15 June, 2024

Blog

Is It Wise To Criticise The Mahā Sangha?

By C.V. Wigneswaran

Justice C.V. Wigneswaran MP

A Colombo journalist asked; Sir! In recent times your comments about the Maha Sangha has created a negative situation among the Sinhalese. Is it wise to criticise the Maha Sangha?

My response is; I do not think my comments have created a negative situation. In fact, it has created a positive ambience. Lots of Sinhalese Buddhists themselves are now questioning the appropriateness of the pertinacious participation of Buddhist Priests in partisan politics. Since I am a Tamil Hindu I am in a better position to tell the truth since the Sinhalese Buddhists are reticent in this regard for fear they may be regarded as showing disrespect to the Sangha.I respect the ochre clothes even if the person wearing it is a known anti social element. The robes remind me of the Enlightened One even if the wearer does not live up to the standards expected of the Holy Sangha.

But actually the question of Buddhist Priests dabbling in Party Politics has been looked down upon by many important Sinhala Buddhist leaders as well as Bhikkus such as Dr. EW Adikaram and Venerable Balangoda Ananda Maitreya Thero. I had personal chats with them when they were living and had occasion to get their comments on the appropriateness of Buddhist Priests dabbling in Politics which were not complimentary to the Buddhist Clergy.

But as a Tamil Politician I am doing my duty. It is my position that the ethnic question in Sri Lanka is not getting solved because of the persistent interference by the Buddhist Priests in political matters. Actually a group of learned Buddhist Priests conversant in English or Tamil must have discussions with the Tamil Leaders to find out the difficulties of the North Eastern Tamil speaking people and why they ask for federalism.

Those Bhikkus who take part in demonstrations are quite ignorant and naive. They do not know the difference between decentralization and devolution, between a unitary constitution and a federal constitution. They do not know the history of their own language – when it started, when its first grammar book was written and so on.

When a Politician wants to sabotage the resolution of the ethnic question in Sri Lanka, the easiest persons from whom he could get the instant support to derail the resolution, would be Buddhist Priests. You only have to tell them that so and so is trying to divide the Country (Rata Bedenava) or so and so is a Tiger (uh Kotiyek) or so and so is a hand – maid of India (Indianu pandan kaaraiya) and they will immediately tuck up their saffron robes and take to the streets! No question of pondering on the correctness or otherwise of the statements made. They simply would explode like a Chinese fire cracker without understanding the real situation.

It is time our erudite Sinhala Buddhist leaders would call upon their government to bring about voluntary noninterference from among Buddhist clergy with regard to matters of importance to the Tamil speaking people or for that matter any minority group. Their exuberance coming out of ignorance and emotional instability has so far denied the Tamils their political solution starting from the time of the late SWRD Bandaranaike. Even if enlightened Sri Lankan Leaders promise certain benefits to the Tamils constitutionally, always it has been the interference by the Buddhist clergy that has denied the Tamils of those benefits.

The vast majority of Buddhist priests are being taught only Sinhala, Pali and Buddhist Civilisation. They are being lectured to by senior Buddhist priests whose knowledge too is limited.

When I started as the first Lecturer of Law in Tamil at the Law College, Colombo, I found almost all students at the end of the year repeated in their answer scripts what I had given to them as lecture notes. They hardly did any reference-reading because there were no books available in Tamil on Law at that time.

The senior Buddhist Priest lecturers today, themselves have carried what their Seniors had taught them. They had hardly done any research because most of these Buddhist Priests lack a knowledge of English and Tamil. Researches on Sri Lankan ancient history, researches on Tamil History, researches on Archaeology in India have all come out in English and Tamil. I wonder if these Buddhist Priest Lecturers have read them! The History of Sri Lanka of fifty years ago is no more valid in the light of latest researches.

I remember the late Attorney at Law SL Gunasekera referring to some portion of Professor Indrapala’s book written fifty years ago. In 2005 Professor Indrapala himself had corrected his old views in the light of new discoveries. Professor still lives in Australia and he has very clearly referred to the 3000 years old continuous history of the Tamils in Sri Lanka.

How many Bhikku Lecturers are aware of the recent excavations done in Kiladi in Madurai District, South India? Like the blind leading the blind they continue to deliver lectures on archaic history. They may deliver good lectures on Buddhism but for the Samaneras and the young Bhikku monks to understand politics they must have a knowledge of Sri Lankan History, Constitutional Law and Economics. Without understanding the history of the Tamils in this Island how could Buddhist Priests make pontifical political speeches against the Tamils?

Their knowledge of the findings coming out of recent researches done by Professors and Research Students of the North and East is almost nil. Therefore their limited knowledge is not enough for them to influence the Politicians on what is right and wrong. Yet all Politicians even those who are not Buddhists dance to the tune of the Buddhist Clergy may be worried about their next election! The Buddhist Clergy must stop interfering with the administration of the Country.

It is true the Kings of yore obtained the advice of the Buddhist Clergy. But at time life was different. We did not have so many subjects to master. The questions by the Kings would have also been simple. Today the Buddhist Priests without understanding the History of the Tamils are advising the Politicians as to what should be and should not be given to the Tamils. Contrary to the teachings of the Buddha they are preaching discrimination and violence against the Tamils.

Someone has to bell the cat if this Country is to survive.If we do not look at things happening in this Country objectively and without an eye on the next election, the Buddhist Priests will go on ruining this Country. They will not allow the Country to prosper nor reconcile. I have taken up the task of belling the cat at my advanced age conscious of the consequences. It is high time right thinking persons from all Communities point out the dangers of active participation by Buddhist Clergy in affairs of the State. But certainly erudite Buddhist Priests could act as messengers of Peace between the South and the North East.

May I suggest that an English or Tamil speaking delegation of Buddhist Bhikkus meet our intelligentsia in the North in the first instance to find out what the problems of the Tamils are. Thereafter we could have inter communication between our Professors of History to share notes about the latest developments in History and Archaeology. At the same time we need to get the Sinhala Tamil Friendship Societies to arrange meetings between the two communities to meet each other at the grass root level.

Sending Human Rights Commissioners to the North would not give a correct perspective of the needs and feelings of the People nor their firm belief that any form of investigation into war crimes, crimes against humanity and human rights violations must be with International input.

Print Friendly, PDF & Email

Latest comments

  • 11
    0

    CVW,
    Very well said and with Objectivity!!?

    • 12
      0

      1/
      Criticism of the Sangha should be done very carefully, knowing that Sinhala Buddhist rogues do not understand sentiments, especially if a Tamil Sri Lankan does so, many Sinhalese will not be ready to read it impartially.
      Either it is an NGO work or some other conspiracy theory as usual, will be what they are going to hang. There are other vicious political thugs to plant favorable fictions as has been done so far.
      :
      The position given to the “Buddhist monk” in Sinhala society is still very high. Apparently, many among the youth do not tolerate even small criticism against them.

      That is why the SORBONE graduated Rev. Prof. Kollupitiya Ananda thero (more a fake monk) as the chief priest of Kelaniya Raja Maha Vihara was able to spread a blatant lie about “Dilitha Jayaweera’s hora dhatu story on Derana TV”.

      If a stray cow is decorated and the cow is wrapped in “red cloths” and placed before, then the whole crowd will surely line up to worship the creature.. The excited state of mind of the gullible Buddhists are now made for the political survival of Rajapaksas.

      That is sadly the state of mind of our people even being in the first quarter of the 21st century. Myths dominate over any provable information.

      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QTFitUZGDwY

      tbc

      • 8
        0

        2/
        Any crime committed in public while posing as Buddhist monks is still highly regarded and admirable by the people of this country. YouTube comments reveal more of this over time. Most of the people who comment on YouTube videos reflect the opinion of the cross section of this nation. Most of them come from the rural areas of the island. Researchers can consider their opinions closely to draw conclusions

        Thugs may be Buddhists or others and they are supported by rogue politicians (Mahinda Rajapaksa s ghost is always behind them).

        If there have been any kind of riots in this country in recent times, they were planted by evil megalomaniacs like Sarath Weerasekara (former police and internal affairs minister) to distract the ignorant thugs. My investigations revealed that they were created by Sarath Weerasekera and Channa Jayasumana (the main figure who planted that Dr Safi and his inferility fairytale) by damaging the Buddhist statues located in Kegalle or nearby. These were presented before the annual UNHRC session to convey to the world the seriousness of this country’s cultural and religious resistance to any form of new reforms.

          • 4
            0

            LLM,
            Thanks for the link. I saw briefly one of them. That must be like the Rabbit, sighted to be in the Moon beckoning then President Premadasa on a full moon night during, if I recall properly during a “Gam Udawa” celebration period during his tenure becoming big news and every DICK, TOM and HARRY, trying their best but to ‘NO AVAIL’ for such beckoning by Rabbits on the MOON, on Full Moon Poya days following that claim!!??’???
            I have personally spent time during the nights (a period of 20 days (not continuous) and night in a month) spent in the vicinity of Somawathie Chaitiya, but never experienced such a phenomenon ever during that time. There were atleast 2 full moon days during the time we were stationed, in that area!!!???
            We were sleeping in the night in a camp, while in the process of installing deep submersible Hand operated pumps to install at site along with electric submersibles for Gam Udawa programme!!??
            Probably, was not deemed, “honourably enabled” to view them!!??
            Imagination running riot, to fool the innocent and gullible SL civilians. So that the Pin kata SWELLS sufficiently to their esteem!!! Benz and V8’s GULP fuel too!!!???

            • 5
              0

              Bro Mahila,
              .
              Don’t forget DA Rajapaksa badtard sons spread myths for politics 👏.
              .
              That is why I added a video of one Lorenzo, a prisoner, form the US lately and compared the records of high crimes committed by medamulana dogs 🐕 😳 😀 😉.
              Sadly only Old codger got the pointbI made.
              .
              Pachawahinis biased to Rajapakse and his hegemony made this nation a fools pool. 🐕🐕🐕🐕

              • 2
                0

                Badtard to be corrected as ” Bastard”

              • 6
                0

                If the Sangha ( or some of them) proclaim themselves to be advisors to a lay government, then they cannot hide behind their yellow robes when things go wrong. They should be criticised as brutally as any lay political hypocrites.
                Why doesn’t anyone call Ratana a jackass in public, in spite of his agricultural advice to two governments destroying the economy? Why is the Mihintale monk allowed to threaten the government over economic policy when everyone knows he was a chief backer of Gota? Why does no one draw cartoons of these charlatans, and others like the two Arahats, Elle Gunawansa, and the Nurse Hamuduruwo?

                • 2
                  1

                  OC, you are right. Sounds silly, but my suggestion is to dissolve parliament, PC, LG,………and hand over government to Maha Sangha and military to run. That way people are forced to question them. After all Myanmar and Iran are supposedly not yet bankrupt, where as Pakistan and Lanka are done. ( except that, Iranians are poisoning their own citizens, school going girls).

  • 3
    9

    It is not only the yellow robed who are quite ignorant and naive but everyone who advocate the notion of Sinhala-Buddhism or Tamil-Hinduism as both cults cannot separate Hindu concepts or Buddha’s teachings with the languages spoken or the cultures adopted with their own idiosyncrasies. Therefore, even though decentralization or devolution are very effective progressive concepts to manage resources, the twisted cults cannot comprehend them in their true sense as narrow minded Tamil speakers covertly only interested in federalism and the narrow minded Sinhala speakers overtly only interested in objecting to any form of power devolution or power sharing.

    • 7
      1

      Tell me how Tamil or Tamil speakers asking for federalism to safeguard their language, history, heritage and rights in their own land ( not Sinhalese land) is narrowminded? This is their right and from what has happened in the past 75 since the so-called independence and what is now happening they are completely justified in demanding federalism to safeguard whatever is left of their ancient homeland from further state-sponsored Sinhalese racism, encroachment and structural genocide, using all the resources of the state, an occupying racist Sinhalese armed force and police and concocted fake history to claim ancient Tamil Hindu and Buddhist sites as Sinhalese and erase our history.

    • 2
      0

      Anu,
      There should be a legal system to place them in the society. If not today, when?
      :
      Many people who entered the Sangha for various reasons have today turned it into a place like a “smelling Baira lake”.
      .
      Even with tattooed men, Sri Lankan monasticism is the last place to abuse all of them, naive SB followers if they get fed up with lay life.
      It is a place where they get everything for free. Drinking alcohol, abusing power as a monk, living out our hidden sexual fantasies, and many other things can be done at the expense of the ass, just like Buddhists.Their wording are like weapons … best example is made by Ghanasara the notorious with various kinds of cases being filed against him.

      I challenge any authority to go for an audit and study the ground reality. Most of them are scumbags, V8 thrill-seeking pseudo-monks who do any menial job to stand out in society. Rogue politicians use those monks for their promotions.

    • 2
      0

      NARROWMINDED, would never ever understand NARROWMINDEDNESS!! Such is the DILEAMA!!?? What else!!??

  • 12
    0

    In Sri Lanka, the Mahasanga continues to call itself the “advisor to the Government” and pokes its nose not in its own Buddhist affairs but in politics for more than being just an advisor, but as an active political participant. There is nothing wrong in criticizing the Sanga. The first criticism should be against the Mahanayakes as they have no guts to take the necessary actions against their own flock who behave worst than ordinary underworld thugs. The Buddhist Sanga must be treated the same way all the other religious leaders are treated in the country with no special status.

    • 5
      0

      Buddhist1,
      Absolutely right on the money!!SPOY-ON!!!
      The behaviour amounts to not only advisory capacity to the government, but including or Sanctions – request for Sanga Order!!!?? Nor saying the LAST request MAY HAVE BEEN JUSTIFIABLE, given the circumstances, but they are in excess of the powers vested as a religious body!!!
      They derive the right from the party governing, who have been elected by the majority, not in any case excess of such right granted by sovereign people!!
      Tantamount to the Mahanayaka’s, supplanting, the Head of State (HoS)!! Whither Democracy!!?? What’s the difference with (Taliban) Afghanistan or Iran from Sri Lanka!!!
      Sri Lanka has progressed, for Good, from a Kingdom to Republic!? The Kings lineage has ended with the demise of the last Nayakkars in Vellore in 19th century!!!

  • 7
    0

    Mr Wigneswaran at the tail end of his article had come with with a positive suggestion – -Establishment of Sinhala – Tamil Friendship societies throughout the Island, just to foster friendship among the communities, not to engage in blame game but just to promote friendship.

    • 0
      3

      CVW may have a job retracting some of his famous words over the years.

  • 11
    0

    Is It Wise To Criticise The Mahā Sangha?’
    .
    Not only is it wise, it is essential. How else can Buddhists ensure they are supporting genuine monks? I have always thought that monks should be registered and then held accountable for their actions. If they are true followers of the path then they have nothing to fear. If they are thugs like Gnanasara they should be disrobed. Everyone knows what should be done, but nothing ever happens.

  • 2
    0

    Sri Lankans have an innate ability to consistently deflect any malaise, fault or inconsistency in action and justify by quoting/siting of equal faulty action by some others!!! That finger pointing doesn’t make anyone, less culpable or devoid of fault on their part!!???
    That’s a “TIME BUYING EXERCISE”, instead of ‘MEA CULPA’ to bypass the situation!!??
    Far better, instead if each and every one, failing to comply with rectitude and within the “limits set for them”, accept the folly (INCLUDING ALL CLERGY – WHOM BELIEVE ARE HUMAN TOO – TO ERR IS HUMAN AND TO FORGIVE IS DEVINE), and over a process of time we would endevour to become a clean, faultless society, in this THRICE BLESSED COUNTRY!!!??
    PUT OFF THE ACCEPTANCE OF THE MISTAKE FOR ANOTHER DAY??? SO CONTINUE WITH THE SAME OLD AGONY!?

  • 2
    1

    IF ANYBODY WANTS TO KNOW THE REAL FACE OF MAHA SNAGHA IN SRILANAKA CALL FOR THE NAME AND ADDRESS LIST OF PATIENTS WHO VISITED STD WARD NO 33 IN COLOMBO GENERAL HOSPITAL UNDER RTI ACT.YOU WILL FIND THE TRUTH AS MORE THAN 30% IS YOUNG BUDDIST HARMUTHURUS-JAYAWEEWA.

    • 3
      1

      Paragon,
      .
      Paragon,
      Is it really true?
      I had several reports from the children’s wards of a Colombo hospital. It is based on the rectal bleeding of child monks. This is a forbidden topic in hell which unfortunately has been destroyed by the Rajapaksa brothers. Actually Sri Lankan media should break the silence and bring more programs on the topic. Many young monks are said to be child molesters. What we have seen in recent years from the Buddhist bin Ladens, we have to agree with this terrible news.

      The Pearl of Asia has become HIKKADUWA (Gay Paradise).

  • 2
    0

    Is It Wise To Criticise The Mahā Sangha?

    The politician used them for their gain not respecting the, not respecting the ochre clothes enghtened One as Holy Sangha. This how the politician think to win election

    • 1
      0

      RBH59,
      It is SAD indeed that, “the ochre clothes enlightened One as Holy Sangha’ (using your terminological description), weren’t apparently, NOT APTLY, ENLIGHTENED ENOUGH, to discern the MACABRE DESIGNS of the wily and corrupt POLITICIANS!!?
      No wonder, we are in this situation!!!

  • 3
    0

    Best to put a limit on priests …… like Medical Schools have limits.

    Progressively make the limit ……. less and less. :))

    • 3
      1

      Nimal F.,
      Very good proposition!!
      Even better, suggest IMPOSE AND APPLY STANDARDISATION TO THE INTAKE!!?
      Problem solved, in all possible aspects!!!
      All those with Merit and don’t QUALIFY (?) under STANDARDISATION PROCESS, would go OVERSEAS, to Burma, Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia, Japan? Good would help spread Buddha Dhamma globally, as envisioned by President RW, recently assured to Mahanayaka’s in Kandy!!
      Sri Lankans would retain those mediocre (not meritorious) advance through STANDARDISATION PROCESS filter, to serve the elite Sri Lankans as Mahanayaka’s of the Nikayas, make Sinhala Buddhism thrive!!!
      Expect similar effect as the Specialist Neuro surgeon, carrying the name of a city in Wayamba Kingdom, followed education in medicine, specialised, who thought that he is competent to contend/convince “Soil Mechanics and Nutrition”, on ORGANIC agriculture, “CAME-A-CROPPER”, during the debate in TV with SPECIALIST IN SOIL NUTRITION!! Walked away possibly, ‘ease himself of nature’s call’, never returned to DEBATE to the organisers’ lament!!!
      That likened (but DIFFERENT IN PURPOSE AND END RESULT) to Mao Tse Tung’s LONG MARCH!!!
      That may have a resounding effect similarly on people trained and educated on Buddhist Doctrinaire, through STANDARDISATION, “hopefully”, trying their hand at Politics!!!
      STANDARDISATION MAY BE NSWER DELIVER EXPECTED RESULT!!???
      Alas, poor parents suffer!!!??

  • 3
    0

    Unfortunately , the history of Srilanka starts (after Independence) with the monks pulls the trigger at SWRD B.

  • 5
    1

    Buddhism practised in Sri Lanka is not the Buddhism taught by Buddha 2,500 years ago. Buddhism has been corrupted by introducing Hindu rituals and beliefs. This commenced soon after the passing away of Buddha himself.

    Many Brahmins joined the Sanga and they who introduced myths (There were millions of Buddhas before the advent of Gautama Buddha), miracles (Buddha flying through the air to land in Lanka) and rituals (worshipping of Hindu deities, chanting pirith and tying of sacred thread around the wrists to wade off evil.

    The core principles of Buddhism as taught by Buddha are the 4-fold Four noble truths are that the life is full of suffering (Duhkha), that there is a cause of this suffering (Duhkha-samudaya), it is possible to stop suffering (Duhkha-nirodha), and there is a way to extinguish suffering (Duhkha-nirodha-marga).

    The Dhamma, as taught by the Buddha, is a path that leads to the cessation of suffering through a lifetime effort to gain insight into essential truths about the human condition. These truths are uniquely codified in the Dhamma as the fourfold truth, the eightfold path and the twelve-fold chain of dependent origination.

    Buddhist rituals like merit-making, bowing, giving offerings, chanting pirith, reciting mantras, festivals like Perahera, black-magic, devil dancing, meditating on the qualities embodied by specific buddhas or bodhisattvas (such as compassion and wisdom) and pilgrimage are un-Buddhistic.

    • 3
      1

      Thanga,
      ..
      “Buddhist rituals such as penance, prostration, puja, chanting, chanting, processions, black chants, demon dances, meditation on the qualities embodied by particular Buddhas or bodhisattvas (such as compassion and wisdom), and pilgrimages are not. – Buddhist.”

      Not only in Sri Lanka but many countries in Asia do not follow the true teachings of Lord Buddha. Instead they follow “Hindu religious practices” under Sinhala-Buddhism.
      .
      There are various videos and enough proofs of how they treat animals in Sri Lankan temples under the guise of sinhala- Buddhism. Considering the cultural and religious power given to myths by the monks and the people of this country, these topics do not catch anyone’s eye.
      Also, through the way elephants are forcibly abused for Buddhist processions in Kandy and Kelaniya areas, Sri Lankan Buddhism is no longer based on non-violence and it has also sent an opinion that it is far from the basis of true Buddhism

      .
      Some question, in a world where basic human rights cannot be protected, what about the treatment of “animals”: stray dogs are on the rise, and people in Sri Lanka today do not seem to take kindly to them.

      I instantly remembered this even though the nameplate on a truck was “budusaranai”. But it is full of “slaughtered animal parts” – levels of hypocrisy that are overflowing in Sri Lankan culture like nowhere else.

  • 1
    0

    Notwithstanding any positive or negative aspects of this subject, it is fairly elementary that an entity has become a party to intransient for an amicable solution, it is only a prudent journalistic justice to counter that position with civility.
    .
    Politics should not be a part of any religious bodies while addressing the human rights issue is within their territory based on compassion.
    .
    In Lanka, it is tough when a president, after being elected by the people, pays obeisance to a religious leader, as a matter of routine process.
    .
    In democracy ordinary people are super bosses when a leader is elected, if under a fair and just constitutional process respecting the fundamental human rights of all the people of the land, not just the skewed ethno-majoritarian process.
    .
    Politics in Ceylon /Sri Lanka for the last 80 years has not taken place in a fair manner. Once elected leaders try to put a square peg in a round hole as in children’s game.
    .
    And insanity is defined as expecting a different outcome while repeating the same process. Hence we have no resolution to the national conflict.

  • 5
    0

    I agree with C.V.Wigneswaran. The Maha Sangha in Sri Lanka should realize that the Sangha originated in the group of disciples who renounced the worldly life to wander with Lord Buddha and listen to his teachings. After his death, his disciples continued to live together as a community wandering from place to place, living off the receipt of alms. The purpose of the Sangha is to provide inspiration and guidance on how to live a good Buddhist life. The Sangha was initiated to be the standard-bearer of the Dhamma and lead and teach by example in order to help others along their path to understanding and enlightenment. They should be free of attachment, aversion, ignorance, pride and jealousy. But in Sri Lanka these are not followed. The Maha Sangha itself acted and behaved with ego. They have not given up the word “I”. When S.W.R.D.Banadaranayake was utilizing them, they should have snubbed at him. Thereafter, it was a case of politicians facilitating the Buddhist monks with luxury vehicles and promoting them to lead in political events. This had allowed room for the Maha Sangha to interfere with the Constitution of the land and also in the form of government to be established.

  • 4
    0

    Continued ………….
    The Buddhist monks in the Maha Sangha are not the authorities to dictate on the issue of formation of government. Were they able protest when the Indo-Sri Lanka Peace Accord was signed or demonstrate against Dr.Jaishankar when he insisted for the implementation of the 13th Amendment. Moreover, the Maha Sangha was silent when the government with some Buddhist monks defied the Order of the Court in Gurunthoor case. Has the Maha Sangha ever criticized the Naval Rating who had assaulted Rajiv Gandhi or have they ever criticized Prime Minister R.Premadas on releasing the Naval Rating no sooner he became the President. Have the Maha Sangha ever criticized Buddhist priests who are roaming in the luxury vehicles. The list is long. Since the Maha Sangha was instrumental in ruining the country along with corrupt politicians, the Maha Sangha should be criticized. Briefly the Maha Sangha was behaving like the Kalabrars. It is regretted that the Maha Sangha failed to realize where it stands even now.

  • 3
    0

    Buddhist Monks came to street protest against 13 th amendment, Banda-Chelva pact but never came to street when the Sinhalese leaders robbed this country or sold part of this land to China or thousands of Sinhalese masses buried under the soil. Those who completely violating Lord Buddha’s teachings are not entitle to be a Buddhists.

    • 0
      2

      Were there not quite a few Buddhist monks seen prominently in the “Aragalaya”?

Leave A Comment

Comments should not exceed 200 words. Embedding external links and writing in capital letters are discouraged. Commenting is automatically disabled after 5 days and approval may take up to 24 hours. Please read our Comments Policy for further details. Your email address will not be published.