2 December, 2020

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June 1983: Anarchy Loosed

By Rajan Hoole

Dr. Rajan Hoole

Dr. Rajan Hoole

The Dress Rehearsal In Trincomalee – Part VI

The killing of two Air Force men in Vavuniya by PLOTE militants, was followed by the security forces going on the rampage and widespread arson. Many felt that these reprisals would be continued in Trincomalee where elements already charged with patriotic fervor were waiting to let go. The PSO was promulgated and the security forces were given the ‘freedom of the battlefield’ to combat terrorism even in places where there was little evidence of it. What then happened in Trincomalee during June, was either not reported in the media or reported in a distorted manner despite the fact that the Tamils were living through hell.

There were a few stray items in the press suggesting that something disturbingly unusual was going on: Tamil youth killed in Mullipuram, Kantalai… Two huts burnt in Andankulam… A man shot in the leg in Kanniya… Bus proceeding to Jaffna shot at and set on fire, driver killed, several passengers hospitalised, and some ran into the jungle and are missing… Small child hacked to death…. In Moraweva (where the Sinhalese population was boosted by recent colonisation) four were shot and cut to death, of whom two were children 1 year and 4 years….

Most of these items were reports of what TULF MPs had said in Parliament and were frequently late, as getting information was difficult. The Press reported that there was a curfew in Trincomalee and that several persons were detained over the violence, but was extremely vague about what was really going on.

The first indication that what was going on in Trincomalee was planned and had official backing, strangely enough, came not from the media, but from a speech made in Parliament by Gamini Lokuge, UNP MP for Kesbewa, who had in May won a violent bye-election. He is one of those close to Mathew & Co. who had made Trincomalee their hobby-horse. He had recently taken over from a foreigner, Welcombe Hotel in Trincomalee. Renamed Seven Islands Hotel, it acquired a reputation as a meeting place of conspirators. gamini-lokuge

Lokuge said in Parliament on 27th June: “The Sinhalese people had banded themselves together in Trincomalee because they have been harassed by the Tamils there in the past. Are you [Tamils] trying to chase the Sinhalese people away as you did in 1956?

Even at this late stage, the Press continued to mislead. The Island of 29th June carried an item : “Army, Police open fire to stop mini-war in the Trinco bazaar area between Tamil and Sinhalese traders…. Two Hindu temples set on fire.” The Sun editorial of 2nd July asked whether it was the Armed Forces and Police being at loggerheads or commercial rivalry, that was responsible for the violence in Trincomalee?

Even months after the event it seemed hard to write the truth plainly. T.D.S.A. Dissanayake in his Agony of Sri Lanka put it somewhat humorously (p. 59): “In the Trincomalee district the Sinhala population was of the opinion that the Tamils would evict them forcibly to create the state of Tamil Eelam. Hence they took a pre-emptive strike and the Tamils retaliated. The Sinhala people had the tacit support of some sections of the Armed Forces, the Tamils had the open support of the TULF.” (Our emphasis!)

The general pattern was for the security forces to go and ‘search’ a particular Tamil area, take in a few young men on ‘suspicion’ and ensure that the place was defenceless. When they left, the organised hoodlums moved in. Later in July when things were more open, naval personnel were seen with cotton swabs and cans of oil, which they used for acts of arson in Tamil owned premises.

However a commendable, and even prophetic, article appeared in the Weekend of 10th July 1983. The writer, the late Ranil Weerasinghe, demonstrated that he could write very objectively when he saw for himself, rather than rely on doubtful sources. Given below are excerpts from his article, “Who fiddled while Trinco was burning?”:

“18 deaths have been recorded over a one month period and every single one of them Tamil…Indeed one wonders whether the Government strategists and so-called military analysts are anything but blinkered bureaucrats stumbling from one major mistake to another. Otherwise, one cannot reconcile how the State, which by now must surely realise that the ethnic problem is the biggest stumbling block to development, can allow the situation to deteriorate and its cancerous tentacles to gain a hold on more and more parts of the country.

“The local government elections should have made it clear that the Tigers had no influence there.

“The end result is that the Tigers or any other militant group can become more and more acceptable to the Tamils in the East, not as subversives, but as freedom fighters willing to help defend them, not only against their aggressors, but also against their ‘military oppressors’ who allegedly turn a blind eye to the activities of their assailants….

The Government must rethink all the outdated strategies of the past and immediately evolve fresh moves to solve this burning issue which slowly but relentlessly moves towards a major holocaust, (our emphasis)…

“The Tigers have begun by making mistakes….burning trains…attacking police stations…AGAs offices etc. The people sometime must in the face of such inconveniences turn against the terrorists unless the latter can, as it is happening at the moment, convince the public that these are repressive moves by the Government and not a direct responsibility of terrorist action.”

It was perhaps the last time for many long years when a Sinhalese would, or could, write in such a frank manner. As we would see later, journalism after the July ’83 holocaust, which Weerasinghe had prescience of in Trincomalee, became an even more untruthful, suffocating and conformist affair.

Weerasinghe’s article also quoted S.H.P. de Silva, a long time Sinhalese resident of Trincomalee : “The trouble had been allowed to develop because of weak administration and the slowness of the Government to react. It is absurd only to call upon the people to uphold peace. When the leaders at the top work for peace, the people will co- operate. It is high time the Government takes a decision on whether the appeals by the Tamil community are just and a response should be made either way without keeping the country in limbo like this.

It was a sober demand from a Sinhalese who had to live in close proximity to Tamils. The cause of such people was to be grossly distorted in the coming years. Particularly so by crusaders from Colombo who while supposedly taking up the cause of Sinhalese in ‘border areas’ were only ensuring that their plight became impossible.

As for the Government, there were no signs of remorse. The meeting a government ministerial team headed by Gamini Diassanayake had with GAs of the North and East on the eve of the July 1983 violence had some very disturbing overtones. Gamini Dissanayake told the GAs, “There were people with no right of settlement being trans-rooted from plantations to new areas. Sri Lanka is too small to have one land policy for one district and another for some other districts with the entire gamut of food and other commodity transportation and construction activity, which had a political connotation with a threat to the unity of the State… The Government would soon be enacting new legislation to give the GAs new powers with the support of the Police, judicial, ministerial and other government bodies to prevent exploitation of land resources...”

Deputy Minister Percy Samaraweera said,

Hundreds of estate workers of Indian origin… who were supposed to have been repatriated under the Indo-Sri Lanka agreement have been found to have been resettled in the Trincomalee District. No GA can under any political pressure from separatist organiastions deviate from this land policy…

The thrust of the meeting reported in the Sun of 20th July 1983 was clear. Also associated in the meeting was Minister K.W. Devanayagam who in 1975 had helped starving Tamils evicted from the estates to settle in the Batticaloa District. The intention of Dissanayake’s contemplated legislation (see below & Sect. 20.4) was no doubt to act tough with Tamils from the Hill Country and to make it easier to settle Sinhalese. There were indeed extra-legal connotations.

The activity described by the ministers is the alarmist version of the work of Gandhiyam. All the work of the Gandhiyam had been stopped by the arrest and detention of its leaders, Rajasundaram and David, in early April. Rajasundaram had been tortured and was killed in Welikade Prison in a most horrible manner exactly a week from the publication of this report. It showed that the Government’s fear of the Gandhiyam had assumed psychic proportions. The refugees from the Hill Country around Trincomalee had already been terrorised from April. The next act in their drama was even more inhuman.

Following the violence that began in Trincomalee in early June 1983, a large number of Tamils of both local and Indian origin were living in refugee camps. The following account of the singular event which took place on 23rd July 1983, is taken from our Report No. 11:

The refugees of Indian origin displaced from places including Pankulam, Alles Garden and Kappalthurai (near 6th milepost, Kandy Road) were in refugee camps at Nilaveli, Sambaltivu, Pankulam and Trinco town among others.

An order went down the line through Captain Marshall of the Navy, Co-ordinating Officer/ Trincomalee, to the AGAs, to compile separate lists of Tamil refugees of Indian and local origin. Senior Tamil officers, such as the Additional GA, were kept in the dark. Later, one night, hand-picked Sinhalese staff officers from the Trincomalee Kacheri were asked to go with the lists in the company of the security forces to the refugee camps above. They were asked to get hold of the AGA concerned or the Grama Sevaka (Headman) of the division if the AGA could not be located.

The names of Indian Tamils were read out, after the night callers had aroused the refugees from their sleep. Terrified families meekly came forward and got into commandeered CTB buses as they were ordered. Even if some of the family were not present, the rest were ordered to get in, their pleas being of no avail. The GA/Trincomalee, a Sinhalese, was then out of town. About mid-night the Tamil Additional GA was aroused from his sleep by a telephone call from Captain Marshall. The Additional GA was told of the plan then under execution. The call, he was given to understand, was to keep him informed for courtesy’s sake.

Several busloads of Indian Tamils were driven under armed escort to various parts of the Hill Country and dumped in places with which they had no connection. Many families who had already suffered from the violence of 1977 and ‘83 agonised for weeks not knowing what became of their kin from whom they were forcibly parted. Most deportees collected whatever relief payment was available and eventually found their way back to Trincomalee.

Captain Marshall, a Burgher, himself acted under orders from the government in Colombo and was deeply unhappy. He was powerless when naval ratings under his command ran amok in Trincomalee town during July 1983.

The deportations above followed directly from Gamini Dissanayake’s meeting with the GAs a few days earlier. It was also proposed to vest the GAs and AGAs with draconian powers to destroy buildings and use provisions of the Prevention of Terrorism Act to deal with persons of Plantation Tamil origin settled in the North- East and organisations which helped them (see Sect. 20.4 end). Note that a precedent had already been set by the burning of the houses of these people in Pankulam on the AGA’s orders. This was a case of bad laws precipitated by bad practice.

The laws proposed had some very curious features. The GAs were to be empowered to use the Police, Army or Navy in doing the dirty work. What was the Navy doing here? It naturally fell into place because of the valuable combat experience it had acquired for this work in Trincomalee during June & July 1983. Here we have the origins of JOSSOP. Because the latter had its head quarters in Vavuniya where the Air Force had a facility, it too was drafted into the job of chasing and corralling Plantation Tamils. Note also the crucial role here for the Sinhalese GA in Trincomalee.

These developments preluded a concerted policy of demographic transformation, whose beginning, although hidden by the violence of July 1983, was part of the same programme and was no less insidious. This will be taken up in Chapters 14 & 20.

*To be continued..

*From Rajan Hoole‘s “Sri Lanka: Arrogance of Power – Myth, Decadence and Murder” published in Jan. 2001. Thanks to Rajan for giving us permission to republish. To read earlier parts click here

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Latest comments

  • 2
    9

    Well, I read an old paper cutting from an editorial from the defunct “The Sun” newspaper. The editorial appeared in the immediate aftermath of July riots.

    The editor castigates Amirthalingam for taking flight to India instead of helping to calm things down.

    That appeared strange since it would have taken weeks notice to book a flight back in 1983! So it would have been a pre-booked flight on the day after riots hit.

    Its well known the various Tamil militants operated as the TULF military faction. Amithalingam wife would occasionally invite Velupillai Prabarkaran for dinner for example. (Prabakaran by T. Balasubramaian)

    A seed of thought was planted on these Tamils from the time S.J.V. Chelvanayagam said Colombo Tamils need to be “woken up”. The need for Balkanization would have been in their minds too since most Tamils lived scattered.

    The riots would have created the required number of recruits for the oncoming battle too.

    However, we continue to ask `who were responsible for the horror and violence suffered by so many innocent people’ ? The government of the day acted in the most ignoble manner. Mr. Dhanapala asks, why didn’t the police, with a Tamil IGP and five or six DIGs in the Colombo area, the accredited guardian of law and order not act? How is it that no Tamil police officer of the era has so far failed to come forward to explain their criminal negligence of duty?

    It has often been pointed out that goons who had lists of Tamil addresses went around causing mayhem. LTTE sympathizers had been doing the rounds of Tamil houses for many months prior to the pogrom, collecting money for their cause. The IGP, six of his deputies (DIGs) and many police, being Tamils, would have been in those lists. So the existence of lists, and the money collection would (or should) have been well known to them. Mr. Nadesan (later Prabhakaran’s police chief) was a senior officer in the Colombo-Nugegoda area; he surely knew about the collections for Prabhakaran.

    Prabhakaran’s dissatisfaction with the disengaged Colombo Tamils was well known. Many Tamils simply refused to contribute or be intimidate while strongly supporting the TULF.

    http://www.srilankaguardian.org/2013/03/the-1983-black-july-pogrom-and-police.html

    The Indian HC at the time, J.N. Dixit has accepted the Tamil militants were been trained from 1980 onwards.

    So it would seem both TULF and the LTTE knew and possibly instigated the riots with the help of Indian secret services. Amirthaligam was just reporting back to the monitoring center somewhere in India.

    • 4
      3

      Nice imagination you so-called people of the lion have got. After all, this comes from the same depraved mind that dreamed up the Mahavamsa bestiality fairy tales (or perhaps the one about human-beast hybridization was true which explains your nature).

      It is observed that denial is the final stage of genocide. You’re at that stage. Continue entertaining your silly fantasies and conspiracy theories, including the ones about “humanitarian rescue operation” with “zero civilian casualties”.

      Rest of the story goes something like this in the collective paranoid mind of the Sinhala-Buddhists:
      “The so called 1958 anti-Tamil violence NEVER occurred, it was Tarzie Viitachi’s imaginative account of a non-event and entirely fictitious. The 1977 anti-Tamil violence was really an attempt by Sinhala people driven by compassion to save the Tamils from bad weather which for some unknown reason was affecting only Tamil homes and Tamil people. The Jaffna library was not burnt it was a case of ‘instantaneous combustion’ -well established scientific fact. ‘Black July 1983 did not occur, if it had how come no one was arrested for the so called ant-Tamil pogrom? It was a giant conspiracy by the international media. No Tamil was burnt alive, no Tamil home was destroyed, JR Jayawardene and Athulathmudali were at the forefront extending their hand of friendship to all those Tamils mislead by foreign propaganda. No Tamil was killed during 2009, all the bombs were specifically designed to target LTTE members whose DNA had been carefully identified and incorporated into the shells to target only them and spare civilians who did not carry this DNA. Hospitals were not bombed but pelted with flowers. Our soldiers were forced to fire the DNA coded shells with one hand because they were carrying the ‘Humans Right Charter’ with the other. Tamils who were saved from the ‘clutches’ of the LTTE were all given special accommodation in camps modeled after 5 star hotels. Some of the unfortunate Tamils had to be put up in 4 Star accommodation.”

      • 2
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        Its very simply deduction Donkey,

        The definition of “Pogrom” is as follows.

        An organized massacre of a particular ethnic group, in particular that of Jews in Russia or eastern Europe.

        The only party that can organize a Pogrom in 1983 were the Tamils and the Indian secret services.

        That is because the Tamils and Indian secret services are the ONLY ones with forward knowledge of what was going to happen on that day – kapeesh?

        I get frustrated dealing with stupid Tamils all the time.

        • 6
          0

          You don’t have to get frustrated by dreaming up conspiracy theories. Let’s settle this once and for all by having an impartial international investigation into every case of crime against humanity since the country’s independence. Would you and your modaya friends agree to that or are you afraid of the skeletons in the closet, or in our case in mass graves??

          This report by the International Commission of Jurists may be of interest to you but I’m warning you it may cause extreme cognitive dissonance:
          http://www.icj.org/lanka-a-mounting-tragedy-of-errors-report-of-a-mission-to-sri-lanka-in-january-1984-on-behalf-of-the-international-commission-of-jurists-and-its-british-section-justice/

          • 5
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            De Silva did not have a loose motion for the past 25 years. All the gas from his stomach has not gone out the right hole but has hit his brain. He has a fart brain now.

            • 0
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              Tamil from the north

              De Silva did not have a loose motion for the past 25 years. All the gas from his stomach has not gone out the right hole but has hit his brain. He has a fart brain now.

              In Keneda too toilet cleaning experience ?

              • 3
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                Dumb moron Jim Shitty, firstly it is Canada. Secondly go back to Grade 2 and learn how to speak and write English you illiterate monkey.

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          De Silva

          Today you are hearing RAW noises in your head.

          “I get frustrated dealing with stupid Tamils all the time.”

          Then think about how our fellow forum sharers suffer from reading your noises and responding to them?

          On the other hand if you are starved of sex you too get frustrated which turns you into , a peeping Tom, a flasher, a groper, a sex pest, a stalker, a serial rapist, serial killer,…. and a sadist.

          It is better to have some form of therapy, I suggest you visit the local whorehouse.

          When you go take jim softy with you.

          • 0
            7

            On the other hand if you are starved of sex you too get frustrated which turns you into , a peeping Tom, a flasher, a groper, a sex pest, a stalker, a serial rapist, serial killer,…. and a sadist.

            All pretty much Tamil culture.

  • 1
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    Was Gamini Lokuge in Jaffna on the night the Jaffna Library was burnt?

    I have heard that part of the books from the Jaffna library are in his possession? Were the most valuable books from from the Jaffna library carried away, before it was set on fire? If this was so, where are these books hidden now?

    Was the burning of the Jaffna library, a premeditated conspiracy to undermine the Northern Tamil identity and history?

    Can persons in the know, clarify?

    Native Vedda and Siva Sankaran Sarma ( the authentic ) , do you know more about this?

    Dr. Rajasingham Narendran

    • 4
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      Dr.Rajasingham Narendran

      During a debate, the former North Western Provincial Council (NWPC)Chief Minister Athula Wijesinghe (SLFP from 2002 to 2013) accused the former Chief Minister Gamini Jayawickrama Perera of NWPC (UNP – 1988 to 1993) of causing the destruction at the Jaffna Library.

      He made this accusation during a debate (14 July 2009) at a monthly Council meeting. He also said he had sufficient evidence to implicate Gamini Jayawickrama Perera and he knew where some of the looted Tamil books were stored in Hettipola area.

      The group of arsonists traveled to Jaffna by Train from Kurunegala, he said.

      • 1
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        Native

        What is happening to Noolaham project?
        It is not in news for a while.I noted bookshops in Jaffna are in a bad shape manned by illiterate employees with poor enthusiasm for a discussion.

        • 0
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          Ken — Is Native involved in the Noolakam project?

          • 3
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            Sigma

            “Ken — Is Native involved in the Noolakam project?

            Nosy Parker

            What exactly are you angling at?

        • 3
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          Ken Robert

          “What is happening to Noolaham project?”

          It is still available on net.

          Access to Jaffna Library is now limited to members only after a few nasty incidents caused by thugs who came in by the bus load..

          “I noted bookshops in Jaffna are in a bad shape manned by illiterate employees with poor enthusiasm for a discussion.”

          It is the same situation though out the country. Most book shops sell their products not out of love for books but as a business.

          In Colombo, Godage in Maradana is a good bookshop. The manager of the shop is not only knowledgeable, but a very old style courteous man, who makes every effort to find what you want.

          The sad part is none of the bookshops have a comprehensive data base. Most shops do not stock what we want to buy, but give priority to imported English best sellers. Its an dissapointing experience to visit these bookshop. Some of the bookshop managers didn’t even aware of our great scholars.

          The Archaeological Department continues to publish books in Sinhala language. A few books are published in English and almost none in Tamil. It is a strategy which helps the writer’s to cover up their deficiency or lack of knowledge. The department is happy to shield its “scholars” from outside criticism, if they wrote in English.

          Don’t you think its safe to publish in Sinhala than exposing them to outside world?

          • 0
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            Native
            Publishing in English is a must in this era of e learning .

            • 2
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              Ken Robert

              “Publishing in English is a must in this era of e learning .”

              The pandithayas will be caught for lying, irrationality, selective commission and omission of facts, rather poor analytical skills, being lazy, ……….. will be punished by their seniors for not complying the long established (50 years Norms), …. if they wrote in English.

              The Pandithayas do not want to be exposed.

              In the early 1970 a Sinhalese “scholar” wrote Hindu Religion was brought to this country by Northern Indian Aryan speaking people. A few years ago a relatively young Sinhalese writer repeated again the same information as fact. These people haven’t done anything new to enrich knowledge.

              So your people in south India didn’t have a religion 2500 years ago and didn’t know how to sail their Kallathonies 20 miles across the Palk Strait and didn’t know about cultural intrusion, must be stupid for not being culture carriers.

              What a sad primitive lot the South Indians have been.

      • 0
        0

        NV,

        Thank you for the clarification. I hope others in the know will come forward to disclosure what they know.

        This government should appoint a ‘National Commission’ with UNESCO OBSERVORS to inquire into this despicable episode in our history- a very important step in the reconciliation process, while some players are yet alive.

        The records of the history and literature of an ancient people were deliberately destroyed by rabid racists.

        Dr.RN

        • 3
          0

          Dr.Rajasingham Narendran

          Many atrocities committed in the past by the state had never been investigated thoroughly, and the persons responsible were never charged leave alone punished.

          A few years ago I was told a few who committed state murder of innocent youth in 1971 were still alive.

          I wonder why JVP and AKD aren’t demanding accountability for what had happened in 1971 and between 1987 and 1990.

    • 3
      0

      Dr. RN, Gamini Dissanayake and the low class fisherman Cyril Matthew were in Jaffna looting and burning Jaffna. Dissanayake got a fire cracker up his arse and collapsed and died. So he got what he deserved, but the coolie Matthew died of natural causes, unfortunately.

  • 2
    0

    Dr.R.N.

    Very unlikely. Gamini lokuge is an illiterate fellow.He will not be able to appreciate the contents of a book from the Jaffna Library.My take is that he may have taken a book or two as a memento!.

    • 0
      0

      Plato,

      You may be right. However, what are the possibilities that he did this at someone’s behest?

      Dr.RN

      • 3
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        Dr.Rajasingham Narendran

        Please read this Colombo Telegraph article:

        Burning Of The Jaffna Public Library: Whodunit?

        https://www.colombotelegraph.com/
        index.php/burning-of-the-jaffna-
        public-library-whodunit/

        • 0
          0

          Many thanks Native Vedda,

          The link you provided me with took me first to the Sinhalese translation of the article: Excellent.

          Wherever possible this sort of information must be made available to the Sinhala reading public. We, who read in English, are such a negligible minority that we don’t matter. There are two comments only on it.

          Yes, the article is clear and convincing; so are the 70 responses. In June this year, I happened to visit the library in Jaffna – just sight-seeing with a group of retired Sinhalese teachers. So it is a standard feature of the itinerary for Sinhalese groups visiting Jaffna. The building itself has been impressively reconstructed, and maintained.

          But the contents – gone for ever. Given the current claims that Tamils arrived in this country long after the Sinhalese, the motive for destroying ancient manuscripts that the old library is said to have housed becomes clear. I have little knowledge or scholarship in this field; it all looks very wrong.

          • 0
            0

            Sinhala-man,

            As an anjuct to this story, I wish to mention here a similar personal experience. In our house in Jaffna we had books in English and Tamil, collected over three generations . The LTTE drove in with a Lorry and forcibly took away the books, articles and magazine of great value. The caretaker told me that the collection was thrown into the Lorry and many fell off along the road, when they drove away. They claimed the collection would be housed in their library. Where are these books now?

            Knowing the quality and variety of this collection, they would have been of value to the Haffna liibrary. Home libraries in Jaffna were a common sight at what time. What happened to these libraries?

            I lost much during the turmoil and wars, but they could be recouped, but not this library.

            The LTTE did their share of the damage to Jaffna’s historical and literary heritage.

            Dr.RN

          • 2
            0

            Sinhala_Man

            Please read the following news item:

            Ranil apologizes for burning of Jaffna library
            2016-12-06 21:10:10 1 5205

            Prime Minister Ranil Wickremesinghe today apologised for the burning of Jaffna Library in 1981 and urged the Joint Opposition to apologize for what happened during that time as well.

            “The public library in Jaffna was burnt during a United National Party (UNP) Government in 1981. We know it was wrong and tender an apology for it,” he said.

            “You too should tender an apology for the wrong things which your Government did,” he told the Joint Opposition MPs, who was heckling at him at that time.

            This House turned noisy when Mr. Wickremesinghe rose to answer a question posed by TNA MP M. A. Sumanthiran, who opposed the move by the Ministry of Resettlement and Rehabilitation to construct per-fabricated houses in the war affected regions.

            “We want to see that 80 percent of the houses in the North are reconstructed and are willing to discuss matters with the Northern representatives,” the Prime Minister added. (Yohan Perera)

            http://www.dailymirror.lk/
            article/Ranil-apologizes-for-
            burning-of-Jaffna-library-120317.html

  • 1
    0

    Dr.R .N.

    There was a time when Gamini Dissanayake used to wax eloquence on the works of T.S.Eliot[Murder in the Cathedral later filmed as Beckett starring Richard Burton and Peter O Toole].
    All this was after a few years of the burning of the Jaffna Library!

    • 0
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      Plato, actually I don’t think the film with Richard Burton was based on Eliot’s play but on one by the French dramatist Jean Anouilh.

  • 0
    0

    “Getting curiouser and curiouser!” I say, Plato, the bugger burnt the library and took the books to read.

  • 1
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    The first major incident of communal violence in Trincomalee was in 1977 and linked to parading the Ashes of SJVC from North to South of “Tamil Eelam”.
    It was part of the politics of Sentiment of Tamil nationalism (much in the style of JRJ putting to use the remains of Dudley Senanayake to arouse support for the UNP and his own rise within it) with unexpected consequences.

    I cannot imagine anyone justifying this act of planned violence which hurt communal harmony in Trincomalee town, and paved way for a series of unpleasant incidents, provoked mostly by elements close to the armed forces, the Navy especially.

    But I should also add that that the FP (by then TULF)— which from 1956 had only one major agenda, namely vote gathering to keep afloat —was seldom sensitive to situations outside the Jaffna Peninsula.

    • 1
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      // seldom sensitive to situations outside the Jaffna Peninsula //

      That is something so fundamental about Tamil Nationalism.

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