25 June, 2022


Is Regime-Change Alone The Answer?

By Chrishmal Warnasuriya

Chrishmal Warnasuriya

Chrishmal Warnasuriya

Two Years On Since Our ‘Silent Revolution’

Soon we will celebrate the 2nd anniversary of our Peoples Revolution of 8th January 2015, one which this writer himself described as “our third independence” in its immediate aftermath; having played at least some minor role in overthrowing a manifestly despotic, fearfully oppressive and overtly nepotistic regime that was said to be insuperable at the time. Therefore it is prudent and our duty to look-back and critically evaluate what we have (or have not) secured with that change; as that common saying goes these days – sathutui da den (are you happy now)?

A resounding “YES” is the answer for the basic freedoms we have managed to secure, which is evident in the thousands of voices springing up daily, both as collectives or individuals under the common theme of “civil society”; many who were too fearful to speak-up during that period of “white vans” but who have now found a democratic way of expression. However is that freedom of speech and expression alone sufficient? Do we allow several political cronies who were carried to office on the shoulders of the common man to now shirk their responsibilities by simply showing us that “freedom-candy” and continue in the same corrupt bandwagon of merry-men; with absolutely no difference in the management (or mismanagement) of the State and its resources to that of the previous lot? This is a question that we must collectively answer!

I, Myself & Me – Personality Variables Superseding Public Need

In the scientific study of foreign policy and global politics, we are confronted with a theory by James Rosenau that role variables of leaders in smaller or developing countries play a significant part in the behaviour of nation-states. This can be seen in our comparative political history too, as for instance between the statesmen in premier SWRD or President JRJ who opted for less “limelight” in their affairs to the more PR oriented tenures of Presidents Premadasa or Rajapakse; the latter pair predominantly playing to the “populace gallery” in managing the State where they were much loved by the masses.Maithripala

These personal yearnings of leaders for attention, to garner credit for themselves for duties owed by the Institution are not only common to politics but unfortunately, filters down to the very root of most of our civil interactions. At the village level, in a temple or church (I’m more comfortable discussing the latter) even men of the cloak, from junior priests to Bishops would much rather be surrounded by sycophantic “yes-men” who will never dispute anything and thereby miserably fail to manage the Institution, where they could have delivered much better results had they worked with constructive critics with knowledge and erudition. The same is true for schools, principals or headmasters or any other such Institution; these same ego-centric desires have reached up to national level politics.

In such a backdrop, we need to question whether changing a regime alone without addressing these fundamental questions, by simply changing faces within the same old cancerous system without a conscious effort to cut-out that self-centredness of those assuming public office; will deliver to us the service standards commonly accepted as a benchmark by tax payers in any developed nation.

Article 4(a) The Peoples “Legislative Institution” – Parliament

In August 2015 riding the crest of the January 8th wave, we the People, by exercising our sovereign franchise vested in 225 Members of Parliament, in Public Trust, our inalienable sovereign power to make laws to govern ourselves. This evening on news even the Most. Ven. Maha Sangha were heard to be questioning their qualifications to hold such office! Therefore we must now critically evaluate whether that Institution has delivered the desired results over this period. (Due to printing constraints and as I’ve discussed this over the electronic media available on You Tube only a few instances are critiqued):

Enacting Laws For Us or Enriching Themselves

  • The most recent “Development (Special Provisions) Bill” has been defeated by all Provincial Councils (for attempts to usurp their powers) and attempts to create a monstrosity of a provision giving “super powers” to 02 only members of the 225 over and above the others, for a limited period of 3 years (perhaps a premonition of the tenure of office);
  • The attempt to bribe some 50-odd members with special allowances and vehicles reaching in total to around half-a-million rupees per person monthly, apparently to serve us better;
  • We had the Appropriation Bill with the now customary joke of having so many amendments after presentation it is questionable whether there was any concept in the first place;

Is this a Westminster Model Parliament

  • For what can only be described now as self-interest, the UNA that marginally won the election and some from the PA who lost (also marginally) have joined in what they call a “Unity Government”, forsaking all assurances given to us of a limited Cabinet etc and are now enjoying the perks of “serving us together”. Around 50 others who (for some reason) did not join the merry bandwagon are heard raising the main voice of Opposition, though they are in fact not so recognized because there is a de jure Opposition in the TNA, though they have less seats in number. In the midst of this my election comrades have also been appeased by allotting the post of Chief Opposition Whip – how all of this sits within a classic Westminster styled Legislature (if at all it can) I will permit the reader to decide.

IF you are equally concerned then we have to pose the serious question, have these personalities become larger than the Institution itself, thus, denying us the service we have entrusted them to do, who derive their livelihood (rather luxuriously these days) on our taxed income?

Article 4(b) The Peoples “Executive Institution” – President (and Cabinet)

On 8th January 2015, we the People, by exercising our sovereign franchise vested in H.E. President Sirisena, in Public Trust, our inalienable sovereign power to execute policy for ourselves, who has thereafter, on the 9th appointed the Hon. Prime Minister following which a Cabinet of Ministers, who collectively share that responsibility by extension of law, read with A 43 of the Constitution. We must therefore now question whether that Institution has served us to our satisfaction over this period.

  •   Divergence of opinion between Green Vs Blue – Lack of Collective Responsibility:Just this evening we saw on the News how several Hon. Ministers of the same Cabinet do not appear to know whether or not the Hambantota deal has been entered! Cracks appear to widen daily in what is expected lawfully to be a “collective Cabinet”, which has now gone to the extent of the Green set telling the Blue set to shut-up or get-out! The question from us the People to the Head of this Cabinet, President Sirisena is – Sir, we vested our sovereign Executive Power on you for a limited time to form a government for our ultimate benefit, instead are you now simply “balancing” shambles of a purported government with the solitary intention of keeping it going for the benefit of yourselves?
  •   Ceiling-less Cabinet where kissing goes by favour:What we were originally assured, of limiting the number to 30-35 and rapid curtailment of exorbitant expenditure and what we have ultimately been asked to settle for, numbers rising higher by the day with more and more appeasements to those who cross-over are a clear breach of our social contract. The argument that they had to be “accommodated” to ensure a 2/3rd majority support in Parliament must be weighed against the relative benefit the People have received from such appeasement; which is zero! In the absence of such justification we can only surmise that the move was aimed at forming a government at any cost, only for its own survival for 6 years with hopes of continuous merry-making and increasing personal benefits.

IF you agree with this analysis then has this Institution not failed in its purpose? Are a handful of its “jet- set members” not acting over and above the Cabinet itself?

Article 4(c) The Peoples “Judicial Institution” – Courts of Law & Tribunals

As the sad news of the passing away of one of our greatest legal luminaries, Sri Lankabhimanya Justice Christopher G. Weeramantry reaches us this evening, even as we look back at the wisdom and integrity of Solomon displayed in that distinguished career, mostly in attempts to make justice more accessible to the common man; it is an opportune moment and a tribute to His Lordship for us, the People to critically evaluate the performance of the Judicial Institution, in which we have, in Public Trust, vested our inalienable sovereign judicial power.

During the period in question, we must compliment the independence aspect of the judiciary has been strengthened. We do not hear of any direct interference with judicial matters at the apex level as before; however this is only one aspect. We cannot be blind to the fast diminishing Peoples’ faith in judicially resolving their issues and attempts to take the law into their own hands; which can only be rectified by questioning ourselves whether the Institution is serving its purpose and what action (if any) this regime has taken during the period in question to address them:

  • Finding an answer to Laws Delays

We are personally aware of the apex courts sitting in the afternoon (at times leading up to evening), directions issued by the Lord Chief Justice for continuous trial dates etc which are steps in the right direction. Perhaps we could also look at scheduling times for hearings, pre-trial case

management tele-conferences, filing skeletal arguments with time limits etc (as successfully done in other jurisdictions) which will immediately arrest unnecessary time-wastage in courts;

  •  Continuous Professional Advancement & Regulations

I am well aware that the “R-word” (Regulation) is not the most popular theme of discussion in any field and can already picture a few raised eyebrows in Hulftsdorp when we meet next week after vacation. However even if not from the more benevolent interests of judicial advancement, if we can at least look at the selfish need to build confidence in our clients so that the profession itself will survive, we must look at some form of self regulation in our fee structures, time management, code of conduct and importantly, to update ourselves with laws developments continuously. If we are to project ourselves before a citizen and proclaim to know the law, it simply cannot be only what we may have learnt 20 years ago in Law School!

IF You Agree With The Above – Will A Regime Change Alone Change Our Fortunes?

IF even after two years since the last regime change of January 2015 which didn’t just happen at the will of some politician (as some appear to think) but was the result of years of relentless agitation by many ordinary citizens, at times under severe threat to life and limb of themselves and their families, we still have not secured what we desired; then, even if we change the regime again WITHOUT ALTERING THE STATUS QUO, will it be any different? IF your answer is “YES” then should we not ask ourselves:

  •   Are we getting the democratic representation we deserve or being simply asked to pick from a list dished out by a party leadership prior to an election – if not WHAT ARE WE DOING ABOUT IT?
  •   Are we organizing ourselves collectively to assert OUR SOVEREIGN RIGHTS or (in typical Sri Lankan fashion) relaxingly watching the News expecting others to fight our battles for us?
  •   Are we making sufficient demands of our respective political parties or movements to have intra- party democracy, so that WE decide who will represent our sovereign power?
  •   Should the 4th pillar of democracy, THE MEDIA not be raising adequate public awareness of these issues, particularly in the native languages that reach the masses, or are they also restricted to their own political agendas or personalities for their own personal gain?

FINALLY do we, as a People need to even raise these questions, after almost 70 years as an independent nation and if we are still searching without an answer, why do we really bother electing successive governments even further and waste our time and energy in the process?

Power to the People! Subha Aluth Avuruddak Weva!

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Latest comments

  • 2

    Regime change will elect another of the same group, and they continue the same. What is needed is a change in how they operate. Now, the system is set up to help only the politicians. System is highly politicized and corrupt. So, the employees don’t work. that is in addition to excess employees. There should be standard procedures for every process. Politicians are executives and bureaucrats are for running the system. right now the system is run by politicians and bureaucrats are puppets.

    • 2

      Regime changed into a Govt with some more freedom of expression, democractic rights and basic rights are offered to the people. But that seems to be not functional as many of us longed to see. So what I believe it, the media men have been doing the all last work creating new forms of conflicts not allowing anything to get moved.
      They are paid by various men favorable thoughts being promoted so that greedy men to return to abuse this nation again.
      I think only Germans, Koreans and Japanese and few other folks only could know what should have been the factors that definitely play a greater role for a rise of a country whose systems have long been corrupted to core.
      Germans are said to have started for working after being defeated in WW2, just for a cup of soup. That was what I heard from emeritus professors that have worked diehard to change German society and rise to the level that they boomed economically and socially already by early 70ties or even earlier. That is their mentality that Germans in general work very hard ” for them work is work until initially set expectations are fully met”.

  • 3

    Excellent analysis, Chrishmal.

    And your concluding statement/question is putting in a nutshell the quandary we are in – up to our eyeballs!

  • 2

    Regime change between the corrupt political parties, UNP and SLFP, is NOT a solution. The 2 political parties and their corrupt leaders and politician cronies are the PROBLEM.

    Holding the corrupt politicians of the UNP and SLFP ACCOUNTABLE for corruption and using hate speech to Divide and distract the people in order to STEAL the national wealth, while spreading a culture of impunity and immunity for corruption, is the solution. All the corrupt politicians in the Diyawenna Parliament of Morons need to be tried and put behind bars starting with Mahinda Jarapassa family and Bond scam Ranil and Sira’s back door nominees.

    The root cause of the problem in Sri Lanka is the bi-partisan UNP-SLFP corrupt political culture whereby politicians DIVIDE, DISTRACT and RULE by spreading hate speech against ethnic and religious minorities to distract people from the politician’s corruption and theft of national wealth.

    and hence solution is the CORRUPT POLITICIANS and POLITICAL CULTURE in Sri Lanka whereby politicians of the UNP and SLFP and SLMC loot the country with IMPUNITY AND IMUNITY, while Distracting the the people with Hate Speech, Racism and Violence against various ethnic and religious communities.

  • 3

    Thanks for this analysis, Mr. Warnasuriya!

    You are right that it is the corrupt politicians and political parties, UNP and SLFP, that are biggest problem in Sri Lanka.

    While Democracy is noisy and sometimes chaotic, corrupt politicians in political parties / regimes that have ruled Lanka since independence have used different FACADES OF DEMOCRACY to stay in power and loot the people of Sri Lanka. This is the long history of independence, before and after, so called ‘ethnic conflict’ and national question.

    Most recently, Mahinda Jarapassa ran a family military dictatorship which was looting the people, while using Sinhala Buddhist Nationalism and attacking Tamils and Muslims to distract the masses from the ruling family’s and cronies’ financial crimes.

    Ranil-Sira Jarapalanaya is better as the military-dictatorship and fear psychosis of Goon Gota is gone but actually as or more corrupt that Jarapassa family dictatorship.
    Today UNP shamelssly and openly uses the same strategies to steal from the people is following the example of Mahinda Jarapassa to justify stealing from the people to bribe corrupt politicians and sustain their luxury duty free life style and “Parliamentary Privileges” that Ranil struts about.

  • 7

    Dear Mr Warnasuriya,

    Yours is one of many articles that have been appearing for two months now expressing dis-satisfaction with how the present establishment is carrying out our wishes as expressed almost exactly two years ago.

    However, I am glad to note that you start by granting “resoundingly” that we can be happy that we have secured many basic freedoms. That acknowledgement gives balance to your article. Many who comment regularly on political developments have given us details of corruption at various levels, and you have included an admirable summary of the worst of them. But as a lawyer, you have finally told us what the view from Hulftsdorp is. While I am sure that you are one of the ablest to give us an account of that, we’ve already been kept aware of the issues there.

    We need watchdogs to alert us what is happening at local level. While thanking you for providing us with your balanced over-view, I wonder if you could tell us more of what you are personally aware of:

    “At the village level, in a temple or church (I’m more comfortable discussing the latter) even men of the cloak, from junior priests to Bishops would much rather be surrounded by sycophantic “yes-men” who will never dispute anything and thereby miserably fail to manage the Institution, where they could have delivered much better results had they worked with constructive critics with knowledge and erudition.”

    Accuracy, balance, an unwavering commitment to truth and a willingness to acknowledge our own mistakes is very necessary, as you have stated in your immediate “CORRECTION OF MISINFORMATION” here:


    We rely on certain people to give us accurate and unvarnished information. You have indicated that many such people have let us down. Elaborating on this would be useful, although I, too, realise that grass-root issues must be addressed, “particularly in the native languages that reach the masses.”

    • 2


      “We need watchdogs to alert us what is happening at local level.”

      The RTI Act is going to be fully implemented later this year. We should all use it and be the watchdogs!

  • 2

    The freedom we enjoy today, including the Tamils / Muslims and this writer is all due to Rajapaksha. The only person who had a peaceful sleep in those miserable 30 years was Ranil Wickramasinghe as he was the only one out of VP’s cross-hairs (not even Sampandan). It is Rajapaksha who rendered this priceless gift to all other inhabitants: [Edited out]

    • 5

      You don’t understand the sufferings we been through as minorities,you are talking about Ranil’s hair but we were worried about head being choped in the hands of barbarians,

      Meantime lot of us still alive with the help of good Sinhalese as well.

      I don’t know whether you have seen in Batti these are the oppression we had,the top law enforcement becoming monk ,and the monk becoming law enforcement and these in the khaki begging

      And the IGP’s Sir business

      Dose any one need blessings

      I born there i love the country as you do,is it limited

  • 0

    No! we need to change the critiques too since they are part of the problem today!

  • 1

    Which regime?

    Colombo regime, Tamil regime in Jaffna or Muslim regime in Trinco?

    Don’t mix things up. There are 3 kingdoms (regimes) in Srilanka as always. You have to be specific.

    • 2

      it was not a govt what we had was a regime. That was what the journalist s cited in the papers in the high day sof the Monarch.
      Fathima Pukasudu seems to have no idea but just add thoughts (prevarications) as former President does.

    • 1

      Muslim Kingdom in Sri Lanka ?

      ha ha what a joke!

      • 2


        “ha ha what a joke!”

        Haven’t you heard about the Islamic Republic of Kattankudy?

        One cannot enter the Republic without being followed by its unpaid members of secret its services

        • 0

          Now now that is not true.

          There is a Tamil province in the north and a Muslim province in the east. That is the reality. Look at their chief ministers.

          Live and let live. Srilanka has 11% SL Tamils and they have a province. 10% Muslims and they too have a province. What’s the problem?

          • 0

            Indian Tamils have central provinc. Burghers have western province. What province 1% Malays and Chinese who are recognised as Sri Lankans get ?

  • 2

    This government of MS and RW May not have achieved the highest performance during the past 2 years but one has to consider the liberty the people are enjoying.
    Just because they have not performed as much as expected there cannot be an alternate government with a repeat of MR regime.

  • 2

    Regime change is not the answer, considering the alternative available! The answer lies in eternal vigilance and calling the shots. This government should be held to account and criticized when it fails and cheered when right. No one should be above criticism. The media should act responsibly. The headlines do not summarize reports in the print and internet media, very often. There is too much dramatizing. News is deliberately distorted very often. There is blatant partisanship. Facts are sacred, comment is free!

    The present situation is the ideal to empower the people and also make the people understand their power. We should become the masters of the politicians and compel them to provide good governance. However, this power should not become rowdyism. The law must be enforced at all times. Public opinion should be expressed within the confines of the law. This is beginning to happen now. It is an important development though nascent.

    Dr.Rajasingham Narendran

    • 2

      If your choice is between two devils /evils, you have to consider the lesser devil/evil.
      It is just simple.

      We perfectly know MR ended up turning all his men rich, just because he is too from the gallery and cant see it beyond. No respect, no dignity to anyone but to their family. No other children should be blessed with drug free handlings, but his. No good scholarships for other but for his offprrings. No car race or the ladder to become motorists to other but to his sons. No facilities for the average while writing for degree exams, but to his Son Namal. Blue or other colour, as they may name it, all were to pave the way prince Namal to achieve it at the end of MR s rule.

      Most of all – non-stop mournings of parents who sons and daughters have been caught by DRUG- MAFIA/MENACE is tremoured the country on long term mode, notjustlike Tsunami waves,but like a chronic disease progression in the country today – Drug Kin Pin Nimal Lanza or others were given a place inthe society than had to labeled as drug traffickers… all these were no exemplary.
      Had MR owned kind heart alone the drug problem could have been stoped by his tactics But the man is devious as no other.

      None of these are entwined with RW. Except the Bond Scam and the related issues, that was verycomplex … not started inhis term.. but he was just blue eyed.. not nice but that occured, now investigations go on.

  • 1

    The poor fellow seems to be lost in his own messed up regime change project. It is amazing how he (and others) could expect utopia from utter failures in the calibre of RW + CBK and their puppet MS. Their experiment has resulted the country and it’s people suffering in all aspects, political, economic & social. The writer can only be happy that some civil society goondas got propaganda space. Nothing else.

    • 3

      Hela, are u at all sane ?

      Either you are biased or dont have a brain the size of a mustard seed to think the danger the nation has been facing today.

      With much is being revealed about human murders – today for example one another is proved to have sat in the car Thadjudeen found dead in that so called accident allegdly to have made by former VVIP family; this not being the single issure, but the billions of money grabs, just by the family is proved to be in Dubai banks, but the single few things may be or may be not.. because of the current govt caused… through bond scam etc.. are all matter to the nation by today. Only Gonthadiyas of your nature would add the kind of dimwitig thoughts. Else, we perfectly know we cant dream just govt change can turn the entire system to the European like SRILANKA.

      • 0

        The important thing I heard, that all 225 in the govt at one time or another has helped bringing Drugs (narcotics) inside the country.

        See how they have developed the Liquor – business inside the country and now they are preaching people not to drink.

        The important thing is developed kithul, coconut and palm – jaggery, honey, sugar cane jaggery like industries which will cut down sugar consumption. They promote sugar cane and molasses production.

      • 0


        Koheda yanne……malle pol…….

        • 0

          So long you guys are the majority, nothing can work for the benefit of masses. Bunjappu is right saying that we cant put the blame on the current rulers and CBK.

  • 1

    CBK + Ranil + Sirisena = Porridge pot
    Stirrers are mangalam & Ravik and spice master Jayampathy wicks.

  • 0

    The 08 January 2015 regime change was not a revolution. Corruption, nepotism and break down in law and order were visibly rampant. For the first time since 1948, Lankans ignored the language/religion divide. This is the LL (Lesson Learned).

    Some semblance of law and order has been restored but the office of MP-ship is being used as a cash cow. The government is using perks to entice MPs not to leave the camp.

    Unfortunately the language/religion divide is again being used as political hard currency. The LL is to change this mindset.

  • 1

    Recently I watched a TV debate on this “Development (Special Provisions Bill”, which is the “Brain Child” of the Prime Minster and his coteries. The MP who represented the UNP and its Leader PM, stated that the “Bill” was discussed by the Cabinet, including the President and “Unanimously” agreed to present it to the Parliament. Then when the opposing views expressed very widely and strongly, a Senior Cabinet Minister, viz. Dr. Rajitha Senaratne, publicly condemned the draft as has been handled by a “Fool”. This fact came to light when the representative from JVP viz. MP Vijitha Herath stated it and confronted the UNP representative viz MP Mujibar Rahaman, who said the draft was unanimously approved by the Cabinet. In questioning that “Unanimous” decision and comparing it with the statement of Minister Senaratne, MP Herath, referred to all in the Cabinet as “THAKTHIRUVAAS” (utter fools). That representative plus the other two in the panel could not say anything on that and surprisingly, the four media persons handling the debate (conducting and questioning)did not proceed on the matter, but rather opted to ignore it. What does this show us? The “Prime Movers” of the Legislation, the (Prime Minister and his coteries); the entire Cabinet including the President; the Peoples Representatives of the UNP/SLFP “Coalition Government” and the Media did not care to EXAMINE how haphazardly and irresponsibly these important matters are handled at apex level. Just see the latest on the “Car Assembly” plant matter and the President’s statement on Hamabantota Port “Leasing” Agreement. Simply put, all in the Government from “Top” to “Bottom” do not know what they “Think”; “Talk” and “Act Upon”. This is the SITUATION that the PEOPLE have to be told and make them to understand. Also it must be made KNOWN that this SITUATION cannot be allowed to go on and nothing could be achieved by simply a “Regime Change”. The whole LOT both in the major political parties and their affiliates CANNOT BE CORRECTED and it is USELESS to try correcting them too. They have, over decades, proved “Worthless” and far beyond correction. It is high time for the PEOPLE to look for a “NEW BREED” who has a VISION that can be put into practice and show results. That SEARCH and CHANGE must be worked out within the next three years. It is now the responsibility of a GROUP of people from all walks of life, who are INTELLECT, NATIONAL MINDED, SELFLESS, DEDICATED to take the lead and execute a plan to make that CHANGE and drive away ALL these time tested vagabonds out of public life. That is the REAL CHANGE needed and NOT another “REGIME CHANGE”.

  • 3

    “”Is Regime-Change Alone The Answer?””

    You can’t have an honest and sincere government.

    You enjoy piracy, helicopter money, sale of arms and drugs and above all Ranil is trading 1/2 to China and the other 1/2 to India- good move.

  • 1

    Thank you Chrishmal, for pointing out all the rest that we need to do to make sure we get honest, representative, corrupt-free, fair, government and politicians. If not 100%, at the least a majority.

    So sad that so many who chose to comment cannot think for themselves about the challenge in front of the country, and can only think about MR or RW or MS. Folks, grow up.

    • 0

      less than 30% with internet access, a 10 % speak English and finally 80% live in the villages.
      you need to grow up and find your way out of your maze.

      It’s a corrupt world that gets worse.

      How do you do? cock a doodle do?

  • 3

    Your concluding statement puts it in a nutshell:
    “FINALLY do we, as a People need to even raise these questions, after almost 70 years as an independent nation and if we are still searching without an answer, why do we really bother electing successive governments even further and waste our time and energy in the process?”

    We have mediocre voters voting for mediocre politicians.
    It’s time we admitted that we can’t govern ourselves. Let’s apply to join India (at least they have a real Volkswagen factory) or call the Brits back.

    • 0

      Brits back- You would end up with more dope and wars with neighbour.

      Hyundai i10 Ranked 1st- 110,000 exported.- Chennai.Currently Indians have 146 different models

      Volks-export rank 6-; Along with the manufacturing of Volkswagen Polo and Volkswagen Vento and the newly launched Volkswagen Ameo, the plant is also shared by Škoda Auto India Private Limited for manufacturing the Škoda Rapid.Volkswagen India operates a manufacturing plant in Pune (Chakan) Maharashtra which is capable of producing 200,000 vehicles per annum.
      Its the JT, honorary Swedish ambassador and his Soda wriggling into German territory.

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