13 December, 2019

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Applying Toynbee’s “Challenge & Response” To The Genocide Of Ceylon Tamils

By S. Ratnajeevan H. Hoole

Prof. S. Ratnajeevan H. Hoole

Arnold Toynbee (1889-1975) who was at the London School of Economics was not as well acknowledged as he was outside the UK after he suggested that the Chinese and their language were well positioned to be dominant soon. He I think is proving to be right in almost two generations after his demise.  His magnum opus, however, I think was his theory of “Challenge and Response” – explaining why some civilisations did well while others fell back. This theory is that challenges together with our response to them are what makes or breaks a people. If there is no challenge, the civilization becomes one of lotus eaters. He applied this to tropical Africa which, well-endowed by nature, led to little progress. 

If a challenge is too strong, the response it evokes may break the civilization. When the ice age set in, the igloo exploiting the fact that ice is a good insulator, was a major advance in technology. A little candle in the ice-insulated igloo, can raise the temperature significantly to protect the people from the cold. However, this response, the igloo, took the Eskimo civilization nowhere.

On the other hand, when there is a challenge to a society that is not so severe as to crush it, that society develops a response under elite minorities who lead it to growth and advancement. Thus when Sumer faced the threats from the swamps of Southern Iraq, their response led to irrigation systems and growth in the Sumerian way of life. Similarly, the challenges of winter led to the use of fire which in itself was an advance that in turn led to other advances in cooking, and food preservation. While all this is not against any race, it should be no surprise that Toynbee was accused by some of being a racist. I simply think he was correct and brilliant.

Application to the Tamils of Sri Lanka

Toynbee can be applied with some profit to the challenges faced by Tamil society in Sri Lanka. When the challenge of the civil war overtook us, there were three broad responses. Some of us fled abroad. Did that response lead to growth? I think the Diaspora has done economically well. Jaffna  really had no sustainable society. We produced many educated people who had to leave Jaffna to get jobs. They came back for wives but essentially left us. They left for Colombo but that too was not sustainable when a small group qualified for the best jobs through missionary education. The tensions were mounting – through standardization for example – when the 1983 riots opened many doors to us in the West. Those who never would have gained entry to universities here see their children becoming professionals speaking good English. That and their family discipline make them professionally successful in the West. Culturally? Whether they will remain Tamil is a question. From Tamil society’s point of view, it is a terrible calamity when they marry outside and cease to be Tamil. From their point of view, assimilation is the road to success. In the long term, the cultural values that make the parents successful are likely to disappear in time. Whether they continue to be Tamil or not should not be a measure for their success as individuals. The social ills that beset our now-western brethren may lead their response to turn them into failures. However, it is too early to tell.

The Challenge of those who Resettled in the South

These who moved South have certainly been liberated from Jaffna’s strict way of life. They quickly become bilingual, even trilingual, and are a lot more successful than if they had stayed on in Jaffna. They see more success as those who went to the West come back to pick the best of them as spouses. Whether that s good or bad is, as noted, too soon to tell. Some are becoming Sinhalese. As a Tamil I do feel uncomfortable and even resentful when I see potentially good matches for my children marrying Sinhalese. There is a tendency among Tamils to label them as traitors. However, are they? When they marry Sinhalese and become successful, who are we to say that is wrong? The Tamil community certainly is diminished in numbers and strength. But the individual who left the community probably will be more successful as a Sinhalese. There is nothing from his individual perspective to say it is wrong. 

To be sure, most Sinhalese would say we are one people so what is wrong? It is easy to say that when such mixed couples almost invariably become Sinhalese whose existence in this country is not under threat – whether to life or to culture. In fact, we can see from our own life-time that the West coast North of Colombo has switched from Tamil to Sinhalese. Those who so switched are successful as Sinhalese, although that process has weakened the Tamil community. In fact I would go so far as to say, we were all once Tamils (or Dravidian speakers of some sort) and Buddhism created the Sinhalese people. Is there any right and wrong in that? 

Toynbee:  Those who Stayed in the North East.

Those who stayed behind are those who could not run away. In that sense they are the weakest (except for a meagre few who stayed behind out of some sense of service or duty to aged parents). Their response of staying behind condemned them and their children to economic stagnation. Today, experts generally agree, gang violence and drug addiction are huge threats to the children of families left behind (See table)

Table: Gang Violence in Jaffna: 1 Sept. to 20 Set. 2018

Date Where Description
6 Sept. 2018 Kaikulanj Chanthai 3 houses attacked. 3 injured by sword cut
8 Sept. 2018 Manipay 3 houses attacked. 2 motor bikes and ice cream van damaged. The van was burnt.
12 Sept. 2018 Puthukudiyiruppu Two injured by sword. One attacker killed by householder
19 Sept. 2018 Kaithady 5 injured by knife cuts

Challenge of Genocide

Perhaps the most important challenge facing those of us left in Jaffna is the challenge of an unresponsive, untruthful government trying to alter the demography of the North-East. As remarked already, it is a danger to Tamils as a people, but not necessarily for individuals prepared to change identity.

An Untruthful Government and a Gullible People

President Sirisena may be excused for promising a red carpet welcome to returning exiles and doing nothing about it. However, the government is responsible for bigger untruths. 

Consider the ethnic cleansing during the war which by UJN figures saw 40,000 individuals massacred. President Rajapakse is on record saying there was no casualty during the war as soldiers advanced with the human rights charter in their hand. Then, the government agreed to war crime trials with foreign judges but many insisted that there were no war crimes. Now the government wants to renegotiate its agreements in Resolution 30/1 at the UNHRC. (The President was fully briefed on what the government signedin Geneva but now wants us to believe otherwise). 

Then, army commander Mahesh Senanayke said there were some crimes for which the soldiers need to be prosecuted. The faithful ontinued to insist there were no massacres. This week Minister Champika Ranawake wants to amnesty both sides – that is amnesty for those soldiers who murdered thousands of Tamils (and against whom there is a mountain of evidence in Geneva) and a few Tamils in prison without any credible case against them and are locked up out of hatred for them. 

After all these flip flops, do the Sinhalese really believe there was no mass-scale murder of Tamils? We are a nation of gullible nationalist fools.

Mahaweli Colonization – More Lies

Sinhalasisation is now coming to the North in full force, not just to those who voluntarily moved South. On 25 Aug. there was a meeting of Northern MPs and administrative officials at the Presidential Secretariat. TNA Officials alleged ongoing Sinhalese settlements in the North. The President in front of those present called up Mahaweli officials who denied any settlement in recent times.  The President announced that the accusations were false. Tamil officials like the GAs who know that settlements are being expanded, kept quiet as to be expected of those who are insecure and fear transfers.

However, as the top part of the land alienation deed pictured shows, somebody is lying. It is dated “2018.08.06,” almost 3 weeks before the President’s denial. Colonisation is ongoing. There are at least 7 other deeds like this of recent days, in addition to 25 acres to the sister of Minister Nimal Siripala de Silva which was gifted earlier.

That is our government!  How do we trust it? The President’s broken promise of a red carpet welcome to returnees pales into insignificance when the promise of good governance especially with respect to reconciliation is breached so shamelessly through lie after lie against the Tamil people. The only way out for a Tamil seems to be to agree to Sinhalasization and satisfy the government’s appetite for genocide without a single Tamil left on the island. That may be the only Tamil response to the challenge of state hegemony that can succeed under Toynbee’s description.

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Latest comments

  • 21
    4

    Ratnajeevan,
    I enjoyed your brother’s article on Friday. I must confess that I liked your’s today. It’s a good piece and the allusion to Toynbee was brilliant. Thank you.
    The Ceylon Tamils may well face an existential challenge today. That said, I suspect (although I may be wrong) that Sri Lanka as a state faces an existential challenge of its own. The state and economy is at the precipice.
    The previous Rajapakse administration landed us in unsustainable debt (much like the neighboring Maldives). Our reliance on China has also triggered an unstated geopolitical coalition of sorts between the United States, Japan and India. This “informal coalition” is determined to break the hold of China on our economy. Inflation meanwhile is rising. The Rupee continues to plummet. The price of imported crude oil is likely to increase even further given emerging dynamics in the Middle East (the latest possible Sa’udi sponsored attack on Iranian soldiers in the predominantly Arab province of Khuzestan in Iran at a commemoration event is likely to lead to a retaliatory escalation in far away Yemen and possibly elsewhere sponsored by Iran). Between the gradual decline of the Sri Lankan economy and likely increased external interference in our local politics, the Sinhalese have lost control of their future.
    Much has been alluded to in our mediocre Sinhala language press of the recent Modi Rajapakse meeting. Let’s not forget that the Modi administration orchestrated the Sirisena coup against what in 2014 appeared to be the inevitable reelection of Mahinda Rajapakse. The Modi Government was alarmed at the then bonhomie between Mahinda and Beijing as witnessed in the Chinese submarines docking in Colombo port. Rajapakse is no idiot and would never forgive New Delhi for what happened in 2014. His son, Namal, and he in fact first called upon Rahul Gandhi and Manmohan Singh before meeting with Narendra Modi.
    To be continued:

  • 19
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    Hoole, please dont make up stories. There was no Tamil genocide in sri Lanka though Thavailar killed thousands of Sinhalese mercilessly

    • 13
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      It is Srinivasan Venkataraghavan stupid Sinhalese. The famous Indian cricketer. Want to post his anti Tamil garbage as Tamil but cannot properly spell a Tamil Iyengar Brahmin name

    • 7
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      Sri Nivas Venkataraghaman

      “There was no Tamil genocide in sri Lanka though Thavailar killed thousands of Sinhalese mercilessly”

      Well said.
      Not many are willing to buy your bull ****.
      Could you jog your short/long term memory of your Thalaivaru who not only killed thousands of Sinhalese mercilessly, but he also killed Tamils, Muslims, Christians, ………………….. Hindian armed forces, Rajiv, Sinhala/Buddhists wearing uniforms, …………… home guards.

      Had you had a heart to heart chat with VP you would have found out he was not a racist but a psychopath just like his adversary Dr Go. Both killed irrespective of victims’ race, religion, region, sexual orientation, ………. nationality, …………….

      So what seems to be your problem?
      Are you an avid reader of Shenali, Kamalika, HLDM, Nalin, ……………………………… and a great fan of Channa Jayasumana?

      Keep up your defense of Sinhala/Buddhist fascists. They need lot of support.
      One day you will be looking for others to defend you from fascists.

  • 9
    23

    Tamils were always looked after and protected by Sinhala people just like their two eyes

    • 15
      2

      Mrs Udubaddewa,
      .
      I still have both my eyes, although I’m now an old man. I don’t give them any particular care, but I certainly don’t want to be robbed of my sight before I kick the bucket, which must inevitably happen quite soon.
      .
      As for your statement about “Tamils being protected by the Sinhalese” I think it a sick joke. Certainly, I’ve never done anything to harm them, and the majority of the Sinhalese now realise that they are very much like us.
      .
      But there are a handful of monsters among the Sinhalese, and you are among the worst of them.
      .
      As I said, yours is a sick joke.

    • 10
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      Mrs Udubaddewa:
      What the hell are you smoking?

    • 10
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      Mrs Udubaddewa

      “Tamils were always looked after and protected by Sinhala people just like their two eyes”

      They loved the Tamils so much so the Sinhala/Buddhists thugs periodically gouged out their eyes. For example Welikada Prison Massacre in 1983.

      Tamils, Sinhalese, Buddhists, Hindus, Muslims, Christians …………………. are capable of looking after themselves only if the the Sinhala/Buddhists thugs stop poking in other people’s life.

      Please ask those thugs/fascists to find a job and put in an honest day’s work, and get an honest day’s pay, look after their own family and then look after others.

  • 19
    5

    New Delhi on the other hand is only too aware of the unreliability of Mahinda and may well pull off another rabbit out of the hat at the polls next year. I would guess (and I can be wrong) that they would at the last moment back a dark horse such as Champika Ranawaka of the Jathika Hela Urumaya with the sole intent to prevent a Rajapakse return and to also roll back increased Chinese influence in Ceylon. The visit of ‘Chinese archeologists” to Jaffna, China’s offer to build houses in the North, the Hambantota port and the influx of Chinese labour on a massive scale into Sri Lanka must surely rattle the Indians no end.

    In this cross roads and uncertainty, it may be prudent on the part of the Ceylon Tamil population (our loud diaspora included) to be spectators and remain on the quiet sidelines for the next six months to witness a possible meltdown of the Sri Lankan economy and nation-state as we have known it since 1977. The major powers will increase their foothold in this country. Ceylon could well be demarcated into informal zones of influence much as Germany was more formally divided into four temporary zones in 1945.

    In short, the Sinhalese may well be facing a greater existential threat than us thanks to their own politicians. Nothing unites them more than Tamil political rhetoric. G.G Ponnambalam united them in the run-up to independence with his demand for 50:50 and then turned quisling. Let’s not repeat that mistake but instead wait and watch for the next six months. Sri Lanka faces an existential challenge far greater than what we Tamils face.

    • 8
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      Thambimuttu,
      Sinhalayo faced many challenges for thousands of years and prevailed. They faced challenge from barbaric Dravidian invaders from Hindusthan and prevailed. They faced challenge from barbaric European invaders and prevailed. They faced challenge from barbaric Demala terrorist organization LTTE and prevailed. However we have to admit that when there were weak rulers, the country went into chaos. That is what happens now. We have two spineless rulers and as a consequence foreign powers and minorities are playing hell in the country. That situation is not going to last forever. You can wait for the next six months like the fox who went after the goat’s hanging balls.

    • 15
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      G.G Ponamblam was always a quisling, this is why despite being a so called very intelligent man , instead of making demands that were reasonable and attainable , like a federal set up for the Tamil North East and North west coast that were all Tamil predominating and Tamil majority , in all the districts at that time, safeguarding Tamil land from state sponsored Sinhalese colonisation and police powers and a 25-30% representation for Tamil recruitment in public service/police and armed forces, he deliberately made stupid demands like 50:50 to make the Tamils look ridiculous and unreasonable, very well knowing this ridiculous demand will never be granted let along entertained.thereby sabotaging any Tamil demand for just rights. He was in cohorts with the racist Sinhalese politicians from the beginning and the ultimate move, to sink the Tamil ship, he joined the Sinhalese politicians ,to make over a million Indian origin estate Tamils who had lived in the country for more than eight generations and contributed most to the economy at that time than any other group , stateless and voteless. This one move made half the Tamil population in the island stateless and voteless . thereby increasing Sinhalese political power. Funny these people were considered stateless but were counted , to increase the number of electorates for Sinhalese representation and for other perks for the Sinhalese , whilst everything was denied to these people. Sinhalese do not want Tamil electorates/representation and Tamil towns and villages in their areas but want all these in Tamil areas.

    • 13
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      contd: GG Ponnambalam and his type of Tamil leaders like casteist Suntheralingam were the biggest curse on the island’s Tamils. These opportunists and traitors were deciding the fate of the Tamils at a crucial time. What is the point of his son and now his grandson screeching about Tamil rights , when the grandfather/father deliberately destroyed everything for the island’s Tamils ( indigenous and Indian origin ). At the time of independence the Tamils were around 28% of the country’s population and the Sinhalese 66% . Now due to state sponsored discrimination genocide, ethnic cleansing and forced Sinhalisation , Tamils are 16% and Sinhalese 75% . In addition to racist Sinhalese politicians we also have to thank these sort of opportunistic elite Tamil politicians like GG Ponnamblam Suntheralingam who led the Tamils down a garden path to their current horrible fate. 50:50 demand , even an uneducated idiot will know that this is a stupid ridiculous and unreasonable demand that will be never entertained and will be laughed off making not just him but the entire Tamil people ridiculous , but he kept on insisting on this stupid ridiculous demand , despite being one of the best and most intelligent legal minds in the island during his era. You can only come to two conclusions. 1) He was an extremely vain man with an inflated ego 2) or he was in cohorts with the Sinhalese politicians for reasons know only to him to sabotage everything for the Tamils , I suspect the latter/ This is why he happily voted for the citizenship act to deny Indian origin estate Tamils their citizenship. For someone wanting 50:50 for the island’s Tamils , then turning around and voting with the Sinhalese racists to deny half the Tamil population in the island the right to citizenship and vote seems strange. Either way he doomed the Tamils

    • 5
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      Tambimuttu

      “The visit of ‘Chinese archeologists” to Jaffna, China’s offer to build houses in the North, the Hambantota port and the influx of Chinese labour on a massive scale into Sri Lanka must surely rattle the Indians no end.”

      Not really, even if China is a problem for India its not our problem but a problem for India and Hindians are the only ones to deal with it.

      Please note China has done many deals with India, last year alone it invested more than $2 Billion in FDI, and planned investments are in tens of thousands of billions for the next few years.

      Leave the Hindians to do the worrying.

    • 4
      1

      Good point, well made.
      .
      Yes, it is our (Sinhalese) fault. Others making comments must learn from you not to provoke decent Sinhalese in to embracing racism.
      .
      Thanks, Tambimuttu.

  • 7
    22

    Sinhalese (Lion’s people) are great people and I am proud to live in their shadows

    • 9
      2

      May be you should go and live with the Lion King in the jungle and in the shadow of the cave and jointly celebrate your Sinhal(le) blood that arose from bestiality, rape and incest. Something really to feel great and proud of. Especially when you sit under the shadow of a tree with a lion, Jeyaluxmi Muthithamby(sic) . Most probably Punchi Banda/ Sri Nivas Venkataraghaman . Be carful, if it is a man eating lion, it may eat you for its breakfast and leave your bones to rot in the shadows and not you to live. I hope you have a CD from Lion King to listed to with the Lion or a pride of lions whilst you are living in their shadows. You all could have a sing a long. Sorry you can sing or squeak and the lion or lions can roar. ” Hakuna Matata “

    • 5
      2

      Jeyaluxmi Muthuthamby

      “Sinhalese (Lion’s people) are great people and I am proud to live in their shadows”

      If you are living in their shadow it could also mean you are living with the constant fear, anxiety, or painful memory and if you really enjoy bestiality then of course who are we to stop you from having good time? Have fun.

    • 5
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      Jayaluxmi be careful of the lion, as you will be treated the same way as the lion did 2500 years ago to another woman.

  • 6
    0

    Dr Jeevan Hoole,
    ¤
    “Those who stayed behind are those who could not run away. In that sense they are the weakest (except for a meagre few who stayed behind out of some sense of service or duty to aged parents). Their response of staying behind condemned them and their children to economic stagnation.”
    ¤
    Indeed. I expect serious and reliable research to identify the visible and not so visible disabled among the population. My hypothesis is that there are more than normal numbers of disabled, people with lower than average IQs and general “passivity disorder”.
    ¤
    Many of the survivors were too weak even for the LTTE to recruit.

  • 5
    7

    There are some Tamil racist pigs here

  • 6
    8

    “In fact I would go so far as to say, we were all once Tamils (or Dravidian speakers of some sort) and Buddhism created the Sinhalese people.”
    Sinhale existed before Buddhism was introduced. According to Bengali history Wijoy Singh landed in ‘Seehol Deep’ where Kuwanna was a queen. Sinhala language evolved in Sinhale and it has nothing to do with Demala language. Sinhala language exist only in this island.
    ————————-
    Sinhalese have much to be proud of:
    • 28,500 BCE – Beads of shells, burying dead underground (Ravana Ella, Fahien caves)
    • 27,000 BCE – using salt
    • 15,000 BCE – agro subsistence, pollen evidence from Horton Plains for farming, use of necklaces & needles found in Embilipitiya
    • 12,000 BCE – steel, copper, irrigation technology in Maduru Oya
    • 6300 BCE – pottery found in Kegalle (Dorawaka-lena)
    • 6000 BCE – Mahamevuna Uyana – a huge city that existed in Anuradhapura, which even used horses (bandit Vijaya arrived only in 543BCE)
    • 5000 BCE – discovery of grinding stone, rough clothing, fireplace indicating origins of Mahasona beliefs (Pallemala)
    • 4000 BCE – small family units increased to large settlements in towns adopting agriculture & metal
    • 3500 BCE – inventing boats (water-based transport system) that could carry 150 passengers (Attanagalla Oya)
    • 1000 BCE – iron (steel) technology replacing stone technology
    • 900 BCE – use of alphabet
    • 900 BCE – discovery of a major town extending 25 acres in Anuradhapura, by 700 BCE this area increased to 125 acres.
    • 600 BCE – first Brahmi letters
    • 564 BCE – Sivu-hela (Simhala) communities divided into 4 tribes
    • 543 BCE – bandit Vijaya arrived
    • 380 BCE – Anuradhapura kingdom for 1400 years
    • 250 BCE – Buddhism becomes state religion
    • 245 BCE – bhikkhuni Sangamitta arrived with the Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi tree

    • 7
      2

      There were no Sinhalease in ….BCE

    • 3
      3

      Suggest including the invention of the Biso Kotuwa (the advanced sluice gate) of ancient reservoirs, which, despite all the false claims by Tamils, has no equal in South India or elsewhere. The ancient device damps out rapid pressure variations, using the same principles as the Surge Chambers in modern hydro reservoirs.

      • 2
        0

        Our friend Edwin Rodrigo is a man of some learning. We have it from him that he is a professional in Bahrain (?) In all sincerity, I wish him well. But the fact he is a pseudo-Sinhala Nationalist cannot be denied – twisting history to project total falsehoods cannot be allowed to go unchallenged. We remember the days, not long ago, he mindlessly endorsed all what that anti-Tamil Islamic bigot Izeth wrote. In those debates, he admitted he has a history of mental issues.

        This much heralded “ancient Sinhala Irrigation system” Edwin writes of is factually of Indian origin. But I dare say there is nothing wrong in copying one system from another source. And so the “religion” – much of the language, socio-cultural features, dress, dances etc – including the Sigiriya frescoes. Why even that attractive Statue said to be of Parakrama Bahu- the Great, featured in the Perakum Condensed Milk Tin – is, in fact, that of Sage Agasthiyar Muni. The Sinhalese people are taken for a ride again. Good man, learn un-adulterated Lankan history from eminent and honourable men of learning like Sir Paul Peiris, Dr. GC Mendis, Professors Sudarshan Seneviratne, Shiran Deraniyagala, Gananath Obeyeserka. These are men of integrity and great learning who will not sell their intellectual honesty or soul for worldly riches. Forget the manufactured history that comes from politically inclined historians of the KMdeS and BBS variety.

        “False claims by Tamils”???? My Left Foot!!!

        Kettikaran

      • 2
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        “I have culled out all the above words, together with their definitions, from the Ancient Irrigation Works, by R.L.Brohier. At least they reveal one fact, viz, that they are ultimately Tamil derivatives. My presumption, therefore, is that those, who built tanks and constructed large irrigation works in the past, possessed all the knowledge necessary for the purpose and were Tamil-speaking people and not the so-called Aryans from North India.”

        http://www.sangam.org/2011/08/Aryan_Theory.php?uid=4446

        There are four sections written by Samuel. Please read all of them.

    • 1
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      Do not come out with cock and bull stories. There was never a Sinhala ethnic group before 2000 years ago. Those who lived prior to that were either Veddhas in Central and south-eastern parts of the island and Dravidians in northern and north-western parts of the island. Discovery of urn burial sites and potsherds in those parts similar to those found in Tamil Nadu proves that it is the same people who lived on both sides of the divide. Recent discovery of two sites in Mannar of 10,000 year old civilisation, puts all your claim to the shade. Two genetic studies conducted on Sinhalese show that their core genetic material is south Indian. At one stage every one in Sri Lanka spoke either Tamil or some form of Tamil and Sinhala language and ethnicity were derived from Tamil language and ethnicity like the Malayalees. The fact that Sinhala language has borrowed the script from Malayalam shows that Sinhala language is less older than Malayalam. First religion to be practiced in Sri Lanka was Saivaism and not Buddhism, and at the time of its introduction several Hindu temples were demolished and Buddhist temples built on it. Abhayagiri vihara Isurumuniya (Isuru refers to Siva) and Thondeeswaram in Dondra are examples. Do not try to link ancient man in Srilanka though genetically there is 9% of Veddha genes in Sinhalese. Sinhalese will never permit an independent archaeological survey to be done to bring out the truth as it will be detrimental to their position.

  • 4
    9

    “Consider the ethnic cleansing during the war which by UJN figures saw 40,000 individuals massacred.”
    As a Professor you should be ashamed to keep on repeating this unsubstantiated figure 40,000.
    ———————————–
    “This week Minister Champika Ranawake wants to amnesty both sides – that is amnesty for those soldiers who murdered thousands of Tamils (and against whom there is a mountain of evidence in Geneva)”
    This mountain created by Yasmin Sooka is eroding fast and will disappear from the face of earth as time pass by. International community has realized that Demalu are bloody liars. Few white guys who get paid by Tamil Diaspora will make some noise as long as they get paid but at the end truth will prevail.
    ———————————–
    “Perhaps the most important challenge facing those of us left in Jaffna is the challenge of an unresponsive, untruthful government trying to alter the demography of the North-East.”
    North-East was the cradle of Sinhala civilization. Where was Anuradhapura kingdom that lasted for more than thousand years? Sinhalayo had to leave because of barbaric acts of Dravidian invaders. A large majority of Demalu who live in the North are the descendants of slaves brought to this country from Hindusthan by Europeans to work in tobacco plantations. There is no difference between so called ‘Watu Demalu’ in tea plantations and ‘Yapanaya Demalu’. They are occupying land once inhabited by Sinhalayo.
    —————————————————-
    “Sinhalasisation is now coming to the North in full force, not just to those who voluntarily moved South.”
    If Vignashwaran’s children can marry Sinhalayo why not others? Best solution to the so called ‘Ethnic Problem’

  • 7
    1

    SRH H restates the plight of Tamils. The article would have been as compelling without reference to Toynbee.
    Toynbee is a prolific writer. His main legacy is the 12-volume “A Study of History” published between 1934 – 1961.
    Toynbee had an open mind and had made several U-turns but always justified with reasons. For example in 1936, he met with Hilter, believed in Hitler’s sincerity and sent a memo to the UK government Very soon he changed his mind.
    Toynbee had interest in ‘Rise and Fall of Civilizations’. Toynbee concluded that civilizations rose by responding successfully to challenges under the leadership of creative minorities composed of elite leaders. Taken out of context this may be used by MR to justify his style of governance!
    .
    SRH H suggests the igloo centred Eskimo civilization went nowhere. SRH H seems to measure civilizations by the size of monuments built with slave labour and ability to wage war.
    .
    SRH H does not justify the use of the term Genocide. In the section on ‘ Challenge of Genocide” he does not explain what Genocide’ means but mentions ~ “…..Perhaps the most important challenge facing those of us left in Jaffna is the challenge of an unresponsive, untruthful government trying to alter the demography of the North-East”. Surely he was not one of those ‘left behind’.
    In the last para SRH H says ~ “…….. satisfy the government’s appetite for genocide without a single Tamil left on the island”.
    Probably SRH H does not know what ‘Genocide’ is. Or is he trying to dilute the seriousness of the plight?

    • 4
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      There are quite a few who still think that civilization is ‘White’. So the total destruction of a wide varieties of stable social systems in three continents (often including much of the people) by colonialists is justified as a civilizing mission.
      Such is the colonial mentality embedded in some of the so-called intelligentsia.

    • 3
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      I am not sure what Hoole has in mind in his utterances about racial mixing and the ‘benefits’ of leaving the Jaffna peninsula.
      Many comments, as one may expect from him in matters of language, religion and history, are superficial.
      When he says “In fact I would go so far as to say, we were all once Tamils (or Dravidian speakers of some sort) and Buddhism created the Sinhalese people. Is there any right and wrong in that?”, it goes a little over the top.
      This is not the place to enlighten anyone about religion and ethnicity in the island.
      The work of K Indrapala published early this century may help anyone who seriously wishes to learn.

      • 2
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        Please also read the work of K Indrapala that he produced in the latter part of this century , where he completely revises what he stated in the earlier part of this century and admits that he was incorrect , as new evidence and modern technologies , have made his change his mind. Sinhalese racists and their Tamil lackeys keep on insisting on stating his old outdated views and not his recent writings , to suit your genocidal agenda.
        https://www.amazon.com/Evolution-Ethnic-Identity-Tamils-Lanka/dp/1511674121

        • 2
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          RS, “the latter part of this century” has several decades to arrive.

        • 3
          0

          Dear RSSS,
          .
          I’m glad you cottoned on to that book by K. Indrapala. I’m glad that you have provided the link for readers.
          .
          I have, myself, been providing this other link in many places:
          .
          http://tamilnation.co/books/Eelam/indrapala.htm
          .
          That review provides a more comprehensive summary. The book itself, I enquired for at Vijitha Yapa’s, Bambalapitiya (all these guys have a profit margin of 35% – but that’s a different problem – the guys will say that they also have to live!) The book is out of stock; why not see if a second priting is done – having persuaded the Education Department and the UGC to send a copy to every Institution. Translations in toSwabasha? I don’t know which linking is more effective. The problem is that Sinhalese readers see red every time the see the word “Eelam”; to compensate, my linking comes from a Sinhalese guy. But then, they imagine that I’m a masquerading Tamil! How on earth do we tackle the racists?
          .
          The other problem is these pseudonyms. I’m never sure who’s who. I’ve got this vague notion that you are an “outspoken nationalist” (in my book not a positive classification). But, tell me, have you also classified me as such – although from the other side? Consider for yourself the unnecessary problems we create for ourselves!
          .
          Prof. Sivasekeram is sharp. He’s already pointed out to you that by now we are in the “next century” – the 21st. He’s really brilliant, but again I have a problem – the seemingly implacable hatred that he has for Jeevan Hoole.
          .
          Anyway, let’s both keep dinning Indrapala in to the heads of all readers.

          • 1
            0

            Yesterday, Thursday, 28th Septemnber 2018, I spent the day at the Open University, Nawala, Colombo. I took the chance to say something about Indrapala’s History.
            .
            In the morning with an audience of about 150, seated conference fashion there were discussions of how examinations have affected the quality of education. An unimpressive Secretary/Education was followed by former commisioner of examinations, Amarakoon. Then Dr Upali Sedera who was impressively well prepared.
            .
            This was followed by a pathetic display by the Principal of Vsakha Vidyalaya, Colombo. Present teachers are no good, give of their best at their after school tuition classes. So Exams are good!
            .
            The Royal Principal had sent his Deputy. In the discussion, Sedera and the current Director NIE, contributed well.
            .
            Then came lunch, and after that only about 45 people at the AGM of the Sri Lanka Association for Advancement of Education. Chief Guest, History Professor Siriweera who is now Chairman, National Education Commission. He started saying he’d undergone some throat surgery. I asked about Indrapala. He didn’t approve of Indrapla’s later work. I asked what sort of History we are teaching children. Aryan vs Dravidian? Siriweera was for reconcilliation, but said that politicians call the tune. Discussion cut short saying Siriweera was not well. Cordial enough, nice people, but this is where Education is.

      • 2
        1

        Dear SJ,
        .
        I often find your comments brilliant; succinct and to the point. Only when you comment on the Hooles do I find them full of venom.
        .
        However, this particular comment, I find is balanced and reasonable. Now, I suppose you will probably say that I’m being patronising. I agree absolutely with what you say here.

  • 2
    2

    Nothing destroys hope for a united and prosperous Sri Lanka as the State’s continuous reliance on lies and force to control a minority. What is the great stake in trying to settle Sinhalese poor on land where there is no viable source of water and they are liable to contact the fatal Chronic Kidney Disease? Only politicians may get some points out of claiming that they settled Sinhalese in the North, although no one cares as long as their names get onto electoral registers.

    The piece is by any standards a scoop. Will any major newspaper in this country publish it? If not the freedom of expression which we thought the Sirisena Government had restored, turns out to be another illusion.

  • 6
    6

    As Thamils we must learn to live peacefully with the Sinhala majority. In not we will always suffer. We must know our place and live accordingly.

    • 1
      2

      Dear ThamilSister,
      .
      When you say things like what you have it certainly makes it easier for a person like me to tell other Sinhalese that we have nothing to fear from Tamils. Some Tamils who voice extremely racist sentiments, on the other hand, turn those Sinhalese who may be persuaded to remain calm and neutral in to rabid racists.
      .
      So, thanks. I have actually given you a green like, but only after hesitation. Part of me wanted to give you a red thumbs down.
      .
      What is meant by saying that a Tamil must know her place? Your place, dear sister, is right up with us – as our equal; as a first class citizen.
      .
      Think that one out; also please see the comments that I have made here:
      .
      https://www.colombotelegraph.com/index.php/nasheed-requests-sri-lankan-government-to-engage-robustly-in-transition-of-power/
      .
      I hope you respond to what I have said.

  • 4
    1

    Jeyaluxmi Muthuthamby

    Sinhalese (Lion’s people) are great people and I am proud to live in their shadows

    To live in the shadows, Buthaha listen to his sayings Just as a candle cannot burn without fire, men cannot live without a spiritual life.

    Why do you want follow people.

  • 10
    1

    Prof
    “From Tamil society’s point of view, it is a terrible calamity when they marry outside and cease to be Tamil. From their point of view, assimilation is the road to success. In the long term, the cultural values that make the parents successful are likely to disappear in time. Whether they continue to be Tamil or not should not be a measure for their success as individuals. The social ills that beset our now-western brethren may lead their response to turn them into failures. However, it is too early to tell.”

    They marry non Tamil not for the sake of assimilation. They meet non Tamils at uni , at work, at … fall in love and marry. They marry not to loose Tamil identity.

    May be your forefathers lost their “identity” to be SUCCESSFUL.

    • 1
      3

      Falling in love happens when one deliberately allows it or the person is overcome by sexual attraction in which case it is morally falling. To declare your love to the partner or to let it pass is a choice one knowingly makes.
      . They marry knowingly and willingly to loose their Tamil identity. Falling in love is no excuse for ditching your folks and the community that raised you up under such constraints and danger. Strangely it is the educated and well to do Tamil boys who seem to be so vulnerable to fatal attraction. The number of Tamil boys who married outside was insignificant before the war. How come suddenly the numbers are jumping.
      May be you and your progeny have lost your Tamil identity” to be financially SUCCESSFUL

      • 5
        0

        Obviously you do not know the meaning of LOVE.

    • 4
      0

      Tamils elite lost their identity when they became Roman Catholics to flee the Hindu caste system. All Christians in Sri Lanka , except for the Anglicans ( who went on to become Elites and held on to their position ) are descends of Portuguese labours.

  • 2
    7

    Tambimuttu

    “The visit of ‘Chinese archeologists” to Jaffna, China’s offer to build houses in the North, the Hambantota port and the influx of Chinese labour on a massive scale into Sri Lanka must surely rattle the Indians no end.”

    Not really, even if China is a problem for India its not our problem but a problem for India and Hindians are the only ones to deal with it.

    Please note China has done many deals with India, last year alone it invested more than $2 Billion in FDI, and planned investments are in tens of thousands of billions for the next few years.

    Leave the Hindians to do the worrying.

  • 2
    2

    BBS estimates about half a million to 1 million Sinhalese have been murdered by the LTTE terrorists. How does ‘challenge and response’ fit the genocide of Sinhalese?

    • 2
      0

      Jimmy Boy,

      I have read some real bone-shakers from you in these pages. But this one, dear chap, takes the cake. It takes a pea brain like yours to take
      the degenerate BBS seriously. Those thugs in yellow robes can’t make
      the difference between a few hundred thousands and a million. Zeroes easily confuse these dudes – all zeros themselves. The average, decent Sinhala Buddhists are shamed of these street loafer ruffians masquerading under a respected “religion”.

      Frank N. Stein

  • 7
    1

    Rathanajeewan,
    You Are Lying,
    That is not a deed of a land . it is a permit to stay on government land for one year period.
    any body can get a permit like that, for government owned land, if the GA or AGA agrees and land officer, can recommend.
    Like N P “cheap’ Minister , you all are hampering the rise of people in North and east.
    Haven’t you seen how the landless people, [mostly newly married ] got government land with money to build houses, in PudukuduIrippu, Wishwamadu, Oddeisudan, Wattakachchi, Paranthan, Mallawi, Thunukkai. Ect.
    But I hear many of your Tamil Officers are asking BRIBES from Poor People, Specialy from War Widows.
    Don’t blame the Government Always. But your own people are to blame????????.

    • 1
      0

      This was neither lying nor misleading. Your response only reveals the dodges officialdom has used for decades to cover its true intentions.
      Does it conceivably mean that the Government would take the land back after one year?

      • 0
        0

        Why didn’t you look INTO the LTTE controlled area Land distribution system done 20, 25 years before??
        GOVERNMENT lands were given to the LTTE families, their supporters, and some government servants and officers.
        But after 2009, Government didn’t remove the occupied people. Most of those lands recipients are land holders elsewhere. And later they have sold them to other people. Even many do not live in those lands. Some are living in foreigne countries.
        But the government has given some permits also. So you are finding fault with government.
        ONE MORE POINT!!!!
        I Was traveling many areas in Mulaithieu, Paranthan. Pudkuduirppu, Maankulam, Malawi, Thunukaai, Kokilaai werugal, Paanam paththu. Pothuwil. But many socalled I have not seen 30 40 year s old planted tree or Any dilapidated old house, even destroyed house foundations. Only very thick forest Covered land.
        Don’t tell war destroyed everything. When you check the government election registered names, you will see what is the TRUTH IS??????.

        • 0
          0

          We seem to be getting lost. Government officers giving lands to favourites has been going on for a long time all over the country. No doubt the LTTE did something similar when it was around.
          What we are talking about is Weli Oya, an ugly blot on this country’s history. I don’t know if you were then born – about October 1984. The Army went in to chase away Tamils living there and plant families of Sinhalese with criminal records. It represented a big increment in killings of civilians by both sides and marked out the security forces as decidedly anti-Tamil.
          The fact that successive governments were committed to Weli-Oya was a signal that they were not serious about peace or a political settlement

  • 7
    4

    I’m a bit puzzled by the appearance of this article now. I had imagined that Prof. Jeevan Hoole would be monitoring elections in the Maldives.
    .
    I’ve looked here:
    .
    https://maldivesindependent.com/politics/long-lines-fainting-and-shoving-maldives-voting-proves-slow-going-141433
    .
    And here:
    .
    https://raajje.mv/en/news/41182
    .
    It has confirmed what I feared. A determined effort by the corrupt Incumbent President Yameen to stay in office by hook or by crook. He’s jailed even his elder brother, now 83 years old, who ruled the country for 30 years. I do know that the Opposition consists of honourable men – starting with 51 year old ex-President Nasheed who wasn’t allowed to contest. He’s a refugee in Sri Lanka.
    .
    I guess there must be some explanation for my puzzlement. I’d better return here tonight to see what has transpired. The time in the Maldives is just 30 minutes behind ours.
    .
    I’m proud that we have a man of Prof. Hoole’s unquestioned integrity to help other folk in the region. I know that he’s pretty eccentric, but that goes with being a Professor, I guess.
    .
    On the other hand, I’m ashamed that we have in our midst racist sows like Mrs Udubaddewa. Sorry World, this woman is not typical of Sri Lankans.

    • 2
      2

      I’ve done some checking, and it does look as though Jeevan Hoole was indeed in the Maldives.
      .
      Considering the issues there, I think that the voters of The Republic of Maldives (“Dhivehi Raj”) have voted intelligently, and deserve congratulations! Then come those who focussed attention on the rigging (I’m convinced that Yameen rigged) so as to ensure that Ibu Soli would win in spite of the skullduggery.
      .
      For those who don’t know what was happening, this will give a succinct summary:
      .
      https://raajje.mv/en/news/41207
      .
      There was a report, on another site, of Yameen conceding defeat.

  • 9
    2

    Hoole is finding it difficult to find spouses for his children because of his attacks on prominent Tamils of the past.
    He needs ‘die-hard’ Christians with foreign names, preferably English – in short supply at present.
    He is trying to make a case for such unions.

    “Land alienation” is now being carried out by the Department of Archeology which is finding “Buddhist artefacts” all over the north and east, especially at places of ancient Hindu shrines, along with Sinhalisation of place names.
    No one appears to have raised the issue.
    Even Kathirgamam has become “Kataragama”
    https://www.hinduismtoday.com/modules/smartsection/item.php?itemid=401

  • 0
    5

    Tamils (Tamil speaking people) who are occupying Sinhala majority areas should be relocated into North East – that must be the foremost demand of the Sinhalese. Settlement of Sinhalese in the North East should continue until a favorable response is received from the Tamils. Unless a negotiated settlement is reached no amount of genocide, war, Black Julys, Federal solutions (even Ealam) will compel a SINGLE TAMIL family to VOLUNTARILY move out.( Such is the superiority of Sinhala Buddhist society which we can be justly proud of) This Tamil preference to live among the Sinhalese even at the cost of giving up Tamil identity AS ELABORATED IN THE PRESENT ARTICLE BY PROF. HOOLE is the biggest stumbling block on the path to reconciliation.

    Soma

    • 0
      0

      Tamils (Tamil speaking people) who are occupying Sinhala majority areas should be relocated into North East

      What will happened to the tea estate population Tamils’ constitute 4.% of the Sri Lankan population

  • 2
    5

    Tamils are recent miigrants to Sri Lanka, most of them illegal. They are such pests. Can someone send them back to where they came from – Tamilnadu

    • 4
      1

      Yes we could start with your family Mr. Veerasingham, then all the Kandyan and low country upper castes. that are largely of recent Tamil origin Eg: Neela Perumalge ,clan. The Bandaranaike( Pandara Naickan) and the their kith and kin ., Thambi Mudaliar clain. The Jayawardena/Wickremesinghe and little Ruwan and their kith and kin. The Vannika Chinthamani clan. The Rajafucksies and their kith and kin. All the Sinhalese Karawe like aunty Ramona , Shenal/Shenali, , Salagama, Durawa, Hunu, Hali, Berewe over 70% of the so called present day Sinhalese will end up in Tamil Nadu. You all could have a reunion with all your long lost third and fourth cousins in in the towns and villages of TamilNadu. The Tamil nationalist leader Vaiko belongs to the Naicker community and will be very closely related to many of the so called Kandyan aristocracy . Other than one DNA study that was gerrymandered by the Sri Lankan government, all DNA studies conclusively prove, that is the Sinhalese and not the Sri Lankan Tamils, who are largely descended from Indian Tamil migrants and invaders. Ancient to modern times. Indian Tamil contribution to Sinhalese genetic pool is 70% . Indian Tamil contribution to Sri Lankan Tamil genetic pool is 17% . Even the so called Bengali origin of the Sinhalese is dashed as Sri Lankan Tamils have a marginally higher contribution from Bengali immigrants than the Sinhalese 28% to 25%. You can keep on lying and posting untruths, thinking that a lie often told and backed by all Sri Lankan governments to deny the predominantly Tamil contribution to the Sinhalese genetic pool , becomes the truth. But DNA will never lie. Mr Veerasingham. Curious from which part of Tamil Nadu did your ancestors migrate from?

      • 1
        0

        As per recent studies Bangalis are Mongoloid , Caucasoid plus Mongoloid Mixer but Sinhalese are Australoid . Tamilnadu tamils consist of Mongoloid plus caucasoid Mixer and Australoid. plus Mongoloid mixer But sinhalese are pure Australoid. with your theories can you explain this situation Mr. RS. I am from Karawa cast I am an Australoid. No mixer.

      • 1
        0

        Another small clarification, when I was a young kid I asked my great grand father why are we visiting Kataragama every year ? His reply was ” King Dutu Gamunu was our savier . we are going there to worhip his soul.” If Karawa people are tamils why are they worship king dutu gamunu ?

    • 1
      0

      Peoples and Cultures of Early Sri Lanka by Dr. Siva Thiagarajah gives another opinion http://sangam.org/2012/05/Early_SriLanka.php?uid=4726

      Uvindu Kurukulasuriya also participated in the discussion.

  • 2
    0

    Sri Lanka is a province of China. They invested 800 billion rupees. And earning interest.

  • 3
    1

    In this day and age of globalization I don’t think any culture could retain it’s original form.
    That sort of longing can dead to GENOCIDE.

    We should try to retain the Sri Lankan culture (mix of Sinhala, Tamil, Muslim,Burgur, Malay, Indigenous, Kochchi, Malayali,Indian Tamil)

    In this Pursuit there will be external influences especially from the Dominant Cultures such as.
    (Indian , Chinese, and American, British and so on)

    External influences could come via trade partnerships, those who have migrated, those who have gone over seas for work, Media,Internet, foreign tourists, NGO s and so on.

    In this context safeguarding the common Sri Lankan culture will be challenge – let alone individual sub cultures in this little Island In the Indian Ocean.

    • 2
      0

      Colombo Man

      Cultures do not have original forms.
      All cultures evolve.
      If cultures didn’t evolve we will still be learning to use tools to break nuts, skulls, ………. bones.

  • 3
    0

    Dear Dr Hoole and others.

    Sri Lanka Nation did not succumb to the great influence of Roman Catholicism , in the way the Philippines did ; similarly, she did not succumb to the pressure of Islam through Arab Merchants to which the great nation of Indonesia fell.

  • 1
    2

    Have a look at other 3rd world countries around the world. Because you can’t compare developed and developing counties. Majority Sinhalaese treat minority well compare to other countries.

  • 2
    2

    My Dear Colombo Man , If British German or Dutch or French and so called First world developed country retain their dominant white Christian culture , why should we change our Sinhalese Buddhist culture. Tamils are a ethnic minority in Sri Lanka . And every other minorities has not been victimized at all barring few incidents in the history . All minorities enjoy all perks in Sri Lanka . There is no major ethnic issues inherent to minorities. If you go to West , you see much more discrimination .

    • 2
      1

      Dear Paul Smith,
      .
      I partly agree: we have a right to hold firmly on to what is best in ” our Sinhalese Buddhist culture. “
      .
      However, the fact is that we have persecuted our minorities, and that is wrong. That is the view that I hold; there is little point in our getting in to arguments over this.

    • 1
      0

      I am a British citizen and I have not been discriminated in any way by the government or subjected to state sponsored violence. I faced discrimination in every walk of life in Sri Lanka and also been victimised by state sponsored violence. There is institutional racism in Sri Lanka and Tamils are facing all forms of terrorism – legislative, executive and judicial terrorism in addition to atrocities by armed forces and police. Difference is that western racism is skin deep, while Sinhala racism is soul deep.

    • 3
      0

      In the west 80% are atheist – Not Christians

  • 0
    0

    Dear Paul Smith,
    .
    At this moment, I’m focussing on this aticle:
    .
    https://www.colombotelegraph.com/index.php/nasheed-requests-sri-lankan-government-to-engage-robustly-in-transition-of-power/

    Best wishes.

  • 3
    0

    RS If So called Vijaya Started his journey from Bangladesh or west Bangol Coast He should have landed in east Coast of Lanka. but he Landed in west coast. Why ? My opinion is he was sea pirate gang leader. he knew sea below India very well. He and his party robbing others properties not only in inland.but also in the sea. he could have visited lanka sevaral times before as well and had very good rapport with local tribal leaders & their family members as well. That was why kuvani was awaiting him. What does that mean. Tribes lived here even before arrival of Vijaya and his Party.According to historical records available with us more that fifteen thousands years before tribes lived here had trading with egyptions & Chinese merchants.That is why Archiologists found Cinnamon inside the pyramids. As such story of king Vijaya is a bullshit. read Mahavamsa sevaral times but could not see anything on starting of sinhala race from Vijaya. But it says one of his relatives arrived here after death of Vijaya and started new era in this land uniting all the four tribes lived here. as such Bangol ancestry is not possible among Sinhalese population.they are deccendants of tribes lived here before arrival of Vijaya. Vijaya dynasty was over thrown by another tribal gang. As such Bangol east or west gines flow is not possible in present day sinhalese population.

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