22 September, 2018

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Michael Roberts As An Apologist For Sinhala Nationalism/Chauvinism

By Laksiri Fernando

Dr. Laksiri Fernando

Dr. Laksiri Fernando

The republication of Michael Roberts’ 1991 article “Nationalism, the Past and the Present: The Case of Sri Lanka” gives rise to some concerns in a context where the efforts on the part of the current political regime can best be characterized as ‘assimilation’ of minority communities and not ‘reconciliation’ within a plural society and a democratic political system. What it tries to establish or re-establish is the hegemonic position of Sinhala Buddhism over the other strands of ethnic or religious identities in the country on the basis of historical legacy which might or might not be correct as an objective or dispassionate historical interpretation.

Even it was the case in the past, which I seriously doubt as a ‘continuity’ even with breaks or change, the glorification of such a hegemony even on the pretext of a ‘defensive mechanism’ is completely unwarranted in the 21st century for the people in the country or anywhere else under similar conditions to live in peace and harmony. Sri Lanka is not the only country with ethnic strife, colonial past, overlapping ethnic solidarities across borders or even perceived or actual external threats. None of these would warrant the domination that the Sinhalese elite exerts on the minority communities, religious or ethnic, in the name of larger community or country interests, not to speak of barbaric acts of violence like in the case of July 1983 for example.

General Considerations

As a review of three books that Roberts has mentioned, I have no issue in agreeing with some of the relative merits of what he has to say, particularly in respect of the possibility of some form of ‘nationalism’ or more correctly ‘proto-nationalism’ in the ancient past in Sri Lanka or elsewhere. This must have been there on the part of both the Sinhalese and the Tamils undoubtedly with variations in historical origin, spread and continuity. However, it is completely doubtful whether there was an ‘ethnic conflict’ and associated ‘nationalism’ or anything else in the ancient past as we can see or document today. I am not convinced of any evidence given by Michael Roberts, Leslie Gunawardana or any other on this matter and particularly on so-called ‘Sinhala consciousness.’

The scholars on nationalism (not merely historians) are divided on the issue of the origins of nationalism or more so on its definition. I am not touching on definitions here for the sake of brevity. There are ‘modernists’ (i.e. Gellner, Hobsbawm, Anderson etc.) who primarily believe that nationalism is a modern phenomenon and there are others (i.e. Smith, Hastings, Greenfeld etc.) who believe that nationalism was there even in ancient past or pre-modern times. It is however only the nationalists who believe that nations or nationalism/s are timeless phenomena.

In his review article, Roberts has taken a particular umbrage against the modernists, but has not mentioned at the outset that there are other scholars who differ with modernists. His mentioning or quoting of David Smith is only incidental. Of course he has given an excuse saying “This review article was drafted in 1991 and should therefore be assessed in the light of the literature available then,” but the debates on the two strands of thinking were well known by 1991. Of course there are many other strands of thinking on nationalism.

A Major Mistake

A major mistake of many of those who talk about nationalism, except perhaps the above mentioned ‘modernists,’ is making their take on ‘nationalism’ without any consideration for the period, the country or the region. This has led to considerable confusions. There is no one phenomenon of nationalism that suits all times and all countries. Moreover, there are varieties of nationalism/s (economic, political, cultural, ethnic, religious etc.) largely based on the social groups who espouse them. Roberts has of course made an attempt to make a distinction between the past and the present saying, “In line with my previous writings on the subject (1979a), this, Sinhala identity is labeled a “patriotism” and treated as conceptually distinct from latter-day “nationalism.” This distinction is at best nebulous, and utterly confusing. Today we consider ‘patriotism’ mainly as a part of nationalism, malignant or benign. Just see the historical sweep that Roberts has taken in the very previous paragraph after making this imprecise distinction.

“It [his article] lays special emphasis on the role of oral traditions and the interplay between the oral and the written traditions in reproducing Sinhala consciousness; and on the imprint of conflict between the Sinhalese (under their dynasts) and a series of Indian invaders from the ninth to thirteenth centuries, and the conflict with successive European powers from the sixteenth to nineteenth centuries. It was this consciousness which informed the efforts of those Kandyan Sinhalese who participated in a massive rebellion against the British occupation in 1817-18.”

In contrast to what Benedict Anderson (Imagined Communities, 1983) said about the ‘role of the print media’ in the creation or construction of modern nationalism, I don’t have much issue in accepting a possible role for the ‘oral traditions’ or even ‘the interplay between the oral and the written traditions’ in creating a form of proto-nationalism in the ancient times. Those are possibilities but not established facts as far as I am aware. Perhaps that is where Roberts has an original contribution.

But it is too farfetched to talk about the most undefined and rather metaphysical notion of a ‘Sinhala consciousness’ during these times whether by Roberts or Gunawardena. I would hypothesize that proto-nationalism, if at all, in ancient times by and large was an elite phenomenon and not a mass movement like modern nationalism/s. I would like to talk about nationalism/s in the plural.

Past Conflicts!  

On the one hand, if there had been a “conflict between the Sinhalese (under their dynasts) and a series of Indian invaders from the ninth to the thirteenth centuries,” it has to be accepted by Roberts that there must have been a Tamil counterpart ‘under these Indian invaders.’ It was not like colonialism. Otherwise, these invasions were not sustainable if one side is backed by nationalism or masses (i.e. Sinhalese). The period he talks about is at least four centuries.

On the other hand, if these so-called conflicts were primarily in the form of wars between dynasts, there is no possibility or rather necessity of having a (strong) Sinhalese or Tamil elements behind them in the form of ‘patriotism’ or ‘nationalism’ as we understand them today. At best it must have remained at the elite level as proto nationalism, on both sides although at different degrees. In that case one cannot talk them as a conflict with the Sinhalese.

It is my understanding that as we go back in history, the phenomenon of ‘Sinhala’ was more of a religious notion or even a name, than an ethnic or a national one.

I have no qualms with Roberts in identifying some roots of modern (say twentieth century) Sinhala nationalism within the resistance against successive European invasions from the sixteenth to the nineteenth centuries. This is also the case to a lesser extent of modern Tamil nationalism. But both are primarily the products of modern circumstances of capitalism, print media, mass politics and competitive interests (economic, language and religion), to name a few. I use the qualification or adjective ‘modern’ to allow the marginal or theoretical possibility of identifying some forms of group or ethnic identities in the past or even in ancient times. Its historical verification however should be facts based and rational. The glorification is not necessary, directly or indirectly.

Obvious Bias   

Of course the nationalists on both sides try to trace their history of nationalisms or nations from ancient times. But the academics should not do that or be apologists to them. The following are two main quotes from Roberts where he talks about the origins of Sinhala and Tamil nationalism separately.

“It [this refers to his own article] argues that there was a Sinhala consciousness in the past, in the era of dynastic monarchies. On Gunawardana’s own evidence this dates from the eleventh-twelfth centuries, but could arguably (in opposition to Guna­wardana) be pushed back to the fifth-sixth centuries.”

“In this strict sense, Tamil nationalism is a late phenomenon, though it clearly developed out of, and in direct linkage with, the body of sentiments, the recursive metaphors (Nash) and the political activities which had empowered a distinct Sri Lanka Tamil group identity in the decades before 1948-49, an identity recognized in Ceylonese English as a “community.”

It is very clear from the above two quotes that Michael Roberts has become an apologist to Sinhala nationalism and its chauvinist claims. He argues that (without definition or interpretation) that ‘Sinhala consciousness’ was there in the past in the era of dynastic monarchies and even the dates can easily be pushed back to the fifth-sixth centuries. The evidence given are all like tall stories.

Why does he talk about fifth-sixth centuries? I believe it is primarily because of Mahavamsa. Ironically, it is only today that Nalin de Silva wrote about “The Mahavamsa Myth” to The Island newspaper (26 February 2014) and said the following.

“Mahavamsa is clearly the Vamsakatha (history) of the Asoka Bududahama, and it establishes the ‘supremacy’ of that sect over the other sects of Bududahama or other Bududahamas. However, Mahavamsa should not be considered a book of history in the western tradition as no attempt has been made to write a history of Sri Lanka or the Sinhala nation. Ideally, it should be treated as a Vamsakatha and nothing more.”

In contrast to Sinhala nationalism, according to Roberts, Tamil nationalism is a late phenomenon. Even he almost blames the Ceylon Communist Party, referring to its 1944 Manifesto, for ideologically influencing Tamil nationalism particularly espoused by the Federal Party. What a tragedy of historiography?

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Latest comments

  • 19
    3

    Thank you Laksiri Fernando

    • 1
      15

      Are you thanking him for keeping you in a job by producing a lot of s*** for you to collect LOL

    • 5
      1

      Dr. Laksiri Fernando,

      “Even it was the case in the past, which I seriously doubt as a ‘continuity’ even with breaks or change, the glorification of such a hegemony even on the pretext of a ‘defensive mechanism’ is completely unwarranted in the 21st century for the people in the country or anywhere else under similar conditions to live in peace and harmony. Sri Lanka is not the only country with ethnic strife, colonial past, overlapping ethnic solidarities across borders or even perceived or actual external threats. None of these would warrant the domination that the Sinhalese elite exerts on the minority communities, religious or ethnic, in the name of larger community or country interests, not to speak of barbaric acts of violence like in the case of July 1983 for example.”

      Thank you for stating the facts as they are.

      Let’s get the facts straight here. The Para-Sinhala Buddist now want to diesrimaonate the other-Paras. Native Veddah wants all the Para, especially the Para-Sinhala Mahanam Buddhists to go back to South India, where their genes came from.

      Aettho Urumaya, not Para-Sinhala Urumaya or Para-Demala Urumaya.

      The Sinhalese and Tamils and other in Sri lanka, are paradeshis, or Para-Sinhala, Para-Demala, Para-Muslims and other paras, or Parangiois, except the Native Veddah who are the original inhabitants from at least 16,000 years ago.

      All the above descriptions supports the Sinhala and Tamil as Para-Sinhala and Para-Tamil, like Para-deshi, Foreigners, as far a the Native Veddah are concerned, who walked at least before 16,000 years ago when Lanka and India were connected by a land bridge as the sea levels were low.
      So the Sinhala and Tamil Nationalism need to be identified as, Para-Sinhala Nationalism and Para-Tamil Nationalism. Monk Mahanama imaginations of Mahawansa need to be discarded.

      Why? Non- Confirmation bias of Mahawansa Did Dr. Para-nawithana, believe, the Imaginations of monk Mahanama of 5th Century such as:

      a) Grandfather of Para-Vijaya was a lion? Any DNA data in support of this imagination?

      b) Buddha visited Lanka 3 times in 500 BC? any support for the Imagination.

      c) During one visit, Buddha left his giant footprint on top of Mount Samanala Kanda, “Adams Peak”. Did he fly by the Dandu Monera Yanthraya, Giant Bird, and parachute?

      d) The Veddah are the offspring of Para-Vijaya and Kuveni. Is there any DNA data to support this? No. Another Monk Mahanam Imagination.

      Sri Lanka’s indigenous inhabitants, the Veddas — or Wanniya-laeto (‘forest-dwellers’) as they call themselves — preserve a direct line of descent from the island’s original Neolithic community dating from at least 16,000 BC and probably far earlier according to current scientific opinion.1 Even today, the surviving Wanniya-laeto community retains much of its own distinctive cyclic worldview, prehistoric cultural memory, and time-tested knowledge of their semi-evergreen dry monsoon forest habitat that has enabled their ancestor-revering culture to meet the diverse challenges to their collective identity and survival.

      Who are the natives of Lanka? Native Vedda. The walked. They are not Para- and not Paradeshi, Kallathoni, Illegal Boat People or Hora-Oru, like the Para-Sibhala, Para-Demala and other Paras.
      Read:
      http://vedda.org/deraniyagala.htm S

    • 3
      1

      Very well said Dr. Laksiri Fernando, it is only recently, long after his retirement Michael Roberts has become an Apologist for Sinhala Nationalism/Chauvinism. As long as such people find someone to fund their daily bacon and wine (not to mention [Edited out] ) people do change their attitudes and behavior to suit those who fund them. Prof. Leslie Guna¬wardana was absolutely right when he talked about ‘Sinhala consciousness’ the eleventh-twelfth centuries, the term ‘Sinhala’ itself was discovered by the Mahavihara monks only in the fifth-sixth centuries and that too from the Indian epics. That was the time Ven. Mahanama Thero created the tall story or rather ‘Sinhala (Lion) story’ by adopting the term ‘Sinhala’ from the Mahabaratha.

  • 10
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    Well,said,Austin Fernando.Over the years Roberts has emerged,under the cloak of scholarship,as the most ardent and at the same time the most insidious, propagandist for Sinhala “nationalism” which according to Roberts antedates all other nationalisms!Indeed the Sinhala society is unique in everyway!Essentially he is arguing here as in his earlier articles for a Sinhala hegemonic state.
    I see that he has insipired his acolyte Ratnavalli to continue the attacks, in an intemperate and crude style, on RALH Gunawardene who alas is too dead to be able to respond.This is a kind of necrophilic sadism!

    • 4
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      I am sorry,I meant Laksri Fernando.So many Fernandos and I read them all!With aplogies to both!

  • 6
    1

    Expect an contemptible from his disciple Darshanie Ratnawalli , Laksiri :-)

  • 7
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    Can someone please enlighten the CT readership of the ethnic, academic backgrounds and educational achievements of Michael Roberts. Without this knowledge as a reader of his articles I am confused as to where he is coming from and where he is going.

    Please, someone?

  • 1
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    This comment was removed by a moderator because it didn’t abide by our Comment policy.For more detail see our Comment policy https://www.colombotelegraph.com/index.php/comments-policy-2/

  • 1
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    MR is fighting to get the national anthem sung in Tamil even though his ancestral countries Portugal or Holland do not allow such duality. [Edited out]

    • 11
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      “ancestral countries Portugal or Holland “

      Sorry his ancestors are definitely Muslim mercenaries from Kerala.

      When you study Indian history of the south west of India then you come to know that Muslim invaders were employed to keep away the Portugese and Brits away.
      The Dutch VOC arrived from the East (19 outpost in all from kanyakumari to patna)

      How do you think Rhaul Goo the muslim is assisting the moron??

      • 1
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        MR’s ANCESTORS WERE DON DAVITHS.

        THEY DEFINITELY HAVE THE MUSLIM (MALAY) GENE.

  • 2
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    Laksiri Fernando should talk about how Australian destroyed and are destroying Aborigines. I think, there he is a card holding member of a political party too. Because, he is living in a very racist country. While living in a very racist country stolen from natives and supporting those racists, he talks about nationalism and chauvanism of Sinhala people.

    He got as much as he could from Sri Lanka and now, Sinhala attempts to protect their culture is identified as Nationalism and chauvinism.

    Laksiri Fernando should talk first about his dishonesty and hypocrisy.

    • 0
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      The native population in Australia has been coservatively estimated as 3 million at the time the European came to ‘liberate’ the land from them. Today, barely 300,000 are alive living precariously at the edge of society. Yet we have the Australian ‘Greens’ and others telling us how we should live in Sri Lanka.

      • 3
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        Atleast there is a distinct native Australian population with their own distinct culture and language. Whereas the Veddah were decimated by the Sinhalese and there exists no fullblooded Veddah or a Veddah language. Aborigines retain far far more of their native culture than Veddah do of theirs.

        The Veddah are also sometimes referred to as Australoid and it is assumed that when the anceint ancestors of the Australian Aborigines left Africa, some of them went south into India and Ceylon and the Veddah are last remnants of this ancient migration.

        So before you start deflecting attention away from Sinhala Chauvinism and pointing at Australia , which incidentally has nothing to do with Laksiri, you should remember how the culture you identify with all but wiped out Ceylon’s native population.

        Why are soo many Sinhalese emigrating abroad , including to Australia ? Think about that when you get on your high horse and condemn Australian Greens who criticise GOSL.

    • 2
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      ” He got as much as he could from Sri Lanka and now, Sinhala attempts to protect their culture is identified as Nationalism and chauvinism.”

      How exactly were Tamils threatening Sinhala culture; Tamils be they Hindu or Christian never tried to convert Sinhala masses away from Buddhism, unlike Muslims and Western Christians. Tamils never tried to breed their way into dominance like Muslims are doing.

      Why are you bringing up Australia, we are on a Ceylon forum concerned about Ceylon issues. Ofcourse this is classic argument from you Sinhala Chauvinist apologists, always pointing at someone else and what they did.

    • 0
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      Softy soft brain, your comments are completely out of context and please keep sucking the ruling regimes haemmaroids.

  • 1
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    Laksiri Fernando:

    Western countries tried to promote their wealth by every mean and forgot every thing else.

    Now they are mourning their disappearing cultures.

    Now, they say multiculturalism is not good for a country and have started assimilation.

    You preach rubbish here and sinhala people also has to do the same thing. May be because, you have [Edited out]

  • 3
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    Wikipedia says: Tamil Nadu……; Tamil: தமிழ்நாடு; literally The Land of Tamils or Tamil Country)

    And the minorities are so disadvantaged, the actually have a “Department of Backward Classes, Most Backward Classes and Minorities Welfare (Tamil Nadu).”

    And in this link : http://www.countercurrents.org/patel240710.htm it says, “This system has become the so called TWO LANGUAGE FORMULA of the State. The Tamil speaking majority have been learning Tamil and English. And the linguistic minorities ( Telugu,/ Urdu / Kannada Malayalam etc.,) had to forego their mother tongue and culture if they wanted to learn Tamil in order to be eligible for Govt. Services…………… As a result teaching of minority languages has been gradually declining since 1967.”

    And we are talking about Sinhala nationalism?

    • 12
      0

      How can you possibly compare when all have adjoining states run by the same federal government of India??
      If lanka had it do you think these villages from the north and south would have brought in their nasty war baggage to the west/colombo???

      India has addressed the problem of minorities to its detriment ie reserving 30% of uni seats and employment.
      It is the same that Sirima/Badurdin did with standardisation giving the muslims and sihala undue advantage and then rapping it up by importing onions and chilies. This stroke was what created the boys in the first instance and gradually they hardened at Golan heights.

      • 7
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        It is social engineering carried out by political scientists of Tony Blair for them to feel important that has created issues for UK too.

        These political scientist are dangerous hypocrites; How can politics be a science when it is all about sandwiching the truth with lies??

      • 1
        12

        Oops….sorry, I forgot for a moment the Tamil Nadu was not a country.

        Yet, I was thinking of the size and population density of TN compared to Sri Lanka. 72 million Tamils in TN, and spilling over into Sri Lanka. One absolute and supreme Tamil Country-State in centripetal-force with Delhi, yet centrifuging towards Sri Lanka. The very concept of it is totally illegal in relation to humanity (we are not spinning globes). It is entirely baffling- the High Esteem for Tamil culture and heritage, but Zero regard for Sinhala culture and heritage.

        It is found that when people and communities assimilate over millennia, then in modern era, these are assembled into states and countries. If they push over into another State or country, they assimilate into that state or country, or become a minority.

        Now Tamils are also present in Kerala, but Kerala remains Kerala with Tamils assimilating with the Malayalees . Same with Tamils in Andra Pradesh- they assimilate with the Telengu people.

        Tamils in SL however do not want to assimilate with the Sinhalese, and in a totally different country from India too. And their difference from the TN Tamils is naught(save for learning some Buddhistic virtues). Something is very internationally illegal about the whole situation. Even a Cyprus correlation cannot be applied due to the difference in population ratios between the two places,20:1 .

        • 10
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          “Now Tamils are also present in Kerala, “”Same with Tamils in Andra Pradesh-“

          THERE IS NOTHING CALLED ASSIMILATE IT IS THAT RAMONA ID JUST ANOTHER FOUL MOUTH FISH SMELLING MODAYA

          Languages of Kerala in 2001[259]

          Malayalam (96.74%)
          Tamil (1.87%)
          Others (1.39%)
          According to 2001 Census of India figures, 56.2% of Kerala’s residents are Hindus, 24.7% are Muslims, 19% are Christians, and the remaining 0.1% follows other religions.[

          The Elephants were brought Ceylon from India-see Thrissur Pooram festival

          First Languages of Andhra Pradesh in 2010[58]

          Telugu (83.88%)
          Urdu (8.63%)
          Hindi (3.23%)
          Tamil (1.01%)
          HINDU 89%

        • 2
          10

          at last someone talking sense.. welcome to the forum – this forum is overrun by tamil racists unfortunately. In India tamil is not even an official language like in SL.. central gov works in Hindi.. is it too much equality in SL that is the problem I wonder

        • 5
          1

          Give me a break – Ramona Therese Fernando – you are hardly a Sinhalese with a Portuguese half breed name like yours. Do not insult the Tamils with your racist rhetoric and pseudo Buddhist nonsense. Tamils have been in Sri Lanka for 2000 years with kings of their own and have alternatively dominated parts of the island along with the Sinhalese majority. The comparisons with Kerala and other South Indian states are irrelevant.

          Tamils and Sinhalese share a culture and significant parallels in religion which you with your Lusitanian name will hardly understand. So just shut up and learn to write in Portuguese instead!

          • 3
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            Hey, I love my fishy diet, and have no smelly fishy-mouth. We rinse our mouth is salty sea water and bath in sea-water regularly. We are clean, health persons. Is there any Lankan cleaner than the sea-worthy Lankan? Lankans in generally ignore this nonsense and relate to each other amiably, accepting history and assimilation into the Lankan fold as part of Sinhala civilization and Sinhala civil society. If it wasn’t there some time after independence, we are ready to forgive, for Sinhala persons got temporarily deranged after the declaration of Purity, by the Nation of Tamil Eeelam. However, that was nothing like the derangement of the racially pure Tamils of the 30 year long war of the Tamils Tigers.

            I am proud to be one of the 99% of the country. All Hail to Lankan Commonality!!! Proud to have a Portuguese connection; Proud to have a South Indian connection; Proud to have a Low Caste connection; Proud to have any High-Caste connection; Proud to have any North Indian connection. I am 100% Lankan! All are Lankan! And we uphold the great Sinhala-Buddhist tradition that keeps unique and so very different from “Racially-Pure-at-the-Mercy-of-being-Exterminated,” Tamil Nadu cum Eeelam !

            As for the kings and kingdoms of yore, we have since taken Buddhist Democracy to another level- the Western level. We are all now Lankan, and ethnicity and ethnic origins are a thing of the past. Those who want Tamil purity can migrate to Tamil Nadu.

            • 4
              3

              Ramona is a [Edited out]. We will never accept her into our Siyam Nikaya. She is not a daughter of Rajarata or Udarata. She is [Edited out]. The Rajapakse boys will never marry her given their good caste. An authenic Sinhala can never be[Edited out].

              • 2
                9

                KGB, Siyam Nikaya is from Kandy, and hence has a lot of Hindoo caste-system influence brought in by the Naykes of South India. It will be of much Buddhistic merit to Sri Lanka if the Rajapakse boys married Dalits from Jaffna (we’ll let them have good looks and some money), together with having 12% of the National anthem in Tamil and the removing the Lion from the flag.

            • 3
              0

              “Lankans in generally ignore this nonsense and relate to each other amiably, accepting history and assimilation into the Lankan fold as part of Sinhala civilization and Sinhala civil society.”

              So you are no different to Gota , Mahinda and Fonseka ; all of whom seek to wipe out Tamils slowly through assimilaton and persecution. You like Sinhala Chauvinists want Tamils to be wiped out by being absorbed into the Sinhala fold. Your Sinhala culture did this with the Veddah and Tamils of ancient times and want to continue on course with this cultural genocide.

              Tamils were in Lanka before the Sinhalese so there is no need to blend into the Sinhala fold.

              • 1
                9

                Very nice……tell this to U.S and UNHRC.

                At least Tamils were allowed to assimilate in Sri Lanka with fine weddings and grand processions. Nowadays it is in Modern Democratic US style (although the fine weddings and processions are still there- even more so there).

                Tried on the other hand to assimilate into Jaffna……….people were Bomb-Blasted into Oblivion.

                When are you people going to realize that Prabakharan had human-tiger genes and tiger karma. The fellow inspired and motivated all you people to fight for the Eeelam cause just for the heck of blood, death, gore and violence.

                If he had won the north and east, then he would have turned to the rest of Lanka. After winning the rest of Lanka, he wouldn’t have rested until he had taken over the whole of India, and then carried on thus. Such is the psyche of these great world warriors e.g. Hitler (Eeelam being the excuse)

                Alfred Durraiappha had the decent style of integrating with Sinhalese. But no, on the built up madness of just a few, the concept of Eeelam took root.

                Truth is, that Tamils are now ingrained with the Eelam and terroristic concepts. It will be many decades(probably a generation or three), before the Tamil People of Sri Lanka can realize that with their small number of 2-million, dictating to a large majority of 16 million is futile, petty, racist, delusional, and old-fashioned and mostly Undemocratic.

                While in Sri Lanka, do as Sri Lankas do.

                Otherwise, take a fast boat to Tamil Nadu!!!

          • 4
            2

            Bala,

            If you study the history of FERNANDOs in Sri Lanka, they are recent migrants to Sri Lanka (after the Portuguese arrival) from Tutucorin (Tutukuddi) in South India (presently Tamil Nadu).

            Dr. Paul E. Pieris has published extracts from the Portuguese tombo which gives the original names of the present day Sinhalese FERNANDO, etc before their conversion to Christianity. Dr. Pieris states: “The names deserve special attention, the majority appear to have been converted to Christianity and adopted European names. Fernando being the most popular surname, but the native name is also given among them being the following: Vira Cutti, Parama Cutti, Nila Cutti, Sembaga Perumal, Adambara Perumal, Nahepulle, Avepulle, etc. These point to recent South Indian origin. (please read below what Prasad has written).

            • 5
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              You meanlike Sembap Perumal; King Buvenaka Bahu !!

              Yes, many kings and chiefs adopted; like Jugo Bandara, Don Phillipe (Yamasinha), Don John (Dharmasurya), Jayaweera, Karaliyadde…one Don Fernando rose to become the Governor of Goa.

              Even these Bandaras are recent imigrants; Nilaperumal Kalukapuge Pandaranayake.

              Then there are Kannasamys; Sri Wickrama Rajasinghe.

              So Fernandoes are not Vaddha killers.
              Their presence was recoded by the Portuguese, nothing about recent.
              Portuguese controlled the western seaboard of India, not the Eastern sea.

              • 3
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                Hey people above,
                Appreciate your interest int0 my roots.

                KGB, If Sinhalese have Tamil-type caste systems, it is truly a shame on their Buddhist roots. They learned it from the Tamil-Hindoos. However, their class system is also rampant world-over. In England, one does not marry the royal family too easily(unless they made it big in the world of commerce- e.g.Kate). Aristocracy in England even married those from Jamaica to uphold their estates(they usually had African roots). Aristocracy of Sri Lanka is of similar nature.

                Ravi, healthy National Status usually comprise of migrants from other lands. Modern national democracy revels in their assimilation of peoples from all over the world. Sri Lanka functions as a modern and Buddhistic democracy with a healthy mixture of genes from South and North India, Africa, China, and Europe. All except the Tamil Nation! Hence their need to indulge in terroristic warfare to secure their purity of genes.

                Arnolis Dep Wijewardane, thanks for clarifying some of the Fernando royal roots. However, it is not needed. For unlike Tamil that rampantly indulges in all that KGB and Ravi talk about, Sri Lanka on the other hand has functioned as a Civilized, Unified, Democratic, Buddhistic Nation since her inception!

                • 7
                  1

                  “”Aristocracy in England even married those from Jamaica to uphold their estates(they usually had African roots).””

                  YOU ARE MAD THE WEST INDIES ARE THE SLAVES FROM AFRICA> AFRICANS KILLED THE FRIENDLY INDIGENOUS `ARAWAKS` EXACTLY THE WAY YOU KILLED THE FRIENDLY VEDDHA.
                  (odd aristocrat cuckoo’s flew over the nest for the excitement of the long thinge and was exiled to Ireland to give birth nothing else just a one off)

                  “We rinse our mouth is salty sea water and bath in sea-water regularly.”
                  PHEW!!

                  Even in Ceylon we use mouthwash not smelly sea water to wash mouth. Even after a swim in the pool/sea we shower with plain tap water.

                  THE JAPANESE KNOW YOU WELL AND THEY CONFIRM YOU SMELL OF FISH.(HR Manchester)

                  See what an angel this native was RIP a legend.
                  I wish Lanka had a Pres like him than stupid dynasty.

                  http://tinyurl.com/pxv9qs5

                  http://tinyurl.com/nbgu5of

                  • 1
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                    Yes, the elites eat rice & daal
                    Meat and fish for the pheasants
                    Now Mahila & Sanga have started Ministry of Crab (seafood restaurant)

                    SMELLS OF DUNG !!!

                  • 0
                    6

                    Some aristocracy and the rich people of commerce did marry those of mixed African blood(although they were more white then black, but the mixture heritage was celebrated especially in the lovely black curls and lovely sparkling black eyes), and also Jews – there was hardly any racism a few centuries ago. But in Tamil Nadu, right through the millennia till now, Tamil is pure Tamil!

                    We Rinsed and Washed(not rinse and wash)- our heritage is one of cleanliness being close to the sea, in comparison with those who were not too close to the sea. Nowadays, having the tradition of cleansing our mouths and our bodies, we are most particular about these things (with modern products) compared to those who do not live so close to the sea.

                    • 6
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                      “We Rinsed and Washed in comparison with those who were not too close to the sea”

                      Offshots never Counted during the years of slaver or near post!!

                      Transsexual R.F is drunk! Fabricated naked tatte motte. You dont have the ba**s in that 4th world economy to change EU history neither do you have a home in the windy island where we surf

                      The Portugese, VOC or British history.
                      The Orphans were sent to Goa by the Portuguese, VOC sent family or transfered the batchelors quickly from place to place, the Brits followed the VOC to maintain the security/power of the colonies.
                      Laws and Social did not permit did not permit it during that time. There were Greek chieftans in west punjab before Alexander the Great came and left to die.
                      Therefore the Greek inscriptions.
                      The Brits had to change the law to award citizenship to the first Chinese long before any black or asian.

                      Jews are originally from Ethiopia and the Jews don’t deny that.

                      What you are saying is bandit perhaps your pedigree is of Bihari Banditry!

              • 4
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                Arnolis Dep Wijewardane

                The Tamil Sembap Perumal of Thuthukudi who got converted to Sinhala Fernando is not that Royal Sembap Perumal (King Buvenaka Bahu). The present day Fernandos of low country were neither royal nor warriors, they were menial labor brought by the Portuguese. They assimilated with the local Sinhala population and got converted to Sinhala Buddhists and Christians. The biggest joke is, today they talk as if they are relatives of Dutugemunu, ‘royal roots’ and ‘warriors’.

                • 1
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                  Its a joke to listen to a grandson of a labourer.

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                  If so(i.e. if we are indeed low country and neither royal and not warriors), it does not matter to us a jot. We are proud of our humanity, and will do anything to protect the realm we reside in and share some heritage with.

                  Your statement that we talk as if we are relatives of Dutugumuna, is a shameful chauvinistic opinion of yours. It is terribly disgraceful to see persons from our land having such bigoted opinions that prevail in their heritage, for almost 100% of the world’s countries (with the exception of Tamil Nadu state in India, and Jaffna in Sri Lanka) have similar patterns of migration and assimilation.

                  These set of comments must be sent to Obama and the UNHRC, and he will realize the racism and castism that prevails when one race claims purity of race and castes, and tries to also sully the other with this rancour, in spite of the great Buddhist teachings of Equality and Democracy the other race reveres in.

                  • 6
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                    “”These set of comments must be sent to Obama and the UNHRC,””

                    Fishto, Peenando, the totalitario, nacionalista, antisocialista, antiliberal, Fascista, Please go ahead with everyone’s compliments.

                    Unconditional truth always wins. You cannot change European history- your present master( largest export of spice colony) and your former when you slaved.

                    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zBUJztI884M

            • 3
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              In these very same books these authors mention that the combined Portuguese & Kotte ‘Sinhala’ fleet was prevented an effective landing on the Jaffna peninsular by the the Karaiar King and his Vadugar army which had sailed from the Nayaka Kingdom of south India to help the Jaffna king.

              Vadugar Nayakes as you know were also the last royal dynasty of SL (Kandyan kingdom).

              • 1
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                fortunately we have a democracy now not a monarchy. if all the kings in SL were tamil good for them if not good too. now we elect our leader, although not very wisely but always with consensus. come out of your obsession with tamilness and caste systems. become sri Lankan or migrate. if you think u have more in common with TN be Indian who cares ? but if you feel you have more in common with sri lanka be sri Lankan. as for being british , Canadian and Australian – we all know that never works you are always a foreigner eh ?

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          What you claim as assimilation is a euphemism for genocide. What you want is for Tamils to disappear into the majority Sinhala communtiy.

          Why should Tamils assimilate into the Sinhala community, why don’t Sinhala assimilate into the Tamil community! See I just flipped your argument. In reality Tamils don’t want to assimilate anyone, it is not Tamil culture to try and gobble up other cultures.

          Tamils were in Lanka before your founder Vijaya colonised Lanka so there is no need to assimilate into the Sinhala fold.

          Sinhalese also speak a language whos roots are not native to the Indian SubContinent while Tamil is , so again why would Tamils give up their indegenous SubContinent identity and adopt the identity of Eurassian invaders.

          Malayalam is very close to Tamil and either is an ofshoot of Tamil or both Malayalam and Tamil split from each other after proto-Tamil-Malayalam split from the other Dravidian languages. Telugu is also a Dravidian language. So Tamils assimilating into Telugu or Malayalam aren’t losing their Dravidian identity, whereas Sinhala being an Indo-Aryan language, Tamils lose their Dravidian identity if they give up Tamil and adopt Sinhala.

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            But Tamils should have assimilated. According to modern democratic government, it is rightly so. In no way is assimilation a euphemism for genocide. Assimilation is love and marriage and offspring. Genocide is gas-chambers. Tamils should assimilate into the Sinhalese society and not the other way around because the ratios are 1:8.5.

            It is imperative for Tamils to assimilate because without assimilation, they have become terrorists. They want their own state, and this will mean their greater alliance with what they consider their motherland: Tamil Nadu! They will not be able to function efficiently on an area of land that is proportionate to their population number of 2-million, and therefore, they want 1/3 of Sri Lanka as theirs. Now, this is totally out of balance with Lankan demography.

            Almost all the provinces had kings in days of yore, but with the structure left to us after independence from Britain, we can have kings no more. Therefore the best that can be had in this modern age is the pure democracy of each race being represented by its proportions under one central government that will have the ability to tax each and every province equally.

    • 13
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      ramona therese

      “And we are talking about Sinhala nationalism?”

      Yes indeed we are.

      We are not talking about Tamilnadu and India.

      • 1
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        Native Vedda,
        When we talk about terrible things like Tamil Nationalism and Indian Nationalism, it is only then that we realize and appreciate, fineness, innocence and sincerely of Sinhala Nationalism.

  • 3
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    Laksiri
    I am glad that you have decided to take head on the problem of Professor Michael Roberts’ mischief making in cyberspace. It is hardly credible that he believes that his opus magnum, the treatise on Sinhala Consciousness in the Kandyan Kingdom, can in any way be construed as a critique of Benedict Anderson’s insights into modern day nationalism.
    Of course there was ethnic consciousness and patriotism in many pre modern societies, some of them rather well defined and intensely felt. Is the ethnic consciousness that Dr Roberts describes for the Sinhalese under Kandyan feudal rule qualitatively any different from that felt by, say, celtic or germanic tribes opposing the Romans, or Greeks in Sparta, or mongols under Ghengis Khan? But these pre modern ethnic consciousness is very different from twentieth century European nationalism, or Greek nationalism in the last days of the Ottoman Empire, or post-soviet nationalism in the central asian republics. Surely, we can expect someone of Dr Roberts’ academic pedigree to know this. Why then does he persist in trying to conflate the two? And persist he does – the treatise as a coffee table book, sections cut and pasted in numerous articles and blog posts, and now this, curtesy of CT.
    The least unholy explanation for Dr Roberts’ behaviour is perhaps the joy of iconoclasm. Benedict Anderson’s insights into modern day nationalism quickly became conventional wisdom, and attacking conventional wisdom is what ambitious young(ish) academics do. But I fear that this can hardly explain his continuing efforts to conflate pre modern ethnic consciousness with modern day ethno-nationalism. This is especially so in the context of our own country, where mischief making with nationalist sentiments has the potential to further inflame an already dire situation.

    • 5
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      I think Joseph Pillai has given the correct scholarly response to Michael Roberts’s special pleading.It is indeed very surprising that a person with Robert’s scholarly credentials engages in this kind of utterly specious reasoning by conflating “tribalism” “patriotism” and loyalty to a monarch or chieftain with modern day nationalism.One can only surmise that in his zeal to defend the Sinhala dominant state he has abandoned his critical acumen and contiunues to produce a modern day Mahavamsa,suitably wrapped in schloraly allusions and citations.

  • 4
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    Roberts has been angling for a job with this regime for some time now. It looks like he is getting increasingly desperate !

  • 5
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    Thank you so much for calling this Kalu Suddha who is continuing the divide and rule policy of his forefathers in the guise of a historian turned awful terrorist expert….he deserves a harsher punishment than even the Bodu Bala Sena. Then again he is probaly expecting that they will absove him from his perenially kalu suddha status as a burger..

  • 1
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    Let’s forget about Michael Roberts and his long and confusing, complicated gibberish. Thank you Dr Laksiri Fernando for your analysis too but these are all not important things to analyze or discuss today in the middle of a problematic situation Lanka is faced with. See how Mahinda is dangerously worried about UNHRC but still trying to sport a smile on his larger than life Malay face ? Poor guy is trying to ‘talk’ to ManMohan Singh man and give him more promises but he is not budging. Even Weera and soora wansas couldn’t do much locally, let alone poor Peiris and Nonis characters. DJ, Tamara, Rajiva ..they are trying but no use. Vaas guy can drive something into Pillai’s small brain with his driving experience in Dubai. Ravinatha is a total failure, it’s a big mistake. May be this guy Shavendra or Palitha Kohort can do something. Hmmm we have another fresh problem in hand now.
    See a British Tamil guy was found dead in our star 5 magazine prison toilet.
    He was looked after so well for eight years with only some incidents but he was okay alive and kicking. Our Lankan educated postmortem Doctor said he died of ‘Heart failure’, we can prove it with our medical reports, but only on March 14th. We have to ‘educate’ the Doctor who performed the Medical postmortem. Some guys , may be the LTTE rumps are already crying foul and calling for investigation damn thing. How unfair is this ?
    We have a democracy, a sovereign nation, have law and order, a great CJ and everything and still these rumps are making a big fuss for a small incident. Do you know how many people killed themselves in the Welikade prison riot last year ? This is Lanka you know, things happen. We didn’t send Duminda there to restore peace. He only went to Wanathamulla to restore calm and peace but they refused. Their days are of course numbered and Goota will take care of that problem. I know electric chair is waiting for me and my people will save me from Pillai and I will win another thousand elections. Jayawewa Sinhala Buddhism and Mahinda family.

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    Assimilation of any race, whether Sinhala or Tamil is unnecessary to live. If we can live happily as we do amongst neighbours, as we do now, why do we need to assimilate one or the other? Instead of nationalism of any type what is needed is to learn to live and let live. Language and religion must teach us that we are all different, but also the same.

  • 0
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    Oops….sorry, I forgot for a moment the Tamil Nadu was not a country.

    Yet, I was thinking of the size and population density of TN compared to Sri Lanka. 72 million Tamils in TN, and spilling over into Sri Lanka. One absolute and supreme Tamil Country-State in centripetal-force with Delhi, yet centrifuging towards Sri Lanka. The very concept of it is totally illegal in relation to humanity (we are not spinning globes). It is entirely baffling- the High Esteem for Tamil culture and heritage, but Zero regard for Sinhala culture and heritage.

    It is found that when people and communities assimilate over millennia, then in modern era, these are assembled into states and countries. If they push over into another State or country, they assimilate into that state or country, or become a minority.

    Now Tamils are also present in Kerala, but Kerala remains Kerala with Tamils assimilating with the Malayalees . Same with Tamils in Andra Pradesh- they assimilate with the Telengu people. Tamils in SL however do not want to assimilate with the Sinhalese, and in a totally different country from India too. And their difference from the TN Tamils is naught(save for learning some Buddhistic values). Something is very internationally illegal about the whole situation. Even a Cyprus correlation cannot be applied due to the difference in population ratios between the two places,20:1 .

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      ramona therese

      Could you summarise your point if you have one.

      Why should people assimilate and integrate, like the stupid Tamils whose descendants now form 15 million Sinhala speaking Tamils in this island? ?

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        The Summary: Render unto the Lanka all things that are Sinhalese, and unto Tamil Nadu all things that are Tamil.

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          ramona therese

          “Render unto the Lanka all things that are Sinhalese, and unto Tamil Nadu all things that are Tamil. “

          Render unto the Tamilnadu all stupids that are Tamil speaking Tamils. Render unto the Tamilnadu all stupids that are Sinhala speaking Tamils.

          Leave the island to its people, Veddah.

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            Native,

            This ramona therese fernando seems to be a total ignorant when it comes to Sri Lankan history and politics. She is only making an emotional appeal, have some compassion towards the poor soul.

          • 2
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            Native Vedda,
            Shave, brush your teeth, clip your toenails and take a bath. Then join in with Modern, United, and Democratic Sri Lanka! And stop examining your young girls for virginity-status.

            • 9
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              You take the indigenous NV for grunted like the classic southern pig??

              Then you better buy a little Chinese pig!!

              The Chinese own 85% of hambugtota the rest you could spread your legs in the middle east why not hot and cosy camel??

              But for us like this jazz two bare feet.
              Isn’t she lovely Czechoslovakian and she votes with Cameron?

              https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yEwTrvILxlg

            • 1
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              DONT BE SILLY
              MANY OF YOUR PEOPLE ARE MARRIED TO THE VEDHARS / THE COAST VADHAS.

              • 0
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                Of course….all Lankans have Vaddha blood in them. But some still remain and criticize the majority people in the country.

                • 0
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                  ramona therese fernando

                  “all Lankans have Vaddha blood in them.”

                  However no Sinhala\Tamil blood in Vedda nor do they suffer from Sinhala\Tamil gene and myth.

        • 0
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          Not “the Lanka,” but “Lanka.”

          RENDER UNTO LANKA ALL THINGS THAT ARE SINHALESE, AND RENDER UNTO TAMIL NADU ALL THINGS THAT ARE TAMIL!

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            If your great grandfather is alive today and if he is a Fernando, he will be speaking Tamil and NOT Sinhala.

            • 1
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              Even better!It shows that Tamils also became Sinhalese and love Sinhalese Lanka! And Sinhalese Lanka loves them!!! It shows that Sinhala race compared to Tamil race is inclusive and non-racist.

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                What a barrowload of manure??

                Just topple that cart because the sihalese were the `cause` like mahatma like banda the silent goonda- both shot by the majority for the goodness but similarity in you too like the dynasties.

                Aneeeey, you better take my mouth organ because you are worse off than Tamils.

            • 1
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              If so, then all hail to Sinhala-Lanka for converting us to Sinhalese.

              • 4
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                The Sinhala Lanka you are talking about does not include the North & East.

                The menial labor brought by the Portuguese & Dutch and settled in the South from Puttalam right down to Matara assimilated with the local Sinhala population (naturalization) and became Sinhalese. Similarly, the menial labor brought by the Portuguese & Dutch and settled in the North & East assimilated with the local Tamil population (naturalization) and became Tamils.

                The present day Fernandos of low country were neither royal nor warriors, they were menial labor brought by the Portuguese. They assimilated with the local Sinhala population and got converted to Sinhala Buddhists and Christians. The biggest joke is, today they talk as if they are relatives of Dutugemunu, ‘royal roots’ and ‘warriors’.

          • 8
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            No really not great grand,maximum grand no more.

            Surely a kallathoni chetty who could not help but be converted for the spice of life in the spice colony; clothes and catholic education.; just like crickets ranjith fernando, or elmo rodrigopulle.

            But never the Trinco vellalans the Pages who on conviction.

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        Native,

        If you read below what Prasad has written, the FERNANDOs such as ramona therese fernando belong to Tamil Nadu.

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          If so, then we belong to Sri Lanka now. See how nicely the Sinhala civilization accepted us into the fold. If we tried to convert to Tamil on the other hand, we would have been Bomb-Blasted from the Tamil-Dominium.

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            “”If we tried to convert to Tamil on the other hand, we would have been Bomb-Blasted from the Tamil-Dominium.””

            ramona therese fernando,…..YES Cat-O-Lic,(by boat,)

            Don’t turn back to Tamil you would turn to recognisable salt.

            But please in the spice island don’t be a fascist for fear of the majority which is the actual.

            Silence is golden isn’t??

            (even todays exports top is the same as spice island)

        • 4
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          Sinhalization is funny thing, especially when it is applied selectively !
          Admial Zheng He’s Galle inscription in the 14th century was only in Tamil, Arabic & Chinese !!!
          Kandyan chiefs sign the convention primarily in Tamil !!
          The Tooth relic was protected for king Prakramabahu by Tamils, he also marries Tamils !
          Vijaya & retinue marries Tamils, brings Tamil labourers !!
          Kingdoms are overthrown (brothers) with Tamil armies !!!
          Foreigners are chased away and Jaffna kingdoms conquered with Tamils !
          Sinhala script is closest to Andra Tamil !!
          Sinhala Only is introduced by Pandaranayake Nilaperumal Tamils !!!
          Sri Lanka’s most recent Tamils were their Kings and aristorats as well as the Estate Tamils !!
          They are Sinhalised through choice or rape !!!

    • 6
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      Professor K.M. de Silva in his `History of Sri Lanka`, refers to the MIGRATION OF THE KARAWE, SALAGAMA AND DURAWE CASTES FROM SOUTHERN INDIA TO SRI LANKA BETWEEN THE 14TH AND 17TH CENTURIES AD.

      Dr. Paul E. Pieris has published extracts from the Portuguese tombo which gives the original names of the present day Sinhalese FERNANDO, etc before their conversion to Christianity. Dr. Pieris states: “The names deserve special attention, the majority appear to have been converted to Christianity and adopted European names. Fernando being the most popular surname, but the native name is also given among them being the following: Vira Cutti, Parama Cutti, Nila Cutti, Sembaga Perumal, Adambara Perumal, Nahepulle, Avepulle, etc. These point to recent South Indian origin. It is known that the descendants of Tamils from down South like the Karawe, Salagama, and Durawe are the most anti-Tamil and the descendants of Sinhalese in Jaffna like the Kovias, Nalavas, etc are the most anti-Sinhalese.

      The Sinhalese became a majority only after the European Colonials came to Sri Lanka. In the 16th century, the Portuguese and in the 18th century, the Dutch who occupied the island brought in tens of thousands of people from South India (mainly from Cochin in the Malabar coast/presently Kerala and from Tutucorin in the Coromandel Coast/presently Tamil Nadu) and settled them in the Southern parts of the island from Puttalama up to Matara as menial laborers (for growing/peeling cinnamon – today known as Salagama caste, for fishing/pearl diving – today known as Karawa caste, coconut planting/plucking and toddy tapping – today known as Durawa caste, and for many other jobs). Within a few centuries, the Sinhala population in the South (low country) increased exponentially when these people assimilated with the local Sinhala population by adopting the Sinhala language/culture and the Buddhist/Christian religion and getting converted to Sinhala Buddhists and Sinhala Catholics. Today their descendents (6th generation from the South) are not only claiming the ancient Sri Lankan civilization as their own ‘Sinhala’ heritage but have also become the patriots and champions of Sinhala-Buddhist chauvinism. They have become distinct, ‘North Indian Vijaya’s Lion-blooded Sinhala Aryans’, the Nationalist Patriots and guardians of the country (Sri Lanka) and its Religion (Buddhism). If the forefathers of these so called “Sinhaputhra/Boomiputhra of Heladiva” had remained as Tamils, (without assimilating with the Sinhalese) today the Tamils would have been the majority in Sri Lanka or if they had assimilated with the Veddas instead of Sinhalese, today the Veddas would have been considerably a large population in Sri Lanka.

      • 6
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        THAT IS MUKARA HATANA KARAWA, NOT KARAVA NAVIKA OF ANURADHAPURA ERA.

        THIS IS A RICE-BOARD THEORY, CHRISTIAN BOTHALE BARTHLAMEWS SENANAYAKE AND TAMIL NILAPERUMALS KALUKAPUGE BANDARANAYAKES.

        YES SOME PANDYAN SERFS WERE BOUGHT OVER AS PART OF VIJAYA’S SECOND MARRIAGE DOWRY.
        VADDHA KILLERS WITH RECENT TAMIL KINGS AND ARITROCRATS ACUSING OTHERS OF BEING RECENT.

        ISLAND COUNTRY WITH IMPORTED FISHERMAN IS A JOKE.
        FISH IS THE OLDEST ROYAL SYMBOL OF OUR COUNTRY; ISLAND.
        QUEEN VIHARAMAHADEVI WAS SACRIFICED TO THE OCEAN AS THAT AFFECTED HER FATHER’S COASTAL KINGDOM.
        A FISHERMAN RESCUED HER AND INFORMED KING KAVANTHISSA.

        SALAGAMA WERE WEAVERS, WORLD FAMOUS CINAMON CULTIVATORS & SOME WERE BRAHMINS, A FEW WERE WARRIORS.

        DURAWA WERE ALSO WARRIORS, COCONUT PLANTERS, MOST TODDY TAPPERS WERE GOVI. ANY WAY THE BEST LOOKERS/ACTORS; GAMINI FONSEKA, RANJAN RAMANAYAKA, (VIJAYA KUMARATHUNGA, RAVINDRA RANDENIYA), ROSY RAMANAYAKA/SENANAYAKA.

        THE GREAT AND ANCIENT DEVA FOUND IN THE REMOTEST PARTS WHOSE GOD WE WORSHIP AS AN AUTHENTIC LANKAN GOD ARE ALSO CLASSED AS RECENT JAGGREY MAKERS BY THESE NEW MAJORITY AS IF THEY WERE THE ONLY ONES WITH THAT SPECIAL KNOW HOW (INSULTING THE SRI LANKAN WOMAN), WHY THEY HAD EXCLUSIVE OWNERSHIP OF KITHUL PLANTATIONS AND MANUFACTURING RIGHTS TO JAGGREY??

        DUNG THEORIES !!!
        VADDHA KILLING NAZIS !
        AN ISLAND COUNTRY HATING IT’S COASTAL PEOPLE IS AN EVIL, UNSUSTAINABLE !!

        • 4
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          Udukumbura Naideappu

          Please read what the SL historians have written about these people. Not only Professor K.M. de Silva and Dr. Paul E. Pieris but there are many others.

          • 3
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            Silva, Peries, Fernando history not important
            They are said to be 6th generation; that makes estate Tamils older.

            Have no time for evil souls

            This is what happens when you give a monkey a razor; a serf half an education, right to cast a vote….

            go read those books and others fully.

            Yes, Pattankatis were converted along with the Chiefs and some members of Royalty…..
            Traditional Tombo holders of the port by a royal grant….

            Then go to Abayagiri viharaya and read the Brahmi inscriptions.

            No amount of education can change when you got dung in the head and Vaddha killing evil in the veins.

            • 1
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              What is Ratnawalli talking about here??? I cannot understand any of her gibberish.

      • 7
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        Our president wont like this statement
        His aunt married in to a Karava family that hails from the ancient Kataragama king Bhatiyathissa.

        SL has to be ahamed if they keep electing only from the rice farmer caste and send some of these greats as mere foreign ambasadors.

        Many children of some great contributors to the indipendence movement had left the country due to this impure mentality, they are accepted for what they are in foreign countries, married to foreign women….and we have lost those great genes……

        • 1
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          Alas, Alas,……. in the writings as above, Sinhalese Race is starting to copy the Tamil Nation in their ways of proving impurities in Tamil race genes, and thus shaming people to lose their Sinhala and Buddhist identity of acceptance and assimilation of all who has loved and settled in Sri Lanka.

        • 5
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          Rajapaksa’s are born Catholics of Malaccan origin. Their Malaccan relatives were banished by Islamic Rulers of Malacca for helping the Portuguese conquest of Malacca. They converted to Sinhala-Buddhists for Political mileage. President Mahinda Rajapakse’s poor ancestor became an informant to the British during the late 19th century anti-British local uprising around the Hambantota salterns. This information led to the capture of Karava Mudaliyar Amadoru and other leaders. The British rewarded the informant with the name Rajapakse (British gave this name to people in who helped them), appointed him as an Arachchi and granted him 600 acres of land at Hungama for his service. The area was a Veddah territory of Giruwa pattu and the name of the land was Degampotha. This land was sold off in stages by Rajapakse Arachchi’s descendants to finance their indulgences leaving only Medamulana. Later, the land owning Sinhala-Buddhist Rajapakse family hailing from the south joined the Govigama caste around 1930s, long after D. S. Senanayake and other aspiring political families acquired the Govigama identity created by the mudaliar families of the De Saram clan and emerged as the dominant political force in the Hambantota district. Today, the family controls around 70% of the national budget.

      • 1
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        SINHALA HERRITAGE CANNOT BE CLAIMED BY (PANDYAN) SERFS.

        THAT IS THE KING’S HERRITAGE AND HIS SOUTH INDIAN WARRIORS.

      • 1
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        So? didnt the same happen in north? Between Sinhala people have been the majority of SL for a long time. That is why even Kandy was called Sinhale, which was the name of the Kandyan kingdom. That is why we will see plenty of books in sinhala, sinhala arts and culture while there is almost nothing when it comes to Lankan tamils.

        And more than 30% of those who call themselves as Lankan tamils in north are actually indian labour brought by Brits.

      • 0
        10

        Hey Prasad,
        If the more recent Assimilated-Tamils-with-Sinhalese claim the ancient Sri Lankan civilization as their own Sinhala heritage but have also become the patriots and champions of Sinhala-Buddhist heritage, it is because they assimilated (married) with the Sinhalese and became one with them. These sea-faring/sea-worthy people also have the blood of warriors that chase away invaders from their shores.

        • 7
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          ramona therese fernando

          Right from ancient history, Tamils are from both India and Sri Lanka. There was nothing called Tamil Nadu until the British created it. What existed as the Tamil countries in South India and Sri Lanka were known as Chola/Sola Nadu, Pandya/Pandu Nadu, Chera/Sera Nadu and Eela Nadu/Eela Mandalam. Tamil nation existed and still exists in South India (Tamil Nadu) and North-East Sri Lanka (Tamil Eelam). The Tamils are the sole occupants (natives) of both N&E Sri Lanka (Tamil Eelam) and South India (Tamil Nadu) when the colonials left. Just like the Arab nation has several countries in the middle-east and North Africa, the Tamil Nation had several countries (Chola Nadu, Pandya Nadu, Chera Nadu and Eela Nadu) in India and Sri Lanka and still has two regions/states in South Asia (Tamil Eelam and Tamil Nadu). Tamil Nadu belongs (Homeland) to the Tamils of India and Tamil Eelam belongs (Homeland) to the Tamils of Sri Lanka. There was a natural bridge known as Rama Setu that existed during the ancient period from Tamil Nadu to Tamil Eelam (now submerged by the rising sea but still visible in the satellite pictures taken by NASA). If Tamils like Elara are called invaders, then the Singalas like Vijay and his 700 men were also invaders. Whether you call them invaders or invitees or tourists or whatever, Singala came from India and Buddhism also came from India. Both Tamils and Singalas ruled the Island alternatively right from the beginning of history and the civilization was created by both. It is not mentioned anywhere that the Sri Lankan civilization is a Singala civilization or Tamil civilization. They both contributed, the Tamils starting from the kings Sena and Guttika as per the Mahavamsa. The Sri Lankan constitution does not say SL is a Singala country, the so called SL ‘history’ book Mahavamsa does not say SL is a Singala country and the Sri Lankan people (except a very few Singala racists) do not say so either. Just because the Singala Buddhists are more in number/majority (how they became a majority is no secret) that does not mean that the whole country is exclusively for them. A part of the country belonged to the Tamils before the British united the Tamil North (formerly Jaffna Kingdom) to the Singala South. The Singalese is the ONLY race in this entire world that foolishly believes that the majority race in a country is the sole owner of that country and all others (minorities) are aliens. No wonder the Suddhas called them ‘Kavum Kana Modayas’.

      • 1
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        Prasad,

        “from South India (mainly from Cochin in the Malabar coast/presently Kerala and from Tutucorin in the Coromandel Coast/presently Tamil Nadu) and settled them in the Southern parts of the island from Puttalama up to Matara as menial laborers (for growing/peeling cinnamon – today known as Salagama caste, for fishing/pearl diving – today known as Karawa caste, coconut planting/plucking and toddy tapping – today known as Durawa caste, and for many other jobs). Within a few centuries, the Sinhala population in the South (low country) increased exponentially “

        Thank you for the summary. This can be tested and confirms very easily. We all know the Sinhala and Tamil originated from Southern India, and ended up getting there from East Africa about 65,000 years ago. It is in their DNA and Blood.

        Do the DNA Cheek Test of the People in the South. You will get the scientific conformation. However, even after the scientific conformation, they will stick to their Sinhala racist claims but at least can get the facts out.

        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genographic_Project

        https://genographic.nationalgeographic.com/

        http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0050269

        Since its launch in 2005, National Geographic’s Genographic Project has used advanced DNA analysis and worked with indigenous communities to help answer fundamental questions about where humans originated and how we came to populate the Earth. Now, cutting-edge technology is enabling us to shine a powerful new light on our collective past. By participating in the latest phase of this real-time scientific project, you can learn more about yourself than you ever thought possible. You will also help support the Genographic Legacy Fund, which works to conserve and revitalize indigenous cultures around the world.

        http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0050269

        Population Differentiation of Southern Indian Male Lineages Correlates with Agricultural Expansions Predating the Caste System

        Abstract

        Previous studies that pooled Indian populations from a wide variety of geographical locations, have obtained contradictory conclusions about the processes of the establishment of the Varna caste system and its genetic impact on the origins and demographic histories of Indian populations. To further investigate these questions we took advantage that both Y chromosome and caste designation are paternally inherited, and genotyped 1,680 Y chromosomes representing 12 tribal and 19 non-tribal (caste) endogamous populations from the predominantly Dravidian-speaking Tamil Nadu state in the southernmost part of India.

        Tribes and castes were both characterized by an overwhelming proportion of putatively Indian autochthonous Y-chromosomal haplogroups (H-M69, F-M89, R1a1-M17, L1-M27, R2-M124, and C5-M356; 81% combined) with a shared genetic heritage dating back to the late Pleistocene (10–30 Kya), suggesting that more recent Holocene migrations from western Eurasia contributed <20% of the male lineages. We found strong evidence for genetic structure, associated primarily with the current mode of subsistence.

        Coalescence analysis suggested that the social stratification was established 4–6 Kya and there was little admixture during the last 3 Kya, implying a minimal genetic impact of the Varna (caste) system from the historically-documented Brahmin migrations into the area. In contrast, the overall Y-chromosomal patterns, the time depth of population diversifications and the period of differentiation were best explained by the emergence of agricultural technology in South Asia.

        These results highlight the utility of detailed local genetic studies within India, without prior assumptions about the importance of Varna rank status for population grouping, to obtain new insights into the relative influences of past demographic events for the population structure of the whole of modern India.

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          Cinamon, Coconut and Fish have been here a long time
          Portuguese did not come here and introduce cinamon cultivation or any of this, the Island was known for its cinamon and pearls from prehistory.

          THIS IS THE EVIL.

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        Prasdad, in the course of a very sound thesis puts this in:”…the descendants of Sinhalese in Jaffna like the Kovias, Nalavas, etc are the most anti-Sinhalese”

        This is not true though the statement gives a certain balance to Prasad’d comment about the disportionately large number of members of certain castes among the anti-Tamil brigade.I don’t see any evidence of this.Far from this being true the members of these caste usually suported the LSSP and CP and if they later became disenchanted from the LSSP and CP, I certainly don’t think tey became especially anti-Sinhalsese than any other caste-members.

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    On reading Dr.Laksiri Fernando’s perspective on Michael Roberts thoughts on Sinhala nationalism, I read the following 1999 article by Prof. Roberts in a Marga publication. I present two excerpts below and urge interested readers to read the full article in the reference provided.

    SINHALANESS AND SINHALA NATIONALISM
    Michael Roberts

    Excerpt 1: “In the British colonial era one can speak of a combative upsurge of cultural nationalism among the Sinhalese from the mid- late nineteenth century in opposition to the
    subordinations imposed on them by the imperial order. In so far as the British colonialists arrogantly looked down on them (and all “natives”) as inferior, this was a response of the downtrodden. This line of response overlapped with a movement of Buddhist revitalisation
    that had commenced earlier, partly as a counter to the denigration of Buddhism by the Christian missionaries and their followers and the ongoing proselytisation among the Sinhalese.

    Eventually these strands flowed into and inspired the sociopolitical changes associated with the year “1956.” Because of the emphasis on the “Sinhala Only” language platform in the rhetoric of the MEP led by the SLFP, the principal associational organisation behind the electoral shift, this development has been described as a “linguistic nationalism” (e.g. by K M de Silva 1981). However, here, I will refer to these strands by the more inclusive phrase “cultural nationalism,” a concept that encompasses a language emphasis as well as other dimensions, indicated by such words as “tradition,” “civilisation” and “history.”

    This said, I hold that language is fundamental to this interventionist Marga Project and that we must be attentive to the limitations of pursuing this debate in the English language and the consequent distortions of translation. Sinhala consciousness over time and Sinhala
    nationalism in modern times (the nineteenth and twentieth centuries) has developed and occurs in and through the Sinhala language. This language has never operated in isolation. It has interacted with Pâli, Sanskrit, Tamil, Telugu and Malayâlam over the centuries and
    with Portuguese, Dutch and English in more recent times. While these interactions have been significant, the critical arena remains that ofSinhala syntax and vocabulary. If one wishes to counteract the extreme forms of Sinhala nationalism, then, it has to be effected inand through the Sinhala medium.

    A particularly knotty issue in this regard is the word jâtiya. Etymologically, jâtiya refers to “birth,” but has been used at the popular level over the last 150 years as a synonym for vargaya (category) as well as kulaya (caste). Thus, it has been used as a reference for “kind,” “caste,” “nation” and “race.” It seems that there is, as yet, no agreement regarding the manner in which we can distinguish “race”and “nation” in Sinhala-talk, since the academic conventions in this regard are not widely diffused or implanted.”

    Excerpt 2:“But, standing here in 1999, it is manifest, indeed, starkly manifest, that these refusals of accommodation, of reconciliation, have compounded the grievances of the principal Tamil parties and led them to progressively raise the tempo. Indeed, many of them have
    jettisoned their Sri Lankanness. Their nationalism has moved from
    being a sectional nationalism within the rubric of Sri Lanka to the position of a separatist nationalism.

    Few independent observers would reject the statement that there are, in heart and mind, two nations within Sri Lanka today. And, indeed, one of the most powerful and ruthless parties on the Tamil side, the LTTE, has been a state within a state for over a decade
    (besides also being a multi-national corporation in the service of this state, the Tamil people and their liberation drive).

    So it is rather a puzzle to me that the staunch Sinhala activists today argue that devolution will divide the country. They do not seem to recognise the stark division one faces in Sri Lanka today. So they must be referring to the final, legitimised, juridical division. But
    this is perhaps to put a rational veneer on their thinking. In other words there is something deeper here, something that is not easy to understand. But understand it we must.

    Question C: And, speaking rationally, I also ask: how is it that these protesting voices do not see that in the recent past, a past they are fully cognisant of, the regular failure to grant concessions only pushed the Tamils further down the track towards separatism and
    worsened the situation for the Sinhalese. Retrospectively, this should be self-evident. But it is not recognised.

    My anthropological training has cautioned me against overdone rationalism at the same time that it has always encouraged me to try and understand people in their own terms, so the issue is for me as observer to transcend these difficulties and to work out the reasoning
    -cum emotions of those Sinhalese nationalists or chauvinists who read the contemporary world in this manner.”

    (http://tamilnation.co/conflictresolution/tamileelam/01roberts.pdf)

    Dr.Rajasingham Narendran

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    When dubios mixed ‘national leaders’ Senanayake, Bandaranayake, Jayawardane & Rajapakse are primarilly responsible for SL racism and are from the majority caste, it is idiotic to blame the minority castes.

    The minority castes have punched way above their weight when it come to this ‘Sinhalaness’, be it Buddhist revival, art and culture, food, music, commerce, education, sport and even architecture (Devendra Mulachari; architect of the Kandyan kingdom…., like the maligawa…etc…the Kastane swords with the Dravidian hilt and not the ancient elite disk hilt, curved moorish/mediterenian blades and not the straight blades…..etc…should be enough for now..)

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      When dubious mixed ‘national leaders’ Senanayake, Bandaranayake, Jayawardane & Rajapakse are primarilly responsible for SL … racism …

      Have you forgotten A. E. Gunasinghe, G. G. Ponnambalam (who triggered the first communal riot in 1939 with his communal speeches), later, S. J, V. Chelvanayagam, and E. M. V. naganathan who claimed to be a descendant of a Chola aristocrat? Racism and communal politics were practiced by both sides. before that it was castiesm, with Ramananthan wanting it inscribed in the constitution.
      Today, the TNA is demanding a race based enclave in the North. Who is a tamil (or Sinhalese)? Some one who speaks and fully at home in tamil (sinhala) culture, or someone necessarily born Tamil (sinhala), in some mythical sense?
      There is no biological basis.

      Laksiri, when claiming that the majority has “dominated” the minorities, forgets some 5% of the Australians are Chinese who have no rights similar to what the Tamils in Sri lanka enjoy in Wellawatte or Jaffna. If you go to USA, we have some 19% average Hispanic population, rising to over 50% in some states, and even more in southern parts of New Mexico or California etc. At least on paper, Minorties (and in reality) are better protected in Sri Lanka and India than in the USA, France, Norway etc. There are some 12% Arabs in France, with high concentrations in the south, but do we hear the Marseillaise sung in Arabic? There are 500,000 Arabic speakers in Germany, and can the writer tell us why they are under the dominant majority?
      It is simply a fact of biology.
      What we have to strive for is that every body is equal under the law, irrespective of caste, race and religion. Minorities usually learn the language of the majority, unless they are at least 30% and live concentrated in some area, as is the case in Belgium (valloons and Flemish) and in Canada (french and English). Then, they go on quibbling, fighting, and being nasty to each other.

      The Tamils had a very bad time under Prabhakaran, while the Diaspora Tamils had a great dream that made them insensitive to the pain of the cannon-fodder tamils. The upper class Tamils, and Sinhalese living in Colombo really had no problem but their “dignity” was often shattered and they have been crying foul, for little reason.
      They did not mind their dignity being hammered by the white man, but, just as one nigger does not serve another nigger, the Colombo-7 top Sinhalese, and the Colombo-7 top Tamils, have been battling it out to grab a bit of Arasu, and that hubris has become the “national question”.

      But they have to put the country in context, after a 40 year war, and 90 years of confrontation since the Manning reforms (windfall for Tamils), and then the Donoughmore reforms in 1931 (windfall for the Sinhalese, according to GGPonna).

      Hopefully, the present system, with its large lack of lawlessness, is still a vast improvment over what was there in many parts of the country till 2009. Laksiri is simply way out, as he always was, even when he was in Colombo and doing a lot of “Kathaa”.

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    Laksiri has quite rightly stated: “It is very clear from the above two quotes that Michael Roberts has become an apologist to Sinhala nationalism and its chauvinist claims”. His survival and credibility he wrongly believes depend on this. He camouflages by calling his website “Thuppahi” which is quite unnecessary giving the unfortunate impression of being wimpish. He is capable of standing up on his own academic achievements and be accepted. Bensen

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    To The Editor,Colombo Telegraph

    I see that very properly you “edit out” comments that are inflamatory or offensive.I think you should also reject comments that do not speak to the issue at hand and go off on irrelevant tangents.For example: all this talk of Ramona Theresa’s ancestry and issues of caste.Or the comments on Rajapakse’s origins and who married his cousin or whoever.
    Of course this will be a time consuming matter for the editors.
    One hopes however that commentators would voluntarily stick to the subject at hand and do not use this wonderful medium to engage in what appears to be a form of therapetic venting of pet prejudices!

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      To be fair to the Tamils, I doubt that the person known as “Javi” represents much of the Tamil race. He probably is one misguided fuming individual, who was brought up in a most reproachable way.

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        ” “Javi” represents much of the Tamil race. He probably is one misguided fuming individual, who was brought up in a most reproachable way.””

        Karawal smelling moda miniya transsexual/ masquerading as a pussy like fatima fuka. Phew!!
        You are the classic nave colomba malasanya that you never heard of mouthwash even in the 21st centenary and you never take a shower or bath with essential salts in a bath or ever seen a Jacuzzi.
        Ha ha You poor bugger you don’t even have knowledge of a kid because of your venom.

        The message from Biswal The land does not belong to anyone’s dad that it!

        Don’t mix up knowledge with wisdom. get yourself a better life from the shithole by the beach.

        Ramona Pseudo Thera Fummando, STFU fucknation!!

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    SO MAHILA DE SILVA (JAYAWARDANE) AND HIS CRICKETERS SHOULD BE RENAMED SOUTH INDIA CRICKET.
    SAME WITH THE 96 TEAM.
    WHAT ABOUT SUSANTHIKA JAYASINHE, SRIYANI KULAWANSA, DARSHA…SUHATH TILAKARATNE….
    RANGA HERATH…
    MANY OF THEM ARE ALSO SAID TO BE BOUGHT TO PLUCK COCONUTS, REAR CATTLE, GROW POTATOES, WHEAT & LAMPRICE.

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    Tamils did not initially ask for a separate state. What they wanted in 1958 was a greater control of central government and commercial enterprise, which they felt was based on their ability, intellect, and knowledge, rather than on democratic principle and the veracity that over 75% of Sri Lanka was Sinhalese Buddhist.

    “Pogroms,” by the Sinhalese, as the Tamils call it, was unhappiness and the “Uneducated-in-Western-Learning” status of Sinhala masses at the time. But were not the ethnic cleansing based on creating Racially-Pure bloodlines (like what the Germans did to their Jews, or how the Hindus created their caste system to place humans into eternally segregated racial groups).

    Should 2.3 million Tamils hold 17.7 other Lankans at ransom based on Tamils’ lack of understand and acceptance of the rest of Sri Lanka?

    By alienating themselves from the rest of Lanka, they will form a tight liaison with Tamil Nadu. Based on the Eelam concepts, Sinhala-Buddhist heritage will surely be constantly under threat. It will be a continual war of heritages. Tamils feel that their heritage is under threat. But Tamil heritage can never be at threat of becoming extinct because of the 72 million Tamils in Tamil Nadu. However, Sinhala Buddhist heritage under threat will mean its complete annihilation.

    In modern day, with the ability to move and marry according to will, staying secluded in one’s own ethnic niche will kill modernity, democracy, fairness and progression. Therefore it is best that Tamils assimilate with Sinhalese and become one Lankan race.

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