23 September, 2020

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A River For Jaffna

By Thiru  Arumugam

Thiru Arumugam

Jaffna Peninsula has an area of 1000 square km and being flat has no rivers and is totally dependent on the annual rainfall of about 1270 mm, of which about 87% falls during the north-east monsoon from October to December, for recharge of the water table in the underground aquifer.  In the past, water was drawn from wells for domestic and agricultural use by well sweeps, but from the 1950’s onwards pumps have been used to draw water from these wells.  There are nearly 100,000 wells in the Peninsula. This over pumping for agricultural use has drawn down the fresh water stored in the limestone aquifer resulting in sea water percolating into the wells through the fractured limestone, as no part of Jaffna is more than about 15 km from the sea. At present about 30% of the wells in the Jaffna Peninsula are saline. Recent reports from agricultural experts state that more than 4500 hectares of fertile agricultural land have turned saline and have become unsuitable for cultivation.

Within the Jaffna peninsula there are two large lagoons, the Vadamarachchi lagoon and the Upparu lagoon with surface areas of about 77 and 26 square km respectively.  These lagoons were open to the sea and were salt water lagoons but during the north-east monsoon rain water from their catchment areas also collects in them. The total catchment area of these lagoons is about 50% of the area of the Peninsula.

If we are to increase the availability of fresh water in the Jaffna peninsula we need to look at sources alternative to rain in the peninsula.  South of the peninsula is the sea water Elephant Pass Lagoon which    has a surface area of about 77 square km.  It has a catchment area of about 940 square km in the mainland Vanni, mainly consisting of the Kanakarayan Aru and three smaller streams.  During the north-east monsoon these streams discharge the surplus rain water from the Vanni into the Elephant Pass lagoon. From this lagoon this fresh water flows into the sea through the eastern end at Chundikulam and formerly also through the western end Elephant Pass bridge, and is at present being wasted.

During the 1960’s a scheme was proposed to utilise the monsoon rain water running to waste from the Elephant Pass lagoon, for the benefit of the Jaffna peninsula.

KEY POINTS of the RIVER for JAFFNA Project

Key points of the scheme and details of the work done in the 1960s are as follows:

  • Close off the openings in the road and rail bridges in the Elephant Pass causeway at the western end of the Elephant Pass lagoon to prevent fresh water going to the sea from this end.  This work was completed.
  • Build a bund and spillway at the eastern end of the Elephant Pass lagoon at Chundikulam to prevent fresh water going to the sea.  This work was completed and Elephant Pass lagoon became a fresh water lagoon for a few years but unfortunately the bund was breached by subsequent heavy floods, thus allowing sea water access since then.
  • Excavate a 12 metre wide, 4 km long channel, called the Mulliyan Link Channel, from the northern side of the Elephant Pass lagoon to convey fresh water from the Elephant Pass lagoon to the southern end of the Vadamarachchi lagoon, including regulatory gates to control the flow.  About 80% was completed when funds ran out and work stopped.
  • Refurbish the existing Thondamanaru Barrage (where the northern end of Vadamarachchi lagoon exits the sea) to make it watertight, and improve the discharge gates to allow for discharge of flood water.  This will make Vadamarachchi lagoon a fresh water lagoon.  This work was carried out but a few years later the wooden stop logs perished and allowed sea water to enter the lagoon.
  • Provide a spillway and gates at the southern end of Upparu Lagoon where it exits to the sea, near Ariyalai.  This will make Upparu lagoon a fresh water lagoon. The spillway and gates were constructed but a few years later the wooden stop logs perished and allowed sea water to enter Upparu lagoon.

It can be seen from the above that the scheme was only partially completed in the 1960’s and the key element of the Mulliyan link channel to convey fresh water from Elephant Pass lagoon to Vadamarachchi lagoon was never completed.  In the brief period that Vadamarachchi and Upparu were fresh water lagoons, the benefits to the peninsula were noticeable and many saline wells became potable water wells.

Project Benefits 

The benefits of completing this project include the following:

About 13,000 hectares of land can be cultivated with paddy in the Jaffna peninsula.  The area presently cultivated is about 8000 hectares due to soil salinity and other reasons.  This cultivation is entirely rain fed unlike paddy cultivation on the mainland which is watered by irrigation channels.  As it is rain fed, the yield per acre in Jaffna is very poor and is only about one-third of the average yield per acre on the mainland.  If the Vadamarachchi and Upparu lagoons become fresh water lakes, the water table and water quality in the wells will improve, and using lift irrigation it will be possible to irrigate these paddy fields without depending purely on the rain and the paddy land now lying fallow can also be cultivated.  The potential for improvement in yield and rice production is staggering.

About 4400 hectares of land bordering the Vadamarachchi and Upparu lagoons are uncultivable at present as they are saline.  When these become fresh water lagoons, after the salt is leached out of the soil, it will be possible to cultivate this land with cash crops and paddy.

There will be a dramatic improvement in the water quality of the 30% of the Jaffna wells which are now saline.  In many cases the water will become suitable for domestic use and agricultural use, increasing the acreage under agricultural cultivation.

Work Needed Now Complete The Scheme

Thondamanaru and Ariyalai Barrages have been completely refurbished within the last couple of years  and Vadamarachchi and Upparu lagoons are now fresh water lagoons. The remaining work to complete this project include:

Complete Spill Cum Causeway At Cundikulam

At the eastern end of Elephant Pass lagoon at Chundikulam, complete the spill cum Chundikulam causeway, zoned embankment, and flanked embankment with gravel road.  The spill plus causeway will be 2100 metres long and the bund 1400 metres long. When this work is completed Elephant Pass lagoon will become a fresh water lagoon.

Complete Mulliyan Link Channel

Complete the excavation of Mulliyan Link Channel, form a bund and roadway, causeway and provide a control regulator. When this work is completed, fresh water can flow from Elephant Pass to Vadamarchchi and Upparu lagoons as required.

Conclusion

No immediate plans have been announced by the Government for carrying out the above two items of work.  This may be because work has started on the Jaffna-Kilinochchi Water Supply Scheme.  This scheme draws water from Iranamadu tank and supplies potable water to Jaffna.  By drawing water from Iranamadu, the local farmers will not be able to cultivate a Yala crop.  To compensate for this, it is proposed to spend 10 million dollars raising the level of Iranamadu bund by two feet.  But in low rainfall years such as 2009 and 2012 the inflow into Iranamadu was less than its present storage capacity.  Thus, raising the bund is not going to store any additional water in such years, and there will be no Yala cultivation.

A much more viable alternative, instead of raising Iranamadu, is to spend the 10 million dollars earmarked for this on completing the River for Jaffna project, and obtaining raw water for the Jaffna-Kilinochchi Water Supply Scheme from the Jaffna aquifer instead of Iranamadu tank.  This will leave the Iranamadu Yala crop unaffected and in addition provide the benefits of completing the River for Jaffna project outlined above.

In addition, there will be a saving of about six million dollars because the long pipeline from Iranamadu to Jaffna Peninsula will no longer be required.

*The writer is a product of the engineering faculty from its Colombo days. He is the author of the well-revied book “Nineteenth century Medical Missionaries in Jaffna, Ceylon”

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Latest comments

  • 1
    0

    Whilst a lot of work seems to have been done, the above article does not enumerate the quantities of water that would be available as against usage. If such data is available it would be possible to evaluate the full feasibility of the project. If such figures are available the full report should be made public for the govt to activate.

    It is a pity that the govt is not looking into such investment opportunities which will bring life to thousands of people and boost the local economies. Instead of spending on ports and airports, these are the type of projects which would really contributes to uplifting the lives of people.

  • 1
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    Never do this without first changing the demographics in Jaffna. If Jaffna remains Tamil only nothing will work. First make Muslims and Sinhalese 50% of Jaffna population and then do this. Otherwise settle Sinhala farmers along this “river” like DS Senanayaka did with Gal Oya river in Trincomalee. Today Tamils are the smallest ethnic group in Trincomalee.

    • 1
      1

      BL***Y RACITS… Why dont we ask the Aryans from Orissa to return to Orissa and leave the Tamils in Jaffna in Peace…

  • 0
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    Mr. Arumugam, thank you for this article!
    I wish you could reach the powers that be… as futile as it may sound, maybe even try and meet the Minister of Irrigation?

    Incidentally, isn’t the disastrous Moragahakandha project now being referred to as the ‘River to Jaffna’?

    However, sadly it seems as though what motivates irrigation projects today appears to be the commissions under the table and not their viability on the ground. The Yan Oya project and its potential impact on the ilmanite deposit is particularly worrying….

    • 0
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      SUNELA JAYEWARDENE
      Please refer the map titled Water Resources Development Plan, 1959, prepared in the Irrigation dept. and published by the Survey dept. Also please refer publications in the Institution of Engineers, Sri Lanka.
      You have mentioned Moragahakandha and the NCP canal. The latter has nothing to do with ‘A River for Jaffna’ which was described by me in a Comment below. Please see the following concluding paragraphs 8. and 9. from a letter to Prime Minister Ranil Wickremasinghe, November 15, 2003:

      8. If Moragahakande is constructed, environmental degradation and destruction similar to that created by Lunuganvehera in ancient Ruhuna, will be repeated in the eastern area of ancient Rajarata. In addition there will be perpetual conflict over distribution of water compounded by the ethnic element. Environmental destruction in the western area of ancient Rajarata was averted when the Eppawala phosphate rock project was checked by a Supreme court judgement. It will be a pity if recourse to the courts becomes necessary to avert a similar destruction of cultural heritage in eastern Rajarata.
      9. In conclusion, it is not just a comparison of construction costs that is required. A full scale inquiry into the proposed Moragahakande project is requested, in order to expose the incorrect notions behind this proposal, including the absurd statement that it will take “good Sinhala water to Tamil areas”. The alternative of restoring ancient Parakrama Sagara, the 2nd Sea of Parakrama, may then be given in detail.

  • 1
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    A good project for the new provincial council.

  • 0
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    Here is a chance for India to counter the 10 recent projects that China
    signed onto. Over to the new Hon. HC India in Colombo.

  • 0
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    I posted elsewhere too. I can very well understand the economic benefits of this project. But will it ever pass an EIA for converting a saline body of water into fresh water? It will destroy a whole ecosystem, including fish, crustaceans, shells etc, that live in saline water, and the bird species that prey on them, flora including mangroves and other species in the tidal zone. Doesn’t make sense!

    • 1
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      An Environmental Impact Assessment will of course have to be done on the Project. It must be remembered, however, that the Elephant Pass Lagoon (EPL) became a fresh water lagoon for several years in the 1960s when the Chundikulam Bund was built, until it breached due to severe floods a few years later. Even now EPL is in effect a fresh water lagoon for three or four months every year during the north-east monsoon when the Kanagarayan Aru and other rivers flowing into it are in spate.

      The situation in Vadamarachchi and Upparu Lagoons is similar. They were originally salt water lagoons but became fresh water lagoons in the 1960s when the Thondamanaru and Ariyalai barrages were built. They remained fresh water lagoons for several decades until the wooden barrage gates perished due to lack of maintenance, and they again became salt water lagoons. About three years ago the two Barrages were refurbished and they are fresh water lagoons once more.

      Thiru Arumugam

  • 1
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    I had the privilege of walking along the bund and viewing the foundation stone laid. That was all that was there in the mid 80’s and marveled at the potential of the project.

    Sadly the war intervened.

    I hope India will take up this project,

    Gundu Babu

  • 0
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    Never allow this to happen.

    KKS cement factory should be restarted instead.

    • 1
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      Are you planning to suffocate the people of Jaffna with the pollution from the cement factory?

      Dr.Rajasingham Narendran

      • 0
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        once again one of the rare occasions I agree with this you, well said

  • 1
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    ‘Penelope’s Web’ ie weave by day and unweave by night, best describes the vicissitudes of the Jaffna Lagoon Scheme. As ideally envisaged Mahaweli water led into Kanagarayan Aru will wind its way into a fresh water Elephant Pass Lagoon and thence to the Peninsula and finally exit through Thondamanaru Barrage (TB), into the Indian Ocean. All the while sweetening the water in the process. Absolutely practical if there be statesmanship.

    Preparatory to this, TB was constructed in early fifties and Upparu Barrage at Araly and Navatkuli Barrage in early sixties. Three other appurtenant works, Chundikulam bund to the East, closure of the vented causeway at A9 highway and the Mulliyan canal were constructed in late sixties. Flood waters of the monsoon would leach out the saline waters through the three barrages was the wish. In due course Mahaweli water will flow in and augment fresh water in dry months was the hope.

    But these were not to be. Thorough neglect of the three barrages ended up in salt water intrusion at all three places. The exits became entry points and wiped away even the minimum gains. The bund and the canal too collapsed. Ruin was complete. In the last 7 years the 3 barrages are refurbished. In over 50 years, the scheme stands as a failure for reasons of human default. Water remains as brackish as earlier.

    Much change is not foreseeable. Trusting to this water to serve potable needs in Jaffna is to deceive the people, sincere motives notwithstanding. Only way available is to divert 40,000 Ac,Ft. from Iranaimadu and to augment storage by raising the bund. A few decades of spilling history supports its feasibility.

  • 1
    1

    Mr.Thiru Arumugam,

    The earthern bunds on both sides of the elephant pass lagoon had been constructed by the army, even before the last war ended. This is what I learned from Mr.Mendis ( At a seminar on water resources), who has been advocating the case for the ‘Jaffna river’ for decades, despite his advanced age. Only the canal linking Elephant Pass reservoir (no longer a lagoon)- few Kilometers long, to the Vadamarachchi reservoir (also no longer a lagoon), remains to be constructed. The biggest problem is ensuring a flow of fresh water from the Irranaimadu tank to the Elephant Pass reservoir. Should the waters of the Maha Oya, be diverted through the tank system in the Vanni, to the Irrannaimadu tank?

    Further, the ecological concerns regarding the ‘Jaffna river’ project – mainly centered around converting salt water lagoons into fresh water reservoirs- fade into insignificance in the face of the work already completed and significance difference the project will make to the people, agriculture, aquaculture, industry and tourism in the Jaffna peninsula. Sri Lanka will be the ultimate beneficiary.

    This would be a project that would bring about national reconciliation, more than any other.

    Dr.Rajasingham Narendran

    • 1
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      DLO Mendis appeared to me to be very sincere and focussed more on the benefit to the whole country rather than the communal lenses thorough which the political leadership and many others connected with Water Resources see this vital project. I was in a Seminar at the OPA discussing the matter a few years ago and was shocked a Sinhalese Engineer, seated close to me, said “give them bombs not water” I went there at the invitation of a Sinhala friend of mine, who was shocked by this spurious Nationalism of his colleague.

      More Water to Jaffna can only mean greater food production through the hardworking Jaffna farmer. Statistics in the post-2009 period shows the Jaffna farmer has already re-established what he can do if he is allowed to function under conditions of normality. Many Engineers and political leaders with the interest of the country in mind tried to give effect to this idea but it has not seen the success it deserves. In my view the cause of National peace and reconciliation will be served if the Peninsular gets more water. Whether it is by diverting the Mahaweli or in any other manner is left to the policy makers and the political leaders.

      Senguttuvan

      • 2
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        Since my name has been mentioned, may I offer some comments:
        1. The late Eng. Sanmugam Arumugam published an article ‘A River for Jaffna’ in the Observer of October 17, 1954. This started the scheme by the Irrigation department in the 1960’s, called the Arumugam Plan.
        2. Underlying the rich earth of Jaffna peninsula bounded by 3 lagoons, Elephant pass, Vadamarachchi and Upparu, is fractured limestone. Hence all the (one lakh or more?) dug wells in Jaffna are inter-connected.
        3. There is a fair amount of local rainwater supply for the lagoons and the wells during the northeast monsoon season. This water sits on underlying salt water (connected to the sea) in the wells.
        4. Well sweeps were used as described by Emerson Tennent in 1857 till the 1950’s and a water balance maintained in the wells. Thereafter pumps were introduced and supplementary fresh water was needed from the mainland, hence the value of the River for Jaffna.
        5. Resolutions were passed unanimously at the Institution of Engineers annual sessions in October 2007, and at the Pugwash Workshop in November 2007, for restoration of the River for Jaffna.
        6. At this time although EP lagoon was under the control of the LTTE, President Mahinda Rajapakse ordered the restoration of Thondamannar and Ariyalai barrages, and this was done by the end of 2008.
        7. Thereafter, restoration of EP lagoon scheme and Mulliyan canal was unexpectedly held up. At this time two events took Thiru Arumugam in Sydney, and myself in Colombo by surprise, namely: i). A so-called Water Supply and Sanitation for Jaffna project from Snowy Mountain Engineering Corporation (SMEC) Australia, to take water from storage in Iranaimadu reservoir, at a loan cost of Rs 18 billion; and ii) an intervention by Dr Ivan Amarasinghe, Ambassador in Vietnam, who condemned the River for Jaffna scheme as a DISASTER WAITING TO HAPPEN.
        8. Kilinochchi farmers led by Anandasangaree M.P. protested that they did not have enough water for cultivation of their fields, and could not spare any water for transfer to Jaffna.
        9. The Adviser on Scientific Affairs to President Rajapakse, Professor Wimal Epasinghe wrote to me hat the River for Jaffna was not such a good project after all, and advised me to drop the matter.
        10. Ambassador Ivan Amarasinghe quite frankly based his views on his experience and qualifications (BSc Ecology, PhD River hydrology), which no doubt shone like Hayley’s comet in comparison to Thiru and my mere engineering degrees.
        11. About myself, I have served this country for more than 56 years, and about fifty years ago I was in charge of the water supply contract to the Oruwela steel factory from the Kelani ganga for the contractor, Walkers, Colombo.
        12. In my opinion, the River for Jaffna is a very rare modern example of a STABLE AND SUSTAINABLE WATER AND SOIL CONSERVATION ECOSYSTEM, like the ancient so-called ancient irrigation works in Sri Lanka.
        13. In contrast to this I have to conclude that the SMEC Jaffna – Kilinochchi water supply and sanitation scheme, has characteristics of an Economic Hit Man’s project, worthy of inclusion in a new edition of John Perkins well known book of ‘confessions’.
        14. Many published books and papers are available for reference, which I would be happy to share including R L Brohier’s Ancient Irrigation Works, and Arumugam’s Water Resources of Ceylon.
        D L O Mendis

        • 1
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          Dear Mr.Mendis,

          Thank you for your input. We Tamils have to be eternally grateful for your efforts re: the Jaffna river. The present regime which moved in the right direction with regard to this project, even before the last war ended seems to have lost its way. It would appear to me that Ivan Seneviratne’s ‘Hit man’ efforts, came as a convenient excuse for the regime, which was going off course on the reconciliation front.

          The ‘Jaffna River’ project is more important to people living in the peninsula than devolution, over which much noise is being made. I have not heard one word about the ‘Jaffna river’ project from the TNA.

          Dr.Rajasingham Narendran

    • 1
      0

      Dr Rajasingham Narendran
      Please read Eng. Thiru Arumugam’s article above, and his father Eng. Sanmugam Arumugam’s original article October 17, 1954 on A River for Jaffna. Since Thiru is in Sydney now, I can meet you for discussions in Colombo if necessary. D L O Mendis

      • 0
        0

        Sir,

        Thanks. I shall try to get in touch with you soon. I am sure the Kadirgamar Institute can help me contact you. To come to know you as a person, would be a boon.

        Dr. RN

  • 0
    0

    Dreams can materialise if there are dedicated people to canvas and market them. For a good idea there are many funding agencies who would gladly step in. In Sri Lanka much of the infrastructural projects are under govt control. Everyone expects the govt to do things for them. It is time the private sector was harnessed to make these dreams a reality. Perhaps such projects could be implemented under BOI with Private and Public Sector involvement.

  • 0
    1

    THIS IS A TROJAN HORSE . Strategically it is disastrous. Once constructed it becomes a legitimate right “access to water “and a sharing of water become an internationalized issue across boarders eg: India Vs Bangladesh.

    Policy makers shall not let this happen even if EIA is satisfactory. Never shall let interdependencies removed. Rather create more.

  • 1
    0

    A few years ago I had the opportunity to listen to Eng. DLO Mendis delivering a lecture on the same subject at IESL. Even the Minister in-charge of the subject of water supply and the Chairman of NWS&DB were present because the funding agreement with the ADB for construction of a water supply pipeline from Iranamadu Tank was being negotiated that time. I vividly recall DLO mentioning that the “River for Jaffna” should be considered as the best sustainable alternative to the pipeline which had been estimated to cost approximately US$ 100 million.

  • 0
    0

    There are many blue chip companies active in the agricultural field who would benefit from such development and would be interested in such a project. Also the resulting increase in agricultural and livestock produce could earn carbon credits. So it is a question of a few passionate people to get together and provide the leadership for such a project. We have knowledge and know how. Also we have the motivation, being the love for the country and ones people.

    So why not?

    • 0
      0

      I share reader Safa’s unifying thoughts. Is the problem because Colombo has accepted for long there are in fact Two Nations and nothing
      legal or humane should not be allowed to “the other” If the Rajapakse Family has the political maturity and resolve, based on the interest of the development of the entire undivided country, they must lead here and put a stop to the campaign of the mischief makers.

      Senguttuvan

  • 0
    0

    If the TNA wins the Provincial Council elections Jaffna will be neglected. But if a pro government Provincial Council is established in Jaffna it will receive the same or more favors as during Duraiappa’s regime as mayor. There will be many rivers flowing into Jaffna.

    • 0
      1

      It is waste of Time and money.Sea Levels are Rising and Jaffna Peninsula will be saturated with Salt Water Salinity will make the land useless.25 years on this is going to happen.It is a gradual process but it will happen.Forget the whole scheme.

  • 2
    0

    Having served in the North for over three and a half years after the war, and having visited and crossed the Mulliyan canal link several times, where roads intersect it , I can confidently say that the remaining works to be completed are very few. In fact the recent 1;2000 scaled maps compiled by the National Survey Department, based on the aerial photography of 2011, very clearly depicts the entirety of this link canal.

    Even without the aid of this canal, which would bring the mainland waters to the heart of Jaffna free of charge, the overall water quality conditions of the Vadamaratchchi and Uppuaru lagoons have improved within two years after repair of the barrages, by preventing salt water intrusion .This has been observed by

    a) Non formation of salt deposits on the fringes of the lagoons during the dry months
    b) More paddy cultivation on the fringes of the lagoons, which was not possible before.
    c)The difficulty in breeding the sea water prawns in the lagoons now.

    What needs to be completed is the regulated closure at the Eastern Chundikulum end, which could be integrated into the coastal road rehabilitation programme .

    The benefits of increased internal lagoon storage , even by a few inches in a peninsular situation such as Jaffna would be of paramount importance in keeping the groundwaters fresher over a longer peroiod, especially in an uncertain future of global sea level rise.

  • 1
    0

    FunkyRenegade:
    To my knowledge, “access to water and a sharing of water become an internationalized issue across boarders” is only a natural river passes through two or more countries or states. So one cannot compare dispute between India and Bangladesh or Tamil Nadu and Karnataka to water diverted from a natural river flow not touching Northern Province.
    You also say: “Never shall let interdependencies removed.” If this project succeeds it will be a good example of Interdependence between the North and other provinces.
    Right now almost all rivers in SL travel through many provinces. Has there been a dispute on sharing of water between one province and another?

    One should not look at this from an ethnic angle. If we do that country has no future.

  • 0
    0

    Dear G. Pandith

    Thank you for the reply and your comments are highly appreciated.

    I’m glad that you agree with me interdependencies are good. And also I’m with you in terms of sharing of resources across mere district or provincial borders. So that no province or population will not have an exclusivity in terms of resources including land .

    However, its my opinion that ethnic lines are not a taboo or stigma that we shall let slip through unchecked. Matter of fact it have been a reality for last 2 Millenniums for the people of my country.
    In my opinion Ethnicity and Religion is still very much a valid friction point even in the EU and US. It is like a binary oppositions, 1 s and 0s ,.Just one party giving up will not end the difference. Perhaps sophisticated and deliberate maneuvering, interdependencies could keep them checked and controlled. It shall also be understood that clash of civilizations also an everlasting fact so that strategic thinkers shall weigh-up all pros and cons including such deviations. I just want to highlight such facts because Northern Province have some abnormal demographic patterns and historical matters which are relatively more pro-fascist anti-sharing compared to rest of the country.
    I’m not too sure whether your view on the international law applicable on natural water sources and man-made rivers is valid or it is just left to interpretation. e.g Suez canal ?

  • 2
    0

    This project should be undertaken by the government immediately and should be explained to the people in the north and the diaspora Tamils . If the government does not have the money it should throw it open to the diaspora Tamils to complete it .

    • 2
      0

      People must lobby to persuade the NWS&DB to abandon the US$ 100 million pipeline project and to implement what has been discussed in detail, planned, designed and implemented halfway.

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