18 November, 2017

Don’t Be Fooled By Obfuscations: Dummies Guide To Solar, Wind & Grid Power

By Kumar David

Prof. Kumar David

Controversies frequently erupt around renewable energy availability, prices and incorporation in the grid. Much is couched in language opaque to the newspaper reader. That’s a pity because the citizen eventually foots the bill and suffers the power cuts. Since I have some slight familiarity with electricity I am drafting a primer to help layman decode experts and wag a finger at their obfuscations.

The starting point is an appreciation of the difference between power and energy; in our context MW (power) and MWh (energy). One MWh =1000 kWh; kWh is a fancy name for a ‘unit’. If you have a 480 horse-power Ferrari you sure have lots of power but if your petrol tank is near empty you don’t have much energy to go places. A big MW solar plant is not much good if there is frequent cloud cover like a Ferrari with an empty tank. When people con you with solar and wind and talk in MW (power), ask about energy, the MWh expected per year. Lanka has a limited number of onshore wind sites and is nowhere near as prolific in insolation (sunlight falling on the earth) as the Arabian, Thar or Mohave desserts or the bright and cloudless Chilean Andes. We don’t have vast uninhabited lands for photovoltaic or wind farms unlike China and the US; no sites for large, say 500 MW, projects as in Pakistan or India. The 100 MW first stage of Quad-e-Azam solar (final 1000 MW) in Pakistan needed 500 acres! An average wind speed of 5m/sec at 50m height is poor, over 7m/sec is good; few places in Lanka meet the requirement.

The technical catch is that coal, liquefied natural gas (LNG) or nuclear, if well maintained and if fuel supply is not disrupted, can run flat out say 85% of the time (capacity factor). There are 8760 hours in a year so a 1MW plant can generate 0.85x8760x1 = 7446 MWh average a year. The story with wind and solar is different. The sun does not shine at night and seasonal cloud cover bucks expectations. The wind blows when and where it listeth. Solar and wind plant may provide full output, absolutely no output, and much of the time partial output. The capacity factor for solar and wind at a good site may reach 35%, humbler ones may be constrained to 20%. Therefore, a solar or wind farm will provide only 25% to 40% of the energy of a thermal plant of the same name plate rating. A 1MW solar or wind plant at a location with capacity factor say 28% will provide an average annual energy of 0.28x8760x1 = 2453 MWh. So, talking megawatts (MW) alone is a smokescreen.

The government foolishly dumped the proposed 500 MW coal station at Sampoor and recently turned its back on a 1200 MW Japanese LNG proposal in the Western Province. Instead the Energy Ministry has opted for a 50 MW solar plant at Sampoor. If we calculate as in the previous paragraph, it has dumped 3.7 TWh of Sampoor energy, and has declined 8.9 TWh of Japanese LNG energy for a mere 0.12 TWh of solar electric energy (1 TWh = 1 million MWh). Incredible! The silly sods in the line ministry, SEMA and PUCSL have set us up for a massive shortage of future electric energy. Pie in the sky talk of 2600 MW of solar and wind power by 2037, even in the MWs materialise, will not meet a fifth of the country’s then electric energy needs.

The within-day, daily and seasonal energy availability of solar and wind electricity fluctuates. When the sun shines effective costs are good thanks to rapid technological and price advances. The best sites, globally, are competitive with coal and LNG – say Rs 9 to 14 per kWh. The problem is the capital cost of additional (reserve) plant needed when solar/wind power is unavailable. This pushes the effective energy cost up by say 30 to 50% depending on the assumptions made in calculations.

Do the rich subsidise the poor?

There is a peculiarity about our tariffs. Services like state health and education are paid out of national revenue into budget accounts and are evenly priced for all. Similarly, at the retail store you do not pay a different price for sugar, rice or thalana batu depending on your consumption, income or social class. It’s different with CEB electricity. Domestic premises consuming 90 units a month pay Rs 9.25 per unit averaged over all component charges; if consumption is 200 units this rises to about Rs 23 per unit and at 400 units a month it is a shade over Rs 33 per unit. So, there is a commodity specific cross-subsidy; bad in principle and bad in practice. People get the municipality to provide different assessment numbers for upstairs and downstairs and pay Rs 9.25 a unit on each bill instead of Rs 20+ or 30+ rupees a unit on a composite bill. This tariff system should be dumped. The supply authority should divide revenue needed by units expected to be sold and charge everyone at a uniform rate. It is mockery to attempt social justice on a commodity by commodity basis.

The silliness does not stop there. The tariff on industrial and commercial customers is complicated depending on time of day (this is reasonable since generation cost at peak time is high), consumption and type of industry. It varies from more than Rs 25 at peak time to less than Rs 10 from late night to early morning. But it is irrational to have so many classes of consumers.

The craziest is religious premises. The charge is less than Rs 2 per unit for the first 30 units and even at 200 units (average middle-class household consumption) it is less than Rs 10 a unit! There is a big cross-subsidy. Subsidising less well-off households is one thing, but why the devil should I pay to have the gullible misled with myths and superstitions?  Let the dyakayas and parishioners pay.

Net-metering

When the sun shines bright on your old Kadawatta home the electric energy produced by a roof-top array may be more than needed at that moment. The rating of plant of course is matched to the highest insolation at midday. The thing to do is to store up the extra energy for later. The wind and solar power injected into the Lankan grid in the foreseeable future will be so small that the system can absorb it without flinching (without storage). A few hundred MW when the sun is blazing and wind howling is easy to absorb in a four thousand of MW system. No special measures such as smart-grids or pumped storage are needed. It is different in Holland, Denmark and Germany where the sudden cessation or surge of huge amounts of wind power can panic system controllers. Wind all over a country will only rarely shut down or surge up all at the same time but to deal with big fluctuations the system needs fast acting plant (gas turbines for example) that can kick in quickly. These spinning and standby reserves have to be entered on the cost side of a wind or solar balance sheet. Storage systems for renewables, especially large grid connected plant are now receiving a lot of attention.

The term net-metering is not used for grid level stuff but for consumer premises. That solar panel on your roof may be yanking out full power at midday when no one is home and only the fridge is running. In the evening, your wife turns on the rice cooker, kids switch on study lights and you relax in a brightly lit room with a well earned scotch after a hard days work! (OK, call me an MCP!). Now you need lots of electricity. The trick is a meter which keeps count of the energy injected into the CEB and sets it off against consumption when demand is high – hence the name net. You are billed for net consumption and a surplus can be carried over as a credit (‘banked’) for months or years.

This is where the dispute about cross-subsidies arises. I said a big consumer may pay an average of say Rs 30 a unit. If he sees the light (poor pun) and goes solar maybe his net consumption can come down to 90 units, Hey presto, he pays at Rs 9.25 a unit! So, the argument goes that the CEB loses lots of money and its ability to cross-subsidise poor consumers is undercut. Is this correct? Well yes, revenue is top-sliced and something will have to be raised to recoup it. The most expensive plant is run at peak time but these rich solar types do not top-slice their demand at these times. Hence the cost saving to the system from their ‘returned’ energy is small.

This objection is invalid if time of day pricing (a more sophisticated version is called ‘spot-pricing’) is used. Credit for energy returned and charge for energy consumed depend on the utilities cost of generation at the relevant moment. If you inject 100 units at noon when, for example, the utilities’ marginal cost is Rs 12 a unit, your credit is Rs 1200, but if 100 units in consumed during the evening peak when the utility is running its plant flat out at a marginal cost of Rs 25 per unit, the debit side of your account will show an entry of Rs 2500. You are in energy balance but not in money balance.

Since our solar and wind penetration will remain minuscule for a long time it is unlikely to make much impact on overall generation costs. It is good in principle to encourage renewable energy but not to rush in like a bull in heat, create future energy shortages and fall prey to the rapacious oil lobby – which is where we are heading. Trump is cuckoo to spurn the environment; our half-baked experts and perplexed regulators are dyslexic and foreswear a measured approach. A US Energy Administration graph showing how coal usage gradually declined is reproduced. Other forms of fossil fuel usage have not declined, but that’s a story I should take up another time.

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Latest comments

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    Good Lord Prof. Kumar David! One good thing that this current GoSL is doing is to go Green-Energy. Let’s hope that this will translate into traditional Lankan lifestyles that do not need as much power as the major industrialized nations do, and who keep increasing their energy usages exponentially, just to keep up balance of payments.

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      Dear Ramona,
      “One good thing that this current GoSL is doing is to go Green-Energy. “
      Did you actually read the Professor’s article? Or are you commenting on the title only?

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        Oh boy! I must have missed something. Will re-read and see what I missed.

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          [Edited out] Comments should not exceed 300 words. Please read our Comments Policy for further details.

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            • Once we force ourselves to use solar and wind, and increase the industry, clean energy will go up, and costs will come down dramatically. But right now, it’s all about paying off the CEB electricity grids.

            • When the sun is not shining, and the wind is not blowing, energy is saved up for the evening and night-times.

            • Foods like rice and sugar are necessities. Electricity is not. There is a cutoff point in what one eats (even the fattest of us….someone needs to stop drinking Scotch and pay electricity bills). Electricity usage however can increase exponentially – it’s like buying jewelry or Ferraris.

            • Holland, Denmark and Germany need huge amounts of energy in their industrial worlds. Now, delicate and fragile Sri Lanka has no need to industrialize like those giants!

            • [So, the argument goes that the CEB loses lots of money and its ability to cross-subsidize poor consumers is undercut…. Well yes, revenue is top-sliced and something will have to be raised to recoup it.] Bad synchronization. Somebody has to think-tank, and equate it all out.

            • [It is good in principle to encourage renewable energy but not to rush in like a bull in heat, create future energy shortages and fall prey to the rapacious oil lobby – which is where we are heading.] Well, the professor has got that one right.

            • But Prof David Kumar kills it all in [Trump is cuckoo to spurn the environment; our half-baked experts and perplexed regulators are dyslexic and foreswear a measured approach.] Wasn’t Kumar just talking about how bad solar and wind was?

            • If we develop our own solar panel and wind power industries, we would not have to buy them from outside, and have balance of payments and things. Great job creation too.

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              The elephant in the room are idiot consumers like you arty farty `acrobats` with no technological background just belch and fart just like India and China and the developing world who produce stalks at will.

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        old codger
        the non techie 1/2 bottom burger is a pessimist born to sabotage then milk the system with a begging bowl to eat jam and honey like the dynasties. that was the boat trip to the land of american dream.
        thanks to the fracking revolution by US in the last 5 years the price of oil is low and the arabs are eating healthy portion of crow pie. The cornucopians are winning.

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    Emil

    Very informative.

    CEB Engineers Union is second only to the GMOA and is completely responsible for the poor state of affairs at the CEB.

    1 They have resisted breaking down the CEB into Generation, Transmission and Distribution units. No one is held accountable and massive losses at all units.

    2 PPAs are handed over through political pressure and to their friends and then sold over to actual investors.

    3 The engineers own Lanka Transformers and contracts are handed over to this private company which is a clear conflict of interest.

    4 Emergency power bought ar ridiculous prices.

    5 Norochcholai disaster

    6 No working relationship with the Civil Engineers at CEB

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      At least the electricity industry is maintained at this level because of CEBEU’s timely interventions on Government bad policies and Power Mafia’s undertable dealings.

      I think Jagath is talking with the professional jealous towards Electrical Engineers in CEB.

  • 0
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    Sorry should read as Kumar

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      Thank You Sir. I have been waiting for this article for a long time.

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        Long time no see Mr Rodrigo. We missed you.

        There are all various kind of your relatives are today in this platform to have taken your earlier Role. Anyway, I hope your reigncarnation is not similar to that of your past at the time LATE SENIOR DIPLOMAT IH had been bringing the articles one behind the other.

        How are you doing there in Quatar region ? How is like to feel the life today after the sanctions have been imposed to them ? We would love if any info came from your point of view.
        Greetings from Berlin

  • 0
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    champa the chimpanzee got a commission on the deal for solar power. decision always on commission. he didnt get a commission on the garbage disposal, so we have a stinking garbage problem.

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      It is a socialist Iranian Goni Billa from Rosmead Place that is the power behind –
      `so we have a stinking garbage problem`. – A SriMao+Malwatte at the top and bottom tier the Drunken kappan kakko- won’t let a sinhalese do anything about it..
      very much a mulla soul- nothing new Basil was purchased by them to sell 99 year lease colombo 2 , etc etc.and the priest of theirs a chameleon of high repute whom the nation called a man of intellect 0- wanker!!

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    Professor David
    You seem to have left out one important aspect of solar and wind energies. Use of these forms of power supply can be vastly improved by the development of battery technology. The developed countries and China are spending large sums of money to develop the battery technology. Recently South Australia has signed and agreement with a leading American company to install a 100 MW battery to utilise wind power to solve their chronic power failures. Many countries are spending quite a large amount of money to develop large batteries and in Lithium mining. Currently Lithium is the main material needed for these batteries. Many leading countries are now keen develop Lithium mining.
    Cost of these technologies are coming down and will compete with the current fossil fuel based energy supply. Ignoring the solar and wind technologies is foolhardy. A sequel to this article is recommended.

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      The prof. doesn’t care.. The sun does not shine at night so 50% of the time, the solar panels will be idling… and the wind does not blow all the the time either

      Our only choice is fossil fuels or go nuclear (yeah… good one!)

      So There !

      In a time where pretty much every country (including the M/E) has come to understand that fossil fuels is history, we must continue to use them

      WE, Sri Lanka can continue to power our nation with the collective hot gases emanating from our pundits

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        Maalumiris,
        “In a time where pretty much every country (including the M/E) has come to understand that fossil fuels is history, we must continue to use them”
        You are obviously an idealist. Are there any significant countries running solely on solar or wind energy?
        In an ideal world, clean solar and wind power could drive everthing we have. But the electricity distribution system (the Grid) has evolved in such a way that it MUST have steady reliable, predictable power sources. Hydro is ok. But it has dried up.
        Change the Grid? Then we would end up with solar panels on every roof, with batteries in every house. Still very expensive , and a lightning strike would have you in the dark for a week, because there is no interconnection.
        A large part of the solution is to REDUCE energy consumption. Do we really need huge fridges? ( The household refrigerator is the largest electricity user in a typical house). Do we need air conditioned banks/ supermarkets/offices? Do we need to have phones clipped to our ears 24/7 ?

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    Well put Professor, your way of comparing the energy (MWh) rather than Power (MW) makes the comparison of renewables with thermal realistic. The renewable enthusiasts always highlight power without going in to energy.

    Storage: They are now talking about batteries for storage of energy. Who will pay, maintain and finally replace them when the life is over after perhaps 10 years? In any case I do not want to lot of batteries in my home even if it is free. It is like having bombs stored in your home.

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    To be competitive, any source of energy should be (1) Despatcheable (2) Rampable. By Despatchable we mean the power of the source concerned should be available when it is required by the consumer. As Prof. David has pointed out this is not the case with renewable sources, if expensive batteries are not provided. When we are talking about Batteries again we have to have to talk about the energy that they are capable of storing. For example, it is useless to say that the battery capacity is 100 MW unless we know how long that 100 MW power can be sustained by the battery concerned. (i.e.) One should also mention how many MWh it can store.

    Rampeable: By this we mean how fast the power (MW) can be increased or decreased. It is given MW/min (or Power in MW/selected unit of time). For example, in California, when the evening peak approaches, the power consumption increases by 16,000 MW in 3 hours. Unfortunately, this is the time when the sunsets and hence solar power output decreases. This increases the burden on the thermal power stations, which have to do this ramping at extra cost to their components. For example if we had 10,000 MW of solar without storage at this time the burden on the thermal increases to 26,000 MW in 3 hours.

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      “” if expensive batteries are not provided. “
      That’s the trick of the seniors in any administration or professors because less than 5% read outside their subject.
      The age of full scale Mediocrity dawned with Ronald Reagan and Lankawe from 4th Feb 1948.
      It’s all like George Orwell’s Animal Farm: Only Pigs can Fly. What are your foreign servants doing??
      2007- Chinese surgeon at Beijing starve (10 pence soup a day only) to break the Guinness book world record orthopaedic drew tears in my eyes because I remember the father of American Space Dr Qian Xuesen being jailed by KKK because he was not one of them.
      Folk who researched with plain water to drive a vehicle just vanished like the Wall Street protesters- We have it (Scandinavians are trying other alternative research with water- we have 3D flying cars made of the same stuff of the black box but 9/11 Muslims put a setback) it would be released once the powers Russia and US say we had enough of Oil – It’s only for the dynasties in power. Marijuana was banned because it is cheaper than oil from the Middle East.

      January 15 1955- “02”.Mao’s -We do not only need more airplanes and cannons, we also need nuclear weapons. In the world nowadays, to avoid being bullied, we can’t afford not having them.-After the United States threatened to use nuclear weapons during the Korean War, Today China has Space Station but not the US.

      Mono Laser printer ink is as expensive as a new printer and 3 times the value of a jet colour printer but the recycle boys sell mono laser cassettes at 1/3 the price of jet colour.
      Don’t try with laptop batteries as yet for they may explode- do without the original and plug it to mains.

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    [Edited out] Comments should not exceed 300 words. Please read our Comments Policy for further details.

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    “”Don’t Be Fooled By …………. Solar, Wind & Grid Power”
    The suited booted old farts of the school driving every tom dick and harry up the schools gum tree.
    You never invented anything and lived off a secure salary all your life.
    i know of an English lefty thickhead professor of London University he is just like you he screams and shouts about plebs not having a say and then writes stories for the LSE to get those few bucks to travel a bit and enjoy French bread, wine and care. He loves to get the priest drunk on the 8th of January just to have some fun though he is not a believer in god and all that anymore.
    I preferred to buy a new watch than spend £ 10 to keep the watcher repairer alive (battery cost 50 pence) But now 5 years ago I found the ultimate – The lithium ion rechargeable for life with a few seconds of light. No more replacements.
    In the 70’s I met Dr ChamanLal Gupta at Pondy( in fact spent 3 months of research) because i wanted to store energy in a matchbox and release it when needed because My mum had a saree from Kashmir that was stored in a matchbox and pulled out to wear when the occasion rose.
    Solar cell beneath the dial converts any form of light into electrical energy to power the watch. Revolutionary lithium-ion rechargeable cell stores enough energy to power the watch up to an astonishing 10 years (depending on model) even in the dark.
    I got a similar battery for my PC and I don’t hear the tweet .
    Imagine if you had no imagination what would things be like?? Like a bored toque macaque endemic to sri lanka.
    Get that lithium-ion MW.

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    Electricity access:
    population without electricity: 1,334,100
    electrification – total population: 94%
    electrification – urban areas: 99%
    electrification – rural areas: 93% (2013)
    Electricity – production:
    12 billion kWh (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    Electricity – consumption:
    11 billion kWh (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 89

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    I wish to provide the following information in regard to the South Australian battery system. It is 100 MW, 129 MWh system. The contract price is not divulged but is rumoured to be about A$ 33 million.

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      Thanks for the info.

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    Prof. AKD has been right all along about the potential of wind and solar energy to meet our demand. But he misses out on the bigger picture. Consumerism leads to wasteful use of energy and has to be curtailed rather than seek more energy sources.
    Our notion of development needs revisiting. Pollution of the surroundings to serve the needs of the greedy is unacceptable.

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      “”Pollution of the surroundings to serve the needs of the greedy is unacceptable.””
      Que passa La mancha??
      Going green is wavering politics until Beijing was hit by the continuous smog.
      Technology is power and is priceless.
      Clean cities of Japan and Abenomics – Unlimited Money Printing
      Investors have been watching Japan for over a decade now, wondering what happens to a country that has a debt-to-GDP ratio of 234%–too big to realistically pay off. We are starting to get the answer.

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    Grid Interconnection between Sri Lanka and India. One way of Sri Lanka having high penetration of renewables is to have a grid interconnection with India. In Europe, many countries having high renewable resources such as wind can afford to have such high penetration of renewables as they are connected to the vast EU grid.

    With an interconnection with India, we can do the same. What I suggest is a something modeled on the net metering system that prevails in SL between CEB and roof top solar owners. The role of CEB will be played by India and the homeowner will be Sri Lanka.

    Buddhism came from India. Our language, culture, arts, music, the sacred tooth relic all came from India. For that matter, even we came from India. So why not electrical power?

    But it is only a dream because our people will never accept that.

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      But the politics of energy in India will not make it happen either. there are regular power cuts in industrial nadu.
      CHENNAI: A week after sounding a warning, NTPC, a joint venture partner of the Tamil Nadu Electricity Board (TNEB), has stopped supply of 1,000MW power from its two thermal plants in Vallur to the state power utility owing to nonpayment of `1,156 crore in dues.
      http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/chennai/tangedco-defaults-payment-vallur-units-stop-supply/articleshow/58390234.cms
      Five facts about Kudankulam nuclear power plant
      Russian President Vladimir Putin will virtually commission Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant Unit-I, jointly through a video conferencing by PM Modi and Tamil Nadu Chief Minister J Jayalalithaa on Wednesday.
      http://indianexpress.com/article/india/india-news-india/five-facts-about-kudankulam-nuclear-power-plant-2965767/

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        Yes, this is an objection many bring out when an interconnection is suggested. Perhaps, it will remain a dream that will not come true in the near future.

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          your old professor is a shrewd fellow he want’s enough data collection `ice ekkan` for the pending CEB report now that everyone is humming So that gives him the dosh to travel in yellow country during moon festival (october) Afterwards, don’t be suprised he would shoot a treatise on –
          The most obvious transgression happened with Ho Chi Minh, who had written in his will that, after Vietnam was unified, his cremated ashes should be scattered across North and South Vietnam. Vietnam has been unified for decades, but it does not look like his body will be cremated any time soon.
          To match it he may also talk about Lenin and Putin. To keep that old story of Vasu ge Vasi pattha.
          but there is a fundamental difference between changing battery chemistries and finding substitutes for oil more generally. Worlds Known Lithium Chile, Argentina (TESLA) will last 10 years by just running EV vehicles etc etc. let the punk read than take us for student idiots. English do this business with the world because its their language to compile 1000’s of pages overnight and sell it best seller- everything is like Bill Gates 640K till he surpassed as a billionair. This is canny industrial espionage by neddhi kumba from the men at it practically world wide.

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            “Worlds Known Lithium Chile, Argentina (TESLA) will last 10 years by just running EV vehicles etc etc. let the punk read than take us for student idiots”.

            There is a lot of research going on to find economic ways of storing electrical energy. It is normally impractical to store it directly in the form of electrical energy. So, usually it has to be converted to some other form of energy and then stored. (e.g.) In the form of chemical energy in Batteries is just one way. Although Lithium batteries are the most popular now, there are other chemistries that can be used to make more efficient batteries.

            I am giving below other ways of storing energy. (1) In Fly wheels in the form of kinetic energy (2) In water in the form of potential energy as in Pumped Storage Hydro Power systems (3) In the form of electromagnetic energy in Superconducting rings carrying huge currents. (4) In Molten salt in the form of heat energy. (5) In huge underground caverns in the form of pressurized air (6) As Hydrogen via electrolysis of water.

            Man’s ingenuity is unlimited. When the demand is there man will find new ways of making profit.

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              But then you are an electrical engineer caring for maintenance of building not a man in industrial engineering to dabble into computational chemistry- which alone takes the cheese away.
              Aren’t you assisting your prof after his visit??

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      How can you interconnect the grid between Srilanka and India ?

      India is reported to have built a larger village run by solar power today.

      Why cant us in the south and northern areas do the same with much of the overflowing sunlight exposure ?

      I have noticed more in northern Germany you will find wind mills than any where else.
      That has lot to do with the avialability of wind much in nothern than any where else. Also the fact, those wind mills are reported to have been producing radiation – that can be harmful to the human life. So, the areas that are not populated are focused to build and set thos ewind wind mills in Europe.

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        those wind mills have to be shut during `bat times` for an hour. They only provide a % and are an eyesore but is better than having all eggs in a basket.

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        There are no technical problems that precludes a grid interconnection between India and Sri Lanka. The problems are political and the capital based.

        The GCC countries (Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Kuwait, Bahrain, UAE & Oman) Have an interconnected Electrical Grid. The Saudi Bahrain link is an AC link consisting of a 400kV submarine link plus an overhead line.

        When long distances are involved or there are undersea links High Voltage DC is used. Since the link was established in 2009, there have been no blackouts in Bahrain.

        The India – Sri Lanka would be similar to this. A huge grid (Saudi/India) connected to (Bahrain/Sri Lanka). It would probably be a 400 KV/50 Hz AC link.

        The main advantage for us is that it enables Sri Lanka to fully use its renewable energy resources without having an expensive thermal backup of its own. Judging by the strides that India is taking in other fields such as rocket science, I think, the reliability of the Indian grid will improve in the future.

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          You abuse the Indians incessantly now you love to lick ass at a technical level- Go away moron!
          Its a one off after the old goat Jaitly went in as defense too.
          ‘In IT there is no job security’: 25-year-old techie commits suicide in Pune
          The incident was reported in the light of massive lay-offs by IT companies in the city. The IT employees are now in the process of forming a union to stand up against such practices by IT companies.
          http://www.hindustantimes.com/pune-news/job-insecurity-drives-techie-to-suicide-in-pune/story-7p1ZwoRb5XtrUCreZVe1kN.html?li_source=LI&li_medium=recommended-for-you

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            If one wants to fully utilize the available renewable resources and have supply security and quality too, there are 2 ways to achieve that.

            1) Have energy sufficient storage in one of the ways I described before pus . (Note: I missed storing energy in high quality capacitors). This is a very expensive option.

            2) Be the small part of a much larger system by combining with an existing, ready made system such as India which has the advantage of being next door.

            3) Not have 1 & 2 but have sufficient non-renewable backup. (This is the expensive option).

            If you do not follow any of these options, then you will be in trouble. The solar promoters will not be affected much because they mostly live in the West. In fact some may even make money on top of all the misery heaped on the Sri Lankan consumers.

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              Correction: If one wants to fully utilize the available renewable resources and have supply security and quality too, there are 3 ways to achieve that.

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    Sam F
    Radiation from windmills.
    What kind?

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      cell phone confusion.

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      Radiation
      Electromagnetic radiation from the generation and export of electricity have caused concern. But tests have shown levels are too low to affect human health.

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        Gig Sanit. 2009 Sep-Oct;(5):23-5.
        [The location of wind-mill electric generating plants: hygienic aspects].

        [Article in Russian]
        Kireeva IS, Dumanskiĭ IuD, Semashko PV.
        Abstract
        The hygienic aspects of the location of wind-mill electric generating plants become more pressing due to the intensive development of wind-power engineering. Possible risk factors from wind-mill electric generating plants that can influence the environment and the population are considered. A 400-m control area is recommended on the basis of the made calculations of an acoustic and electromagnetic pollution area, an exposure area during emergency situations, as well the field measuring data on noise from wind-mill electric generating plants with a capacity of 20 MW, by applying 100-kW wind-mill electric generating units. Further studies are proposed to improve the differentiated sizes of control areas for wind-mill electric generating plants with wind-mill electric generating units of varying capacity

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      SJ,
      IR radiation from overheated bearings? Radiation is a much misused word. I believe you have heard the stories about monkeys and razors…………………………

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        Old Codger,

        I know what I am talking about manYou may be joking not me. Please google so that you can find more about the topic. I have been dealing with Radiation stuff. And I know guys that have been working for publications in the field. Yes, that is the reason why I added a link. But not much is revealed yet. But the truth is not much research work carried out in the field either. However, from what I go to to see in Europe, where Wind mills are not permitted to build houses.

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          psychosomatic disorder and there is no known tablet for it except cognitive therapy and tai chi Or go live like Ramona in the legal skunk states and control it 😂

          The Government says noise from turbines does not cause health problems, a view endorsed recently by acousticians at Salford University.
          And the British Wind Energy Association, UK’s biggest renewable energy trade association, said: “One of the first things first-time visitors to wind farms usually say is that they are surprised how quiet the turbines are.
          “Wind turbines are quiet, safe and sustainable. It is not surprising that, according to a DTI report, 94 per cent of people who live near wind turbines are in favour of them. Noise from wind farms is a non-problem.”

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          Sam Fernando
          psychosomatic!!
          You and your rumours have two things in common: you’re both fake and you both get around.

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            Frankestine,

            Please dont try to make you a fool. Just read it first before jumping onto your comments. That can help the readership. Thank you.

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              more shit from a villager who has been to germany yesterday- your pop was a cooli they say??

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          Sam is right. electromagnetic radiation is a possible hazard and has been under study. It is difficult to get positive conclusions from such studies because the effects could be long term and factors such as strength and duration of exposure are difficult to measure.

          In fact, the energy that is being transferred in an overhead transmission line is travelling through the surrounding air and not through the conductors. As the amount energy being transported increases, the strength of the em field around it increases too. All objects in the immediate area surrounding the line, including people, are subjected to this radiation. In underground cables the em field is restricted to the innards of the cable and the risk is not there.

          Wind generators, which by their nature have to be outside, also generate em radiation in addition to the transmission lines that carry their energy. There are other negative effects such as noise as Sam has pointed out.

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          Sammy,
          To make it clearer:
          1.Radio waves (VLF to Ghz) are radiation
          2.IR (heat) is radiation
          3. Visible light is radiation
          4. UV is radiation
          5, X rays are radiation
          6. Gamma rays and higher are radiation
          Only 4 /5/6 above have any ill-effects proven.
          “where Wind mills are not permitted to build houses.”
          You wouldn’t like a rotor blade coming off and falling on your house, would you?

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            Old Cod@ sorry to have added my thoughts that way.
            Radiation is the common term being used in RADIATION EXPOSURE related research.. Codger, you please read first before putting me down. I am not exaggerating, but I ve been working with Radiologists/Radiation researchers. Some even thought the radiation emitted by mobile phones can be harmful to the outer layers near to ear. But now with headsets gadget, one would not need to be worried anymore.
            I appreciate Edwin to have been well aware of it. AT least one on this platform to have heard it.
            In Europe, people are warned not to live near to Wind mills.

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    https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2016/may/18/portugal-runs-for-four-days-straight-on-renewable-energy-alone

    gives some promising future. Of course, it is true we can’t just move to renewable energy at once but the focus should be to reduce reliance on fossil fuel in the long run. Sri Lanka is well suited to invest in renewable energy and slowly phase out fossil fuel generation.

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      Sri Lanka is well suited to invest in renewable energy and slowly phase out fossil fuel generation. I agree with that. But regarding the content of the URL referred to, please take a look at this too:

      A bad day in Portugal:

      (http://www.cigre.org/var/cigre/storage/original/application/381734fe4dcc12210b6290378f5223a5.pdf)

      On 20th April 2013, wind generation falls by 80% in 8 hours. Portuguese system goes from exporter (1, 400 MW) to importer (800 MW) … with the support of large hydro dams, they manage. Market Prices change from 0 €/MWh before 13h 33€/MWh at 23h.

      Portugal is interconnected with Spain, which in turn is interconnected to France and then other EU. In case of such shortages they can draw the shortfall through the interconnection.

      I am sure hydro/ pumped storages play a big part in their system. A big exporter one day can become a big importer the next day. That is the nature of renewables. What can Sri Lanka do in such a situation?

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