27 May, 2022


New Constitution, Muslim Unity & SLMC  

By MYM Siddeek

Dr. MYM Siddeek

The government has released a document called Interim Report of The Steering Committee of the Constitutional Assembly of Sri Lanka. However, some political parties and groups with vested interests misinterpret this document as an ‘Interim Constitution’ and mislead the innocent mass. There have been a number of debate sessions and seminars even among the academics and professionals from the time the government released the interim report. It should be clear that what is released by the government is not an interim constitution or a draft constitution! It is a proposal with some alternatives and summaries of representations made by various political parties and groups. In nutshell it is a summary of the discussions. Therefore, it is not the ‘end of the world’ and there is much room for negotiations before a new constitution is drafted. Since this proposal does not reflect the aspirations of the Muslims and does not guarantee their rights and security, the Muslim politicians, leaders and civil societies should continue their negotiations and agitations with the relevant parties and the government before the final draft is submitted. The Muslims have a ‘second’ chance to push for what they want to be included in the final draft of the constitution.  Since the Muslim parliamentarians regret for the mistakes they made in the recent past in the parliament by not opposing a number of legislations and amendments to the existing constitution which have badly affected the Muslims, I hope they will not make another mistake by missing to do this.    

The aspiration of the majority of the Tamils living in the North is a federal type of solution within a merged Northern and Eastern provinces for the ethnic issue. On the other hand, the Muslims have put forwarded a number of counter proposals that they think could ensure their safety and security and guarantee their other rights. One of the proposals of the Muslims is to find a solution for the problems they face within the current demerged geographical boundaries of the two provinces. The Muslims who demand this know very well that their opposition to a North-East merged solution is one of the main factors which antagonised the Northern Tamils and they faced the consequences during the LTTE tyranny. Then they were silent on this issue for some time by gun power and now they have started to express their opposition openly from the time the government started to talk about drafting a new constitution. It should also be noted here that the government did not get a mandate for a new constitution in the presidential election or parliament elections. The mandate was only to amend the existing constitution. Now the Muslims have been expressing their fear that if there is a new constitution and the two provinces are merged they will be left out without fulfilling their aspirations from the time the government published its interim report of the Steering committee of the Constitutional Assembly of Sri Lanka.

I always questioned within myself as to whether the Muslims genuinely want a solution with demerged Northern and Eastern provinces. This question arises because the Muslims also know very well that if the government finally decides to remerge the Northern and Eastern provinces it is not going to stop it just because the Muslims are going to oppose it unless the majority Sinhalese in the two provinces and the other seven provinces oppose it. In order to satisfy the opposing Sinhalese, the government will have to ignore the pressure from the international communities and institutions. If the merger materialises, ignoring the wishes of the Muslims, due to the international pressure and with the blessings of the majority Sinhalese for political reasons, the ultimate result will be that the Muslims in the two provinces will have to live forever with the antagonised Tamils and face the consequences from all spectrum of their daily life politically, socially, economically etc. The Muslims know this fact very well but still they oppose a solution within the merged Northern and Eastern provinces. They also know that if the government decides not to merge the two provinces due to acute opposition from the Sinhalese ignoring the international pressure and the demand from the Tamils, it can put the blame on the Muslims and make them scapegoats. Then Tamils and the Muslims will continue to live as permanent enemies to each other in the two provinces. This enmity can prevail even if the two provinces are merged while the Muslims oppose it. Therefore, whatever the final outcome (remerged or demerged solution), the consequences may be severe and harmful to the Muslims. Then there is a pertinent question to ask at this juncture. Are the Muslims involved in a dangerous exercise by opposing the North and East merger? The answer is ‘No’! The Muslims know very well the consequences if the two provinces are remerged or left demerged as it is now while they oppose the merger. The Muslims also know that the government will not listen to them in the event it decides to remerge the two provinces. But what the Muslims are trying to demonstrate by opposing the merger is that the fear that they have in their mind if the two provinces are remerged. The fear about the serious consequences they and their future generations are going to face.

How can the fear of the Muslims be alleviated? Making constitutional and institutional arrangements to ensure their safety and security and guaranteeing their rights may contribute to this. This is what lacking now in the proposals. This cannot be achieved by the Muslims alone. There is a need for establishing an understanding between the Tamils and the Muslims. This should lead to mutually recognising the rights, the security needs and aspirations of each community. The Tamils should recognise the Muslims as a separate entity for historical and cultural reasons although they speak the same language. They should understand their genuine concerns. This understanding can only be achieved as I believe by agreeing on a joint proposal by the Tamils and Muslims. This could lead to peaceful co-existence of the communities in the two provinces. Otherwise a long lasting solution to the Northern and Eastern issues could turn out to be a distant dream.

I believe the demised LTTE had realised the aspirations of the Muslims during the peace talks between the then Sri Lankan governments and the LTTE. Even if the notorious LTTE could understand the fear of the Muslims and recognise their rights and security needs, why cannot the moderate Tamil leadership do that? We all well remember there were a number of important rounds of peace talks between the government and the LTTE during the height of the communal tension in Sri Lanka at the beginning of this century and continued for about an half a decade. In the 3rd round, the LTTE and the government representatives agreed to explore a solution founded on the principle of ‘internal self-determination’ in areas of historical habitation of the ‘Tamil-speaking peoples’, based on a federal structure within a united Sri Lanka. The parties acknowledged that the solution has to be acceptable to all communities. I believed that this was a great achievement in the peace process because the LTTE which vehemently denied the rights of the Muslims at the beginning and later recognised them as a separate entity and recognised their rights and security needs. I hope the Tami community and the current moderate Tamil leadership too will realise this. 

On the other hand, the Tamil leadership will be betraying the Tamil population too by accepting the proposals in the interim report. The report does not propose a federal solution on the principle of ‘internal self-determination’ and much below what was achieved by the LTTE negotiations. Therefore, the interim report does not satisfy the aspirations and expectations of neither of the Tamils nor the Muslims. Therefore, why should the Tamil speaking peoples in the North and the East accept the proposals in the interim report? What is happening now is that the Tamil leadership with the collusion with the government is trying to deceive and betray the Tamil speaking peoples. The Jaffna University community and some Tamil parliamentarians from the North have already realised this and have expressed their opposing views on the proposals in the Interim Report.

From the interim report it is understood that there is a possibility that the government will agree to merge the two provinces since it states that the ‘provisions relating to possible merger of Provinces require further consideration’.  It does not say categorically the two provinces will be merged. The committee has also discussed the following options:

▪1. The existing provisions of the Constitution [Article.154A (3)] relating to the possibility of two or more Provinces forming a single unit, should be retained, with the additional requirement that a referendum of the people of each of the Provinces concerned should also be required.

▪2. The Constitution should not provide for merger.

▪3. The Constitution recognizes the Northern and Eastern Provinces as a single Province.

From what is happening in the government circle, it could be speculated that the government might agree with the Tamil leadership for the option 1 or 3. Even if the parties agree for the option 1, the government and the Tamil leadership can manipulate the situation and finally the people could be convinced to vote for the merger in the referendum. If the government agrees for the option 3 with a referendum, there might be a easy win in the referendum since the majority in the single new ‘North-East’ Province will be Tamils. This can only happen with some manipulations.

Need for dialogue between the communities 

Whatever the outcome, the Muslims in the North and the East are going to live with the majority Tamils and the minority Sinhalese in the region. Therefore, the Muslims should start dialogue with the other communities.   There are a number of discussion sessions, meetings, seminars and so on conducted within each community alone living in the East and the North.  But these discussions should be extended beyond each community and the communities should interact with each other and have mixed discussions. It is important to remember that the Muslims, Tamils and Sinhalese comprise almost equal proportion of the population of the Eastern province. These discussions should be held not only at academic and political leadership levels, but also at grassroots level. The Sinhala, Tamil and Muslim civil societies should start to interact and engage in dialogues and come to an understanding of the aspirations, fear and expectations of each community. This might pave the way for arriving at an amicable solution to the North-East issue. This is what lacking now.  In the mean time the Muslims should unite within themselves.

Is RH Hindrance For The Muslim Unity in Sri Lanka?

My hypothesis is that ‘if RH gives up his SLMC leadership position, the splinter groups and individuals who left the party due to differences with RH will rejoin the party and strengthen it’. If this is a possibility, RH should sacrifice his leadership position in the best interest of the Muslim community. Then there won’t be a need for many political parties for the Muslims and they all can unite under one umbrella party which is SLMC. This might enhance the bargaining power of the Sri Lankan Muslims and restore their dignity and identity to protect their interests. I am also of the view that this might encourage the founder members of the party and academics and professionals who left the party after the demise of its founder leader to rejoin it. 

Sri Lanka Muslim Congress was formed in early 1980s as a non-political organisation and declared as a political party in 1986. Since then, there have been only two leaders in the party. The leadership of the party changed hand from late Ashroff to RH due to his demise in September 2000. Since then RH has been leading the party for the last very long 17 years. It is important to note here that during RH’s leadership, many prominent founder members, including prominent ‘moulavis’ and high rank members, have left the party.

Immediately after the sudden death of its founder leader M. H. M. Ashraff the power struggle started between his wife Ferial Ashraff and RH for control of the party. It should be noted that both of them are from outside the Eastern province although late Ashraff campaigned vigorously against ‘Colombo’ Muslim leadership and insisted that the Muslim leadership should come from the East, to sell his party among the Eastern Muslim youths. Therefore, the Eastern Muslims, even late Ashraff, would never have thought RH for the future leadership of the party.

Beginning of the demise of SLMC

In June 2001 RH, Mr. A. L. M. Athaullah and some other SLMC MPs left the governing People’s Alliance (PA). Ferial Ashraff remained in the PA as the leader of the National Unity Alliance. This is the starting point of the split in the party. If RH had given appropriate place to Ferial in the party, she would have not remained with PA according to many observers. Athaullah, then Chairman of SLMC, left the party in 2002. His accusation was that RH monopolises cabinet ministerial positions for himself. In fact, Athaullah was kicked out by RH along with the party Secretary General Dr. Hafrath and their supporters. This expulsion was made by him alone, RH, from Oslo even without consulting any of the top rank members or decision making body of the party. This is because the party’s constitution confers enormous power to its party leader. In fact Athavulla was the one with some others from the Eastern province helped RH to become the leader. Another prominent victim of RH was Myown Musthafa.   

The last victim of betrayal in the top rank of the party was Mr. Hasen Ali, its Secretary General. It is also understood that there are more capable aspirants to lead the party in a way the party can win the rights of the people and fulfil their aspirations. However, many believe that there is no room within the party constitution for them to become the leaders of the party. There were many attempts made by some members of the main decision making body of the party to bring changes to the constitution and they miserably failed. It is very important for the Muslim voters too who continuously voted for the SLMC to rethink in the best interest of the entire Sri Lankan Muslim community whether they should allow continuing this undemocratic nature of the selection/election of the leader of the party which allows him to continue for such a long period of 17 years.

The Sri Lankan Muslims have a common view that if the Muslims do not unite and express their fear and aspirations in one strong voice in an effective manner before it becomes too late, the Muslims will be left out without any solution, when a new constitution is drafted and finally approved by the parliament! This is my opinion.

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Latest comments

  • 2

    This dude is worried about how his Wahabis and the Vellalas are going to share the North and the East?……..
    What about the poor Sinhalese in the South……. Do they have to share theirs with the Vellalas and the Wahabis in just 2/3 of the Land?…….

    • 0


      Sinhalese should demand that all Tamils (Tamil speaking people) , irrespective of their caste, religion or date of arrival be relocated to North and East for their own good. I can’t understand how those who remain outside are going to enjoy any fruits of federal division. On the contrary they will be treated as second class citizens. Not my wish. Tamils (Tamil speaking people) can have a homeland in the North East OR the right to live anywhere. Not being racist I advocate the latter.

      • 1

        somass ji

        “Sinhalese should demand that all Tamils (Tamil speaking people) , irrespective of their caste, religion or date of arrival be relocated to North and East for their own good. “

        Until then I suggest you stop carrying your petrol, lifting the bottom hem of your sarong over your shoulder, forget starting another riot, postpone reviving Dr Gota’s fortunes, …………………….. In the meantime lets see how rapidly we can provide you with accommodation in the Sinhala/Buddhist Fascist Ghetto.

      • 0

        Soma: Tamils talk about a Tamil Kingdom. One King Sankili. He has reigned only for two years. He had been a son of a sinhala King (all were your rajas,). That was during the portugeuse times. They may say that Sinhala people were unfair. Yet, even their beloved British People di dnot give anything. Everything they got was stupid southern politicians and LSSP who is writing the new constitution again.

        • 1

          Jimsofty dimwit

          How many times do we have to tell you to take off your hands from your Willi while typing? Are you looking at one hand magazines?

          • 0

            Jimmy uses his willy to type . That’s why there are so many spelling mistakes.

    • 1

      KASmaalam K A Sumanasekera

      “What about the poor Sinhalese in the South”

      What about them? You should be worrying only about the Sinhala/Buddhist fascists and your job as the official b***s carrier to Dr Mahinda Rajapaksa.

      Leave the Sinhalese to take care of themselves.

    • 1

      KASmaalam K A Sumanasekera

      “Do they have to share theirs with the Vellalas and the Wahabis in just 2/3 of the Land?…….”

      Have you chosen your target land? Are you awaiting for clan’s crowning for you to grab as many prime land as you have marked out? Is Ambassador Bandula interested in investing in seaside hotels?

  • 2

    Write what you want about LTTE and from 2009 on what is your Muslim Ministers achievements? but first all there is no united Muslims, all the Muslim leaders are for themselves
    Now the Muslims are the target after 2009

  • 1

    With regards to north-east merger, I have given the option based on justice and reality, which will be a win-win solution for all, which no fair minded person could oppose. it appears that there is no contention about northern province, and the problem is eastern province in this merger debate. To conclude this the following factors should be considered :
    1. Original inhabitants of eastern province are the Tamilized descendants of Veddhas who are the rightful owners and not Sinhalese, Muslims or even other Tamils like Mukkuwas.
    2. Tamils are the first settlers of eastern province and had lived there for more than 2000 years as evidenced by the several stone inscriptions unearthed.
    3. Lands north of Mahaveli river in Trincomalee district was part of Jaffna Kingdom at the time of Portuguese conquest, which is the reason that Robert Knox landed safely in Trincomalee, but was arrested by soldiers of Kandyan King once he crossed the river into Mutur.
    4. When British drew the boundaries of eastern province some traditional Sinhala villages like Gomarankadawela and Lahugala were included in it due to administrative convenience..
    5. Muslims in eastern province are the descendants of those who were given asylum by Kandyan king 400 years ago, when they were fleeing persecution by Portuguese.
    6. At the time of independence, eastern province had only Trincomalee and Batticaloa districts both of which had Tamil majority, as evidenced by the census reports from 1881.
    7. Since the last 75 years, Sinhalese from other provinces had been settled in eastern province which has caused the distortion in ethnic balance detrimental to Tamils.
    8. After Independence, Srilanka government in order to create a Sinhala majority Amparai district, delinked Mahaoya and Padiyatalawa revenue districts from Uva province and linked them to east.
    9. Ethnic cleansing of Tamils have taken place since 1956, where Sinhalese and Muslims have appropriated the lands of the fleeing Tamils, as well as crown lands.
    10.Credit should not be given to alteration of demographic pattern by settlement of Sinhalese or ethnic cleansing of Tamils , when re-demarcating boundaries of eastern province.

  • 1

    If North and East is merged; Muslim community of in both part may need to face some though situation..
    I do not think Tamils will be happy to live sides by side with Muslims. 1990 LTTE action tells that Tamil hanrdocre are still waiting to spread hatred a giants Muslims ..
    They are lot of good Tamils who want build peace in Sri Lanka..
    They welcome Muslims and yet there are some tiny hard-core Tamils too who hate Muslims for no reasons…
    Will Muslims live with hard-core Tamils..
    I doubt that..
    So ; what is alternative..
    To force government not emerge .
    Sinahslee too think merge is a danger for future of Sri Lanka..so each one of us should fight against merge .it would lead to Tamil home land

  • 2

    Continuing, with the above principle, first re-demarcate eastern province. Amparai electorate which includes Mahaoya and Padiyatalawa AGA divisions and Lahugala and Kumana AGA divisions in the Pottuvil electorate, be de-linked from East and linked to Uva province. Similarly Gomarankadawela and Padaviya AGA divisions in the Trincomalee district be de-linked from East and linked to North Central province. In this way 90% of the Sinhala population in eastern province will not come under the rule of the merged north-east. Once this re-demarcation is done merge the rump eastern province to North. In order to offset the loss of land, Puttalam electorate which has a Muslim-Tamil majority, which is the cradle of Dravidian civilisation as evidenced by urn burial sites and was known as Demala Hatpattu and was part of the Jaffna kingdom which extended up to Deduru Oya at the time of Portuguese conquest, be linked to northern province. In this newly created Tamil majority region, carve out the traditional Muslim areas where they have been living for centuries and not the newly appropriated lands of the Tamils, into a Muslim majority region as a sub-unit within the merged north-east on a federal basis. If the government and Sinhalese really want to grant justice to Tamils there is nothing to prevent them doing so. To cite Muslim factor to stall justice to Tamils, is sheer dishonesty on the part of the government and Sinhalese.

  • 3

    Dr. MYM Siddeek,

    RE: New Constitution, Muslim Unity & SLMC

    “The Sri Lankan Muslims have a common view that if the Muslims do not unite and express their fear and aspirations in one strong voice in an effective manner before it becomes too late, the Muslims will be left out without any solution, when a new constitution is drafted and finally approved by the parliament! This is my opinion.”

    The Ulama are fine with ANY Constitution as long as they can retain the MMDA, so that they can continue to abuse Sri Lankan Muslim women at will, marry Muslin girls at will, rape legally at will, in this Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka.What a travesty of justice.

    “All Ceylon Jamiyyathul Ulema (ACJU) in its latest submission to the Muslim Personal Law Reforms Committee Chaired by Former Justice Saleem Marsoof, rejected any key changes to the Muslim Marriage and Divorce Act of 1951 (MMDA) instead bringing in strong theological support to the first report which came into severe criticism from the Muslim intelligentsia.”


    The Reforms for MMDA Act MUST come from Non-Muslim legislators.

    Is ISIS A Tool of the Saudi State?

    Saudi Arabia wants a medieval Islamic model for Sri Lankan Muslim and the Middle East.

  • 2

    SLMC was formed after Gadafi’s arrival in the late 70 who wanted to see a Muslim Sri Lanka before his next visit. Assroff fathered Muslim extremism in Sri Lanka. SLMC must be held responsible for destruction of Buddhist archaeological sites in the Eastern province and producing fraudulent land deed for those encroached lands.

    Who thr hell is RH??? Rogue Human???

    At a time Muslims are not in the good books of Sinhalese (Halal fraud, IDP hoax, destruction and encroachment of Buddhist archaeological sites and WilPattuwa,initiating 1915 and 2014 riots, Muslim illegal immigrants and drug smuggling, joining 1S1S etc) , Muslims extremely greedy demands will back fire on them. As a minority Muslims enjoy more privileges than they actually deserve. Badudeen’s and Sali’s corrup behavior will lead to grand scale anti-Muslim riot in the future with the help of West.

    REMEMBER, Mahanayaka Sanga have the final say of the constitution.

    • 2


      What are you talking about?

      “REMEMBER, Mahanayaka Sanga have the final say of the constitution.”

      You should ask the Grant Dukes of Sangha to get out of their respective Ghettos and meet people, then contest election, put forward their policies, ideas,……….. if elected let them debate everything in the parliament.

      Do the Grant Dukes run a parallel, shadow, secret state within the officially recognized state?

  • 2

    Muslims have the support of all powerful Allah which they can enlist anytime by raising the decibels of the loudspeaker, Christians have the grace of almighty God from above who is ready to send down His son any time , ofto take them to heaven, Hindus have a pantheon of gods like a cabinet of ministers one for each subject ready to help at the crack of a coconut, only Buddhists are left for their own devices, Hope all non Buddhists may understand this situation and provide us some constitutional guarantees.

    • 2

      somass ji

      “only Buddhists are left for their own devices,”

      Isn’t the essence of Buddhism as the Awakened one taught?
      By the way the Sinhala/Buddhism has already stolen gods and perverted the ideas of Hindu religion, Buddhism, Christianity, and claim to be unique in the world. ………………………

  • 1

    Lankan Muslim leaders have used the strategy of keeping quiet on contentious issues. The Muslim MPs are controlled by the clerics.
    So MYM Siddeek, Get the Lankan Muslim MPs to prove themselves relevant. For example do they have views on MMDA reform different to that of cleric Mufthi Rizwe?

  • 1

    From all the comments written here I am inclined to think that the best solution is to have one Sri Lanka for all communities as we have now. All these demands and complaints are by politicians who
    are making unreasonable demands with unexplained discrimination complaints. The ordinary Tamil and Muslim people vote for such politicians only because they are Tamils or Muslims and not because they want separate forms of government.

  • 1

    Unity of Sri Lanka must be maintained at any cost .
    These people who talk about merge are crazy ..separatists..should be named as traitors who work against national interest.
    Those people who create tensions among communities should be punished in court ..

  • 1

    Dr. Siddeek,
    Your article warrants a few observations:
    • “There is a need for establishing an understanding between the Tamils and the Muslims. This should lead to mutually recognising the rights, the security needs and aspirations of each community”

    Your new vision, fresh thinking and nuanced approach are on a positive note and sound propitious . But then Sir, you say

    • “………(T)he government and the Tamil leadership can manipulate the situation and finally the people could be convinced to vote for the merger in the referendum…. “

    For Tamils and Muslims to negotiate, there must be mutual trust- implicit faith in each other. Any trust-deficit, ab initio, cannot be the ideal frame of mind to negotiate in good faith. “Manipulation” implies influencing/controlling the situation unfairly or unscrupulously. It will be helpful only if the subject could be broached without preconceived notions/prejuduces.

    • “Tamil leadership will be betraying the Tamil population too by accepting the proposals in the interim report. The report does not propose a federal solution on the principle of ‘internal self-determination’ and much below what was achieved by the LTTE negotiations.”

    I fully agree with you. Sampanthan is not S.J.V. Chelva. For personal gains – power, perks and pelf – TNA leadership has brazenly betrayed the trust of the Tamil people. These leaders are careerists with no sense of commitment to the cause enunciated by “Thanthai Chelva”. (CONTD. Below )

  • 1

    • “RH should sacrifice his leadership position in the best interest of the Muslim community.”
    It is entirely for the Muslim community to choose their leader. However, Rauff Hakeem cannot be an ideal choice. His traits are deviant. For instance, this guy who voted for the 18th Amendment, offered a lame excuse, had enjoyed Ministerial perks under Mahinda till the 11th hour, before jumping to join Maithri. In fact, Muslims need an honest and dignified Leader of the calibre of Dr. M.C.M. Kaleel.

    BTW, Tamils will NEVER forgive Hakeem for joining the Sinhala-Buddhist racist cohorts (of Mahinda) to protest against the Geneva Resolution – which sought to probe the war crimes against Tamils.
    *** A common heritage binds the Tamils and Muslims –viz., our traditional habitats of North-East and the language. You may appreciate Sir, that suffering perils and enduring pains and penalties, hitherto Tamils have always been bearing the brunt of the fight to defend our common habitats and language from Sinhala encroachment and aggression. Let me be forthright, instead of gratifying Sinhala instincts and trying to steal a march over the Tamils, our Muslim fraternity should come forward to share our burdens as well , while claiming the benefits of our common heritage.

  • 0

    Mr Siddeek, I’m impressed with your thought process again. I believe you no longer live in SL. Why can’t you reach out to Mr Sam to sort out our community misunderstandings? Your first language is Tamil. That is a good start. As I wrote before we consider late Dr Abdul Kalam as one of our own. How do you keep up with your spiritual skills is none of our business.

    Think about the current status of women in your community and women from other Tamil communities with different religious faith in SL. Who do you think would naturally communicate with them and help them to improve their social/economic status? Men from your community? Please!. SL government? No!. Arabs? A big No!

  • 0


    I can see that you are anything but an admirer of Rauf Hakeem–Leader of the SLMC. One of the reasons being that he is not an Eastern Muslim.The Mahanayakes have recently decided that there is no need for a New Constitution or any Amendments thereto. Are you happy with that? Most probably yes! A FEW MORE YEARS OF A DEMERGED NORTH-EAST the Muslims will be so powerful with their phenomenal population growth they will pose a threat to the North-Central and even a part of the Southern Province! The framework for devolution as per the Indo-Lankan Accord was as a result of so much bloodshed and suffering of the Tamils. The Muslims are now trying to reap the whirl-wind.
    By the way could you Pl. let us know who was responsible for the death of M.H.M.Ashroff?

  • 0

    Muslim Leaders generally do not ‘demand’ anything for all muslims. They only want something for themselves. Thereafter they may try and get the best of both worlds.

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