16 October, 2019

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‘He Came From Kankasanthurai’ – On Sinhala Hooliganism’s Partners In Crime

By Rasika Jayakody

Rasika Jayakody

Talking of the post-Black July history is something that earns the ire of Separatists.

The reason is clear. Atrocities committed by Velupillai Prabhakaran in the post-Black July history do not warrant any opportunity for separatists to justify or trivialize the conduct of the LTTE. The concept of ‘Eelam’ is inherently flawed in the first place. Adding to its in-built flaws, the LTTE took the political concept of “Eelam” towards a new level i.e., Barbarianism.

Whenever one speaks of the Sinhalese factor in the aftermath of ‘Black July’ and the way the Sinhalese acted with great self-restraint in the face of chillingly brutal attacks by the LTTE against civilians for more than three decades, separatists, blind to the post-Black July developments, fancy talking about 1958, 1966, 1977 and 1981 as they consider that as their comfort zone.

The mastermind behind the anti-Tamil riots in 1958, 1966, 1977 and 1981 was none other than the late S.J.V. Chelvanayagam, founder of the ITAK. The concept of Eelam first gained ground not in the soil of Jaffna, but in the mind of Chelvanayagam, to be utilized as a vote-catching device. And the genesis of the Eelamist concept had nothing to do with any of the anti-Tamil riots that started after 1958 or any attack against Tamil civilians.

Chelvanayagam, after breaking away from the All Ceylon Tamil Congress led by G.G. Ponnambalam, took a more radical path, vis-a-vis the relatively mild stance taken by the ACTC on matters concerning Tamils. Chelvanayagam left the Tamil Congress as the result of a dispute over citizenship rights of Indian Tamils who were working as labourers in ‘Ceylon’. After the split occured, Chelvanayagam realized that the citizenship rights of Indian Tamils could not be sold to the northern Tamils. Astute politician, he shifted his focus to the Tamils in the North. Making mountains out of molehills was the only way forward for him. And that was exactly what he did at the expense of his own people.

The first direct step towards secession was taken upon the establishment of the ITAK in 1949. The principle resolution passed by the party upon its establishment says, “we believe that the only means ensuring that the Tamils are guaranteed their freedom and self-respect by law, and of solving their problems in a just and democratic manner is to permit them to have their own autonomous state guaranteeing self-government and self-determination for the Tamil nation in the country: and to work indefatigably to the attainment of this objective.”

And it is important to note that this resolution towards secession was passed, way before Sinhala was made the official language, way before the introduction of language-based standardization, way before the anti-Tamil riots in 1958,1966,1977 and 1983!Moreover, the party’s annual convention in 1951, which was held in Trincomalee also passed a similar resolution that went along same lines. This is the truth to which Separatists who come up with hair-splitting arguments on anti-Tamil violence are very much blind.

In 1952, the ITAK, led by Chelvanayagam suffered a landslide defeat at the parliamentary election.  One option was doing away with the separatist approach and reinventing his strategy. The second option was intensifying it and taking it to a more intense level. Chelvanayagam chose the latter.

Making Sinhala the national language was a contentious decision. But it is important to note that the Sinhalese language was known to more than 85% of the country when Sinhala was made the national language. But as a result of the conversion, a section of the Tamil community, who only knew their language, faced certain practical issues. For instance, some received birth certificates in Sinhala of which they could not understand a single word.  But the solution for that was not making Tamil, which was known only to less than 15% of the country, a national language, but providing facilities to get certified translations of such important documents. Other similar issues arising from the language policy should have been addressed in the same manner. But Chelvanayagam was not interested in pushing the government towards addressing problems. He was busy eliciting anti-Tamil violence, overtly and covertly. This resulted in his rise in the domain of communal politics. Gradually he overtook Ponnambalam and the ITAK became the most powerful political party in the North. Economic issues, unemployment, infrastructural problems and other similar matters were never on Chelvanayagam’s agenda. Everything converged at the notion of “autonomous state guaranteeing self-government and self-determination for the Tamil nation”.

Chelvanayagam knew that provoking Sinhala hooliganism was an important strategy in his game-plan. That was what he did in 1958 and 1966. It took two to Tango and Chelvanagayam did his part right. As much as one condemns Sinhala hooliganism that swooped on Tamils during anti-Tamil riots, he or she should also admit that Chelvanayagam and his politics played an equally crucial role in it, creating the base for the infamous black July which resulted in the loss of thousands of  innocent lives. It was, as some said, a well-orchestrated plan and the maestro of the orchestration was not J.R. Jayewardena or his government, but Chelvanayagam and his politics. Unfortunately, Chelvnayagam did not live long enough to see the culmination of the politics he engendered.

Tamil militancy and its inherent brutality did not fall from the sky. It was artfully developed, directly and indirectly, over a period of three decades by Chelvanayagam and his party. Although Amirthalingam ran the last hundred meters after Chelvanayagam’s death (and was shot dead at the finish), it was certainly the latter’s race. In that sense, there would not have been a Velupillai Prabhakaran, if not for Chelvanayagam.

Those who wax eloquent about pre-1983 history, those who want the Sinhalese to say “sorry” for 1983, and those who castigate the savagery of the Sinhalese should realise that the Sinhala hooliganism had an indispensable partner in crime who came from Kankasanthurai.

*Rasika Jayakody is a Sri Lankan journalist who may be contacted at rasikajayakody2@gmail.com

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    Rasika has been bestowed with chicken shit- these are the guys that ruin this world- He has got his facts screwed up and needs to be given a lesson in common decency. I am surprised that CT is even publishing this crap form this scumbag.

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    Why is CT allowing this nincompoop Rasika promote racism. He must have got his education in the brothels in Maradana. He must have been spawned in the railway station tunnel and really has no idea of history or decency. These pricks are only contributing more to the erosion of values in SL society. Rule of thugs and criminals is what is happening in SL today, and this moron fits in well with this environment.

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    “For Colombo, disenfranchising and derecognising the Indian-origin Tamils was a prelude to marginalising the Lankan Tamils. This was done by colonising Tamil lands by Sinhala settlers, thereby changing the demographic profile of Tamil provinces”
    ….
    “At first even the Lankan Tamil leaders like Arunachal Mahadev and GG Ponnambalam failed to realise the game plan. It was Samuel James Vellupillai Chelvanayakam who saw through Colombo’s sinister designs. He raised the demand for federal polity in unitary Ceylon in 1951. In every election from 1956 to 1970, Lankan Tamils voted for ‘Federation’. In 1977, they voted overwhelmingly for an independent Tamil Eelam.”

    http://www.dailypioneer.com/columnists/oped/they-are-nobodys-people.html

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    The first direct step towards secession was taken upon the establishment of the ITAK in 1949. The principle resolution passed by the party upon its establishment says, “we believe that the only means ensuring that the Tamils are guaranteed their freedom and self-respect by law, and of solving their problems in a just and democratic manner is to permit them to have their own autonomous state guaranteeing self-government and self-determination for the Tamil nation in the country: and to work indefatigably to the attainment of this objective.”

    All those criticise Rasika’s wriitng only succeed in calling him names. Racist,student journalist and so on but none comes up with any facts to contradict him. For example, can anyone challenge the above phrase,either its authenticity or its validity at that time. Can anyone justify this phrase with some facts before calling names.
    Further why is it when things written is not to one liking,call to stop the blame game while all the time we hear only 58,66,71,77,81,83 language policy and so on.
    The truth is, while Bandaranyake used Sinhala language to his political advantage,Chelvanayagam did the same with Tamil language.

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    He comes from Weliweriya?

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    Rasika:

    You are the only journalist who talks about the other side of the story while a sea of anti-Ari Lankan, Anti-sinhala buddhist, Anti-buddhist, Anti-Rajapske, Pro-tamil homeland journalists or writers write only their side of the story.

    Even in 1956 or 1957, Tamil Agent in Polonnaruwa had got Sinhala Army to kill innocent villages and had used govt vehicles to demonstrate those bodies to other villages in order to stop the riots.

    first Sinhala -Tamil riot had begun some where in 1930, I heard because G.G. Ponnambalam had said that Sinhala people are dumb and Tamils are the brilliant lot or something like that. HE could not understand how British promoted Tamils over sinhala people and how christians were promoted over buddhists of hindus.

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      There is no record of a riot having occurred in 1930. That must be a figment of your imagination!
      Sengodan

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    Rasika Jayakody,

    Please read the main feature article written by Rajan Philips in the Sunday Island of 04.08.2013 and enlighten yourself. It ca be accessed on line.

    Sengodan

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    It is a historical fallacy to claim that S.J.V. Chelvanayakam took the first step towards secession.  It was not the first step, but the last step he took. What Chelvanayakam sought was a federal form of government where the Thamil people will enjoy autonomy in the Northern and Eastern Provinces where they were in a majority. That was not separation, but finding unity in diversity. Almost all countries in the world where the population is heterogeneous the form of government is federal. Example Switzerland is federal, Canada is confederal and India quasi federal. At the time of independence Don Stephen Senanayake took the Thamils down the garden path by giving gave false promises/assurances to the minorities to secure the 3/4th majority required to adopt the draft constitution formulated by the Soulbury Commission. Thamil leaders despite ample warning signals (J.R. moved a resolution to declare Sinhala as the only official language in the State council in 1944) fell for the machinations/manipulations of Senanayake. Senanayake gave the solemn promise that “Do you want to be governed from London or do you want as Ceylonese to help govern Ceylon? … On behalf of the Congress and on my behalf I give the minority communities the sincere assurance that no harm need you fear at our hands in a free Lanka.” (Don Stephen Senanayake, Sinhala leader at the State Council of Ceylon (Sri Lanka); November 1945). The gullible Thamil leaders believed Senanayake and voted for the draft constitution not knowing just 3 years later he will disenfranchise a million Thamil inhabitants of the island.
    It took Chelvanayakam another 22 years to realise that campaigning for a federal constitution is an exercise in futility.
    After the enactment of the 1972 constitution which ditched even the meagre constitutional safeguard for the minorities guaranteed under Section 29(2) Chelvanayakam decided to vindicate his stand by getting a mandate from his electorate for the rejection of the Constitution. This is the text of the statement which he made on the Floor of this House after he resigned his seat in October 1972.
     
    “I am resigning my seat in this Honourable House. I wish to state my reasons for doing so.
     
    The History of the Thamil people in this country since 1948 has been one of deterioration. In the then Parliament of ninety five elected Members there were eight Thamil Members representing the estate Thamil population who are today not there. They have been replaced by Sinhalese Members now in double that number. The eight Thamil Members were there by the grant of the vote of the bulk of the workers on the estates. This was thought to be a just decision on the question of Thamils of Indian Origin by the United Kingdom Government.
     
    As soon as Ceylon became independent the first thing the Sinhalese Government did was to deprive the Thamil worker in the estates of the vote. This was carefully manoeuvred through a citizenship law that deprived them of citizenship and by granting the vote to citizens only. The entire structure on which the Soulbury Constitution was based collapsed. It must be said to the credit of the LSSP and the CP that they opposed this move though they have now succumbed to a purely communal policy.”
     
    The next blow to the Thamils was dealt in the form of the Sinhala Only Act enacted by the Bandaranaike Government in 1956. Even this was made possible by depriving the vote of the Thamil worker on the estates in 1948. Although the Thamil worker has been deprived of the vote, the seats that were allotted to them were not been removed but given to the Sinhalese voter. This has meant that from 1952 onwards the legislature has been a Sinhalese weighted body and all legislation thereafter has been communal and racial.  Had the vote remained as it was in 1947 the landslide in the election of 1970 would not have taken place.
     
    The next move was to ditch the Soulbury constitution by the creation of a new Constitution by a legislature dominated by the Sinhalese. This Constitution has given everything to the Sinhalese and has given nothing to the Thamils. Buddhism was elevated as state religion. The Sinhala Only Act became part of the constitution. 
     
    The Sinhalese government claimed that it had the support of the Thamil people. To disprove this claim Chelvanayakam resigned his membership of the parliament. “Let the Government contest me on that position. If I lose I give up my policy. If the Government loses, let it not say that the Thamil people support its policy and it’s Constitution. Let not the Government deprive the people of their decision on the issues raised by postponing the by-election.’ (OFFICIAL REPORT, 3rd October 1972; vol.2, cc.883-4)
     
    Here is the text of a motion given by Chelvanayakam and other TULF MPs:
     
    ‘Whereas the Sinhalese and the Thamils in Sri Lanka constitute two separate nations with their inherent right to self-determine, and whereas the Sinhalese nation and the Thamil nation who were shackled together by foreign rule remain to this day to shackled, and whereas all governments of independent Sri Lanka have always encouraged and fostered the aggressive nationalism of the Sinhalese nation culminating in the unilateral imposition of the present Constitution which has condemned the Thamils to the position of a subject nation, this Assembly resolves to recognize the verdict of the K.K.S. by-election as a mandate for the restoration and reconstitution of the free, sovereign, secular, socialist State of Thamil Eelam.’
     
    After resigning he made the following statement.
     
    ‘I am resigning my seat in this Honourable House. I wish to state my reasons for doing so. 
     
    The History of the Thamil people in this country since 1948 has been one of deterioration. In the then Parliament of ninety five elected Members there were eight Thamil Members representing the estate Thamil population who are today not there. They have been replaced by Sinhalese Members now in double that number. The eight Thamil Members were there by the grant of the vote of the bulk of the workers on the estates. This was thought to be a just decision on the question of Thamils of Indian Origin by the United Kingdom Government. 
    As soon as Ceylon became independent the first thing the Sinhalese Government did was to deprive the Thamil worker in the estates of the vote. This was carefully manoeuvred through a citizenship law that deprived them of citizenship and by granting the vote to citizens only. The entire structure on which the Soulbury Constitution was based collapsed. It must be said to the credit of the LSSP and the CP that they opposed this move though they have now succumbed to a purely communal policy.’
    The government afraid of losing the by-election kept postponing it for 3 years. After Chelvanayakam won a massive victory at the Kankesanthurai by-election held on 6 February 1975 he declared;
     
    Throughout the ages, the Sinhalese and the Thamils in this country lived as distinct sovereign people until they were brought under foreign domination. We have for the last 25 years made every effort to secure our political rights on the basis of equality with the Sinhalese in a united Ceylon. It is a regrettable fact that successive Sinhalese governments have used the power that flows from independence to deny us our fundamental rights and reduce us to the position of a subject people. I wish to announce to my people and the country that I consider the verdict at the election as a mandate that the Thamil Eelam nation should exercise the sovereignty already vested in the Thamil people and become free. On behalf of the Thamil United Front, I give you my solemn assurance that we will carry out our mandate.”
     
    A year later the historical resolution passed at the Vaddukkoddai demanded:
     
    This convention resolves that restoration and reconstitution of the Free, Sovereign, Secular, Socialist State of Thamil EELAM, based on the right of self determination inherent to every nation, has become inevitable in order to safeguard the very existence of the Thamil Nation in this Country.
     
     
    So this is genesis of the “separatist” movement.  Thamil people as a people are entitled to restore and reconstitute the state they lost to foreign colonial powers in the battle field. As a matter of fact the British should have restored the state to the Thamils before they quit Ceylon. They did not do it because the Thamils in their naivety didn’t ask for it. They trusted the Sinhalese which turned to be misplaced. 
     
    To the likes of  Rasika Jayakody  all I can say is it may take time – another generation – but we will restore and reconstitute Thamil Eelam with or without Sinhalese people consent. Thamil Eelam is good for Thamils, but  better for the Sinhalese. After all for 2,000 years the Thamils had their own kingdom and were never subject to Sinhalese rule.

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      Nakkeeran,

      The first Tamil kingdom was established in the North during the 13th century. Tamils never had a kingdom for 2,000 years. The Tamil kingdom that was set up in the 13th century was under the protection of Sinhala king in Kotte at one time. When the Jaffna kingdom revolted, Sapumal kumaraya went to Jaffna to restore order. Nallur Kandasamy Temple was damaged during Sapumal kumaraya’s successful attempt to restore order in Jaffna. He made it a point to restore the temple and was the viceroy of Kotte king in the North.

      The Nallur Kandaswamy Temple was founded in 948. According to the Yalpana Vaipava Malai, the temple was developed at the site in the 13th century by Puvenaya Vaku, a minister to the Jaffna King Kalinga Magha. Sapumal Kumaraya, who ruled the Jaffna kingdom on behalf of the Kotte kingdom is credited with either building or renovating the third Nallur Kandaswamy temple.

      It was king Dutugemunu who first ruled the entire country from 161 BC to 137 BC (more than 2,000 years ago).

      So do not spread lies and send more Tamils to their graves prematurely.

      There is no ambiguity in the ITAK/SJV declaration in 1949. It was a sort of a declaration of war on the country. in 1976 at Vadukkodai, more clarity was given to that declaration of war which was re-affirmed by the successor to ITAK, TULF in their manifesto in 1977.

      It said,“…There is only one alternative and that is to proclaim with the stamp of finality and fortitude that we alone shall rule over our land that our fore fathers ruled… The Tamil Nation must take the decision to establish its sovereignty in its homeland on the basis of its right to self-determination. The only way to announce this decision to the Sinhalese government and to the world is to vote for the Tamil United Liberation Front. The Tamil speaking representative who get elected through these votes, while being members of the National State Assembly of Ceylon, will also form themselves into the “NATIONAL ASSEMBLY OF TAMIL EELAM” which will draft a constitution for the State of Tamil Eelam and to establish the independence of the Tamil Eelam by bringing that constitution into operation either by peaceful means or by direct action or struggle…”

      V Prabakaran put those statements into practice in 1983 by killing 13 Sri Lankan soldiers that triggerred islandwide riots. Various parties as alleged may have taken advantage of the situation though the trigger was that act of war.

      You are welcome to dream on your Tamil Eelam. The downside is some morons will try to put that dream into practice and get their whatever (not only the fingers) burned. In the process they would destroy whatever remaining of their community identity in this island.

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    There are different degrees of racism mild and extreme and this moron Keyakodi tops the list. There is factual reporting and factual distorting and the account by this LUNATIC is factual DISTORTING . I don’t know where this vicious animal resides but from the account it is obvious he resides somewhere in the Wilpatu Jungle.
    Even Thutta Gemunu compares mild with this animal.

    He claims that the race riots which was unleashed in 1958 and continued unabated since was the work of Chelvanayam.
    CT is renowned for its fair play and giving every one a platform to express their views and sometimes vent their anger but this account is beggars belief and I blame the Moderator of CT for giving Jeyakody the space to distort historic facts.
    There was a Guy who worked at the Sri Lankan embassy in Delhi a former resident of Horton Place and used to write garbage and spread message of hatred. But he let slip some details and from that after some research I identified who he was and where he worked and wrote to the High Commissioner Kariyavasam and that was the last anyone heard from him.
    If any one believes what this animal has written ( I am sure the vast majority of Sinhalese will believe him) then the killing of Tamils is justified which started even before the advent of LTTE under Prabakaran and nothing will suffice until the last Tamil is killed.

    People talk about reconciliation and now every one I am sure understands why it is a mirage and a distant dream and not going to happen in a thousand years.

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    Hela Urumaya,

    The following is the correct version of what happened and not the one you have written so don’t bullshit.

    The historic Kandaswamy Temple stans at Nallur 1 1/2km from Jaffna on the Point Pedro Road. The temple was built in the 15th century, by Sanpaha Perumal the adopted son of Bhuvanekababhu, the king of Kotte, who led an expedition to the North and brought Jaffna under the suzerainty of Kotte.

    Having established himself as the ruler of the Jaffna Kingdom, Sanpaha Perumal set about the task of building the city and erecting the temple. Then he appointed Vijayabahu as the ruler and returned to Kotte. After some time, the deposed king Kanagasuriyan attacked and drove away the invader, He and his descendants managed the Nallur Temple up to the arrival of the Portuguese. Bhuvanekabahu’s name nae is still mentioned by the ssher on ceremonial occasins.

    The Portuguese defeated Sankili, the last king of Jaffna in 1560. The Portuguese General Philip de Olivera demolished the historic Kandaswamy Temple in 16210 the temple then stood at SANKILI thopu on the eastern side of the Point Pedro Road (The site was later used for erecting a Christian Church)

    I like your statement below:
    It was king Dutugemunu ( so you admit he was bad and nasty) who first ruled the entire country from 161 BC to 137 BC (more than 2,000 years ago).

    So do not spread lies and send more Tamils to their graves prematurely.

    What you are saying is that if a Tamil lies it is punishable by death. Sri Lanka is the only country where Capitol Punishment (Meted out by Sinhalese mobs ) applies to lying and how barbaric that is.
    Man your thuggish rulers lie all the time so why don’t you send them to gallows. You cant can you because they are protected by Thugs and Criminals like you because you are half animal and half human.

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      Perumal – looks like a Tamil name!!!

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    Thanks for enlightening me the fact that Nallur Kandasamy temple was founded in 948. You don’t say who founded it. Obviously the founder must be a Saivaite/Hindu Thamil king.

    Again thanks for reminding me that Sapumal Kumaraya disposed King Kanagasooriyan Singhaiariyan in 1450. But you don’t seem to know who is Sapumal Kumaraya. For your information, he was the adopted son of by Parakramabahu VI ruler of Kotte Kingdom in the south. Number of primary sources such as Rajavaliya and Kokila Sandesa written in Sinhalese vividly describe the planning and conquest of the Jaffna Kingdom. This battle to capture the Kingdom of Jaffna was in many stages. Firstly, the tributaries to the Jaffna Kingdom in the Vanni area, namely the Vanniar chieftains of the Vannimai were neutralised. This was followed by two successive conquests. The first war of conquest did not succeed in capturing the kingdom. It was the second conquest dated 1450 that eventually was successful.

    Kanagasooriyan Cinkaiaryan escaped to Madurai in South India with his two sons. Sapumal Kumaraya ruled Jaffna Kingdom as a sub king and even minted coins in the tradition of Setu coins, the native coins of Jaffna Kingdom. Although he was victorious and ruled as Srisangabodhi Bhuvanekabhahu he was unable to prevent Kanagasooriyan Cinkaiaryan and his two son’s return from Madurai with Thamil soldiers to wrest the Jaffna Kingdom from Kotte’s over lordship.

    After the death of Parakramabahu VI in 1467, Sapumal Kumaraya left Nallur the capital to Kotte to participate in an internal struggle to inherit the throne.

    Sapumal Kumaraya ascended the Kotte throne under the name of Bhuvanaika Bahu VI. (c. A.D. 1472–1480 at least). According to Rajavaliya having heard that Jayabahu (1467-1472 AD) ascended the throne, Sapumal arrived from Jaffna and killed Jayabahu to ascend the throne. He was succeeded by his son Pandita Parakrama Bahu VII.

    Your claim “The Thamil kingdom that was set up in the 13th century was under the protection of Sinhala king in Kotte at one time” is pure fiction. Please cite one source from history to substantiate your claim.

    On the contrary the expansion of power of Jaffna kingdom in the 14th century towards the south is confirmed by the Kottagama Thamil inscription. During the early and middle part of the 14th century, the Sinhalese kingdoms in western, southern and central part of the island also became feudatories until the Jaffna kingdom itself was briefly occupied by the forces of Parakramabahu VI for about 17 years.

    King of Jaffna pushed his authority to the South, controlled some of the West coast ports and even levied taxes in his own right in places close to Kotte. Arya Chakravarti, the king of Jaffna, attacked Vikrama Bahu III (about 1357 to 1374 at least), who ruled at Kotte, by sea and land, but was defeated Alagakkonara capturing his encampments at Colombo, Wattala, Negombo and Chilaw. According to Rajavaliya the war was brought about by Alagakkonara hanging Arya Chakravarti’s tax collectors. The very position of Kotte in the swamps near Colombo is a proof of the straits to which the Sinhala had been reduced, and there can be little doubt that the Jaffna kingdom was for a time paramount in the low country of Lanka; the Thamil inscription at Kotagama in Kegalla District, however, is almost its only surviving relic.

    K. M. de Silva has the following comment on this state of affairs. “By the middle of the fourteenth century the Jaffna Kingdom had effective control over the north west coast up to Puttalam. After the invasion in 1353 part of the four Korales came under Thamil rule and thereafter, over the next two decades, they probed into Matale district and naval forces were dispatched to the west coast as far South of Panadura. They seemed poised for the establishment of Thamil supremacy over Sri Lanka and were foiled in this, primarily because they were soon embroiled with the powerful Vijayanagara Empire in a grim struggle for survival against the latter’s expansionist ambitions across the Palks Straits.” (http://www.tamilcanadian.com/page.php?cat=403&id=1978&page=4)

    Now this Sapumal Kumaraya or Ariavettaiadum Perumal is no other than Chenpagap Perumal, a Thamil prince originally from Chera Nadu (now called Kerala). Parakramabahu V1 had a daughter Ulakudaya Devi (again a pure Thamil name) but no son. The latter had many Thamil officers of high standing working for him. The Kauvrava general Mannikka Thevan was married to a noble woman related to the king. When Mannikka Thevan was killed (probably in the battle “Mukkuva Hatana”), his two sons were adopted by the king. The younger son was called the “Kudaa Kumaraya”, while the older son was the “Sapu Mal Kumaraya”. The Alakeshwara family, for instance, belonged to a Kerala dynasty that grew very close to the royalty of the 14th century Gampola kingdom. Likewise, Alakeshvara (Alagakkonara) gained military prestige in the war against the King of Jaffna.

    Eventually, Alaheswara came to power and ruled Kotte under a puppet king from the previous royal dynasty. However, he finally usurped the royal throne of the kingdom.

    Many Kerala names were modified into Sinhala, for example the Marappan family became Marapana (Tilak Marapana). There were also many Muslim families, for example the Markar family (Bakeer Markar, Markan Marker and so on) are all from Kerela. Markar is a common name in Kochin / Ernakulam area in Kerala. Even the name ‘Maraikkar’ is actually a Thamil name. Because Sapumal Kumaraya was a Saivaite he renovated of Nallur Kandasamy temple.

    Now your claim “It was king Duttugemenu who first ruled the entire country from 161 BC to 137 BC (more than 2,000 years ago).” Advisedly you don’t claim king Duttugemenu is a Sinhalese. It would have sounded extremely ridiculous had you done so.

    The much adored and admired King Duttu Gemenu was a Naga prince both from his father’s side Kakavanna Theesan (Kavan Tissa) and his mother’s side Vihara Devi, daughter of the Naga King of Kelaniya and a direct descendent of King Uttiya. Mahanama Thero changed the name of Kakavanna Theesan (In Thamil: crow-coloured Tissa) to Kavan Tissa. They were of course, Buddhist by faith. “Neither Epigraphy nor Pali chronicles say Duttugemenu was a Sinhala”

    Devanampiya Tissa’s brother Maha Nagan who fled to Ruhuna ruled over Magama. He was also a Buddhist like his brother Devanampiya Tissa and the others. He was the first to construct places of worship for the Buddhists in the Ruhuna. He built the Kiri Vihare, Sandagiri seya, Vilipiti Viharaya, Menik Dagaba and the Kudorappu Vihara. Viharas built by the Naga kings were known as Naga viharas. His son Yatala Tissa succeeded Maha Nagan. He built the Yatala cetiya. Professor Mendis Rohanadeera says that port cities like Kirinda, Godawaya, Rekava, Beraganla, Tangalle and Ambalantota throw light on the reality of Ruhuna having been the home of the Thamils of the Pandyan country.

    Yatala Tissa was succeeded by his son Gothabhaya. Gothabhaya’s son was Kakavanna Tissa .

    Mahavamsa unwittingly admits that north of the river Mahaveli were peopled by Thamils. In the Dutugemunu-Ellara episode, the Mahavamsa says, Duttugemunu had to conquer not just one Thamil king (Ellara) but 32 Thamil Chieftains before his final battle with Ellara at Anuradhapura.

    Before vanquishing King Ellara, Gemenu had to fight thirty-two minor Thamil kings (Kshatriyas) in Ruhunu before ruling as a single sovereign over Lanka (101- 77 B.C.). So genuine was Gemenu’s admiration of King Ellara’s valour and bravery that he erected a monument in the latter’s honour at the very spot he fell. King Gemunu decreed that the tomb shall be always honoured, i.e. all persons passing by the tomb are to silence their music, get down from their vehicles/horses and walk in silence until they pass the tomb.

    Even if the Duttugemunu – Ellara war is a myth, his writing proves (did not deny) the Thamil settlements (Demel-gam-bim) in Anuradapura. Similarly, King Valgambha had to fight seven Pandian chieftains to reassume sovereignty at Anuradhapura.

    Between the reign of Duttu Gemunu and the next important sovereign Valgambha are Thulatha Nagan, (59 BC for forty days), succeeded by his brother Lanja Tissa (59-50 B.C.). His brother Khallata Nagan (50-44 B.C.) succeeded Lanja Tissa. Khallata Nagan was succeeded by his younger brother Vatta Gamini alias Valgambha, who within six months of rule was chased out by a Brahmin named Tissa, who revolted against him.
    H. A. J. Hulugalle, in his booklet ‘Information for Tourists, 1947’ says in the first paragraph on page one: “The Sinhalese are a mixed race, their language has been vastly enriched with words from the Thamil vocabulary.” Mudliyar W. F. Gunawardene says the Sinhala language is primarily a Dravidian language. The structural foundation of Sinhala is Dravidian while the super-structure is Aryan. 

    A careful examination of Gemunu’s pedigree will reveal that he was as much a Thamil as Ellara, with the difference being that Gemunu was a Buddhist, while Ellara was a Hindu. Ellara was no enemy of the Buddhists. He was in fact loved by the Buddhists. The strong hereditary Hindu element in Gemunu (present even today in all Sri Lankan Buddhists) made him a devotee of the Dravidian God Murukan at Kathirkamam. It is said in the Mahawamsa that Gemunu invoked the blessings of the Lord Murukan to endow him with strength to defeat King Ellara in battle. Gemunu declared war on Ellara for two valid reasons: (a) To take revenge on Ellara for having killed King Asela (son of Muttu Siva, a relation on Gemunu’s paternal side) and usurping the throne. (b) His desire to become the king of Lanka and sit on the throne of his ancestors at Anuradhapura.

    Many, fighting on Gemunu’s side were Thamils who had embraced Buddhism. There were Thamils of the Buddhist faith, fighting on the side of Ellara. One of the generals on Ellara’s side was Mitta a Buddhist. Mitta’s sister’s son Nanda Mitta a Thamil (Buddhist), was one of the generals fighting in Gemunu’s army. There was no Sinhala race in Lanka before the 10th century pre-Christian era. They were Nagas as evidenced by their names.

    King Duttu Gemeunu died in 77 B.C. The Ruwanwali Seya, the Brazen Palace and the Mirisaveti stupa stand in his memory. His brother Saddha Tissa (77-59 B.C.) succeeded him. In Saddha Tissa’s memory stands the vihara at Digavapi.

    Between the reign of Duttu Gemunu and the next important sovereign Valgambha are Thulatha Nagan, (59 BC for forty days), succeeded by his brother Lanja Tissa (59-50 B.C.). His brother Khallata Nagan (50-44 B.C.) succeeded Lanja Tissa. Khallata Nagan was succeeded by his younger brother Vatta Gamini alias Valgambha, who within six months of rule was chased out by a Brahmin named Tissa, who revolted against him.

    It may be of interest and value to note that all kings from Muttu Siva (307-247 B.C.) right down to the beginning of the Christian era (a period of 300 years) were Thamils and barring King Muthu Siva, others were Buddhist by faith.

    There is ample evidence that the districts of Hambantota, Galle, Amparai and Ratnapura were the home of Thamils of the Hindu faith who embraced the Buddhism during the 3rd –2nd centuries B.C. and adopted Sinhala as their mother tongue. The shrine dedicated to Lord Murukan at Kathirkamam and Lord Vishnu at Devinuwara is evidence of this. A shrine dedicated to Lord Chandreswara at Hambantota is no more due to the lack of patronage and subsequent neglect. Dr. Edward Muller, onetime commissioner of archaeology, in his “Records of Ceylon,” published in 1883 states, “There are Thamil Brahmi and Asokan Brahmi inscriptions on stones belonging to the 3rd century B.C. The earliest inscriptions in Sinhala are only of the 8th A.D.

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    Thanks for enlightening me the fact that Nallur Kandasamy temple was founded in 948. You don’t say who founded it. Obviously the founder must be a Saivaite/Hindu Thamil king.

    Again thanks for reminding me that Sapumal Kumaraya disposed King Kanagasooriyan Singhaiariyan in 1450. But you don’t seem to know who is Sapumal Kumaraya. For your information, he was the adopted son of by Parakramabahu VI ruler of Kotte Kingdom in the south. Number of primary sources such as Rajavaliya and Kokila Sandesa written in Sinhalese vividly describe the planning and conquest of the Jaffna Kingdom. This battle to capture the Kingdom of Jaffna was in many stages. Firstly, the tributaries to the Jaffna Kingdom in the Vanni area, namely the Vanniar chieftains of the Vannimai were neutralised. This was followed by two successive conquests. The first war of conquest did not succeed in capturing the kingdom. It was the second conquest dated 1450 that eventually was successful.

    Kanagasooriyan Cinkaiaryan escaped to Madurai in South India with his two sons. Sapumal Kumaraya ruled Jaffna Kingdom as a sub king and even minted coins in the tradition of Setu coins, the native coins of Jaffna Kingdom. Although he was victorious and ruled as Srisangabodhi Bhuvanekabhahu he was unable to prevent Kanagasooriyan Cinkaiaryan and his two son’s return from Madurai with Thamil soldiers to wrest the Jaffna Kingdom from Kotte’s over lordship.

    After the death of Parakramabahu VI in 1467, Sapumal Kumaraya left Nallur the capital to Kotte to participate in an internal struggle to inherit the throne.

    Sapumal Kumaraya ascended the Kotte throne under the name of Bhuvanaika Bahu VI. (c. A.D. 1472–1480 at least). According to Rajavaliya having heard that Jayabahu (1467-1472 AD) ascended the throne, Sapumal arrived from Jaffna and killed Jayabahu to ascend the throne. He was succeeded by his son Pandita Parakrama Bahu VII.

    Your claim “The Thamil kingdom that was set up in the 13th century was under the protection of Sinhala king in Kotte at one time” is pure fiction. Please cite one source from history to substantiate your claim.

    On the contrary the expansion of power of Jaffna kingdom in the 14th century towards the south is confirmed by the Kottagama Thamil inscription. During the early and middle part of the 14th century, the Sinhalese kingdoms in western, southern and central part of the island also became feudatories until the Jaffna kingdom itself was briefly occupied by the forces of Parakramabahu VI for about 17 years.

    King of Jaffna pushed his authority to the South, controlled some of the West coast ports and even levied taxes in his own right in places close to Kotte. Arya Chakravarti, the king of Jaffna, attacked Vikrama Bahu III (about 1357 to 1374 at least), who ruled at Kotte, by sea and land, but was defeated Alagakkonara capturing his encampments at Colombo, Wattala, Negombo and Chilaw. According to Rajavaliya the war was brought about by Alagakkonara hanging Arya Chakravarti’s tax collectors. The very position of Kotte in the swamps near Colombo is a proof of the straits to which the Sinhala had been reduced, and there can be little doubt that the Jaffna kingdom was for a time paramount in the low country of Lanka; the Thamil inscription at Kotagama in Kegalla District, however, is almost its only surviving relic.

    K. M. de Silva has the following comment on this state of affairs. “By the middle of the fourteenth century the Jaffna Kingdom had effective control over the north west coast up to Puttalam. After the invasion in 1353 part of the four Korales came under Thamil rule and thereafter, over the next two decades, they probed into Matale district and naval forces were dispatched to the west coast as far South of Panadura. They seemed poised for the establishment of Thamil supremacy over Sri Lanka and were foiled in this, primarily because they were soon embroiled with the powerful Vijayanagara Empire in a grim struggle for survival against the latter’s expansionist ambitions across the Palks Straits.” (http://www.tamilcanadian.com/page.php?cat=403&id=1978&page=4)

    Now this Sapumal Kumaraya or Ariavettaiadum Perumal is no other than Chenpagap Perumal, a Thamil prince originally from Chera Nadu (now called Kerala). Parakramabahu V1 had a daughter Ulakudaya Devi (again a pure Thamil name) but no son. The latter had many Thamil officers of high standing working for him. The Kauvrava general Mannikka Thevan was married to a noble woman related to the king. When Mannikka Thevan was killed (probably in the battle “Mukkuva Hatana”), his two sons were adopted by the king. The younger son was called the “Kudaa Kumaraya”, while the older son was the “Sapu Mal Kumaraya”. The Alakeshwara family, for instance, belonged to a Kerala dynasty that grew very close to the royalty of the 14th century Gampola kingdom. Likewise, Alakeshvara (Alagakkonara) gained military prestige in the war against the King of Jaffna.

    Eventually, Alaheswara came to power and ruled Kotte under a puppet king from the previous royal dynasty. However, he finally usurped the royal throne of the kingdom.

    Many Kerala names were modified into Sinhala, for example the Marappan family became Marapana (Tilak Marapana). There were also many Muslim families, for example the Markar family (Bakeer Markar, Markan Marker and so on) are all from Kerela. Markar is a common name in Kochin / Ernakulam area in Kerala. Even the name ‘Maraikkar’ is actually a Thamil name. Because Sapumal Kumaraya was a Saivaite he renovated of Nallur Kandasamy temple.

    Now your claim “It was king Duttugemenu who first ruled the entire country from 161 BC to 137 BC (more than 2,000 years ago).” Advisedly you don’t claim king Duttugemenu is a Sinhalese. It would have sounded extremely ridiculous had you done so.

    The much adored and admired King Duttu Gemenu was a Naga prince both from his father’s side Kakavanna Theesan (Kavan Tissa) and his mother’s side Vihara Devi, daughter of the Naga King of Kelaniya and a direct descendent of King Uttiya. Mahanama Thero changed the name of Kakavanna Theesan (In Thamil: crow-coloured Tissa) to Kavan Tissa. They were of course, Buddhist by faith. “Neither Epigraphy nor Pali chronicles say Duttugemenu was a Sinhala”

    Devanampiya Tissa’s brother Maha Nagan who fled to Ruhuna ruled over Magama. He was also a Buddhist like his brother Devanampiya Tissa and the others. He was the first to construct places of worship for the Buddhists in the Ruhuna. He built the Kiri Vihare, Sandagiri seya, Vilipiti Viharaya, Menik Dagaba and the Kudorappu Vihara. Viharas built by the Naga kings were known as Naga viharas. His son Yatala Tissa succeeded Maha Nagan. He built the Yatala cetiya. Professor Mendis Rohanadeera says that port cities like Kirinda, Godawaya, Rekava, Beraganla, Tangalle and Ambalantota throw light on the reality of Ruhuna having been the home of the Thamils of the Pandyan country.

    Yatala Tissa was succeeded by his son Gothabhaya. Gothabhaya’s son was Kakavanna Tissa .

    Mahavamsa unwittingly admits that north of the river Mahaveli were peopled by Thamils. In the Dutugemunu-Ellara episode, the Mahavamsa says, Duttugemunu had to conquer not just one Thamil king (Ellara) but 32 Thamil Chieftains before his final battle with Ellara at Anuradhapura.

    Before vanquishing King Ellara, Gemenu had to fight thirty-two minor Thamil kings (Kshatriyas) in Ruhunu before ruling as a single sovereign over Lanka (101- 77 B.C.). So genuine was Gemenu’s admiration of King Ellara’s valour and bravery that he erected a monument in the latter’s honour at the very spot he fell. King Gemunu decreed that the tomb shall be always honoured, i.e. all persons passing by the tomb are to silence their music, get down from their vehicles/horses and walk in silence until they pass the tomb.

    Even if the Duttugemunu – Ellara war is a myth, his writing proves (did not deny) the Thamil settlements (Demel-gam-bim) in Anuradapura. Similarly, King Valgambha had to fight seven Pandian chieftains to reassume sovereignty at Anuradhapura.

    Between the reign of Duttu Gemunu and the next important sovereign Valgambha are Thulatha Nagan, (59 BC for forty days), succeeded by his brother Lanja Tissa (59-50 B.C.). His brother Khallata Nagan (50-44 B.C.) succeeded Lanja Tissa. Khallata Nagan was succeeded by his younger brother Vatta Gamini alias Valgambha, who within six months of rule was chased out by a Brahmin named Tissa, who revolted against him.
    H. A. J. Hulugalle, in his booklet ‘Information for Tourists, 1947’ says in the first paragraph on page one: “The Sinhalese are a mixed race, their language has been vastly enriched with words from the Thamil vocabulary.” Mudliyar W. F. Gunawardene says the Sinhala language is primarily a Dravidian language. The structural foundation of Sinhala is Dravidian while the super-structure is Aryan.

    A careful examination of Gemunu’s pedigree will reveal that he was as much a Thamil as Ellara, with the difference being that Gemunu was a Buddhist, while Ellara was a Hindu. Ellara was no enemy of the Buddhists. He was in fact loved by the Buddhists. The strong hereditary Hindu element in Gemunu (present even today in all Sri Lankan Buddhists) made him a devotee of the Dravidian God Murukan at Kathirkamam. It is said in the Mahawamsa that Gemunu invoked the blessings of the Lord Murukan to endow him with strength to defeat King Ellara in battle. Gemunu declared war on Ellara for two valid reasons: (a) To take revenge on Ellara for having killed King Asela (son of Muttu Siva, a relation on Gemunu’s paternal side) and usurping the throne. (b) His desire to become the king of Lanka and sit on the throne of his ancestors at Anuradhapura.

    Many, fighting on Gemunu’s side were Thamils who had embraced Buddhism. There were Thamils of the Buddhist faith, fighting on the side of Ellara. One of the generals on Ellara’s side was Mitta a Buddhist. Mitta’s sister’s son Nanda Mitta a Thamil (Buddhist), was one of the generals fighting in Gemunu’s army. There was no Sinhala race in Lanka before the 10th century pre-Christian era. They were Nagas as evidenced by their names.

    King Duttu Gemeunu died in 77 B.C. The Ruwanwali Seya, the Brazen Palace and the Mirisaveti stupa stand in his memory. His brother Saddha Tissa (77-59 B.C.) succeeded him. In Saddha Tissa’s memory stands the vihara at Digavapi.

    Between the reign of Duttu Gemunu and the next important sovereign Valgambha are Thulatha Nagan, (59 BC for forty days), succeeded by his brother Lanja Tissa (59-50 B.C.). His brother Khallata Nagan (50-44 B.C.) succeeded Lanja Tissa. Khallata Nagan was succeeded by his younger brother Vatta Gamini alias Valgambha, who within six months of rule was chased out by a Brahmin named Tissa, who revolted against him.

    It may be of interest and value to note that all kings from Muttu Siva (307-247 B.C.) right down to the beginning of the Christian era (a period of 300 years) were Thamils and barring King Muthu Siva, others were Buddhist by faith.
    There is ample evidence that the districts of Hambantota, Galle, Amparai and Ratnapura were the home of Thamils of the Hindu faith who embraced the Buddhism during the 3rd –2nd centuries B.C. and adopted Sinhala as their mother tongue. The shrine dedicated to Lord Murukan at Kathirkamam and Lord Vishnu at Devinuwara is evidence of this. A shrine dedicated to Lord Chandreswara at Hambantota is no more due to the lack of patronage and subsequent neglect. Dr. Edward Muller, one time commissioner of archaeology, in his “Records of Ceylon,” published in 1883 states, “There are Thamil Brahmi and Asokan Brahmi inscriptions on stones belonging to the 3rd century B.C. The earliest inscriptions in Sinhala are only of the 8th A.D.

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