6 February, 2023


Building & Indian Ocean Community: Opportunities & Challenges

By Chandrika Kumaratunga

Chandrika Kumaratunga

Chandrika Kumaratunga

The subject of South Asian regional co-operation has been widely discussed for many decades. However, progress in regional co-operation and economic integration has been extremely slow. Political will seems to be lacking, public interest is weak and no country in South Asia has taken up the subject of regional integration as a government policy.

The reasons for this are well known.

First, the fact that six out of the eight South Asian States expended much effort and time in consolidating each Nation’s separate identity as opposed to the others – especially the larger States. This situation caused a great deal of inter-State tension and left little time to invest in building regional integration.

Second, the Inter-Pakistan Conflict which has prevented regional co-operation since the partition nearly seven decades ago.

Thirdly, insufficient skills and experience of the States to engage in the difficult exercise of building regional co-operation.

However, the past two decades has seen the rise (emergence ?) of the post-partition generations in South Asia giving rise to a new and more dynamic environment for understanding between Nations. This generation has left behind the baggage of conflict and distrust borne by the older generations. They are seeking new paradigms and creative thinking.

I wish to repeat a fact which I am sure most of you are aware of. South Asia is the least integrated region in the world. In the globalised world, where not only economic borders but physical borders are fast disappearing, South Asian Nations have managed to remain isolated from each other.

  • The intra-regional trade accounts for less than 5% of total regional trade.
  • Intra regional FDI amounts to 4% of the total FDI inflows.

We know that low levels of trade, investment and other forms of economic co-operation cause higher input costs at production, smaller export markets, reduced revenues for Governments and reduced consumer welfare. Yet South Asia has significant inter regional trade potential. Research demonstrates that there could be considerable increases in growth and welfare arising from closer regional co-operation.

The positives for regional co-operation is that the fastest growing economy in the world is India. It is predicted that the Indian economy will grow at 7.5 % and reach double digits in a few years. India will have much to gain through regional integration, as much as the other countries in the region.

What do we need to do to achieve closer co-operation. I believe that we do not need a grand vision but instead a pragmatic action plan. I must hasten to add here that only pragmatism may not suffice to overcome the existing challenges of building mutual trust and progressing towards integration. A common objective will certainly help to cement the practical move in a durable fashion. European integration was born out of a common desire to prevent the massive destruction of the two World Wars from occurring once again.

South Asia could perhaps coalesce around the need to conquer the challenge of extremism, violence and terrorism. This vision could also en-globe the following practical aspects :

  • Foster economic growth -: South Asia being home to the largest number of poor people in the world will benefit hugely from regional co-operation. The lack of regional co-operation has cost South Asia immensely.
  • Protection of the environment -: South Asia faces enormous environmental risks, posing a major threat to our future prosperity. We desperately need to co-operate in order to manage our ecology.
  • Cultural co-operation -: The paradox of South Asia is that the very cultures we share have succeeded in dividing us.

The major preoccupation of all South Asian Nations since de-colonisation has been their quest for a national identity, as opposed to the regional identity which has existed for millennia. The desire to differentiate the identity of one’s Nation from the millennial common regional identity gave rise to many violent inter-State and inter-State conflicts in the region. We need a paradigm shift from old attitudes and emotional reactions to our neighbours and engage in building unity within the diversity that is South Asia.

Democratic Governance : The tensions and conflicts within the region have led to violence and a breakdown of peace, which in turn has caused the weakening of democracy and democratic institutions.

Hence, mutual understanding and co-operation would undoubtedly help promote the strengthening of democratic institutions and democratic governance.

Facing the challenge of violent politics : South Asia is today one of the two most violent regions in the world. The stabilization of strong and stable States through the development of a democratic political culture will help to contain societal and political violence. For this, a strong commitment to co-operation is essential.

Regional Security : Our region, as I stated earlier, has experienced the largest number of violent conflicts in the past half a century. On the other hand, the region is heavily militarized and comprises of two major nuclear powers. The risk of major conflict is immensely high. The huge suspicions and continuing mistrust between the two largest States in South Asia has caused devastating consequences for the entire region. Regional instability and political mistrust are seen as major obstacles to regional co-operation and integration.

In the emerging regional environment, national security concerns should compel us towards more co-operation rather than becoming an argument against co-operation.

There is no doubt that co-operation in the economic and cultural spheres and people-to-people contact would promote an atmosphere of pacification and hence less security concerns.

We could look at creating pluri-lateral security frameworks.

It is clear that the need for South Asian integration is urgent. We should no longer waste great cultural and human potential of our region and lock ourselves into a destructive chase of better identities than our neighbours. Let us seek to build on our historical, geographical and civilisational advantages to lift our region out of poverty and inequality and march towards freedom and prosperity.

In order to achieve this we need to engage in a series of practical actions :-

An effective South Asian Free Trade Agreement (SAFTA). To make SAFTA effective we would have to :

  • Reduce the high cost of trading in the region
  • Remove non transparent, non tariff measures
  • Amend regulations that create obstacles to intra-regional trade and services
  • Create regional value chains based on the two major economies of the region, especially the Indian economy.
  • Move beyond the political differences between India and Pakistan when creating economic and environmental co-operation
  • Improve connectivity between the States. There is great potential for developing the shipping and aviation sectors of the region and also between the region and the rest of the world.
  • Focus on large inter-State investment projects.

I wish to express some thoughts on Sri Lanka’s possible role in these exercises.

She can act as a bridge between larger South Asian and Asian Nations as well as the others.

Also build a soft power, i.e. people-to-people contact though tourism etc.

Talking to the larger Asia – China is today, together with India, the largest two economies of the world and also the fastest developing economies and it is well on its way to developing economic networks along the silk route countries, as well as the maritime routes. South Asia is seen as an effective part of this network.

Could we not consider the Chinese economic power as an opportunity rather than a danger and arrive at partnerships that could be beneficial to the South Asian countries as well as our region.

*Full Text of the Speech by the Chairperson of Office for National Unity and Reconciliation (ONUR) and Former President Chandrika Kumaratunga at the Raisina Dialogue in New Delhi, yesterday.

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Latest comments

  • 10

    Like your speech but you should first start within Sri Lanka.

    Singhalese would prefer to integrate with China and the Tamils will accept India?

    First of all ,can you make Singhalese and Tamils to live as equals in Sri Lanka?

    • 2

      You could try to speak for the Tamils, but I doubt your accuracy.

      ASs for Sinhalese, They do not want to integrate with any outsider. They like China for not messing around with ntenal politics.

    • 1

      It is not only a good speech, one can also be proud of ex-SL president making a speech in this caliber in an international arena. Common man in India, SL or Nepal could not be able to understand the vitality of SE Asian economic cooperation. It is regional leaders, economists, entrepreneurs, intellectuals responsibility lead their countries to build the trust and cooperation, and bring benefits to all by working together.

      • 4


        A few years ago I happen to meet a Sri Lankan diplomat. We got into discussing SARRC grouping.

        From the start to the end he was scathing about Indian attitude towards other member countries and being a permanent obstacle to cooperation, progress and unity within the region. Some of his observations were valid and most of them were not, mostly driven by national paranoia.

        He had nothing bad to say about Pakistan.

        I wondered whether we need such diplomats to promote our foreign policy interests when these men are conditioned by their hatred for a country, which sits next to ours.

        Does the Ministry of Foreign affairs have a policy research unit to brief and educate its own men who represent the country.

        No wonder Ranil has invited Singapore to restructure our foreign policy establishment.

    • 0

      First of all ,can you make Singhalese and Tamils to live as equals in Sri Lanka?

      Get CBK and Mangala Samraweera ss Leaders. they are doing it for you.

  • 5

    Madame Chandrika Kumaratunga,

    RE: Building & Indian Ocean Community: Opportunities & Challenges

    “The subject of South Asian regional co-operation has been widely discussed for many decades.The reasons for this are well known.”

    “Thirdly, insufficient skills and experience of the States to engage in the difficult exercise of building regional co-operation”

    “Talking to the larger Asia – China is today, together with India, the largest two economies of the world and also the fastest developing economies and it is well on its way to developing economic networks along the silk route countries, as well as the maritime routes. South Asia is seen as an effective part of this network.”

    Thank you for your well thought out analysis.

    Yes, Lack of Vision.

    Let’s extend to Sri Lanka. How has Sri Lanka fared Since independence? Pretty Badly.

    So, Sri Lanka also needs vision internally.

  • 4

    I really enjoyed reading this. Being a critic of hers and sometimes unfairly too, I do pause for a moment to reflect on my fears and think this is a good place to start a discussion on economic exchanges in a free market free trade economy. There are inherent fears of Indians swallowing up Sri Lanka because of their enormous population problems but economic integration is a good start. Problem Madam CBK is that Pakistan and India are mortal enemies. Pakistan has a massive inferiority complex vis-a-vis India. If you can bring about a change in their attitudes and cultural biases towards each other perhaps forces of progress and be used to destroy Islamic radical terrorism and create a more stable South Asia; South Asia is one of the poorest regions in the world. Thanks CBK madam. Very good thought provoking article.

  • 10

    Look who talks about South Asian integration. Madam you need to do something for the SLFP first then to Sinhalese people then to Tamils then to whole Sri Lanka to integrate. Everything is not under control at home. Stop fooling others.

    South Asian population was larger than China and the West was worried about the South Asia’s manpower. The British felt divide and rule was a solution. The British only decided to give independence to South Asia after the division of India and Pakistan was signed, sealed, and delivered.

    Madam, South Asia was systematically broken by the West. You are not going to amend this mess in your lifetime. And the West is not going to just sit and watch while you unwind what they had done. Trust me, I am the founder of Asia Unites and gone nowhere with it. You don’t know the white man as much as I do. You don’t need to face hell in your old age. You better stick with the SLFP and Sri Lanka, it is far better for your heart, mind and soul.

    • 4

      Antany Peter, you say, ‘Madam you need to stop fooling others’.

      This is sure indication that you have not been fooled. Good for you. What makes you think that others could be fooled, when you were not.

      You as the founder of Asia Unites could go nowhere with it. Even then, you don’t hesitate to put yourself above the rest. How smart is that?

      You also claim that CBK does not know the white man as much as you do. I would like to believe you on that. Where will I find the information that will lead me to do so.

      As a commoner, I have had opportunities to see CBK mingling shoulder to shoulder with world leaders. Yet, the poor lady has not got to know the white man, as much as you do. How did you do that? What was the trick?

      I understand CBK. I wish to understand the white man as well as you do. Share that trick of yours with me, please. Please, please.

      • 5

        Dear unreal why are you scared to disclose your real name?

        Madam had bought a nice house in the UK, but talking about South Asia’s integration. It is not too late for her to sell the house to buy a house in India or Pakistan. Late is better than never. We won’t talk where she got the money to buy a house in the UK. Because it will be an embarrassment for the lady who has been one of the architects of good governing government. South Asian leaders talk one thing but act differently. That is why the region is going nowhere. Does she know how many South Asians are lining up and making statements against their country to get refugee status in Hong Kong? They tirelessly breed as rabbits, but don’t care whether those young people have knowledge, skills or patriotism.

        When I exposed Australia’s injustices as a human rights writer, the Australian government deleted my citizenship in 2008. I was born in Sri Lanka, therefore I had informed to all the South Asian leaders about this barbaric act. But the South Asian Leaders done nothing, not even one media in South Asia covered this barbaric act. The Germans couldn’t do it, Russians are struggling, Chinese have no idea. But Madam thinks South Asians can do it. Something is abnormal here. I think it has to with her old age. I have a solution, she must take a good rest to get back to normal.

        Australian indigenous communities remain the most vulnerable sectors of the society throughout Australia. Some parts of indigenous communities are worse off than the poorest African communities in the remotest regions of Africa. Four out of seven indigenous children are damaging their brain by paint and petrol sniffing before they even get into teenage life. Whoever don’t get caught in this trap they get caught in alcohol and drugs. Basically, nobody pass high school. The Australia’s injustice was systematically engineered by the power elites to make sure that indigenous communities won’t progress to have knowledge, in order to control indigenous people’s resources freely.
        Please visit http://indileaks.yolasite.com/
        to know my hardship as a human rights writer in the West.

        • 0

          Antany Peter,

          I posed a few questions to you, based on your comment. You haven’t answered a single one of them. Instead, you slithered into a lengthy harangue, about matters that do not arise from my questions to you.

          I have no sympathy for you. You don’t deserve any. Why would I visit any site to know what your hardships are. I don’t offer free advice.

          In your question for me, you allege, for no good reason, that I am ‘scared’ to use my name. Not at all. I am only being prudent. Do you have any problem with that?

          Using ones own name is not necessarily a sign of courage. It could be a sign of stupidity. I don’t want to be judgemental on your case.

          • 3

            I have given enough to back my statements, but you just talk nonsense to distract the readers. You have to be a dirty white devil who fools others to rule the world, or a useless South Asian who breed tirelessly to please the West. Generally speaking, the South Asia’s best brains end up in the West.

  • 4

    Unforunately ethnocentric politics in Srilanka has mislead the southern masses.Policies like “Sinhala Only” as official language, Swabasha education and partiality of the govt. to Buddhism have not only brought ethnic and religious conflicts, International criticism and isolation, it has also brought immense harm to our economy.I hope the people and their chauvinistic leaders realize that our first step towards economic emancipation is to allign ourselves with India. Otherwise isolation and poverty will be the price we would pay.

  • 2

    Dear Chandrika,

    See what’s going on between India and Pakistan. You yourself says that even after 70 years there’s no cooperation or integration between the two countries. What do you think will happen if you build bridges and tunnels to connect India and Sri Lanka? There will be mayhem for the next century with the Sinhalese and the Sri Lankan Tamils and Muslims being decimated and Indians taking over the island.

    I understand your greed for trade with India. India has never had Sri Lanka’s back not even at the UN when it was so important for India to back Sri Lanka.

    It is best for Sri Lanka to continue to keep her unique identity as an Island nation, concentrate on marine ecology and grow tourism. Think of islands such as Costa Rica. Costa Rica is not a concrete jungle. It’s a beautiful island that concentrates on developing Eco tourism. I simply do not understand the rush to make Sri Lanka a concrete jungle. No one seems to have a clear vision for the future of Sri Lanka.

    • 1


      “Think of islands such as Costa Rica. Costa Rica is not a concrete jungle. It’s a beautiful island that concentrates on developing Eco tourism.”
      Cota Rica is not an island. It is in Central America between Nicaragua and Panama.

    • 0

      I think that Derby had Puerto Rico in mind.

      • 1

        Puerto Rico is a US territory and commonwealth. BANKRUPT and want federal bailout. Costa Rica is in Central America and is the only nation in the world not to have a Army/standing military. Extremely environmentally conscious nation now. It sits between Panama and Nicaragua. It is worried about law and order on the Northern Nicaraguan border. Very friendly people. Food not that great but eco-tourism and tourism in general is very big. Neutral nation. Great small nation. Lots of diverse eco-systems from tropical to temperate because of its geography. Temperate side on the Pacific and tropical on the Caribbean side. Again, let me repeat it has no standing military as such.

    • 5


      “It is best for Sri Lanka to continue to keep her unique identity as an Island nation,

      What is this unique identity you imagine that this island has/had?

      Scale is important if this island is planning to sustain hospitality industry. With it comes concrete jungles every nook and corner of the country. Sea fronts are for the people not for the foreigners who come over here spend dollars for couple of weeks go away. There are seafronts where ordinary people of this country are denied access simply because they don’t spend dollars in those hotels which occupies surrounding area.

      “I understand your greed for trade with India. India has never had Sri Lanka’s back not even at the UN when it was so important for India to back Sri Lanka.”

      Please explain yourself.

  • 2

    she should retire peacefully and do more social service. There are no more space in jail for ex-presidents

  • 6

    Madam’s cousin our Batalanda PM, Ranil doesn’t want his loyal Yahapalana suckers to even think as South Asians…

    Doesn’t that put the Madam diametrically Opposite Yahapalana mind set?

    Mind you, our Batalanda PM declared his dissociation with South Asians at a big ass Economic & Investment Forum which was well attended by high rollers from the West.

    Unlike the Madam’s spiel to Hindians in the North which was held in Delhi.

    But Batalanad then made a sort of a U turn and wants Hindians to flood our markets with cheap and nasty Indian goods and decimate our Professional Skill sets in Medicine, Engineering and Information Technology with Madrasi, Kerala and Bihari graduates.

    Obviously Batalanada can’t be that stupid, to not know the outcome..

    But Batalanadan’s main game is to neutralize any influence the Sinhala Buddhists have achieved in the past few decades and perpetuate his Elite , Anglican rule after getting rid of Madam.s assistant, the current President as well.

    One may wonder why I didn’t mention the Vellalas.

    That is because Vellalas will be well and truely running their own show by then.

    And the Hindians will be well integrated with Vigneswaran even without taking Madama’s advice on board.

    • 3

      Sumaney, hahahahahaha. What a clown.

      • 4

        Tamil From Scarborough.

        You are spot on mate.”

        She is a bloody clown ..alright.

        Did you read what she said to your cousins in Hindi Land.

        ” I didn’t do Politics for the greed of Power” Hahahahahahahahaaa..

        • 1

          Sumanaey, I know you are a very stupid man. I have time and time again said you are a science experiment gone wrong. CBK craps more intelligence every day than what you have in your empty scull.

  • 3

    “One may wonder why I didn’t mention the Vellalas.”

    It is because you have run out of free Scotch given to you by your dalit women folks who toil in the middle east medieval kingdom.

    What do they get in return from you? More Vellalah bashing.

    • 3

      Dear Native,

      I can’t and I don’t drink Red Label.

      I am a bit cheesed off for you calling our poor House Maids in the Mid East Dalits.

      These people help your Yahapalana Treasurer Galleon to pay import bills for the Colombo Elite to drink Indian Scotch and Indian Nescafe. .

      But Galleon boasts about how he is going to give a Viagra boost to the Yahapalana LKR with another Billion from ex LTTE financiers perhaps.

      And you guys say Hear, Hear and drink Red Label..right.

  • 3

    Chandrika Kumaratunga was the worst president in Sri Lanka’s history. Read “Chaura Ragina” by Victor Ivan. Her henchman is Mangala.

  • 2

    It is the Indian Dream to build one Large community surrounding the neighbouring smaller countries.

    So, both Ranil and CBK are sales peole for that.

  • 0

    Good idea, but should we be destroying the existing identities to create a new South Asian identity. Where in the world has that ever happened? You should know Europe. There are strong differences between nations in Europe. Regardless the EU exists on economic corporation. In everything else national identities are preserved.
    On SA economic corporation, the region has so many differences, and SAFTA can create shock waves trying to equalize these national differences. Even in EU Western European countries were relatively well synchronized until the arrival of Eastern Ex-socialist economies. This is not to say that things will get leveled up in the future, but look at what is happening with respect to the refugee issue. We often see draconian policies of the past resurfacing in the east of EU. Cracks are appearing along the lines of national identities.

  • 4

    Dear Madam when you returned after tsunami to stop Mahinda stealing donations you said we will have new towns and trains with doors?
    We are still waiting?

    • 0

      Stop stealing?
      Rather, to get stolen goods returned.
      Then the thief was put in charge of the entire wealth.
      it is a long long long story that all of us already know.

  • 1

    It is sufficient to be free from animosity, arms buildup and conflict. Integration is something to be avoided not embraced. In some aspects integration is downright harmful for some, particularly for small island nations like us. The rich in one country will benefit at the expense of poor in the other. One good example is our capital city Colombo. Sinhala poor have been displaced by rich Muslim and Tamil.(Please don’t interpret out of context, just being factual for argument’s sake) . ‘Integration’ will lead to the same situation Sri Lanka as a whole. I am totally opposed to liberalisation of land acquisition by foreigners. We must not be fooled or misguided by the word ‘mutual’. Although vast masses are still extremely poor there is a substantial number in India and Pakistan who are rich enough to buy whole of Sri Lanka.

    ‘Integration’ is one thing Sri Lanka must avoid like plague.


  • 2

    Madam Chandrika,
    I support those who say here let us fix SL first and then think of fixing bilateral issues within SA.
    South Asia is like an Orchestra. Each individual state is like the Strings, Woodwinds, and Brass instruments. It is important to get the instruments in good repair and tuned well. Then let them learn to perform to a Score. Then you can think of a Score for the symphony for the Orchestra to play together.
    Try that first and people might join you.

  • 0

    Then, to whose tune will the region dance?

    • 4


      “Then, to whose tune will the region dance?”

      Shouldn’t it be Chinese tune?

  • 0

    CBK, even though she was born in a Sinhala country she was not fortunate to learn in Sinhala and pass examinations held in Sinhala. Instead, She wanted private colleges that talked French or English.

    Sinhale Political culture is such, even this kind of foreigners can engage in politics.

    So, she is trying to make Sri lanka a cosmopolitan society in every way, even though even her European masters have accepted that Multiculturalism did not work in those countries, and their cultures, societies, life styles… are on the verge of disintegration and disappearance.

    But, she has lot of confidence in herself and more ego than that, she is trying to make Sri lanka an India.

  • 5

    This is the ethno-religious establishments attempt to `paper over` the islands civil war and pass the blame on to the birth mark – partition across the palk strait.

    During British rule this carnage did not exist except during the native bourgeois Sinhala Muslim rule from independence 1948.

    None of the SARC countries inclusive of China, Russia can have quality of life without trading with the west.

    Lankawe rice from the moon dynasty wants a foundation to stay in power for the sake of family.

    We don’t believe e-mail Hillary or Video CBK but “feel the truth”.

  • 0

    European discord came about because some countries in Europe set the global monetary standards in accordance with the capital they gleaned off their colonies. Other countries in Europe found it hard to follow.

    It was a monetary war, with elements of racism (mostly towards the Jews). Integration was possible afterwards because the monetary stabilizer passed onto America, with Europe to act as equalizer.

    European integration post-colonialism came about because of the Judeo-Christian values which are of an egalitarian quality, as is with Buddhism.

    Now India: the Caste System is the main factor that will never let it take off like Europe and also China. It might seemingly take off for some time, but plateau at a low peak. I believe that is exactly what America and the rest of the West would prefer.

    Once we liaison with India, we will have to remain at that low plateau and below (leave alone the dire cultural effects).

    In the end, Sri Lankans will know that they can do far better. It will be a time of grave resentment.

  • 0

    CBK is poor reading of World Trade and no matter of political reading of current reality by CBK, NOT which that including , Economic, Financial, Trading and Corporate Governance nexus New political culture of US base “democracy and its governances”; she lost her political vision of thinking of regional politics, that her wrong decision on by and large of Indian big-bourgeoisie and RAW.

    She (CBK) reads, some body write, that is her politics of governances and culture, it serve for that the family baptised, that nepotism turn to ‘democracy’ . This politics has nothing do with National bourgeoisies class has been initiated by founder father of SWRD & SRDB of SLFP.

    CBK is agent Neo-colonialist that familiar with Neo-Liberalism suited to UNP-Ranil W…..line of thought of “democracy”.

    Indeed that CBK form of capitalist development is more or less survival of old colonialism of feudal serfdom ,in New form as result of transformation of landlord economy turn into Neo-Colonial capitalism either by parliamentary path of reform of by anarchist modes of methods; for example coup organized by support from CIA or RAW, which overthrown ruling party by behind coups against People’s Mandates.

    CBK is that attempted bourgeoisie development may proceed by having old landlord ship economics at the HEAD which will gradually substitute bourgeois for FEDUAL METHODES OF EXPLOITATION.

    It may also proceed by having simple commodity production at head small peasant economics which reform way will attached US and Indian headed social organism of Neo-colonial capitalism by CBK line political of SLFP leadership.
    Her line of politics and reading of that as SLFP policy maker is hindrance of Freely Develop Sustainability Capitalism in Sri lanka. Her political ideology main background is transformation of patriarchal bourgeoisie is not that vital interest of Nation and People of an Island.

    Her thought of political- economic and Trading has no relationship with that WTO Free Trading System will come into being 21 st century. CBK and her gang has no knowledge to read Marrakesh Declaration of 15 April 1994 by WTO. 124 countries enacted WTO manual in Morocco 1994, which that enlarge GATT deliberation had been gone for several years.

    I do not go more detail on this key issues CBK has No knowledge of; Her poor knowledge of Global Trade system has been blind spots on depend on sized of economy and its growth of GDP and sized of Market, terms of population and small country like Sri lanka; being challenge of whole system of sustsnibility of emerging class, nationtities and size of current and future economy and regional politics must take into accountability of reaching new policies of our nation.

    CBK on these issues are backward and politically visionless since beginning to end.

    1 Multilateral agreements of Trade in Goods of annex WTO first chapter.

    2 CBK has to read Annex 1B General Agreement on Trade in Services current EATC supposed to sing Indian by his Neo-colonist friend of UNP-Ranil W….who manipulated state power presently against People’s mandates by voting

    3 I want CBK has refer to annex 3; Trade policy Review Mechanism-WTO

    4 I again asked to read Annex 4;Plurilateral Trade Agreement-WTO

    5 Ministerial decisions and declarations by trade negotiations committee on 15 December 1993.

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