similarly, a standard Google search will show that the hashtag #LTTE and #tamileelam leads to various Instagram and Twitter accounts belonging to numerous individuals who advocate Eelam. As of May 2018, there are 2,130 YouTube channels related to the Tamil Eelam, where 3 to 5 promotional videos are uploaded on a daily basis. Numerous LTTE front organisations utilise Facebook to propagate their political aspirations, as well as publicise various commemorative and cultural events. 

The Eelamists have undoubtedly been successful in winning the hearts and minds of concerned parties in its war of narratives in the cyber domain thus far.

Beyond defensive technical capabilities

Few state-run cyber command centres are currently in operation, and the government last year declared a newly formulated national cyber security strategy along with the intent to create more cyber agencies. As Sri Lanka prepares for a wide range of cyber attacks perpetrated by criminal or politically motivated adversaries, the nation will benefit from an all-encompassing national cyber security initiative. Forthcoming agencies however need to operate beyond incident response and attack prevention, in order to thwart them from becoming another white elephant in the room.

While the primary tier of defense is to disrupt and prevent cyber attacks of any kind, mitigating politically or ideologically motivated cyber attacks as the likes of the Tamil Eelam Cyber Force requires much more than defensive technical capabilities of the state. In other words, fighting against the Eelamists in the fifth domain consists of an amalgamation of both online and offline efforts, which entails understanding the historical and socio-political context in which the adversary operates in cyberspace as a whole. 

Raising awareness and establishing a general public discourse against Eelamist activities in the cyber platform is a starting point. In addition to merely preventing cyber attacks and monitoring Eelamist trends and activities online, the battle of narratives in cyberspace should consist of proactive and consistent counter-messaging and dissemination of ideological counterpoints and counter-narratives, a tactic which was prevalent in government websites during the final phase of the war. 

The government in conjunction with private entities, should reinvigorate the use of- or rather ‘weaponise’- social media to actively discredit the Eelamist narrative. To this end, the larger national cyber security team needs to also include policymakers, civil society groups, academia, key Internet industry players and the general public both in and out of Sri Lankan soil, in order to protect the national interest of the country. Such effort should be simultaneously complemented with robust state-level and and public diplomacy, so as to ensure foreign governments to uphold and apply their Internet policing mechanism to include any materials endorsing the Tamil Tigers and its entities.

The virtual domain has become an integral aspect of our day-to-day lives and therefore has become an extremely vulnerable target for those with the intention to terrorise and destroy. As the state confronts the invisible adversaries in cyberspace, it needs to gets ahead in its battle of the fifth domain by looking beyond defensive technical capabilities in fighting the good fight. 

*The author is a Research Fellow at the School of Law and Government, Dublin City University, Ireland and a Senior Fellow at the Institute of National Security Studies, Sri Lanka.

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Latest comments

  • 12
    7

    Dr. Sara,
    I thought you are a genuine professional but it looks like you are now a fear mongering Gotapaya sponsored Buddhist Fundamentalist. Your article coincide with the Gotapaya’s initial propaganda for Presidential campaign. There is nothing new about Separatist ideology where oppressing people in the name race. Separatist ideology was proposed by SWRD in 1930′.It was accepted by every Sinhala leadership (Chela-Banda Pact, Dudley-Chelva pact, Indo-lankan accord, Chndrika proposals, Oslo accord and Mahinda appointed Vithanage proposals). LTTE terrorism was eradicated in 2009, but the Buddhist Fundamentalist terrorism remains active and there is a need to eradicate this terrorism to get rid of separatist ideology. Fear mongering politics lead to massacre of thousands of Tamil and Sinhala innocent people and the country being continuous cycles of violence, destruction of economy, and particularly the image of Buddhism is under low. Please don’t fabricate stories and spread fear mongering among ordinary people.

    • 4
      1

      This author seems to be just another Goata Rajapakse’s lackey and lickspittle.

      “Institute of National Security Studies, Sri Lanka” That explains a lot…

  • 2
    7

    IF you check with Tamils, They are really scared to LTTE. LTTE out side in pieces and they are also devicded. I don’t think LTTE will ever come. but, there are people who profits this so called tiger attack. I say this tiger attack should be a preparation for the election and they are expecting MEdia to write about that. There may be a handful of Tamiils who are Tribalists but not everybody. Most need help from teh south as both the Tobacco farmers and the soith are neglecting them.

  • 2
    6

    This also may be a challenge to the Sri lankan Cyber security force who statred their operations recently to say that we can do better than you. In that case, some disgruntled LTTE cadres. that is for sure, there are so many UNiversity graduated LTTE tamils all over the world doing ot much. they are angry with their own too. I think they are mostly Protestants who are discrfiminated by foreigne countries because of their skin color and their own because of their caste and religion

  • 8
    3

    Another starting point might be encourage independent international inquiry to address so alleged war crimes on innocent civilians by armed forces and LTTE. Outcomes will lead to sustainable peace. Why worried if your forces did not slaughter civilians in cold blood?

    • 2
      5

      No country in the world prosecuted their soldiers went to war on the orders. but, Ranil’s yahapalana govt did that. Any investigations should get first TGTE people, and ADele Balasingham first. there are huindreds out side.

    • 4
      1

      Dumbo jimba when did you become a statistician?

      • 1
        5

        A hear a Tamil dog from barking. Thalathel smell. I am running. I heard you went to Thamil;nadu. Were you chased out from your homeland Thamilnadu ?

        • 2
          1

          Dumba Jimba Soft in the head: I flew to a country called Canada about 35 years ago and happily living here since then. But you f&*ker you are still languishing in some remote village with an 80s computer writing racist vile garbage because in your village gamaya school of idiots that’s all you learnt. What to do? I thought you ran away to a place called Orissa where you came from. Are you still in Hambantota? If then, you need to pack your bags and fu&k off from there to your hometown……kapish?

          • 0
            1

            I know I am good at hitting the exact right place. So, you worship god sabarimala and Japamala. My computer is 3,2 hertz and Quad core.

      • 1
        5

        Tamil protestant: what god you believe, is it god/Goddess Sabarimala Or goddess MahaLAkshmi ?

    • 0
      1

      TRUTHKV: What happened in Nanathikaddal is very sad and is a humongous lost. IT is you tamils who dictate peace and reconciliation to sinhala people. KEep mourning to say that you people are for ever losers.

  • 2
    0

    “As the state confronts the invisible adversaries in cyberspace, it needs to gets ahead in its battle of the fifth domain by looking beyond defensive technical capabilities in fighting the good fight.”. Temporary blocking of Facebook and other Social Media platforms as done recently is like shooting with a water gun when considering the larger cyberspace dangers (especially hacking into websites containing financial, confidential or sensitive information) as seen happening in many countries around the world. The Sri Lankan Government will be caught with their pants down if they don’t act fast.

  • 7
    4

    Thanks SAra. A timely analysis of the ease with which fake news and racist propaganda spreads online and help radicalize people – especially the millenials.

    Be careful out there – the LTTE is still strong in europe and Canada and they target intellectuals like you.

    • 6
      4

      “Be careful out there – the LTTE is still strong in Europe and Canada and they target intellectuals like you”. This is exactly what I was saying that Sinhala racists in Europe and Canada are mortally scared of LTTE, so much so that when they hear that LTTE supporters are around they start shivering and some hide under the bed. My advice to this upstart is to behave like all other Sinhala racists living in Europe and Canada, that is to live like a dog with the tail tucked between your legs. By this you are assured that LTTE will ignore you. Sri Lanka government cannot do anything to LTTE sympathisers.

      • 3
        4

        DostharAgnana, you say, ”Sri Lanka government cannot do anything to LTTE sympathisers”. It is not that The Sri Lanka government ‘cannot’ do anything but ‘does not want’ to do anything. We have achieved what we wanted. We have flushed the toilet. Would you want the shit back once you flush the toilet? Of course, not. It is the same thing here. We did not have to put in the effort flushing even. The shit flushed itself. Now that the shit is gone, hopefully, we do not have to use our Weapons of Mass Destruction like the Rtd. Lt. Reginald Shamal Perera again to get rid of it. But the WMD’s will be there as a deterrence.

        In fact we have killed two birds with one stone here. One – getting rid of the shit. Two – getting even with our colonial masters of the past by covertly passing the shit to them. And now we can sit back and enjoy. Let the games begin. Sorry, they have already begun in many places. So let us say, let the games continue.

    • 4
      3

      sinhalese buddhist

      “A timely analysis of the ease with which fake news and racist propaganda spreads online and help radicalize people – especially the millenials.”

      This is another money making venture. If LTTE is a potential Cyber threat to this island it is also a threat to Europe, Canada and rest of the world. Europeans and Canadians are not going to sit tight and watch their entire electronic system crumbled to halt.

      You should try to use your brain once in while unless of course you are going to join the gravy train.

  • 4
    6

    Dear Madam, well written as always. Srilankan government needs to read these rather than wasting their time on unnecessary things.

  • 5
    4

    Strange Sara Dissanayake comes up just as GR launches the Viyath Maga Convention.
    Here we are grappling with Einstein’s fourth dimension. Sara says that there is a fifth dimension – the cyberspace. According to Sara, Eelamists live there and from then on she comes up with further trash.
    .
    It is OK for Sara to indulge in such puerile activities as Senior Fellow at the Institute of National Security Studies, Sri Lanka. Should she spend time dong this as Research Fellow at the School of Law and Government, Dublin City University, Ireland?
    .

  • 8
    3

    What we Sinhalese need are not scare stories about Eelam. We essentially run the country. Clear up the corruption in the country.
    .
    The simpler the message the better.

    • 8
      3

      Sinhala_Man

      I wonder why we did not get to hear about the activities of the ‘Tamil Eelam Cyber Force’ from 1997 to date.

      I am not sure who is behind this spin.
      Those who see a gap in the security market in this island certainly they will by hook or crook create awareness, interest, thereby demand for certain unwanted products and services. Well there is a lot of fortune to be made from cyber crime and prevention of it.

      Sara Dissanayake is trying to get chattering classes panic, in the process she also endeavour to manufacture consent among them, who in turn will demand tighter Cyber security, ……… and the state end up spending billions of dollar on cyber security in order to prevent non existent threat, and spend non existent financial resources,…………….

      The question is who is going to benefit, who is going to get various contracts, who is going get commission, ……………………….. and what is in it for Sara Dissanayake and Dayan Jayatilleke?

      Will the tender be ready by 2020 hoping Basil may want to renegotiate the contract in its entirety?

    • 0
      1

      Sinhala man
      I am quite surprised when you said “We” Sinhalese.I always believed that you were a Tamil pretending to be a Sinhalese to give more credibility to your pro Tamil views. Correct me if Iam wrong.

      • 2
        1

        Sinhala man

        Don’t mind the Percy the pathetic liar.
        The liar never knew your credentials yet he insults you left right and centre.
        The liar is trying to play the man instead of the ball.
        How pathetic he is?

      • 1
        0

        Dear Percy,
        .
        We exchanged insults once before. Rather more accurately, you insulted me, whilst I kept my cool, and remained factual. You then acknowledged that I was genuine after all. Now there’s only one way to convince you. I have to sign this with my name, but I’m afraid my gravitar will change.

        Perhaps, you could email me. I have done this before! Send me your phone number. I will talk to you long enough to convince you of my credentials – at my expense. One condition: that you announce your findings – no not an apology.
        .
        paniniedirisinhe@gmail.com
        .
        You told me that you like to rile people. I don’t do that. The issues are too serious.

  • 1
    0

    Why this is such a challenging task when the govt of that country can be asked directly to help to find who owns this Web site name(s).

  • 1
    1

    SARA: I Say those who did this as an organization maybe should contact the president directly and explain theioor problems. Then army may arrest them question and then release to the society but moniter them, and army should remain annonymous with those individuals in order for them to live normal in the society. IF the army exposes them causes problems them to live like normal individuals.

  • 3
    3

    The language Sara Dissanayake used and the subjects she dealt with here are showing how ignorant Sara Dissanayake is in Cyber Technology. When one first writes something, it is the outpour of life time saving of that person. Later, it will have to show his/her quality. The entire essay is only a concoction without any base. When Sara Dissanayake wrote first essay, I right away observed this pages soon going to beat the guru Thero De Silva, who always praised the disciple’s fibs. The reality was, she is attempting to replace the ousted hero Rohan, but nothing serious in this essay.
    The International NGOs are still bringing out the cases of Lankawe Rapist Army’s fresh murders and rapes. Sara Dissanayake, in the meantime, is telling about a cyber-attack on Lankawe government.
    Sara Dissanayake doesn’t like to talk about the August 29th 2016, a 26 year man helped to an A/L boy to hack into New King’s website. The boy should have been in jail for three year and have had paid 300,000 rupees. But the imbecile New King met the boy, praised him and arranged for scholarship for him. Sara Dissanayake is not talking about it.
    After Kandy riots, a Muslim writer named Amin questioned New King, on his website, how much serious he was on his promises to protect Muslims. Amin was repeatedly investigated by CID-TID. Sara Dissanayake is not talking about it. Instead Sara Dissanayake is talking about Tigers hacking them.
    The Nuraicholai power plant is built by Chinese prisoners, with condemned 2nd hand power plant of China. It is not working at all. Old King naively threatened China of having the plant repaired by India. 50 Computers of important corporation and government department went down. One of it was Defense department Media Central Computers. Obama Administration warned excessive activities of the CHINESE CYBER UNIT 61398.

  • 3
    3

    Eventually Old King gave free Sea-Land area for China to Build Colombo Pong Cing. China got the contract for protecting Lankawe computers too. That would be the biggest cyber-attack on Lankawe by its own friendly nation, even to years to come. But Sara Dissanayake is not talking about it.
    Until Old Royal was on chair, all Tamil electronic media reported of repeated cyber attach on them. This was similar to the physical attack on Media properties and Media men. Lankawe was 4th on Physical attack on Media men out of 179 countries. Lankawe Rapist Army created even illegal Udayan and reported on that Ananthi, a NPC candidate, had joined the Lankawe Old Royal military rulers. Lankawe Rapist Army and its consultants constantly manipulate cyber and physical media. Lankawe’s Appe Aanduwa was known to have established anti-Tamil web sites. Jaffnahistory.com is to falsify Tamils history. There are many others like that too.
    Under Control of Old Brother Prince, Shenali Waduge wrote very low grade article of TN CM Jayalalitha on MoD website. Latter it was apologized to PM Modi, unconditionally.
    Sara Dissanayake’s serial essays are cyber bullying on behalf of Appe Aanduwa. They are against the freedom of expression. Tamils will be using all legal means to bring to justice the 42 war criminals listed on the abandoned OISL report of March 2015.
    Now Sara Dissanayake is accusing Tamils hacking Lankawe embassy in China. This is really, really an interesting story. But she did not offer any prove.
    Sara Dissanayake’s last essay showed some premonition of Kandy riots. There was a military person who smuggled bomb from Jaffna and it blasted off in Diyatalawa, in the bus he was travelling. But the government successfully hid the army’s preparation for something. This essay also seems to be suggesting something like Kandy riot is about to happen.

  • 2
    5

    Thanks Dr. Sara. We need patriots like you to defend our beloved country.

    Compared to what they were doing before these things are like mosquito bites, a nuisance rather than a threat. With Battleship Mahinda maneuvering in to position, firing devastating broadsides and Gota’s Panzers moving in Blitzkreig style right in to Jayawardene Pura, the Terrorists are – how do you call it -Terrorized. Listen carefully. That ‘tuk tuk’ sound is the sound of the Tamil knees doing a Baila dance.

  • 3
    0

    CT right here it is happening, some one has posted a comment using my name and it is very obvious who the person is. The pseudo patriots are the true terrorist we need to worry.. Please look out for them. From NOW I WILL NOT WRITE ANY COMMENT USING MY NAME but this will not keep me from voicing my opinion.

    • 2
      0

      I’ve noted what you’ve said, “chivas”. That someone called “chiv”. The gravitar is different, but that will not prevent many from being misled.
      .
      By the way, who is that person?
      .
      It is good that CT keeps things simple, but if these things keep happening, it may be necessary to get proper profiles accepted before comments are allowed.
      .
      Part of cyber-security!

  • 0
    1

    Hello.. as soon as this news was circulated to our emails that these websites were hacked we immediately checked and IT WAS NOT SO. On what base are you writing this. ? All the websites were working fine. I checked for myself.

  • 4
    3

    I strongly feel that this article is another attempt by the writer to push GR’s Presidential ambition by discrediting the already discredited LTTE diaspora…and to ask the Sinhala Buddhist majority to support GR, so that he can come back and destroy all the diaspora hackers just like how he destroyed the fighters, civilians, people who surrendered waving white flags, dissenters, media men and media houses…and to wreck the entire country including the rest of the minorities who were left out in the initial well planned destruction.
    Sara’s article followed ‘viyath Maga’ fan fare and we can expect more fun in the future..

    These people are under the impression that all and only the SB citizen have the right to live in this shit hole called Lanka. Their dream might become a reality in due course, of course if things get worse.
    …and the signs are visible every where..
    It’s okay…so let them at least live happily ever after on the heap of skeletons left after the destruction.

    Dr. DJ’s blessings can be seen in between the lines ! Bravo Sara !!

  • 1
    0

    Cyber hacking is an international game these days and no one can escape from that menace. It’s not an easy task to eradicate it. Russians, Americans, Chinese, Indians and every damn country and spy agencies are doing just that. Sri Lanka is doing that and why not LTTE diaspora or any Tom or Dick ?

    Credit card informations are hacked from stores..and this is computer world, cyber space is a common property and any one who is computer savvy can access it without much trouble.

    GR or the SL computer expert genius cannot do a thing to stop hacking ! Do not waste time or money on this phony game unless you want to make some people rich by illegal means.

    It’s better for the writer to just keep quiet without crying foul and becoming a ‘laughing matter’.

  • 5
    3

    Sara
    By now you would/should have realised that the fifth dimension is empty and does explain the infamous Lankan corruption/nepotism/impunity black-holes.
    Is this the sort of work you do at the Institute of National Security Studies, Sri Lanka?

    • 2
      3

      An excellent piece. As Sara says we had a COIN strategy inclusive of cyber security. Not any more with the existing pliant regime. But the essential elements are there which we as citizens will have to activate & coordinate from outside the yahapalana shit hole called a government.

      • 3
        2

        Hel ass

        An excellent piece as long as we are able to tear it off and wipe our bum.

    • 2
      0

      Dear K. Pillai,
      .
      You’re right. That is the way our wealth is drained away. And is she also in Dublin at our expense? I used to know Dublin quite well; now, I’ve not been there, or anywhere outside Asia.
      .
      I struggled through the whole of James Joyce’s Ulysses. Actually there were large sections that were enjoyable.
      .
      Oh, my God! I’ve got “Finnegans Wake” – unreadable. If SaraDfindsitshewillsaythatSinhala_ManisaTamilspy.

  • 1
    0

    @Sinhala_Man pretty simple, looked for all the comments above the fake one and looked for a pattern in likes and dislikes. There was 2 dislikes for all the positive statements above.There was one like for the fake statement given by the writer him self. Then the “EUREKA” moment. The usual culprits( two of them)are are there in the list.Now familiar with their psychology and one of them having limited fluency in English Language with loads of typo and the other who is overtly racial and communal minded (considering there usual comments and the comments they had given for this article) it is a give away. Not even worth to name and shame. Another surprise is Edwin Aiya out of nowhere calls for Lt. Retarded Shamal Perera for help in defending the country.I guess both are familiar to each other in some way. LOL. Have a pleasant day gentlemen.

    • 0
      2

      Chivas Malli, great analysis. Mabrook. Gan Batte Kudasai, Congrats. I like people who think scientifically. I know the Rtd. Lt. Shamal Perera on CT only.

  • 2
    0

    Once a person has decided to live in fear one way or the other, what can others do about it? Some enjoy seeing funny fear mongers and fear-mongering while other innocents become victims of these syndrome in SL

  • 0
    0

    Duwe Sara

    Well done; a brilliant stuff.

    Keep writing please (let dogs bark but caravan will move on)

  • 0
    0

    Sara there are lots of separatists who attack you. I can see you write the truth with evidence. So discard what these useless separatist creatures have commented.

  • 0
    0

    Good article

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