25 July, 2024

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Dhaka Goes Metro, Colombo Stuck On Tuk-Tuk  

By Rajan Philips

Rajan Philips

On December 11, the Sunday Observer reported that the Japanese Government has agreed to reopen the Colombo-Malabe light rail project more than two years after it was highhandedly terminated by then Presidential Secretary PB Jayasundara. The project design was to start in July 2019 and construction completed by the end of 2024. The Malabe line is one of seven corridors radiating from Colombo and extending towards, Negombo, Kandy, Kaduwela, Malabe, Kottawa, Piliyandara, and Moratuwa. The seven corridors were identified for providing rapid transit service as part of the Western Region Megapolis Transport Master Plan (TMP), which was completed in November 2016 during the previous Ranil-Sirisena government with Champika Ranawaka as Megapolis Minister.    

The Malabe line stretching over 16 km and including 16 stations, was to be financed by a soft loan arrangement with the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) covering 80% of the project cost of $2.2 billion. After the November 2019 Presidential election, the (new) Rajapaksa-Rajapaksa government signed a 30 billion yen concessionary loan with Japan for the project. Then, out of nowhere the Rajapaksas decided to cancel the project in September 2020, primarily to snub Champika Ranawaka, and to potentially explore other funding channels with assured kickbacks.  

News stories from Bangladesh are different and for better reasons. On December 28, Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina ceremonially opened the country’s first metro service for Dhaka. Joining the ceremony were the Japanese Ambassador to Bangladesh and a representative of Japan International Co-operation Agency (JICA), the same agency sponsoring the Malabe LRT project in Sri Lanka. The project was mostly funded by Japan and is one of the six Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) lines that are slated to be built. The Bangladeshi Prime Minister called it “another feather of pride” to the people of Bangladesh and the development of Bangladesh. The Prime Minister also used the ceremony to commemorate six Japanese Engineers working on the project who were among the 29 people killed during an attack on a Dhaka cafe by Islamic extremists in 2016, as the MRT project was getting started. 

Transport infrastructure development is a constant work in progress that takes time, resources and supporting institutions. There is no instant magic wand solution to transportation in general, and urban transportation in particular. And countries with funding constraints should be project-ready to seize funding opportunities for project implementation. Only in Sri Lanka infrastructure funding opportunities are politically spurned by scoundrels professing patriotism. In one year, 2020, Sri Lanka walked away from the MCC grant of $480 M offered by the US government (that could have been used to upgrade 130 roadway junctions in Colombo and implement transit priority measures), and cancelled the agreement with Japan to implement the Malabe LRT line. For no logical or sensible reason.  

Rajapaksas have rebuffed Japan twice. The other occasion was the reneging of the 2019 agreement with India and Japan for the development and operation of the East Container Terminal at the Colombo Port. Then the government tried to make with India and Japan by offering them the development of the West Container Terminal as a Public-Private Limited Company in collaboration with the SLPA and parties nominated by Indian and Japanese governments. In yet another decision change, the WCT development has now been handed over as a BOT (Build-Operate-Transfer) undertaking to India’s Adani group with John Keels. 

On the light-rail front, the current Ranil-Rajapaksa government would seem to have begged out a way with Japan and obtained its agreement to reopen the rescinded project. This is a technically positive development even though Malabe Line is only one of the many pieces of transport infrastructure that Colombo and Sri Lanka direly need. Without a higher order transit system, Colombo will remain stuck with tuk-tuk as its most convenient mode of public transportation.  

Burgeoning Bangladesh

Similar to the Malabe line in Colombo, the service that was opened in Dhaka is Phase 1 of MRT Line-6, and is the first to be constructed out of six Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) lines. MRT Line-6 is mostly an elevated 20 km long route with 16 elevated stations, and the completed first phase is about 12 km long with nine stations at a cost of $2.8 billion. Line 6 construction is funded through a loan agreement with JICA finalized in 2013, and construction began in 2016.

The six MRT lines are part of Dhaka Metro, the rapid transit component of the City’s 20-year Strategic Transport Plan, which will include both MRT and LRT systems to serve the nation’s capital city of 20 million people. The MRT system (with all six lines) will extend over 120 km at an estimated implementation cost of $20 billion, and will provide high frequency (every four minutes) and higher speed (100 km/h) service, using trains comprising six spacious air-conditioned cars each and electronic ticketing. 

The implementation the MRT system comes under the purview of the Ministry of Communications and is led by Dhaka Transport Co-ordination Authority. A separate agency for implementing MRT Line-6 has been created, viz., Dhaka Mass Transit Company Limited (DMTC). The General Consultant for the project is the NKDM Association comprised of Nippon Koei (Japan) and Development Design Consultants (Bangladesh). The construction contractor is a consortium led by foreign companies including including Italian-Thai Development Public Company, Sinohydro of China, and a Tokyo construction company. 

My reason for comparing Dhaka and Colombo, or Bangladesh and Sri Lanka, using urban transportation as an indicator is to point out the development trajectories of the countries – from where they were when they became independent 23 years apart (1948 and 1971), where they are now and where they are heading. Sri Lanka became independent in 1948, with a healthy balance of payments, thanks mostly to the ‘financial prudence’ of the colonial administration even while contributing to the Empire’s war effort. The Stirling reserves at independence had nothing to do with the first UNP government, as President Wickremesinghe has recently been claiming. In fact, the UNP government ran through the reserves in what AJ Wilson has described as “an orgy of unplanned spending.”

On the other hand, Bangladesh was born in 1971, in an orgy of violence and blood bath. It came into being as the second most impoverished country in the world and for decades suffered the ignominy of being called an economic basket case. And for decades, as well, natural calamities conspired with political hatred and plunged the country into cyclonic devastations, military coups, high level assassinations, rampant corruption and abject poverty. The country’s turnaround or takeoff came about twenty years after its bloody birth and there has been no turning back. 

The World Bank has been effusive in its praise, calling the country’s transformation from the world’s second poorest country to be one of the fastest growing economies as “one of the great development stories” of our time. A country of 165 million people, it is now generating strong domestic demand to sustain its economic growth. Transport and physical infrastructure are key components of its development momentum. Mega projects are diverse by sector and by location and the country is now getting to a stage where it can pay for its mega projects. Some of the projects, in addition to Dhaka Metro, include the Padma Bridge, Matarbari Port, and the Karnaphuli Tunnel for an underwater expressway beneath the Karnaphuli River in Chittagong.

Padma Bridge

The story of Padma Bridge is as old as Bangladesh. It was first identified as a feasible project in the former East Pakistan before the outbreak of the war. Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, the founding father of Bangladesh, wanted the bridge built after the liberation of Bangladesh, but the project went dead after his assassination. The project fortunes then waxed and waned with political and government changes and found its feet again after the Awami League returned to power in the 2008 elections. Then it ran into a corruption storm.

The Padma Bridge project became notorious all over the world for its corruption scandals and the World Bank famously withdrew its support for the project with other donors following. The government of Bangladesh stepped in to take over the project and complete it with its own funds. The project is now completed, designed by AECOM, a US consulting giant out of its Hong Kong office and built by a Chinese construction firm, China Major Bridge Engineering Company Ltd, at a total cost of $3.6 billion, which Bangladesh paid.

The new bridge crosses the Padma River, the largest tributary of the Ganges in Bangladesh and among the most turbulent rivers in the world. The steel truss bridge is a significant engineering achievement, extending a total length of over six kilometres in 41 sections (each 150 m long and 22 m wide), and supporting an upper deck of a four-lane highway and a lower deck of a single track railway. It is the longest bridge over the Ganges and the deepest in the world with piles sunk as deep as 127 metres. Prime Minister Hasina opened the bridge in June 2022, reportedly one of more than 100 bridges she has been opening in recent months. Bangladesh has come a long way since its fiery birth in 1971 and decades of economic and sociopolitical traumas. 

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Latest comments

  • 17
    0

    RP,
    “Then, out of nowhere the Rajapaksas decided to cancel the project in September 2020, primarily to snub Champika Ranawaka, and to potentially explore other funding channels with assured kickbacks”
    Agree with you reason, emphasis was to channel source of funding to Chinese and turn MRT project to an expressway, which Chinese have contributed in developing in Sri Lanka! Padukka/Kottawa/Colombo, facilitate the Kickback (KB) and importantly REVISED BILL OF QUANTITIES TO FACILITATE their (Medamulana 20%) KB!!
    The other unstated underlying reason for cancellation is continuous tribute paid by Japan attributing to JRJ’s San Francisco speech!!! And Japan’s intolerance to Bribery!!??
    PBJ couldn’t have on his own volition, done without R. Bros. Inc., tacit support and Medamulana Lunacy!!! This clan thinks rest of the mankind are imbeciles and brainless Grass eating ‘Mee Harak’!!! Conceited thinking of the Punnaku eating variety!!! They feel supreme, dare to snub one and all, but none could do the same to them!!!
    Colombo Jaya terminal in 1987 was developed/equipped in entirety with Japanese aid and “Mee Harak” forgot that in “engineering” abrogation, Colombo Eats Terminal agreement!!! Japan would have known it was ‘Engineered’ with “Lemon Puff Support”, by Medamulana Messiah!!!
    They found their contenders in Japanese!!

    • 6
      6

      Bangladesh has a population of 165 million:
      .
      https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bangladesh
      .
      The vast majority of these people have few aspirations, and low expectations. In certain senses that may be sad, but it has probably resulted in a strong economy.
      .
      Aesop’s fable: The grasshopper and the ants. This 4 minute video for children:
      .
      https://www.google.com/search?client=firefox-b-d&q=Aesop%27s+fable++grasshopper#fpstate=ive&vld=cid:d547e34e,vid:1i6mbw6_2IU

    • 9
      0

      Leave alone Dhaka, which is the highly populated capital of Bangladesh, even the uncrowded city of Kochi (3 million population) in India has a metro. Its port is miniscule compared to Colombo.
      https://english.mathrubhumi.com/news/kerala/5-year-anniversary-kochi-metro-offers-ride-to-any-station-at-just-rs-5-on-june-17-1.7608381
      For those who are about to talk about toilets, yes there are at least 20 per station.

      • 10
        0

        “The Sterling reserves at independence had nothing to do with the first UNP government, as President Wickremesinghe has recently been claiming.”
        Absolutely true. The reserves had been built up by the colonial government, partly due to huge rubber and tea exports during WW2.
        The same applies to claims that Ceylon was the best economy in Asia at the time. What else could it be? Japan had been nuked, China was in ruins, like Singapore, Korea, Vietnam, and the rest.

      • 5
        1

        OC,
        .
        thank you. I did not know this.
        :
        But I knew about this below from Adisabeba.
        .
        https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xz_nJpqvaiE

        • 2
          2

          Thank you LM.
          .
          So Maya of Addis Ababa is not afraid to show his face, and proclaim who he is..
          .
          LM is too much of a coward to do either.
          .
          Panini Edirisinhe of Bandarawela. Sri Lanka (National Identity Card No. 483111444V)

          • 2
            0

            Maya is originally from Ghana. .
            .
            Our pundits compare digital normads with anonymous commenters?
            .
            How come u dont know that? .
            I thoght u are ” sathyaguru” .of JVP?
            😎😎😎😎

          • 6
            2

            Sinhala_Man!
            Panini Edirisinghe!

            Whatever you want to call yourself!

            For G’s sake STOP harassing this poor man: “LM is too much of a coward to do either.”

            And dont you realise that, by extension, you r accusing everyone else who uses a pseudonym on CT of being a coward, too?

            Now that you have revealed yourself, with totally unnecessary details of NIC, etc., why not save space & drop the SM bit?

            And stop this sparring with LM.

            Or choose a location you can both get to & settle this once & for all, physically.

            I am sure there will be plenty of CTers who will volunteer to be referees — but only if you dont insist on knowing either their pseudonyms or their real names.

            • 4
              1

              MF
              How can he, when only LM finds time to waste on daft slinging matches with him while others laugh him out.

              • 3
                0

                “M.F
                How can he be when only LM finds time for snarky matches with him while others laugh at him?”

                Dear Respected Seniors,

                I am sorry for the inconvenience. I don’t think I will cause you problems in the near future.

                I have new plans and I won’t waste time to come back to SM. I’d rather be busy with my job than get stuck into stupid arguments with sick men.

                Actually, I have revealed only what JVP did during 89-92. All this is known to many, but at that time he was out of the country, so SM. His non-committal “facts” nature hurts me the most.
                I never said that criminals will remain criminals forever. However, SM is speaking for some commenters in the chat as usual. I don’t think that’s right. It is a violation of our rights. We are not demented yet, we can share our thoughts and minds on the topic.
                :
                Worst is that he doesn’t count the human losses (my good friends and families) they were the victims in 89-92 (by JVP rather than government groups).

                • 0
                  0

                  “settle this once & for all, physically.”

                  That’s something I’ll pay to watch! ……. Don King will promote it on HBO …… to earn some badly needed $s ……. pay per view.

                  They put up a free show in the Miss Lanka pageant in NY ……. that could’ve earned millions broadcast live!

                  We have the talent ……. it’s the business/organizational skills that’s lacking.

                  Native should change his name to more catchy Don Panteleone ……… and take up Event-Promotion.


                  “Neither is anyone interested in the time in Bandarawela.”

                  You better be! ……. The rest of the time he is on 153 bus looking for you!

                  What’s worse …… he won’t kill you with knives: he’ll use words. ……… NIC No repeatedly …….. until your brain turn into mush. :))

            • 0
              4

              MF. One is wearing Green tinted glasses and the other is wearing yellow tinted glasses. The problem is the two colours do not match up. It is all about colours.

            • 4
              1

              “totally unnecessary details of NIC, etc.,”
              Neither is anyone interested in the time in Bandarawela. Once, maybe, but not every day.

              • 5
                0

                OC,
                .
                This is really mental illness: we know who he is, what matters is the content of the comments. If there is no match, question the point…that way we can clarify the issues. Why should I worry about commenter status, if he or she does not want to expose?

                When almost everyone goes anonymous for their own reasons (we all have our reasons), does a (supposedly) decent man who declares himself drive me like a mad dog? Shouldn’t it really be related to a mental illness?

                Not once, all these 3 months? He himself, not me, has made him a clown by now.

                And not only me, many of CT commenters still don’t respect what SM says. Let’s find out how many eligible voters agree with JVP/NPP today.
                So it is an exaggeration to say that I am the one who causes the biggest damage to 220 lakhs without knowing what it is about. So he branded myself “absolutely obnoxious” :? why ?-

                Best thing is to keep away from CT …. ?

      • 3
        0

        In Tamil Nadu, Madras has three Metros running and three more under construction, Coimbatore has two Metros, and there is plan to construct Metros in Trichy and Madurai.
        Very soon Jaffna will have four Metros and the fifth Circle line connecting these four.

    • 6
      0

      How come we missed the honours? ……. Aren’t we there yet? ……. https://www.yahoo.com/now/15-countries-highest-interest-rates-173233849.html

      The economic wizard Ranil and his band of ultra-talented hardworking 37 ministers are sure to get us there. It’ll be easy sailing from there on.

      Savers can rejoice: they have paper to burn when no cooking gas ……. borrowers can catch the next available boat out with borrowed money.

      All are winners!

      Native is as happy as Mao.

    • 2
      0

      M
      Interesting research with rather “original” facts.
      Keep it up.

    • 2
      0

      If all goes well, Jaffna Peninsula will have a Metro very soon. I have submitted the plan to both governments of Srilanka and India. It will be constructed as Build, Operate and Transfer (BOT) basis over a long lease, with no cost to the country, similar to Hambantota port and Colombo port city. I am meeting a group of Indian investors who are interested in this project.
      It consists of four corridors, independent of each other and the fifth connecting these four, going round in a circle, using sections of their tracks.
      1. Thenmaradchy line (Blue) from Pallai to KKS with extension to Pallay via Airport.
      2. Vadamaradchy line (Purple) from Point Pedro to Jaffna and then to Keerimalai.
      3. Vali & Coast line (Green) from Mathagal to Jaffna and then to Palali and Point Pedro.
      4. Pan Peninsula line (Red) from Karainagar to Jaffna and then to Chavakacheri and VVT.
      5. City & Circle line (Orange) from Mandaitivu in clockwise and anti-clockwise directions.
      When completed, it will be a model in conveyance and convenience. This system is far superior to that proposed for Colombo district in terms of connectivity and commuting.

  • 13
    2

    Henry Kissinger famously said that Bangladesh will be a BASKET CASE!! at the time of its creation. Now the BASKET CASES are sinhala land and paki land and sinhala land is even borrowing millions of USD from Bangladesh.

    A sinhala land accountant accountant who worked in Bangladesh told me that that country’s public service is highly efficient cf Basket Case sinhala land. I suppose economy in Babladesh also contributed by NOT burning down and looting businesses and factories owned by minorities

  • 11
    0

    When will PBJ go to jail?

    • 8
      0

      Sarath P,
      That is a very good question, which may not receive an answer Pronto!!? Lot of disciples are praying for him and for clemency on the premise he “carried out Orders from above”!!! So that’s an unknown, whether or when it would happen!!??
      We pray and seek Devine intervention!!???
      “Bhudham Saranam Gachchami”!!!???
      Rest is beyond us mere mortals!!??? Be assured the Lord Almighty would heed your prayers and deliver justice equitably, though may take time for deliverance!!!

  • 9
    0

    “Dhaka Goes Metro, Colombo Stuck On Tuk-Tuk”

    Can we have another $200 million, please?

    We promise to pay back in 2-weeks.

  • 4
    0

    Colombo stuck while Dhaka metro positive, why? Purchasing highly expensive properties along Ward place with politician’s apartment tower along there, was not suitable. Should have gone along the wide Maradana road of government owned non costly and non controversial land near National Hospital and schools.

  • 9
    0

    Greeks discovered philosophy 2,000 years ago.
    Todays world is what it is due to advancement in the amount of knowledge humans have gained through various branches of philosophy.
    Philosophy taught the world how to think logically.
    Logic or rathinal thinking is used by humans all over the world to analyse and find out the truth about almost everything.
    Sri Lanka is an exception as we still use our emotions to decide on everything. We keep fooling ourselves. I wonder when we will give up this stupid mode of life and step forward just as other prosperous countries have.

    • 0
      0

      “Greeks discovered philosophy 2,000 years ago.”
      HT, where was philosophy tucked away before this discovery?

    • 1
      0

      Human Touch

      “Greeks discovered philosophy 2,000 years ago.”

      I am not sure about it however we have been told/trained to believe in “Beware of Greeks bearing gifts”.

      Now I would not hesitate to say “Beware of Chinese bearing gifts”.

  • 9
    0

    As long as we keep deceiving ourselves by hiding or sweeping the truth under the carpet, we will never make progress as a people.
    We should not blame politicians for deceiving us.
    How can they deceive us if we dont buy their lies.
    We will be deceived only if we continue to keep our brains switched off and keep getting carried away by emotions.
    Deceiving and being deceived are games played by people who have no real zeal for progress.
    Both are Kaalakanni.

  • 9
    0

    Dear Rajan,
    Thanks for the wonderful piece.
    I often appreciate your articles.
    The Japanese loan was based on 0.1% interest, and Gotha’s government had no reason to refuse it except for their money laundering projects based on road and construction. But Sri Lankan newspapers did not try to inform the people why the abusive regime cancelled the project.

    Another project. Again, there were rumors that Japan wanted to extend further loans to develop the BIA and the surrounding area. It was averted due to the direct misdeeds of Minister NimalS Silva wo is the minister of aviation/airport..if that would have been the case in a european country, the minister would have been forced to step down…..again the news was buried under the table but the Sri Lankan media did not report the debt or anything else.
    .
    Not long ago, world experts assumed that Bangladesh and a few other countries (Maldives, Mexico) would sink with time, if I am wrong, this was in the air like 7 years ago.
    However, the fact that the so-called sinking countries have made tremendous progress in their economies has turned those reports deaf and blind????. So the truth of the worldwide reports very clearly depends on their own intentions. highly biased…

  • 5
    0

    Vehicle emissions are a big problem globally & most developed countries promote public transport to reduce the usage of private vehicles. Many cities have ‘vehicle free zones’, ‘park & ride’ bus service & encourage ‘cycle to work’ schemes with separate cycle lanes. From 2025 there will be no more new diesel engine cars & from 2030, no new petrol & diesel cars in Europe, all new vehicles being electric, not even hybrids. Bangladesh was one of the first countries to convert polluting 2 stroke engine ‘tuk tuks’ to less polluting LG gas several decades ago but SL is yet to have a plan to reduce the 3 wheeler population. Furthermore, the emission test in SL is joke, not correctly managed with a blanket emission standard & not even properly enforced.
    Cont.

    • 4
      2

      Raj,
      You are talking about the country’s vehicular emissions at a time when every second rural child faints in his classroom.
      So it is a struggle for survival. Gone are the days when we were forced to see a picture from Ethiopia with malnourished children. However, thanks to His Majesty Medamulana and others, we will soon see them in our land.

      This is becoming more dangerous than our childhood in the late 70s. The former Ethiopia is in making in our country today.

      Nevertheless, those who feel subordinated to them continue their nature today.

      I wonder why the neighbors don’t throw stones at Rajapaksa even today. All levels of civilization have been endangered by the uncivilized family, however will they move as Zimbabwe’s Mugabe did?
      Our people are upside down, aren’t they? Is the majority of our country completely paralyzed today?

  • 4
    0

    Cont.
    The public transport system was made redundant by the UNP with the birth of the private bus operators but the railway system still provides a great service to commuters from outside town. Our priority should have been to build a good public bus & rail transport system before building highways. I have had the privilege to visit most countries in the world, from South America to the Arctic & all European countries to Japan but apart from a few problem countries in South America, Africa & Asia, most countries have an excellent, even cheap, public transport with good links to & from the airport to the city but in SL, despite many poor rural folk getting employment abroad, have to rely on private transport to get to the airport.
    When a politician says in public that we can’t eat oxygen, it says a lot about our environmental credentials.

    • 8
      0

      Raj UK
      The last part of your above comment caught my eye. Do you seriously think the government cares how its down trodden citizens get to the airport to fly out in search for the mineal jobs that they often go abroad for?
      As long as the dollars trickle in, the mode and manner of the transport must be the least of the government’s worries.
      To tell you how badly our government treat our poor, you must look at the data page of the Sri Lankan passport.
      The Sri Lankan passport must be among the very few, if at all, passports where the profession is mentioned.
      Imagine the impact that has on the status of Sri Lankans with mineal jobs abroad.
      Why do we have to impose our cussedness on people who go abroad looking for a buck?
      Let them prosper as Sri Lankan citizens when they go to another country regardless of the job status at home.
      Why should a Sri Lankan citizens have housemaid, driver, helper, etc mentioned in the data page?
      Nobody is a born housemaid or a helper…as far as citizenship goes, we should be all the same. But we are not…
      Sadly

      • 3
        0

        Unique and Mystique. Liberated from colonialism, still masked in it?? For whose benefit??? The governance is rubbish, so much so, abounds on idiosyncrasy!!!???
        Why do we need 225 Lawmakers, their aides and luxury vehicle along with 50+ stately ministers!!?? They seem to contribute nothing except live in luxury – No reason!!??
        These are the unnecessary costs, drowning Sri Lanka in debt and make it sink!!??

        • 0
          0

          Dear Mahila,
          .
          Unique and mysterious. Escaping colonialism, still wearing its masks?? For whose benefit???

          Answer: Our people cannot unite to represent us as one for so long, what alternatives do we have before us than to rely again and again on the former colonial powers? Our self-promotions are jokes that only exist within our limits.

          Good governance is ugly, so much, full of stupidity!!!???
          Why do we need a luxury vehicle with 225 legislators, their aides and 50+ ministers !!??


          Answer: Simple arguments make it clear, if roads and constructions are getting better, we don’t need super luxury vehicles to be a part of Lankan vehicle fleet, if we can’t afford it, however those decisions didn’t have the brains to see it. Sri Lanka has gone wrong like never before in the last 15 years. Who is to blame for the mess? 74 years of rule? Or Rajapakse?

          tbc

  • 6
    1

    “Dhaka Goes Metro, Colombo Stuck On Tuk-Tuk ”

    “Vinai Vithaithavan Vinai Aruppan Thinai Vithaithavan Thinai Arupan”
    The one who sows millet, harvest millet. The one sows sins will reap that.
    Don Stephen and Solomon West Ridgeway Dias had already set fire to the country before they were removed out of Langkang by Buddha.
    God bless everybody! (for those who ask him for that)!

    • 2
      0

      This Soloman family how they betrayed the Sinhale look at where we are now, (house maids,drivers for Thambi in the desert,/Labour jobs in Korea Japan)
      Dont think “sir” can step in US soil for rest of his life,or become PM/prez super 69 ……kandy Mullas help him out for his desire country of US

  • 4
    0

    Srilanka achieved higher literacy rate before 80s comparing to India and other Asian nations except Japan. But, still we are unable to steer our country towards normal (forgot about becoming Singapore). The govt in the past satisfied the poor in the past instead of encouraging small and medium level industries. We introduced the tax system now, this sort of tax system introduected in US in 1930s I believe and same protest they had those days. I saw university professionals protest in colombo street , they may not aware that 35% of your pay check is taxed in Australia. so instead of blaming Ranil, support someone who , atlest, make the best decision during the worst time.

  • 0
    0

    Bangladesh may have Metro but Sri Lanka have 2500 of culture and heritage.
    Try and beat that

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