17 October, 2018

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‘Race’ And Racism: Sharing Some Thoughts

By Charles Sarvan

Prof. Charles Sarvan

Prof. Charles Sarvan

“Racism” in discourse is a palimpsest written differently to suit varying emotions and agenda. For example, Caryl Phillips’ novel Cambridge and Salman Rushdie’s Midnight’s Children are said to deal, inter alia, with the issue of “racism”. But the “racism” in these novels is different, one based on colour, and the other primarily on religious affiliation, and secondly/secondarily, on notions of “race”. In the West, the phrase “race problem” or “race conflict” invariably signals one based on skin-colour, as if the world consisted of just two “races”: the (so-called) white, and the non-white. I have suggested, tongue-in-cheek, “colourism” for this variety of “racism” as being more precise. Here and in what follows, I draw from an article included in my anthology, ‘Sri Lanka: Literary Essays & Sketches’ (pages 182 – 193).

Benedict Anderson states that though nations exist, there is no scientific definition of a nation. A nation is a cultural artefact with emotional legitimacy; an imagined political community – imagined because not even those who go to make up the smallest of nations will ever know most of their fellow-members, yet in the consciousness of each lives the image of their communion.  Six pages on in the same work (‘Imagined Communities’) Anderson cites Ernest Gellner’s argument that nationalism does not awake nations to self-consciousness: rather, it is a certain kind of consciousness which invents nations. To belong to a state (a legal status implying citizenship, obedience to a particular set of laws etc.) may not have emotional connotations, while a sense of belonging to a nation usually does. An individual living in exile may be a citizen of one country, and yet feel that s/he belongs to, and is a part of, a nation geographically far away. The Kurds, fragmented in different countries, scattered in many European and U.S. centres, are a case in point: emotionally, they belong to a “nation” which they are struggling to bring into existence, to give it an internationally recognized, legal, reality. Much of the foregoing comments on “nation” can be applied to “race”, and the latter term substituted for the former. A certain kind of consciousness invents and thinks in terms of “race”.

The first paragraph of Noel Ignatiev’s How The Irish Became White states that no biologist has ever been able to provide a satisfactory definition of “race”, a definition that includes all members of a given “race” and excludes all others; and that attempts to give ‘race’ a scientific foundation have led but to absurdities. David Lowenthal in his ‘Possessed by the Past’ argues that race is a social artefact. Eric Foner, in a review titled “How a Desire for Profit Led to the Invention of Race” (‘London Review of Books’) comments that it is “now almost a cliché that race is invented or socially constructed.” Shlomo Sand, himself a Jew, Professor of History at Tel Aviv University, argues in his ‘The Invention of the Jewish People’ that there is no biological basis for a belief in Jewishness. The book was written in Hebrew and translated into English by the author. (It is as if a Sinhalese professor teaching at a Sri Lankan university were to write a book in Sinhala, not in English, which questioned a fundamental and much-cherished myth of Sinhalese-Buddhist nationalism.)  A Jewish “race” is pseudoscience yet Zionist pedagogy has produced generations who believe wholeheartedly in the racial uniqueness of their nation (Shlomo Sand).

To discriminate because of one’s colour or on some other “racial” ground is as irrational  as discriminating against someone because s/he was born on a Friday or is left-handed. And yet a considerable part of human suffering and pain arises from the seemingly ineradicable impulse we have to divide, to categorize on grounds of colour, “race” or religion, and then either to exclude or, worse, to subordinate and maltreat. Racism belongs with murder and genocide, and is a crime against humanity (Karen and Barbara Fields, ‘Racecraft’, 2012). Sadly, while we welcome diversity in nature, difference within our own species triggers suspicion and hostility. Undoubtedly, we ourselves are our own most cruel enemy.

Yet, though science has totally done away with ‘race’; though belief in ‘race’ is troglodyte, still many subscribe to it, far more than, say, those who believe in astrology (‘Racecraft’). “Racism is a hardy virus that mutates to adapt to the body politic in which it is embedded” (Gary Younge, ‘The Guardian’, 19 May 2014). Propagating the findings of science on ‘race’; repeatedly repeating the fact of fundamental human likeness has not brought about the end of racism. A symptom of this failure is the frequency with which one encounters the word “race”. Does it point to a deep conviction, a conviction that is impervious to reason? Is it a habit of thought and language; of mental laziness?

Testifying to its resilience and mutability is the disguise of “ethnicity” that racism can adopt. Ethnicity is an aspect of relations between groups where at least one party sees itself as being culturally distinctive, if not unique. This sense of difference influences the perception and treatment of others. Though there are similarities and differences, the former are glossed over, and much made of difference. However, the boundary delimited by one cultural criterion – system of government, language, religion, social customs and practices – does not coincide with those established by other criteria. In short, “ethnicity” may be a Trojan horse bringing back disgraced racism. Ethnicity is a term to be used after careful thought. To quote from ‘Racecraft’, the term culture can now denote something essential, now something acquired; now something bounded, now something without boundaries; now something experienced, now something ascribed. Race as culture is only biological race in polite language.

It has been observed that words and verbal habits condition, consciously or unconsciously, the thinking of most of us; only a minority pause to control their words by thought. Though not paused over or reflected upon, words are important, serving not only to convey meaning but to conceal or distort significance. For example, I come across reference to the Native Americans as “Indians”. This lexical item, apart from perpetuating Columbus’ mistake, hides the fact of the cruel dispossession and near extermination of the autochthonous. Sadly, even if ‘race’ doesn’t exist, racists continue to exist and, therefore, ‘racism’ flourishes. Banning the word ‘race’ will not extirpate and banish racism. One is reminded of Professor John Gray’s argument in his ‘The Silence of Animals’:  the idea that history is a story of increasing rationality, decency and ethical progress is a myth. However deeply entrenched and obdurate racism is, there is no option but to return to fray, again and again. An awareness of our common and shared humanity; a realization that ‘race’ does not exist may help towards eradicating the evil, and resulting tragedy, of racism. That would indeed be “a consummation devoutly to be wished” (Shakespeare, ‘Hamlet’).

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  • 9
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    Dear prof. Please Explore meaning of the race in the Quran: ( we have created you in different groups of people and tribe so that you may mutually understand each other ). It is beauty of God that He created different tribes and races not to fight each other for the superiority of one another as it happened in the past and as it happens right now:
    No race superior to other except through good deed and Piety.
    Whites are not superiorior to backs
    Europeans are not superior to Asians
    Chinese are not superior to Malaysians
    Like that compare all race
    It is human made theory to have superiority over race, color and language
    These are not your own choice
    You are not born as Sinhalese as your choice
    You are not born in SL as your own choice
    It God designed for you ? What is the point to fight over race which is not your own choice
    I hope you got my point

    • 5
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      Dr Refai, so why are the faithful bombing the balls of each other in Syria, Iraq, Afghanistan and other places where different sects are destined to share? Do they not read and understand Quran?

      • 3
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        Spring Koha:

        I ask the same question.

        That is why muslims kill muslims ?

        Was Allah the Almighty unfair to different sects of muslims ?

        • 3
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          Spring Koha and JimSofty.

          The Puzzle. Excellent Questions.

          1. “Dr Refai, so why are the faithful bombing the balls of each other in Syria, Iraq, Afghanistan and other places where different sects are destined to share? Do they not read and understand Quran?”

          2. “I ask the same question. That is why muslims kill muslims ? Was Allah the Almighty unfair to different sects of muslims ? “

          3. These are excellent questions to be asked from Muslims or “Muslims” or Wahhabis. This question has been asked from the time of the Prophet Mohamed and the circumstantial data supports that the killing was done for maintaining power, maintaining hegemony or maintaining the beliefs that allows them to maintain their hegemony and power. Muslim was just a code word thrown into the mix, like Hell, Heaven and virgins, race etc.

          4. Perhaps the European Christian analogy is the Inquisition, that probably killed close to a million people and decimated native populations the new World. The age f reason , the enlightenment and the rise of science, exemplified by Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler and many others is an example.

          5. “I ask the same question. That is why muslims kill muslims “-Jim Softy.

          It is my understanding that Muslims are NOT allowed to kill other Muslims, unless they have committed a crime. So how did the Wahhabi, The Tali bans and the other Followers of the Devil, get around to killing Muslims? Abdul Wahab in the 19th century found the 12th Century Islamist, Ibn Taymiah writings.

          Ibn Taymiah said that those “Muslims’ who do not follow Islam in a particular way are not Muslims, are deviants, are Apostates, and unless they converted to the Fundamentalist Interpretation or Wahhabism, they will be killed.

          The analogy is sri lanka, even though not exact is like True Buddhism , the Buddha Dhamma Vs, Monk Mahanama “Buddhism”.

          Islam = Buddha Dhamma, the Pure Faiths and teachings,\.

          Wahhabism =Devilism ( Devil followers) = Monk Mahanama “Buddhism” = Maraism- followers of Mara

          The Earth still spins on its axis and goes around the Sun in a elliptical orbit like the other planets……….

          • 0
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            amASSiri the altar boy, wait till you get your special treatment…

            • 3
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              Balu Kela Kolla

              The disgrace that you are would have not been had your [Edited out]

              Dogs are not allowed to comment in CT.

              • 0
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                Navin, “Dogs are not allowed to comment in CT” and that is why they sniff, sniff Jayalalitha’s [Edited out]

            • 4
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              kolla, ela kolla, aka moda kolla and avatars,

              Did you return to Habaraduwa? A Monk in Habaraduwa gives proper education. Looks like you were able to take Bus 134.

              Ask Jim Softy “Thatha” and Lorenzo “Bappa” to give you candies, and “Mung Kavum’

              https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yNSC93mPs4I

            • 4
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              kolla, ela kolla, aka moda kolla and avatars,

              Did you return to Habaraduwa? A Monk in Habaraduwa gives proper education. Looks like you were able to take Bus 134. Ask Jim Softy “Thatha” and Lorenzo “Bappa” to give you candies, and “Mung Kavum’

              https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yNSC93mPs4I

          • 3
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            Dear Amerisir and others: Do not blame Islam for the mistake of Muslims: do not see how many shinhalse do all sins such as murdering and drinking alcohols and others things: can you blame Buddhissm for that p: many monks are melosting chidren and do you blame Buddhism for that ? If Talibans or al Qaida make mistake it’s their problems and go and ask them if you are bevave enough or write to them but do not link that with Islam: Why do you choose a few words of Quran out of context to generalise to all; Listen when Army was fighting Tiger what was order from SL government to army it was ordered to kill all tigers Same like Islam in fighting with pagan Arabs ordered Muslims to kill all fighters in battle fields. This was order to fight those who foght them in Makka and in the Quran there is theory of obragation: if have read the history of Quranic revelation you would have known this? This order to kill was revealed in context to kill Mekkans and it was in the battle feild only and if they surrender they are not allowed to fight yet, why did SL army did ? It killed all those who surrendered ? Which one is better I write to tell you that you should know really circumstance of which Quranic verse revealed before you talk about it Do not show your situpidity when you write about Islam If I write about Buddhism you would laugh at me Because I would distort it meaning You have distorted meaning of Islam There is no difference between you and BBS You are so called half baked eggs

            • 2
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              Dr Rifai

              1. Please read each word and sentence written by Amarasiri. Please do not confuse Amerairi’s points those of others, even though we may have the same questions.

              “Do not show your situpidity when you write about Islam “

              Dr. Rifai, it is you who is showing your ignorance about Islam as written in the Quran and further explained in the Hadith.

              2. To Clarify, the point Amarasiri was trying to make is that , the Ibn Taymiah and the Abdul Wahhab followers renamed ordinary Muslims Apostates, and non-Muslims, in order to get around the prohibition of killing of Muslims by Muslims, and kill them.

              3. Today, the Wahhabis and their clones do that to Shia Muslims, Ahamadeia Muslims (Pakistan calls them non-Muslims) and Sufis with impunity, citing the Quran,Ibn Taymiah and abdul Wahab.

              4. Amarasiri’s interpretation is that, the Wahhabis and their clones are Devils, Satan Followers who want to kill off the Muslims who follow, God, Allah. This is a more rational and better argument than the argument of the Wahhabis. The moderate Muslims, the Sunni Muslims, the Shia Muslims, The Ahamediua Muslims and the Sufis who are victims of Wahhabis and their clones will agree with Amarasiris’s interpretation , than that of Ibn Taymiah and Abdul Wahhab.

              5. Dr. Refai, come with a better argument to counteract Amarasiris’s argument. give citations from, the Quran, Hadith and any other credible reference.

              6. I would like to point out as to how Copernicus, Galileo and Kepler came up with arguments and data to support the Heliocentric model, that displaced the Geocentric model of the Greeks and the ancients and the Christian church and others.

              So, please come up good reason as to why Amrasiri’s hypothesis, the Wahhabi are followers of the Devil or Satan is incorrect.

              https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oxfeYDGCEd0

              Sunni/Wahabi terrorist caught in Iraq confessed to his crimes of killi

    • 3
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      Dear Prof. Charles Sarvan,

      ‘Race’ And Racism: Sharing Some Thoughts

      “Yet, though science has totally done away with ‘race’; though belief in ‘race’ is troglodyte, still many subscribe to it, far more than, say, those who believe in astrology (‘Racecraft’). “Racism is a hardy virus that mutates to adapt to the body politic in which it is embedded” (Gary Younge, ‘The Guardian’, 19 May 2014). Propagating the findings of science on ‘race’; repeatedly repeating the fact of fundamental human likeness has not brought about the end of racism. A symptom of this failure is the frequency with which one encounters the word “race”. Does it point to a deep conviction, a conviction that is impervious to reason? Is it a habit of thought and language; of mental laziness?”

      Well, are the Para-Sinhala and Para-Tamils two races? Or one race? One race from South India?

      Just because they speak two-different Para-languages with a lot of common words, and different words, does it make Para-Sinhala and Para-Tamils two different races? No!

      1. Let’s see. Both the Para-Sinhala and Para-Tamils came from South India and India about 2,000-3,000 years ago or slightly earlier. To make them two different races, they need to be separated for thousands of years and the DNA need changes. However, there are no such changes.

      2. The data supports no difference between Para-Sinhala, Para-Tamils and South Indians in their DNA.

      3. On the other hand, the Native Veddah are a different and they they arrived in the Land of Native Veddah over 25,000 years ago, by walking, and are the original inhabitants and owners of the land.

      4. The Native Veddah are a different “race”, even though homo sapiens who arrived fro Africa 65,000 years ago.

      http://vedda.org/deraniyagala.htm

      Early Man and the Rise of Civilisation in Sri Lanka:
      The Archaeological Evidence

      Dr. S. U. Deraniyagala
      Director-General of Archaeology, Sri Lanka

      From about 37,000 BP onwards the prehistoric record is very much more complete. The information stems from a series of cave excavations in the lowland Wet Zone: Fa Hien-lena near Bulathsinhala (37,000-5,400 BP), Batadomba-lena near Kuruwita(31,000-11,500 BP), Beli-lena at Kitulgala (over 30,000-3,500 BP), Alu-lena at Attanagoda near Kegalle (10,500 BP)3 . These data are supplemented by those from the open-air site of Bellan-bandi Palassa near Embilipitiya (6,500 TL BP). The dating is based primarily on radiocarbon assays on charcoal, checked independently against thermoluminescence dating in the case of Beli-lena. There are over 50 such dates from various contexts at these sites and the chronological framework may be pronounced secure (ibid:695-701).

      Fa Hien-lena has yielded the earliest evidence (at ca. 37,000 BP) of anatomically modern man in South Asia 4 , followed by Batadomba-lena at 31,000 and 18,000, Beli-lena at 16,000, Fa Hien-lena at 6,900, Bellan-bandi Palassa at 6,500 and Fa Hien-lena again at 4,800 BP. These human remains have been subjected to detailed physical anthropological study and it has been affirmed that the genetic continuum from at least as early as 18,000 BP at Batadomba-lena to Beli-lena at 16,000 BP to Bellan-bandi Palassa at 6,500 BP to the recent Vaddha aboriginal population is remarkably pronounced (ibid:486-9; Kennedy et al. 1987; Hawkey 1998; Kennedy 2000; the earlier material from Fa Hien-lena is too fragmentary for such comparative study). This suggests a backwater in terms of population dynamics. It appears to have been a remarkably static situation over so long a period, relatively undisturbed by the arrival of new populations with diverse physical traits. These anatomically modern prehistoric humans in Sri Lanka are referred to as Balangoda Man in popular parlance (derived from his being responsible for the Mesolithic ’Balangoda Culture’ first defined in sites near Balangoda). He stood at an estimated height of ca. 174 cm for males and 166 cm for females in certain samples, which is considerable when compared with present-day populations in Sri Lanka (v. Deraniyagala 1992:330-4). The bones are robust, with thick skull-bones, prominent brow-ridges, depressed wide noses, heavy jaws and short necks. The teeth are conspicuously large. These traits have survived in varying degrees among the Vaddas and certain Sinhalese groups, thus pointing to Balangoda Man as a common ancestor.

      It needs to be borne in mind, however, that there would have been unimpeded gene-flow between southernmost India and Sri Lanka (in both directions) from the Palaeolithic onwards, and that future research will probably reveal a whole range of genetic clusters in the prehistoric populations of this region, which would invalidate the concept of Balangoda Man as a homogeneous ’race’. Meanwhile, Balangoda Man continues to be a useful working concept, referring to the island’s late Quaternary humans. He appears to have settled in practically very nook and corner of Sri Lanka ranging from the damp and cold High Plains such as Maha-eliya (Horton Plains) to the arid lowlands of Mannar and Vilpattu, to the steamy equatorial rainforests of Sabaragamuwa. The camps were invariably small, rarely exceeding 50sq.m in area, thus suggesting occupation by not more than a couple of nuclear families at most (id. 1992:351). This life-style could not have been too different from that described for the Vaddas of Sri Lanka, the Kadar, Malapantaram and Chenchus of India, the Andaman Islanders and the Semang of Malaysia (ibid.:412,451-7). They would have been moving from place to place on an annual cycle of foraging for food. The well preserved evidence from the caves and Bellan-bandi Palassa indicates that a very wide range of food-plants and animals were exploited. Among the former, canarium nuts, wild breadfruit and wild bananas are prominent. It is probable that dioscorea yams, such as Dioscorea spicata, D. pentaphylla and D. oppositifolia were staples in the diet, as they were among South Asian hunters and gatherers in recent times. It appears as if every conceivable type of animal had been eaten, ranging from elephants to snakes, rats, snails and small fish (ibid.:451-2). This diet would have been well balanced as attested by the robusticity of the human skeletal remains. The degeneration of bone that accompanies a specialised starchy diet and a sedentary life style had yet to set in.

      • 2
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        Dear Prof. Charles Sarvan,

        ‘Race’ And Racism: Sharing Some Thoughts

        http://www.sundaytimes.lk/101010/Plus/plus_17.html

        The first people who walked our little isle.

        The Native Veddah. All others are Paradeshis or Paras.

        Part 1 of this series dealt with the geological process that led to the birth of this island. Now, in Part 2, we see the arrival of human beings to this island. It is our arrival that made a piece of land a country, the home of a people.

        What do these studies show? Interestingly, they show that Balangoda Man was genetically connected to the most recent of the real Veddahs, who lived up to the 20th century, and whose skeletal remains are preserved in European museums. So the Veddahs can be traced back to at least 18,000 years ago: they are our oldest people – our “First People”. We should, of course, accord them the respect that is their due but, unfortunately, we do not.

        What was Balangoda Man like? From the skeletal remains we estimate that the males were about 174 cm (5’7”) tall and the females about 166 cm (5’4”), which compares favourably with our own size. Their bones are ‘robust’ (hard and strong), their skull-bones thick, their eyebrow ridges are prominent. Their noses were depressed and spread wide, their jaws heavy and their necks short. Their teeth were definitely large. Some of these features are found among the Veddahs, and even certain Sinhalese groups, today.

    • 5
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      Dr Rifai

      “No race superior to other except through good deed and Piety.”

      Except if one is an infidel, one who does not believe in or rejects Islam.

      This idea of them and us runs through the minds and conduct of almost all Muslims. Am I right?

      • 3
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        Dear Amerisir and others: Do not blame Islam for the mistake of Muslims: do not see how many shinhalse do all sins such as murdering and drinking alcohols and others things: can you blame Buddhissm for that p: many monks are melosting chidren and do you blame Buddhism for that ? If Talibans or al Qaida make mistake it’s their problems and go and ask them if you are bevave enough or write to them but do not link that with Islam: Why do you choose a few words of Quran out of context to generalise to all; Listen when Army was fighting Tiger what was order from SL government to army it was ordered to kill all tigers Same like Islam in fighting with pagan Arabs ordered Muslims to kill all fighters in battle fields. This was order to fight those who foght them in Makka and in the Quran there is theory of obragation: if have read the history of Quranic revelation you would have known this? This order to kill was revealed in context to kill Mekkans and it was in the battle feild only and if they surrender they are not allowed to fight yet, why did SL army did ? It killed all those who surrendered ? Which one is better I write to tell you that you should know really circumstance of which Quranic verse revealed before you talk about it Do not show your situpidity when you write about Islam If I write about Buddhism you would laugh at me Because I would distort it meaning You have distorted meaning of Islam There is no difference between you and BBS You are so called half baked eggs

    • 2
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      Rifai Naleemi:

      Even with a doctorate, you are writing BS.

      If Allah the ALmighty created all the races and different tribes, as you say, – forget all those, just tell me why different sects of Islamists fight and try to dominate one over the other ?

      There is no Almighty or there is no Allah.

      Allah is you. I mean the creator is the one who created. That is you and me.

      Even with doctorate, you are S…pid.

      • 2
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        Dear Amerisir and others: Do not blame Islam for the mistake of Muslims: do not see how many shinhalse do all sins such as murdering and drinking alcohols and others things: can you blame Buddhissm for that p: many monks are melosting chidren and do you blame Buddhism for that ? If Talibans or al Qaida make mistake it’s their problems and go and ask them if you are bevave enough or write to them but do not link that with Islam: Why do you choose a few words of Quran out of context to generalise to all; Listen when Army was fighting Tiger what was order from SL government to army it was ordered to kill all tigers Same like Islam in fighting with pagan Arabs ordered Muslims to kill all fighters in battle fields. This was order to fight those who foght them in Makka and in the Quran there is theory of obragation: if have read the history of Quranic revelation you would have known this? This order to kill was revealed in context to kill Mekkans and it was in the battle feild only and if they surrender they are not allowed to fight yet, why did SL army did ? It killed all those who surrendered ? Which one is better I write to tell you that you should know really circumstance of which Quranic verse revealed before you talk about it Do not show your situpidity when you write about Islam If I write about Buddhism you would laugh at me Because I would distort it meaning You have distorted meaning of Islam There is no difference between you and BBS You are so called half baked eggs

      • 2
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        If different sects fight each other it is their problems and each one will be accountable when they die and you think every thing is gods. You believe that in what is called wahdthul wujood. This concept is very old one and people believe that God and this universe is one: these people this god is reflected in this universe and this concept is claimed by Ibn Arabi : this old mysticism and you are talking about that: it mean you and you pig are gods and you and your dogs are gods and you and your poo are gods and god is in very dirty things and your daughters are your gods and you wife is your god and you can do whatever you want your gods ? Does this make sense please tell me. Are you sane person or what ?

    • 2
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      Dr Rifai

      “Please Explore meaning of the race in the Quran: ( we have created you in different groups of people and tribe so that you may mutually understand each other ).”

      Your Story. Our Story. The Human Story.

      https://genographic.nationalgeographic.com/

      Since its launch in 2005, National Geographic’s Genographic Project has used advanced DNA analysis and worked with indigenous communities to help answer fundamental questions about where humans originated and how we came to populate the Earth. Now, cutting-edge technology is enabling us to shine a powerful new light on our collective past. By participating in the latest phase of this real-time scientific project, you can learn more about yourself than you ever thought possible. You will also help support the Genographic Legacy Fund, which works to conserve and revitalize indigenous cultures around the world.

      The Genographic Project, in partnership with Family Tree DNA, announces a new evolutionary tree.

      Did you know that this year, April 25th is both DNA Day and Arbor Day? In order to join in on the festivities and mark this calendric coincidence, National Geographic’s Genographic Project and Family Tree DNA are announcing the joint creation of the newest, largest, and most refined evolutionary tree of the paternally-inherited Y chromosome. In other words, the 2014 version of the Y-DNA tree is about ready to make an appearance. And the success of the DNA tree is due in great part to the Genographic Project’s GenoChip and the help from the more than 600,000 people that have joined this one-of-a-kind participant science project. From us at the Genographic Project we would like to say, Thank you!

      What is the 2014 Y-Tree? The new Y-Tree is a chart of human relatedness showing how all men’s Y-chromosomes stem from an ancient ancestor in Africa more than 100,000 years ago. Since that shared common ancestor, his descendents have journeyed around the world and in the process accumulated mutations in their DNA that make them and their Y-chromosome relatives unique. Each mutation is a genetic event that occurred at a particular time and place in the ancestral journey. Today, all men carry in their Y-chromosomes a set of DNA mutations that charts that series of events. The tree is therefore the global genetic map of all these mutational events, showing how we are all related.

      http://newswatch.nationalgeographic.com/2014/04/25/the-human-family-tree-grows-new-branches-on-arbor-and-dna-day/

      How different is the 2014 Y-tree to the current version used by the Genographic Project? With the new tree the number of branches nearly doubled, from 667 to more than 1200, and new connections have emerged. Haplogroup O, for example, has changed form showing new patterns of relatedness among East Asians and Southeast Asians. In general, the overall structure of the tree remained consistent with past versions, thus not affecting participants’ major haplogroup designations (G, J, R, and so on).

      More branches mean greater geographic specificity – narrowing down where your haplogroup is found in the world – and this is where you can play an active role in the scientific process. If you haven’t done so already, please fill out your profile questionnaire and tell us a little bit about your maternal or paternal genealogy in the Our Story section of the Genographic website. By doing this, you are helping us to refine our knowledge of human migration patterns, in the process improving your Genographic results and those of other participants.

  • 3
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    The learned professor is attempting to discuss an extremely controversial subject.

    Unfortunately, the concept of race does exist in science. A race is defined as a sub-species, or a sub group of a species, that is in the process of separating itself from the parent species and evolving into a separate species by itself. A good example is Darwin’s Finches that were separating into different sub-species due to exposure to various environmental and other selection pressures on the island of Galapagos.

    In the case of the human species no one can deny that Chinese look very different from Negroes though both belong to the human species. Hence the concept of sub-species or race. There exists , of course, many overlapping and hard to recognize mixed-race individuals due to interbreeding among humans but this falls under the theory of social Darwinism as human society is artificial and therefore not subject to natural selection pressures like animals

    The ‘nation’ concept can also be defined similarly though a bit more arbitrarily. It can be defined through geographical or cultural separation ( ie language , customs etc ). This should not be confused with citizenship which is purely an artificial construct. For example a nation of African Americans or a nation of Turks can exist under US citizenship, which means whatever nationhood they identify themselves with they would still belong to one geographical country ; the USA. Therefore the fact of belonging to a specific nation does not necessarily mean that that nation would have a distinct citizenship too.

    Cavalli Sforza, an eminent Geneticist from Stanford, who contributed a significant body of research material towards human genome studies, identified Genetic markers ( SNP and satellite markers of Y chromosome and maternal mitochondrial DNA ) as well as language as important factors required for tracing the evolution of various human sub-species aka races.

  • 6
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    Tamils are the biggest racists in India and SL.

    You can see it from their voting pattern.

  • 4
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    The Quran says

    O mankind, verily, We have created you from male and female and made you peoples and tribes that you may know one another. Verily, the most noble of you in the sight of Allah is the most righteous of you. Verily, Allah is knowing and aware. Surah Al-Hujurat 49:13

    The saying of the prophet confirms in his last sermon

    O people, verily, your Lord is one and your father Adam is one. There is no favoritism of an Arab over a foreigner, nor a foreigner over an Arab, and neither red skin over black skin, nor black skin over red skin, except through righteousness. Have I not conveyed the message? Source: Musnad Ahmad 22978, Grade: Sahih

    Another hadith decries boasting about ones past

    There are certainly people who brag about their ancestors who have died. Verily, they are coal for Hellfire such that they are more contemptible to Allah than the beetle that rolls dung with its nose. Verily, Allah has removed from you the pride of the time of ignorance with its boasting about ancestors. Verily, either one is a believer who fears Allah or a miserable sinner. The people are all the children of Adam, and Adam was created from dust. Source: Sunan At-Tirmidhi 3955, Grade: Hasan

    The experience of an American Muslim Malcom X

    America needs to understand Islam, because this is the one religion that erases from its society the race problem. Throughout my travels in the Muslim world, I have met, talked to, and even eaten with people who in America would have been considered white, but the white attitude was removed from their minds by the religion of Islam. I have never before seen sincere and true brotherhood practiced by all colors together, irrespective of their color.
    During the past eleven days here in the Muslim world, I have eaten from the same plate, drunk from the same glass, and slept on the same rug, while praying to the same God, with fellow Muslims, whose eyes were the bluest of blue, whose hair was the blondest of blond, and whose skin was the whitest of white. And in the words and in the deeds of the white Muslims, I felt the same sincerity that I felt among the black African Muslims of Nigeria, Sudan and Ghana. We were truly all the same, because their belief in one God had removed the white from their minds, the white from their behavior, and the white from their attitude. I could see from this, that perhaps if white Americans could accept the Oneness of God, then perhaps, too, they could accept in reality the Oneness of Man, and cease to measure and hinder and harm others in terms of their differences in color. Source: Malcolm X’s Letter from Mecca

    May God Allmighty remove the blindness of race and religous superiority from our minds and make us good human beings.

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      Safa,

      Thanks for “The experience of an American Muslim Malcom X” “Source: Malcolm X’s Letter from Mecca “. Very telling about the true Muslim ethic.

      This is Music to the ears of Amarasiri, The Egalitarian.

      1. Very Telling, about Egalitarianism in Islam as experienced by a Black American who has been subjected to Racism by the “Christians”.

      “I could see from this, that perhaps if white Americans could accept the Oneness of God, then perhaps, too, they could accept in reality the Oneness of Man, and cease to measure and hinder and harm others in terms of their differences in color.”

      2. It is very clear that Prophet Mohamed was an Egalitarian, and his belief in One God, called Allah in Arabic, gave a Divine Impetus to his belief in Egalitarianism by way of God. So, Prophet Mohamed wanted man to be egalitarian, and what Malcolm X saw was the practice of egalitarianism in the Muslim world he traveled. Furthermore, as I have read in the Quran it says, there is no compulsion in religion.

      3. Malcolm X had the advantage of travelling in the Muslim World in the 1950’s and early 1960’s BEFORE the advent of the so-called Islamist fundamentalists, the so-called Jihadis who were aided, abetted and funded by the Saudi-Wahhabi Axis with oil money, who follow the Devil, the Satan, the Shaitan.

      4. It is clear that the Islamist, the Jihadis, the Wahhabi s, The Salafis, the Taliban, The Deobandis and other versions of Devil Followers, the Shaitan Followers are NOT MUSLIMS who wants to follow God, but those who are following the Devil, and are misled and wants to kill other Muslims calling themselves Muslims.

      They are the Wahhabi-Shaitan Virus of the Muslims. Muslims need a good anti-Viral against these Wahhabi, Salafi and Taliban virus to save the Muslims.

      5. Do you know why the Taliban and the Nigerian Wahhabi following Boko prevent Muslim children from being vaccinated against Polio. They want the Muslim children to die, so that there will not be any Muslims left to follow Allah, The God, and the Devil, The Satan triumphs.

      6. Egalitarianism. What is it?

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egalitarianism

      Egalitarianism (from French égal, meaning “equal”)—or, rarely, equalitarianism[1][2]—is a trend of thought that favors equality for all people.

      Egalitarian doctrines maintain that all humans are equal in fundamental worth or social status, according to the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.[3] According to the Merriam-Webster Dictionary, the term has two distinct definitions in modern English.[4] It is defined either as a political doctrine that all people should be treated as equals and have the same political, economic, social, and civil rights[5] or as a social philosophy advocating the removal of economic inequalities among people or the decentralization of power. Some sources define egalitarianism as the point of view that equality reflects the natural state of humanity.[6][7][8]

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        Amarasiri

        Sadly we have been hijacked by the devil of extremism and ignorance. These people who kill and abduct innocent people, women and children are no muslims. They are criminals and murderers and need to be treated as such.

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          Safa

          “Sadly we have been hijacked by the devil of extremism and ignorance. These people who kill and abduct innocent people, women and children are no muslims.”

          If you tell them that they will call you an Apostate or Terrorist and will issue a Fatwa to kill you.

          If you write a book, they will try to get the Book banned.

          This is not restricted to Muslims. Hindus, Christians and Buddhists follow that.

          http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Index_Librorum_Prohibitorum

          Index Librorum Prohibitorum

          The aim of the list was to protect the faith and morals of the faithful by preventing the reading of heretical and immoral books. Books thought to contain such errors included works by astronomers such as Johannes Kepler’s Epitome astronomiae Copernicanae, which was on the Index from 1621 to 1835, and by philosophers, like Immanuel Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason. The various editions of the Index also contained the rules of the Church relating to the reading, selling and pre-emptive censorship of books—editions and translations of the Bible that hadn’t been approved by the Church could be banned.[5]

          Banned Books Week

          http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banned_Books_Week

          Banned Books Week is an annual awareness campaign that celebrates the freedom to read,[1] draws attention to banned and challenged books,[2] and highlights persecuted individuals.[3] The United States campaign “stresses the importance of ensuring the availability of those unorthodox or unpopular viewpoints to all who wish to read them”[4] and the requirement to keep material publicly available so that people can develop their own conclusions and opinions. The international campaign notes individuals “persecuted because of the writings that they produce, circulate or read.”[3]

          http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Censorship_in_South_Asia

          In October and November 2011 the Sri Lankan Telecommunication Regulatory Commission blocked the five websites, http://www.lankaenews.com, srilankamirror.com, srilankaguardian.com, paparacigossip9.com, and http://www.lankawaynews.com, for what the government alleges as publishing reports that amount to “character assassination and violating individual privacy” and damaging the character of President Mahinda Rajapaksa, ministers and senior government officials. The five sites have published material critical of the government and alleged corruption and malfeasance by politicians.[16]

          List of books banned in India, with the latest.

          http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_books_banned_in_India

          2014 The Hindus: An Alternative History Wendy Doniger An organization called Shiksha Bachao Andolan had brought a civil suit against the publisher, Penguin India, in 2011 for alleged inaccuracies, libel and alleged plagiarism. In early 2014, the publisher agreed to recall and destroy all copies of the book.[78]

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            All who want know more more facts about Hinduism, History and its Myths,

            List of books banned in India, with the latest.

            http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_books_banned_in_India 2014 The Hindus: An Alternative History Wendy Doniger An organization called Shiksha Bachao Andolan had brought a civil suit against the publisher, Penguin India, in 2011 for alleged inaccuracies, libel and alleged plagiarism. In early 2014, the publisher agreed to recall and destroy all copies of the book.[78]

            Can buy from Amazon.com

            http://www.amazon.com/The-Hindus-An-Alternative-History/dp/014311669X/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1400957519&sr=8-1&keywords=Wendy+Doniger

            The Hindus: An Alternative History Paperback
            by Wendy Doniger (Author) 196 customer reviews

            Almost half of all one star reviews occurred in the past few days, and among them only one is an Amazon verified purchaser. It seems there is a concerted effort on bringing the rating down for this book, ever since the book was withdrawn from India.-

            Looks like Hindu Shills in action and want to hide the myths of Hinduism -Amarasiri

            “Don’t miss this equivalent of a brilliant graduate course froma feisty and exhilarating teacher.”
            -The Washington Post

            An engrossing and definitive narrative account of history and myth, The Hindus offers a new way of understanding one of the world’s oldest major religions. Hinduism does not lend itself easily to a strictly chronological account. Many of its central texts cannot be reliably dated within a century; its central tenets arise at particular moments in Indian history and often differ according to gender or caste; and the differences between groups of Hindus far outnumber the commonalities. Yet the greatness of Hinduism lies precisely in many of these idiosyncratic qualities that continues to inspire debate today. This groundbreaking work elucidates the relationship between recorded history and imaginary worlds, the inner life and the social history of Hindus.

            5.0 out of 5 stars I personally am enriched by the book’s perspectives, May 12, 2014
            By jana fortier – See all my reviews
            This review is from: The Hindus: An Alternative History (Paperback)
            The book is a great example of the importance of ancient laws in the contemporary consciousness of anyone interested in Hinduism, as a social order, a moral code, or religious practice. Read it to enjoy the author’s insights as she paints a picture of the major themes and debates about Hinduism. The emphasis on interpreting perspectives of minorities (women, low castes) makes for some memorable moments. I personally am enriched by the book’s perspectives, whether reading from Chapter 2, about Hindu ideas about time… to Ch 19, about Hinduism’s interactions with the Muslim Mughal emperors… to Ch 23, the diaspora of Hindus worldwide. For readers who haven’t studied the basics of Hinduism (in classroom or at home), you may want to shoot over to Google Books to read more descriptions & definitions of Dharma, Karma etc or go read a bit from Hindu classics such as the Laws of Manu, the Arthasasthra (Economics), Rig Vedas, Mahabharata etc.

            By Jayarathina (India) – See all my reviews
            This review is from: The Hindus: An Alternative History (Hardcover)
            I began to read this book as a Streisand effect of it being withdrawn in India because of pressure from “some quarters”. To tell the truth I did not find anything bad as they projected in the media.

            One thing that I greatly admired in this book it that she has given equal importance to south Indian Hinduism. Which is hard to get these days. Most negative criticism this books received are silly ones. This book is an overview of Hinduism not an in-depth analysis. Even though I do not agree with the Author’s interpretation at times, this is over all a great book for understanding India and Hinduism.

            I have to admit, it is not a easy read for me. But it is worth it. my view of Hinduism will never be the same.

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            The Hindus: An Alternative History Paperback
            by Wendy Doniger (Author)

            “Don’t miss this equivalent of a brilliant graduate course froma feisty and exhilarating teacher.”
            -The Washington Post

            5.0 out of 5 stars Unbiased treatment, April 14, 2014
            By A. Singh (SF Bay, CA) – See all my reviews
            (REAL NAME)

            Verified Purchase(What’s this?)
            This review is from: The Hindus: An Alternative History (Paperback)

            Hindus hate it because it tells things in black and white. Each religion has a side that its members want to camouflage. This is Hinduism’s “that” side that no Hindu wants to be exposed. They want to at least package it in better packing. Wendy discusses things in a from which is very neutral from academia standpoint which does not jive well with those that want to put Hinduism’s best foot forward. Purpose of academia is not to make a religion look good or bad, but to conduct research from a research standpoint, and that is exactly what Wendy is best at.

            Must read if you want unbiased, raw, and neutral information and original research.

            If you want to be politically correct, do not buy this. Best to stay in fool’s paradise and be content with life as it is.

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    The important part for race is – self determination. A group of people would like to live as one nation, then all have to accept and let them live by them self. There is no size or population.
    If there is no racism, then people live together like India.
    Let the Tamil decide their destination, not the Sinhalese.

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    Shlomo Sands is a very brave man. He had the guts to say the obvious, which was NOT what Judaism and Christianity had taught the world. God’s ‘Chosen race’ canard has been with us for more than three millennia, and is still being forced down our throats, not ONLY by the Judaics (6% Hebrews and some 94% converts (Khazars)) but also by politicians for their own purposes, and even by those who profess to be atheists. The ‘Us’and ‘Them’ concept on whatever characteristic we dare to choose is certainly NOT a new one. When the Planet’s population was a fraction of what it is today, we could simply move away and leave ‘them’ to their own devices. Today we have to behave differently and learn to live together, with ‘them’, however difficult that may be. No group need be offered privileges for the purpose. As India has done even the discussion of secession should be made a criminal offence.

    Humans are described as rational animals, but their behaviour proves otherwise.

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      Ram,

      “Humans are described as rational animals, but their behaviour proves otherwise.”

      “Religion is the opium of the Masses”-Karl Marx.

      Steven Weinberg

      en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steven_Weinberg

      His views on religion were expressed in a speech from 1999 in Washington, D.C.; see also Quotations related to Steven Weinberg at Wikiquote:

      “‘Religion is an insult to human dignity. With or without it you would have good people doing good things and evil people doing evil things. But for good people to do evil things, that takes religion.”[14]
      He modified his comment in a later article derived from these talks:

      “Frederick Douglass told in his Narrative how his condition as a slave became worse when his master underwent a religious conversion that allowed him to justify slavery as the punishment of the children of Ham. Mark Twain described his mother as a genuinely good person, whose soft heart pitied even Satan, but who had no doubt about the legitimacy of slavery, because in years of living in antebellum Missouri she had never heard any sermon opposing slavery, but only countless sermons preaching that slavery was God’s will. With or without religion, good people can behave well and bad people can do evil; but for good people to do evil — that takes religion.”[14]
      He has also said:

      “The more the universe seems comprehensible, the more it (also) seems pointless.”[15][16]
      He attended and was a speaker at the Beyond Belief symposium in November 2006.

  • 2
    1

    Dear Amerisir and others:
    Do not blame Islam for the mistake of Muslims: do not see how many shinhalse do all sins such as murdering and drinking alcohols and others things: can you blame Buddhissm for that p: many monks are melosting chidren and do you blame Buddhism for that ? If Talibans or al Qaida make mistake it’s their problems and go and ask them if you are bevave enough or write to them but do not link that with Islam:

    Why do you choose a few words of Quran out of context to generalise to all;
    Listen when Army was fighting Tiger what was order from SL government to army it was ordered to kill all tigers
    Same like Islam in fighting with pagan Arabs ordered Muslims to kill all fighters in battle fields. This was order to fight those who foght them in Makka and in the Quran there is theory of obragation: if have read the history of Quranic revelation you would have known this?
    This order to kill was revealed in context to kill Mekkans and it was in the battle feild only and if they surrender they are not allowed to fight yet, why did SL army did ? It killed all those who surrendered ? Which one is better
    I write to tell you that you should know really circumstance of which Quranic verse revealed before you talk about it
    Do not show your situpidity when you write about Islam
    If I write about Buddhism you would laugh at me
    Because I would distort it meaning
    You have distorted meaning of Islam
    There is no difference between you and BBS
    You are so called half baked eggs

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      Dr. Refai, Abu-Wahhabi

      “You have distorted meaning of Islam There is no difference between you and BBS You are so called half baked eggs:”

      Yes, there is no difference Between the Wahhabis and BBS. Both are corruptions of the true teachings of Islam and Buddhism.

      Responses:.

      1. It was the Wahhabis and their clones who have distorted the meaning of Islam, based on the Devil Inspired distractions by Ibn Taymiah and Abdul Wahab, to kill other Muslims, by calling them Muslims, because they follow Islam, the religion of Allah, God.

      2. It was the BBS, Booru Balu Sena, and their clones, Para-Sinhala Ravya who have distorted the meaning of Buddhism, based on the Para-Monk Mahanama Lies and Imaginations, inspired distractions in Mahawansa to kill other Non-Sinhala Paras , by calling them Paras because they follow Maraism, the religion of Mara, the Buddhist Devil.

      So Wahhabi Devils =BBS Maras

      Ibn Taymiah, Abdul Wahab = Para-Monk Mahanama

      Ibn Taymiah, Abdul Wahhab writings = Para-Monk Mahanama Mahawansa

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    Dear Amerasiri.
    If you think that I’m Wahhabi. It is wrong it tells us how low is your knowledge in Islam
    Tells me what aqeeda of Wahhabi differs from others and what are main theological dfifrence of Wahhabi and others
    I assumed that you do search on sheikh google to write about Islam
    Let us learn Islam from original sources in a order then talk about Islam

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      Dr RIFAI

      I have not yet been able to get a decedent and reasonable answer based on the Quran, the Hadith, or other writings by Islamic Scholars as to why, those believers in the Quran need to be killed by the followers of Ibn Taymiah and Abdul Wahab doctrine, the so-called Salaf doctrine, of naming them Non-Muslims, Apostates and to be killed. Thre was no such need until Ibn Tayymiaah and Abdul Wahhab appeared 500 years later.

      Please come up with the best answer to my query. ( Amarasiri calls Sinhala and Tamils, Para-Sinhala and Para-Tamils because there is support).

      4. Amarasiri’s interpretation is that, the Wahhabis and their clones are Devils, Satan Followers who want to kill off the Muslims who follow, God, Allah. This is a more rational and better argument than the argument of the Wahhabis. The moderate Muslims, the Sunni Muslims, the Shia Muslims, The Ahamediua Muslims and the Sufis who are victims of Wahhabis and their clones will agree with Amarasiris’s interpretation , than that of Ibn Taymiah and Abdul Wahhab.

      5. Dr. Refai, come with a better argument to counteract Amarasiris’s argument. give citations from, the Quran, Hadith and any other credible reference.

      If you do not know the answer, please consult the best Ulema or Scholor you can find and give a reasonably good answer. ( Unsupported epicycles, Joshua stopping the Sun etc. for the Geocentric model that cannot be supported is insufficient).

      References: and Abdul Wahab
      Ibn Taymiyyah

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ibn_Taymiyyah

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muhammad_ibn_Abd_al-Wahhab

      The “core” of Sheikh Muhhamad’s teaching is found in Kitab al-Tawhid, a short essay which draws from material in the Quran and the narrations of the Prophet.[31] It preaches that worship in Islam includes conventional acts of worship such as the five daily prayers (salat); fasting (sawm); Dua (supplication); Istia’dha (seeking protection or refuge); Ist’ana (seeking help), and Istigatha to Allah (seeking benefits and calling upon Allah alone).[32][page needed]

      Other acts, such as making du’a or calling upon anyone or anything other than God, or seeking supernatural help and protection from something other than Allah alone are acts of shirk and contradict the tenets of Tawhid.[32][page needed]

      Although all Muslims pray to one God Allah, the highlight of this movement was that Muhammad Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab was keen on emphasising that no intercession with God was possible, and that those who tried would never be forgiven.[33] Muhammad strictly advocated takfeer of those who considered themselves Muslim but were actually Mushrikeen, such as those who invoked intercession from the dead.[2

      As with the early Salafists, Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab’s teachings were criticized by a number of Islamic scholars for disregarding Islamic history, monuments, traditions and the sanctity of Muslim life.[19] His own brother, Sulayman, was particularly critical, claiming he was ill-educated and intolerant, classing Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab’s views as fringe and fanatical.[19] A list of scholars with opposing views, along with names of their books and related information, was compiled by the Islamic scholar Muhammad Hisham.[39][List of books that criticize Wahhabi teachings]

      Taqî ad-Dîn Aḥmad ibn Taymiyyah (January 22, 1263 – 1328 CE), full name: Taqī ad-Dīn Abu ‘l-`Abbās Aḥmad ibn `Abd al-Ḥalīm ibn `Abd as-Salām Ibn Taymiyyah al-Ḥarrānī (Arabic: تقي الدين أبو العباس أحمد بن عبد الحليم بن عبد السلام بن عبد الله ابن تيمية الحراني‎), was an Islamic scholar (alim), Islamic philosopher, theologian and logician. He lived during the troubled times of the Mongol invasions. He was a member of the school founded by Ahmad ibn Hanbal, and is considered by his followers, along with Ibn Qudamah, as one of the two most significant proponents of Hanbalism; in the modern era, his adherents often refer to the two as “the two sheikhs and Sheikh ul-Islam.[7] Ibn Taymiyyah was notable for having sought the return of Islam to what he viewed as earlier interpretations of the Qur’an and the Sunnah.

      Mongol invasion and other struggles[edit]

      What has been called Ibn Taymiyyah’s “most famous” fatwā[18] was issued against the Mongols in the Mamluk’s war. Ibn Taymiyyah declared that jihad upon the Mongols was not only permissible, but obligatory. He based this ruling his argument that the Mongols could not, in his opinion, be true Muslims despite the fact that they had converted to Sunni Islam because they ruled using what he considered ‘man-made laws’ (their traditional Yassa code) rather than Islamic law or Sharia. Because of this, he reasoned they were living in a state of jahiliyyah, or pre-Islamic pagan ignorance.[19][20]

      Apart from that, he led the resistance of the Mongol invasion of Damascus in 1300. In the years that followed, Ibn Taymiyyah was engaged in intensive polemic activity against:

      the Rifa’i Sufi order,
      the ittihadiyah school, a school that grew out of the teaching of Ibn Arabi, whose views were widely denounced as heretical[citation needed].
      In 1306 Ibn Taymiyyah was imprisoned in the citadel of Cairo for eighteen months on the charge of anthropomorphism. He was incarcerated again in 1308 for several months.

      In 2010 a group of Islamic Scholars in Mardin argued that Ibn Taymiyya’s fatwa was misprinted into an order to “fight” the ruler who is not applying Islamic law, but rather it means to “treat.”[21] They have based their understanding on the original manuscript in the Al-Zahiriyah Library, and the transmission by Ibn Taymiyya’s student Ibn Muflih.[22]

      Read the Link…

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      Dr RIFAI

      In the Age of Reason, Revelation Replaces Reason and Observation make people more and more irrelevant..

      Reply

      “Let us learn Islam from original sources in a order then talk about Islam”

      I agree here.
      What are the original sources in order of credibility.

      1. The Quran

      2. The Hadith

      3. Other writings of Islamic Scholars who used 1 and 2 above and reason.

      Yet. I have not yet been able to articulate the right of the Wahhabi and their clones to kill other Muslims and non-Muslims based on their ideology, other than reason and say that the Wahhabi and their clones are NOT Muslims, do NOT follow Islam and follow the Devil, the Satan, BECAUSE they kill Muslims who follow God, Allah.

      Where am I incorrect in this reasoning?

      Aren’t the Wahhabis and their clones goes beyond what was given in the Quran, and innovating a New Wahhabi ideology, which Islam and Muslims were able to do without during the first 500 years of Islam, and advanced in the Islamic Sciences.

      Neil DeGrasse Tyson The Islamic Golden Age Naming Rights

      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J_9MUzB8wjE

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        Thank you uploading some veados about gold Arab era of Islam:
        But I do not Agee with him at all.
        Ask these questions
        It is true that western world copied Islamic world and barrowed all knowledge from Islam and developed into this modern science and teachnology and yet see what happened.
        See with these technologies what they have achieved up to now
        They have killed millions of humanity with these technology : I mean in two world wars
        They have robed poor nation with interest they imposed on poor nations
        They have occupied many lands with power of weapons
        They have colonised many countries in modern ways through IMF and world bank
        They have veto power to what they want
        Toddy 80% of people are poor and 50% live on less than one dollar per day
        A few country control all world resources and income
        Is this your dream of so called education and what is th point to have noble prize to destroy humanity
        Sahme that you have know power to distinguish between truth and fale and between reality and outward world
        Please answer me before you upload some more stupid veados of bias western concepts.
        I do agree with you with Wahhabis veados and I agree they have departed from right path of Islam
        You do not need to teach me about Wahhabism
        I m an expert on Islam & Wahhabism .
        I do not write about them in my name
        I just recommend you to buy this book if you want to know about Islam
        Great thieft : wresting Islam from extremists by Pro Abu Fadl
        Then we will talk about Wahhabism with you

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          Dr Rifai

          You say you are NOT a Wahhabi and its clones. I respect you for that. That leaves room for a discussion. There is no room for discussions with Wahhabis, Racists and other undesirables.

          My hypothesis is that Ibn Taymmiyah and Abdul Wahab,are misled or inspired by Satan. Therefore I would rename Abdul Wahab as AbdShaitan Wahab or AbdSatan Wahab.

          If you want to neutralize the Devil following Wahhabis, AbdShaitans AndSatans, need to make the link, They have produced their own data, showing that they are followers of Satan, by killing Muslims and non-Muslims alike.

          Read the Satanic Verses in the Quran. My arguments need to be based on the Quran, Hadith and Reason only, just like Copernicus, Galileo’s, and Kepler’s arguments had to be based on the positions of the planets and Sun only.

          Satanic Verses in the Quran, where Satan crept into the Quran.

          The Satanic Verses are a small number of apparently pagan verses that, in traditional Islamic interpretation, were said to have been temporarily included in the Qur’an by the Islamic prophet Muhammad, only to be later removed. Narratives derived from hadith involving these verses can be read in, among other places, the biographies of Muhammad by al-Wāqidī, Ibn Sa’d (who was a scribe of Waqidi), al-Tabarī, and Ibn Ishaq (the last as reconstructed by Alfred Guillaume).

          The first use of the expression ‘Satanic Verses’ is attributed to Sir William Muir (1858).[1]

          There are numerous accounts reporting the incident, which differ in the construction and detail of the narrative, but they may be broadly collated to produce a basic account.[2] The different versions of the story are all traceable to one single narrator Muhammad ibn Ka’b, who was two generations removed from biographer Ibn Ishaq. In its essential form, the story reports that Muhammad longed to convert his kinsmen and neighbors of Mecca to Islam. As he was reciting Sūra an-Najm,[3] considered a revelation by the angel Gabriel, Satan tempted him to utter the following lines after verses 19 and 20:

          Have ye thought upon Al-Lat and Al-‘Uzzá
          and Manāt, the third, the other?
          These are the exalted gharāniq, whose intercession is hoped for.

          Allāt, al-‘Uzzā and Manāt were three goddesses worshipped by the Meccans. Discerning the meaning of “gharāniq” is difficult, as it is a hapax legomenon (i.e. only used once in the text). Commentators wrote that it meant the cranes. The Arabic word does generally mean a “crane” – appearing in the singular as ghirnīq, ghurnūq, ghirnawq and ghurnayq, and the word has cousin forms in other words for birds, including “raven, crow” and “eagle”.[4]

          The subtext to the event is that Muhammad was backing away from his otherwise uncompromising monotheism by saying that these goddesses were real and their intercession effective. The Meccans were overjoyed to hear this and joined Muhammad in ritual prostration at the end of the sūrah. The Meccan refugees who had fled to Abyssinia heard of the end of persecution and started to return home. Islamic tradition holds that Gabriel chastised Muhammad for adulterating the revelation, at which point [Quran 22:52] is revealed to comfort him,

          Never sent We a messenger or a prophet before thee but when He recited (the message) Satan proposed (opposition) in respect of that which he recited thereof. But Allah abolisheth that which Satan proposeth. Then Allah establisheth His revelations. Allah is Knower, Wise.

          Muhammad took back his words and the persecution of the Meccans resumed. Verses [Quran 53:21] were given, in which the goddesses are belittled. The passage in question, from 53:19, reads:

          Have ye thought upon Al-Lat and Al-‘Uzza

          And Manat, the third, the other?
          Are yours the males and His the females?
          That indeed were an unfair division!

          They are but names which ye have named, ye and your fathers, for which Allah hath revealed no warrant. They follow but a guess and that which (they) themselves desire. And now the guidance from their Lord hath come unto them.

          http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Satanic_Verses
          Pro Abu Fadl

          http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khaled_Abou_El_Fadl

          Abou El Fadl is noted for his scholarly approach to Islam from a moral point of view, as embodied by the Usuli school.[2] He writes on universal themes of humanity, morality, human rights, justice, and mercy, and is known for his writings on beauty as a core moral value of Islam. He is a critic of puritan and Wahhabi Islam. Abou El Fadl has appeared on national and international television and radio, and published in such publications as The New York Times, The Washington Post, The Wall Street Journal, The Los Angeles Times, and The Boston Review

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          Dr Rifai RE: Abd-Shaitan Wahhabis: The Killers of Muslims

          See the Wahhabis and their clones are ding in Pakistan, They kill Muslims.

          http://www.cbc.ca/news/world/mehdi-ali-qamar-canadian-doctor-killed-in-pakistan-1.2655032

          Photo Galleries
          Mehdi Ali Qamar, Canadian doctor, killed in Pakistan
          Cardiologist targeted because he belonged to outlawed Ahmadi Muslim sect, family says

          The brother of a Canadian cardiologist gunned down in Pakistan in front of his wife and two-year-old son says Mehdi Ali Qamar had just arrived in Pakistan to do volunteer work at a hospital.

          Police say two gunmen riding a motorcycle shot Qamar 10 times at close range in the town of Chanab Nagar, adding that Qamar’s wife and son were not harmed.

          Hadi Ali Chaudhary said his brother and his family arrived in Pakistan several days ago from their home in Ohio and planned to treat patients at the Tahir Heart Institute in Rabwah.

          Chaudhary said Qamar — who had lived in Ohio for about a decade — his wife and two-year-old son were visiting the graves of his parents when he was killed on Monday. Qamar, 51, who had been living in Ohio for about 10 years, will be flown back to Canada for burial in Toronto.

          A Foreign Affairs spokesman says they are in contact with local authorities to gather more information.

          Qamar knew dangers he faced

          Police have said they don’t have a motive for Qamar’s slaying, but the family said he was killed for being a member of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Jama’at Canada community.

          “The government of Pakistan, they made a law against our community that these are non-Muslim, and because of that law … anybody can kill the person who is non-Muslim,” Chaudhary said.

          Qamar knew of the danger he faced, his brother said, but regularly went to the region for three or four weeks at a time to volunteer at the hospital, visit family and help the poor.

          “That’s the kind of generous man he was,” Chaudhary said.

          The Qamars’ eldest son had remained in Ohio, and his other son was in Pakistan but not with his parents at the time of the shooting.

          Jason Elsea, from the Ahmadiyya Muslim community in Columbus, Ohio, said Qamar lived in Pickerington and had a practice in Lancaster. Qamar had recently taken a sabbatical to volunteer at the heart hospital.

          “Many doctors from the U.S. have visited this hospital to help those in need,” Elsea said in a statement.

          Dr. Abdus Malik, Qamar’s friend and hospital colleague in Ohio, said he had made summertime trips over the past several years to do work at the institute.

          “And this time they wouldn’t let him come back,” he said. “Just because the difference in our faith, they want to kill us.”

          Sect targeted by extremists

          Ahmadis follow the self-proclaimed prophet Ghulam Ahmad and consider themselves Muslims, but are forbidden from presenting themselves as such by Pakistani law. They have long been targeted by Islamic extremists, and earlier this month a member of the sect accused of blasphemy was shot dead by a gunman who walked into the police station where he was being held.

          Saleem Uddin, a spokesman for Ahmadiyya Jamaat Pakistan, an organization representing Ahmadis, condemned the “brutal murder of this doctor who served fellow human beings without discrimination.”

          He said the attack was part of campaign against Ahmadis and the heart institute, and came after leaflets appeared declaring that treatment there was forbidden by Islamic law.

          “In order to put a stop to murders in the name of faith it is essential to put a ban on hate-promoting literature, and those who are legitimizing murder of innocent people should be brought to justice,” he said.

          ‘Just because the difference in our faith, they want to kill us.’
          — Dr. Abdus Malik, friend of slain Dr. Mehdi Ali Qamar
          Saleem Uddin, a spokesman for Ahmadiya Jamaat Pakistan, an organization representing Ahmadis, condemned the “brutal murder of this doctor who served fellow human beings without discrimination.”

          He said the attack was part of campaign against Ahmadis and the heart institute, and came after leaflets appeared declaring that treatment there was forbidden by Islamic law.

          “In order to put a stop to murders in the name of faith it is essential to put a ban on hate-promoting literature, and those who are legitimizing murder of innocent people should be brought to justice,” he said.

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      Dr RIFAI

      “If you think that I’m Wahhabi. It is wrong ”

      If so May Almighty Allah Bless You, because Wahhabi are followers of the Devil, Satan and they like to kill Muslims and non-Muslims alike.

      The killing data confirms that they follow the Devil. The Devil and their agents like to kill those who follow Allah, Islam, Muslims and even those who do not follow Islam, the non-Muslims.

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wahhabi_movement

      Wahhabism (Arabic: وهابية‎, Wahhābiyyah) is a religious movement or sect or branch of Islam [1][2] variously described as “orthodox”, “ultraconservative”,[3] “austere”, “fundamentalist”, “puritanical”[4] (or “puritan”),[5] an Islamic “reform movement” to restore “pure monotheistic worship”,[6] or an “extremist pseudo-Sunni movement”.[7] It aspires to return to the earliest fundamental Islamic sources of the Quran and Hadith, with inspiration from the teachings of Medieval theologian Ibn Taymiyyah and early jurist Ahmad ibn Hanbal.[8]

      Saudi Wahhabi Women Burns Maid….

      http://www.cnn.com/video/data/2.0/video/world/2014/05/22/pkg-cfp-clancy-filipino-maid-burned.cnn.html

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