28 September, 2022

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Role Of Buddhism In Sri Lankan Politics

By R Hariharan

Col. (retd) R.Hariharan

Sri Lanka has the longest history of Buddhism among Buddhist countries in the world. Ever since Buddhism was introduced in the 3rd century BCE, it had faced threat of survival due to overwhelming cultural and religious influence of Hinduism, internal jockeying for power between the Mahayana and Theravada schools and Colonial sponsorship of Christianity and Islam. In such periods of turbulence, Sinhala kings sought the help of two other Buddhist countries – Myanmar and Thailand – to strengthen and revive Buddhism.

Over a period of time, the orthodox Theravada Buddhism has come to terms with some of the popular Mahayana practices among the people. So it is not surprising, despite Theravada orthodoxy, historically Sinhala kings had not only allowed Hindus and Muslims to practice their religions, but also protected them from Dutch and Portuguese colonialist-sponsored onslaughts against them.

However, it was Anagarika Dharmapala, the father of modern Sinhalese Buddhist nationalism, who gave the momentum it needed in late 19th and early 20th century to response to the British Colonial rule. Cumulatively, these historical experiences have left a deep impression in the psyche of many Buddhists. They believe Sri Lanka is the last bastion of Theravada Buddhism. This feeling also gave rise to ultra nationalist fringe groups like the Bodu Bala Sena (BBS), self-styled guardians saving Buddhism and the distinct identity of Sinhalas. So they consider their vicious anti-Muslim campaigns as legitimate actions. Sometimes, the vigilantes go berserk, as it happened in 2014 and 2017, to attack and destroy Muslim-owned businesses and places of worship of Muslims. Such acts of Buddhist vigilantism has been seen, not only in Sri Lanka, but also in Myanmar and Thailand. In all the three countries, the archpriests of anti-Muslim rhetoric are Buddhist monks – Galagoda Atte Gnanasara in Sri Lanka, Ashin Wirathu in Myanmar and Maha Aphichat in Thailand. The veneer of religious justification they provide to their hate campaign attract some of  the gullible population.

The spread of Wahabism, which provides religious legitimacy for the Islamic jihad of the Al Qaeda–kind in many countries of the globe has whipped up feeling of insecurity among Buddhist nationalists. This suits Buddhist vigilante groups as it provides warped justification for their hate campaigns. Inevitably, Buddhist nationalist right wing political parties have provided political context to the hate groups.

Even mainstream political parties in power are long on rhetoric to condemn the activities of fringe groups but ponderous in taking immediate action to bring the culprits involved in such attacks on Muslims. They are wary of offending conservative nationalist segments among the people, who might dub it as a “unpatriotic” conduct This has considerably damaged the Sinhala-Muslim relations with their adverse political fallout. Covert support given to Sinhala nationalist elements by some leaders of political parties has deepened the suspicion about their sincerity in addressing grievances of Tamil minority, who are mostly Hindus and Christians, and Tamil-speaking Muslims.

Perhaps in deference to the sentiments of 70 per cent Theravada Buddhist population of the country, Sri Lanka’s 1978 constitution gave Buddhism a special status, while not calling it the official religion. The constitution chapter II, Article 9 states “The Republic of Sri Lanka shall give to Buddhism the foremost place and accordingly it shall be the duty of the State to protect and foster the Buddha Sasana, while assuring a foremost to all religions the rights granted by Articles 10 and 14 (1)(e).” These two articles provide all citizens the freedom to adopt, practice and teach any religion of their choice.

Though constitutionally Buddhism might enjoy only the nebulous status of “foremost place,” in reality Buddhism dominates the political and socio-cultural discourse of the country, just as the 80-ft tall Buddha statute in Kandy, said to be the tallest in the world, dominates the skyline. Buddhist monks have always played an active role in the country because ethnic and religious issues are interwoven in politics of the country. The Mahanayake thera, chief prelates of monastic fraternities (Nikaya) who oversee and regulate Buddhist clergy, wield a lot of influence over their followers. This has enabled them to have a political role, like their counterparts in Myanmar. Often, they are loudly vocal even on issues of governance and politics.

Their blessings and patronage are avidly sought by all political leaders; it is not uncommon to see the newly sworn in president and prime minister making a beeline to them to seek their blessings. The Mahanayake also have their favourites among national leaders and often come out in support of their favourites. So top political leaders have little option, but, to woo the Mahanayake for their support.

Both Buddhist clergy and Sinhala-Buddhist-nationalism are conspicuously influencing the exercise now going on to draft a new constitution. The Sirisena-Wickremesinghe embarked on the process to fulfil their electoral promises to make the executive presidency more accountable and to fulfil the aspirations of minorities.  In July 2017, a special Sangha Council attended by Mahanayakas of three Nikayas (including the prelate of Asgiriya, a known supporter of former president Rajapaksa) and 75 other Thera, met in Kandy to unanimously decide that there was no need to bring in a new constitution or an amendment to the present Constitution, negating the peoples mandate given to the ruling UNP-SLFP coalition.

Not to be out done, President Maithripala Sirisena and Prime Minister Ranil Wickremesinghe met the Prelate of the Malwatte Chapter, a known support of the UNP, and assured him that the new constitution would neither in any way lead to a separate or federal state, nor abolish the foremost place given to Buddhism. After their meeting, the Prelate came out in support of the effort to draft a new constitution.

PM Wickremesinghe has maintained the refrain that all political parties and religious leaders across faiths had “no issue in giving priority to protect Buddhism in the country” to assuage feelings of many Sinhalas, who are suspicious about the intentions of the government after the interim report on the constitutional draft submitted to parliament gave two options for adoption on the special status given to Buddhism.  Of course, Sinhalas who feel Theravada Buddhism is under siege, want Buddhism to be declared as the state religion. However, Tamil National Alliance parliamentarian M.A. Sumanthiran has opposed giving primacy to one religion (Buddhism) in the face of equality of all religions; though he was not averse to “some kind of recognition to Buddhism and Buddha’s teachings.” This probably reflects the minority view.

So the constitution-making exercise continues in typical Sri Lankan and South Asian style, with endless discussions by everyone trying to outdo others, rather than hear each other to build a consensus. In all likelihood, Buddhism will retain its special status in the new constitution when the final draft goes for a referendum before the people next year. Whether the people would approve it, remains open ended question. However, I believe majority of Sri Lankans are enlightened enough to approve it as their bitter memories of three decades wasted in fighting Tamil insurgents are still fresh.

*Col R Hariharan, a retired MI officer, served as the head of Intelligence of the Indian Peace Keeping Force in Sri Lanka from 1987 to 90. He is associated with the Chennai Centre for China Studies and the International Law and Strategic Analysis Institute, Chennai. E-mail: haridirect@gmail.com  Blog:http://col.hariharan.info

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Latest comments

  • 5
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    Mr. HAriharan: Eventhough you are ex-military officer. YOu write about defence. YOU knowledge is similar to that of a frog. Read this article. https://www.globalresearch.ca/sri-lanka-the-new-constitution-a-neo-colonial-project/5609475. This is about Sri lanka. WEsy (USA and UK) has a project. In that they use muslims to create create trouble in Thialsn (from Muslims asking separate province for them). Bengali speaking Bangladeshi muslims asking separate State for them in Myanmar. In Sri lanka LTTE project failed. —– Ranil. Mangala Samraweera, CBK and many more UNPers are ganged to subjugate Sinhala buddhists. Anyway your article is usless for sinhala people. We also Agree that Buddhist monks should stay away from politics. but, right now they talk for a reason. Ranil is a proven thief. He has given the orders to loose all the employee funds, state baks and the central bank money in order ot make his UNP – financier win. One years loss (for this year) is calculated to be Rs 69 billion. Constitution should not be allowed. Why hindus voted BJP this time and not the congress. It is the same in Sri lanka. elecoral process go through means Ranil ,lose big time. but, MY3 may be in the same boat. so he is not asking any of them to resign and facilitate the investigations. It is a USA project, that in order to contain China, they want Thailand, Myanmar and sri Lanka be subjugated. It is natural monks get nervous about it. USA also wants our seas defended by ourselves for USA at our expense. there is lot more.

  • 6
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    India has so many problems. there it is so many different views. That is agreeab. USA, EUROPE, austrlia. They talk BS – human rights, that & this. See what those countries are doing. do they give any ethnicity specific rights. IT is only white dominated rights. Assimilation into white culture. why you are asking Sri lanka to do something else. Are you getting paid from the west or simply you do not know what you are talking or simply you are jsut writng and not interested inw riting a proper article ? How do sikhs live in Delhi or uttara pradesh?. Did you give any specific rights ?

  • 1
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    Col. (retd) R.Hariharan,

    RE: Role Of Buddhism In Sri Lankan Politics

    “Sri Lanka has the longest history of Buddhism among Buddhist countries in the world. Ever since Buddhism was introduced in the 3rd century BCE, it had faced threat of survival due to overwhelming cultural and religious influence of Hinduism, internal jockeying for power between the Mahayana and Theravada schools “

    This is where the Mahawamsa came in.To Protect Para-Buddhism from Para-Hinduism.

    Can you Indians, take back your long lost people, the Para-Sinhala, Para-Tamils and Para-Muslims and other Paras with their unproven beliefs back to their Homeland India? They came illegally, and are not needed here., in the Land of Native Veddah Aethho.

    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/258335458_Mitochondrial_DNA_history_of_Sri_Lankan_ethnic_people_Their_relations_within_the_island_and_with_the_Indian_subcontinental_populations

    Through a comparison with the mtDNA HVS-1 and part of HVS-2 of Indian database, both Tamils and Sinhalese clusters were affiliated with Indian subcontinent populations than Vedda people who are believed to be the native population of the island of Sri Lanka.Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 7 November 2013; doi:10.1038/jhg.2013.112.

  • 2
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    Role of Buddhism in Sri Lankan politics? Is Buddhism then not above politics, race, materialism?

  • 3
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    Mr.Hariharan – does India giver foremost place to Hinduism in its constitution? for that matter does any country in the world , give foremost place to a religion in its constitution.As Tony Blair when he was PM famously said “we don’t do GOd!

    • 0
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      There are many countries that have foremost place for a religion. In the UK the prime minister has to be a “protestant”, a catholic cannot be the prime minister. In the United States the in coming president is sworn in with their hand placed on the bible. Israel is a Jewish state and Saudi Arabia and Pakistan are Islamic States. The privileged /foremost status afforded to Buddhism in Sri Lanka has no legal implications to any other religious group and is only objected to by one racial group; the Tamils; Hindu and Christian Tamils, who object to almost everything, have alienated themselves and earned the status of being the curse of the nation. The monks are doing their duty to protect Buddhism, as they have done for over two thousand years. The island nation which is blessed in many ways has to have the firm resolve to manage the saboteurs and do what is best for the nation.

      • 1
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        The curse of the nation are not the Tamils or the Tamil Muslims but Sinhalese Buddhist politicians , monks and fanatics like you. remember the entire country was not Sinhalese or Buddhist . 1/3 of the land was Tamil and Hindu ruled by Tamil kings and chiefs and even most of your so called Sinhalese kings and aristocracy were Tamils from South India

    • 0
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      Dumb Rajash: Hinduism is a collection of so many religions. So, they can not say even this partcualr branch of Hinduism is the foremost religion.

  • 5
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    Some of those giant Buddha statues like the one in Kandy you mention were built during paranoid superstitious Premedasa’s time and had no place in SL before that. So do not just effing generalize. You should know that before he became President, the Governor General and President only had a small shrine room in the 3 Presidential mansions and one beautiful simple statue in the Colombo Presidential House. JRJ continued this tradition. Building Buddha statues at the entrance so that the President sees it was done at all 3 houses only during the Premedasa regime. He was seeing ghosts. Your Indian Modi is already half way to establishing a Hinduvta. Your kill Muslims for eating beef and you lynch people now for eating beef. Modi is creating a Hinduvta. Why not write about that instead of being a blowhard pontificating to us? We all remember how Hindus massacred Muslims and Modi could not even get a visa to the USA; and we all remember how you Hindus massacred Sikhs.

  • 1
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    Colonel,

    Apropos your ‘Sri Lanka has the longest history of Buddhism among Buddhist countries in the world.’ may I respectfully remind you that the Noble One was Indian. through and through when he got his project up and running.

    Sri Lanka came into the picture much, much later thanks to Bhikku Mahinda, and Emporor Ashoka who was getting no traction getting Buddhism off the ground in his neck of the woods, and saw the open-goal opportunity amongst the feral tree-hugging mob that had decamped to Lanka.

    Funny how both Buddhism and Christianity never fully flourished in the land where born, but found acceptance further away from home. I think it is fair to say that Christianity failed in Sri Lanka on the basis that it has only captured about 7% of the population inspite of having all the support, for about 500 years, from the old colonial master.

  • 5
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    Its no wonder, ignorant people like Hariharan still exists not only in Sri Lanka but in India also. He doesn’t appear to understand what the egalitarianism means? He doesn’t seem to understand the origin of the Sri Lankan war. He doesn’t seem to know that no successful multi religious country in the world has given special status in the constitution for one religion. Knowing his background, he may never understand or grasp the wrong and the bad behind giving foremost place to one religion.

  • 1
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    A well balanced view point! If Budhists merely want recognition, how about this option as a viable alternative

    “The Republic of Sri Lanka shall give to Buddhism the foremost place and but it shall be the duty of the State to protect and foster all religions , while assuring fundamental rights as recognised in the constitution..”

  • 2
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    Majority of Sri Lankans, besides being enlightened enough due to three decades wasted fighting Tamil insurgents are also acutely aware of who natured, trained and financed Tamil terrorists, not to mention the Hindutva Prime Minister who now visits Sri Lanka periodically to remind Upcountry (estate) Tamils of their historical links. If a new constitution is rejected, will another Indian Enforcing Task Force (ITKF) be in the cards, perhaps with the writer of this article heading the media unit???

    • 1
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      Eagle Blind Eye

      “Majority of Sri Lankans, besides being enlightened enough due to three decades wasted fighting Tamil insurgents”

      Goodness gracious me, majority have now become awakened one, the enlightened Buddhas, just like that. I suppose we need more VPs to enlighten the rest.

  • 1
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    “In all likelihood, Buddhism will retain its special status in the new constitution when the final draft goes for a referendum before the people next year. Whether the people would approve it, remains open ended question. However, I believe majority of Sri Lankans are enlightened enough to approve it as their bitter memories of three decades wasted in fighting Tamil insurgents are still fresh”

    Cause of Tamil insurgents is not becasue “foremost place given to Buddhism”, it is becasue of ” foremost place given to Buddhists” I believe. If business as usual, why waste time?

  • 4
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    REMOVE THE CURSE: REMOVE THE PHRASE “FOREMOST PLACE TO BUDDHISM”.

    Mr. Hariharan are you blind to the ground reality? To watch and wait while Theravada Buddhism is being given the foremost place in Sri Lanka or Myanmar is to being an accomplice in extending the operating licence to kill off the others with the Buddha statues looking down with an ecstatic smile from every junction, as we have seen with our own eyes for so so long.

    Do you think the constitution writers and monks can’t see the blood and the rape and the numbing agony of the widows and the fatherless and the desperate poor? So much of bloody horror is going on and on and on Sri Lanka and its disciple Myanmar in the very name of Buddha to this very day.
    This is the Budhism being signed to in the write up to buy time and hoodwink the world.

    Theravada Buddhism is only spreading genocide in the name of spreading Buddhism. Common sense alone now shows that all religions should have an equal place in Sri Lanka if any positive change is to come. People should be humanized. This is everyone’s basic human right whether they do not believe in God or not. My father was a learned Buddhist, I am not, thanks to the monks.

    Please stop this ponderous duplicity in the new constitution.

    REMOVE THE CURSE: REMOVE THE PHRASE “FOREMOST PLACE TO BUDDHISM”

  • 2
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    Mister you have haven’t got it quite right……….
    It is the Tamils who are anti Buddhists…….Ask Abraham……
    Theravada Buddhism may have the foremost place in the Mahavamsa Constitution……..
    But 90 percent of the 70 percent Buddhists are Dalits in Economic Terms…….
    The main game in Dr Ranil’s New Constitution’ is the hidden the agenda to give Abraham and his Boss Sampathar the Federal Eelaam, which will be irreversible……….
    BTW, Did you know that Monk Gnanissara of the BBS got his Leadership and Political Training in OSLO arranged by Mr Solheim. ?…..
    Is Solheim a Theravada Buddhist ?……..

    • 0
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      Sumane

      Machang !
      I told you many times to keep away from Ganja ( maruvana), see what it has done to your brains. You seemed to be totally disoriented with your thoughts. Machang, you must immediately consult your Game Vedamahathya ( village medicine man) for your condition before it becomes too late.

    • 1
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      KASmaalam K A Sumanasekera

      Are you a Buddhist?
      Aren’t you a card carrying member of Sinhala/Buddhist Fascist Fraternity?

      Does Buddhism in its authentic form demand you to worship idols, …………and carry another human being’s b***s?

  • 4
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    R Hariharan types:

    “Sri Lanka has the longest history of Buddhism among Buddhist countries in the world. “

    Are you confirming Sri Lanka too a Buddhist Country?
    If you could clarify few points it could be worth reading the rest of your typing:

    Please define what makes a country a Buddhist Country?
    When did Sri Lanka was first baptize a Buddhist country, by whom, why, how, ………………………..?

    • 6
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      He is an ethnic Tamil Brahmin from Pallakaddu area in Kerala a district that borders Tamil Nadu and has a lot of Tamil Brahmins who speak a weird dialect of Tamil mixed with Malayalam. Many of them despite being Tamil by ethnicity strangely hate Tamils, especially non Brahmin Tamils ( similar the Sri Lankan Muslims. Tamil by ethnicity but largely Tamil haters) . His so called history is full of inaccuracies and is more or less endorsing the Sinhalese Buddhist chauvinism and the second rate status of the island’s Tamils

      • 0
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        Col R Hariharan, retired MI officer, head of Intelligence IPKF 1987 to 90 tells more about the man and his objectivity than his being a so-called “ethnic” Tamil Brahmin or speaking “a weird dialect of Tamil mixed with Malayalam”. (Tamils in most of TN speak weird dialects of Tamil.)
        Are other Tamil Brahmins, especially the elite who had a great time under British rule, fond of Tamils?
        Despite all his howlers in this text, this is not particularly soft on Sinhala Buddhist Chauvinism or hard on Tamils.
        *
        What is RSS winging about when history as narrated by Col. H is not quite kind to Muslims, who a century ago were the first victims of Sinhala Buddhist chauvinism (with the key Tamil leader Sir PR siding with the chauvinists).

        • 1
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          Yes we al l know about you another Tamil hating Sri Lankan Muslim, just like Hariharan , ethnically Tamil but still hating Tamil and worshipping everything Wahhabi and Arab to hide your largely low caste immigrant Indian Tamil origin. Subject is Hariharan the author of this article and not all Tamil Brahmins. For you information not all Tamil Brahmins in Tamil Nadu loved Tamil and the non Brahmin Tamils but most of them did and still do. The national poet of Tamil Nadu Bharatiar is a Brahmin. Jayalalitha, Kamalahassan, Mani Ratnam and many others are Brahmins. The world famous Mathematician Ramanujan is a Brahmin. The father of the Tamil language sage Agathiar is a Brahmin. I am a Brahmin. Do not try to judge us by acts of Subramania Swamy and their ilk. As for Tamil dialects the most weirdest dialect is spoken the fake Arab/Moor southern Sri Lankan Muslims( not the ones from the north and east, the speak the Tamil of these regions) it is the most guttural form of Tamil spoken. This may be the reason you are so defensive as most probably you speak this extremely guttural form of Tamil spoken by the Southern Sri Lankan fake Arab/Moor Tamil Muslims who originated from South Indian and not from any part of the Arabian Gulf or North Africa.

          • 0
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            Me, a “Tamil hating Sri Lankan Muslim”– RSS, you forgot important details like “low-caste” without which your desperate defence cannot survive.
            *
            I asked a specific question about “theTamil Brahmins, especially the elite who had a great time under British rule”.
            Will you love include N Ram in your list of Tamil lovers?
            *
            BTW, do you know that the best few orators in Tamil among Sri Lankan parliamentarians have been all Muslims since the 1990’s.

        • 0
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          SJ,
          You are not just destroying University of Jaffna, but it seems you are the one even editing the Jaffnahistory.com and messing up the entire history of Ceylon. You rarely understood the words you use. Please if you are too proud or arrogant to refer a dictionary for the word Chauvinism, please stay from using it.
          1. Kotte was voluntarily handed over to Portuguese by Sinhalese.
          2. Sinhalese Mercenary fought in the war against Sankiliyan.
          3. Kandy was destroyed by two, Uncle and Nephew Nilames.
          It that what your dictionary showing as “undue or excessive patriotism”? If you are allergic or don’t like dictionaries, please ask me when, where and at what history time you can use the word for Singhalese as Chauvinist. I don’t mind to waste some of my time if you need help, as co-commenter in CT. Please read the history books before you start to edit your Jaffnahisotry.com. Muslim were clearly told to finish the midnight prayer before the parade start and parade goers were clearly told to come in front of the mosque after midnight prayer was over and both part of the orders were completed in an acceptable manner and there was no need to throw any stones.
          But the truth is, your Golaiyas, the Sirimavo’s Vaanurappadai outnumbered the ISIS Congress. To Support ISIS Congress, British governor arrested and used PTA to keep Sinhalese leaders in prison for 25 years without inquiry. SR did not risk in the WWI to support Sinhalese. He did not complain about Muslims in Britain. He only challenged governor’s action in British parliament.
          SJ to what kind of students you teach? Dump, Deaf, Blind, Numb… all struck in one? Are your students turning out be, at lease good enough to carry dhobis’ cloths on their backs? Karumam! Karumam!

          • 0
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            Mallung, I really do not know what kind of mallung your text it.
            Could you kindly arrange a translation for me.
            Before that read carefully what was written by me.
            *
            BTW, I have never even visited “Jaffnahistory.com”.
            *
            Do not abuse any students.
            Lecturers have hardly any choice in whom they teach.
            I have taught all and sundry, but never one like you who may will fit your description.

  • 1
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    Comment Part I. In short, the article of Colonel Hari Haran (HH), is trying to establish relationships with far-fetched matters. An intelligence officer former or present must perform a detailed study before putting the pen into paper. The description that Anagarika Dharmapala is the father of modern Sinhala Buddhist nationalism seems to me, is partly true, in view of the fact that many at that time did not heed to his nationalist call for which he chided the Sinhala Buddhist and finally resided in India and died there as Venerable Sri Devamitta Dharmapala. It is absurd to say that the fulcrum of Sinhala Buddhist nationalist feelings is the belief that Sri Lanka is the last bastion of Theravada Buddhism and that was the cause of ultra-nationalist fringe groups like the BBS to pop-up. HH attributes the rise of the likes of BBS is due to the spread Wahabism. My respects for HH would have risen higher had he stated that the dominance of ACJU in bringing the “Halal” issue was perceived by the global powers that may be, of the need to stamp it out. The BBS was an instrument for that and its boss, had visas of almost all Western countries. Some were revoked and in my opinion just to show that they had nothing to do with his activities. Its creation and subsequent action resulted in two things. Firstly the rise of the ACJU was stamped. Secondly, alienating Muslims from the then Government, a vital process in the regime-change of Sri Lanka. The prominence for Buddhism was accorded at first in the 1972 Constitution which HH omits to mention. What must be stressed is that at no stage was any religion marginalized constitutionally from 1948 to the present.

  • 1
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    Comment Part 2: Colonel Hari Haran (HH) goes on to say that the Mahanayakes wield a lot of influence. Again it is a half-truth. There was considerable influence in the past but has dwindled. The danger is that if they shout out that the Government is selling the rights of Buddhists then there could be pandemonium because a lot others can make use of it to create trouble. That is why the politicians must necessarily woo them. If far reaching changes require a referendum then other factors would affect the voting pattern. HH does not analyse that the feeling amongst many in the majority here that the policies of the Sirisena – Wickramasinghe government is perceived as one of serving the “rights” of the majority to the minority over a platter. Minorities feel that although the present Government is for amity better than the previous, enough is not done, and views the actions cautiously. It is portrayed that any reference to Religion in the Constitution paves way for domination and subsequently the annihilation of other religions. The challenge is to bring about amity and dispel fears among all sections of the population. Lot of other practical measures must be taken. Knowledgeable people stress about meritocracy. If re-writing of the Constitution brings about creating trust amongst people then implement it to create that trust. If this re-writing is going cause division and havoc then better stop it and do something else to bring about ONE PEOPLE ONE SRILANKA.

  • 2
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    Foremost place to Buddhism is a political necessity. It is a small price to pay if ethnic peace can be achieved. Buddhist priests have played a certain role in the history of Sri Lanka. The role they played during the reign of the Kandyan Nayakka Kings is brilliantly portrayed in the book by Obeysekere. Whether for good or bad, they are a constant in the politics of the country. They have to be factored in. Though extremists among them have to be confronted, the reasonable ones must be cultivated and even appeased. Buddhism as the foremost religion is a fact that is not going to hurt any one. Why not let it be so, as long as others are allowed to be in peace and devolution is secured for the minorities. It is a price worth paying. The practice of real Buddhism assures the safety of all people. Maybe, the essential tenets of Buddhism as peace, kindness and tolerance could be spelt out in the constitution.

    • 0
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      Under no excuse Tamils can return to Monarchy time arrangements. Whether like it or not, when the time Europeans started to come, all three kingdoms were ruled by Tamils and Tamil had an undeniable influence in the history of Ceylon. 1/3 of Sinhala is Tamil. 1/2 of the Sinhala Buddhism is Tamils’ religion, the South Indian Hinduism. Kannagi Amman(Pathini Devyo) is nowhere even in South India. Tamil Nadu and Chera Nadu both have forgotten about her. it is only available in North-East. Under the equal opportunity to Tamils, Northern Governors never send out communications in Tamils. In that condition there is no hope for any other religions in North or East once the Secret Solution comes out public.

  • 1
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    If Buddhism is need to be explicitly given the foremost place in the constitution because the majority of the Srilankans are Buddhists, then the constitution need to recognize Northeast as the homeland of the Tamils. This can be a good compromise. On the other hand both can be implicitly accepted in the constitution.

    • 2
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      What an illogical proposal. Are you proposing that the Sinhalese accept the North-East as Tamils’ homeland and if they do, then the Tamils must accept the foremost place for Buddhism in their homeland? A Tamils’ homeland with Sinhalese religion? And then you still call that Tamils’ homeland? This kind of illogical thinking voids the purpose.

      The Compromise is that Tamils determine in the North-East what kind of religion they want, and the Sinhalese determine in the rest of the island – and that is called self-determination. Imposing one religion onto other people is called slavery, oppression and Genocide. The clown Haiharan has no clue.

    • 0
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      why should we constitutionally accept something that is historically untrue?

      • 3
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        sach the stupid II

        “why should we constitutionally accept something that is historically untrue?”

        Why should anyone accept your history is historically true?

        • 0
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          I am pointing at ESTABLISHED history which every colonial and respected historian took.

          • 1
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            sach

            “I am pointing at ESTABLISHED history which every colonial and respected historian took.”

            Is it another imagined history of yours?
            A liar can type however continues to find it difficult to quote a single research/evidence/book to support extravagant claims.

            “You can believe in whatsoever you like, but the truth remains the truth, no matter how sweet the lie may taste.”
            ― Michael Bassey Johnson

  • 2
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    Mama Sinhalam,

    I endorse most of what you say!. but still try to improve!

    Is it possible to qualify the foremost place so as to ensure secularism in practice

    .What most Tamils object is mainly construction of Buddhist places of worship in the North East where the Buddhists are not resident.with the sole intention of colonizing these ares.

    Secondly if Public funds are used to foster and promote Buddhism disproportionately while there are enough Buddhists who could voluntarily m fund to foster and promote Buddhism..

    • 0
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      Sri-Krish. Why don’t you state how thr govt is spending for every religion including very rich religions of Islam and christianiry ?. Catholics have a Vatican Bank. ISlam has oil money trillions. Evengelicals, anglicans, are they poor ?

  • 2
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    Hariharan says in the article ~ “………In all the three countries, the archpriests of anti-Muslim rhetoric are Buddhist monks – Galagoda Atte Gnanasara in Sri Lanka, Ashin Wirathu in Myanmar and Maha Aphichat in Thailand…………”
    The Buddhist hierarchy in Myanmar has disowned Wirathu. In SL, Gnanasara has had tacit support. In the three countries those in power deftly use characters of the Gnanasara ilk to prop themselves up.

    • 0
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      KP
      In Thailand, the conduct of the Buddhist clergy is moderate and the so-called issue with Muslims is more a national question than religious.
      Thai Muslims are spread across the land and get along well with the others.
      The southern part of Thailand bordering Malaysia has a region with a large Malay population and the issue is confined to the region and there has been no attacks on Muslims on any scale comparable with what we have seen in Sri Lanka and Myanmar.

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    “The Republic of Sri Lanka shall give to Buddhism the foremost place and accordingly it shall be the duty of the State to protect and foster the Buddha Sasana”

    the question is how this was implemented in the past and how it will be in the future. if that means erecting giant Buddhas and Viharas using public funds where there are no Buddhists then it should be removed for peace’s sake and country’s sake.
    if it is like in the village themed Tamil movies where village leader gets first invite and respect
    (muthal mariyathai) in temples to start the festivities, then let them have that ego massage if that brings some peace.
    I knew someone growing up who liked it and wanted to be called boss by his friends and then he would cover all the expenses at the parties. Hey! wasn’t that a good deal? especially when HE insisted on it?
    He didn’t hurt us, though….like a bad boss….

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    though he was not averse to “some kind of recognition to Buddhism and Buddha’s teachings.” This probably reflects the minority view. Our sour mouthed Kornal is writing in support of Sumanthiran because he’s still feeling in his mouth the sour taste of the defeat of his army took in the hand of few boys. Even after Sonia has sold Hangbangtota to China, Kornal is not ready to write straighten politics. This sour mouthed guy has been real anti-TNA all these time. Now telling that Tamils’ opinion is with Sumanthiran’s’ declaration. Kornal was dying with Old Royals while Sumanthiran was preparing to deliver the starting speech to UNP Yahapalanaya Corporation’s election in 2015.

    Does Kornal know there is a first century book called Manimekala in Tamil Nadu is not agreeing the history Kornal and Mahanama wrote in 6th century? There is a recent report says that about 75 temples are under earth in Anuradhapura area. How do one fix the time for temple if are in Anuradhapura, not in North? Does the Kornal has capacity to grasp the gravity this is putting on the Mahavamsa history which is telling Ellara just captured a Buddhist land and ruled only 40 years. 40 years is not enough to build 40 temples even in these days! It is simply knocking out that the war story between Hindu and Buddhist kings as only a story.

    The Kornal could not hire a good Malayalee horoscope reader to save Old King from conducting election; now wedging to save the Buddhism as it is the only matter on the table of Secret Solution. 1. Election reform, 2.EP removal, 3.Devolution are the matters on the table. To stall Secret Solution, it is apparently clear that Old Royal side is hiring Kornal to write in support of fear mongering of Buddhism with them.

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    However, I believe majority of Sri Lankans are enlightened enough to approve it as their bitter memories of three decades wasted in fighting Tamil insurgents are still fresh. Kornal getting brave enough to go even against Old King these days. Is Thero is still there in CT? Will Ayatollahs allow the Sinhala Buddhist to vote for Constitutional Replacement just because Kornal wants to allow some kind of recognition to Buddhism? Kornal need a reply for this.

    Kornal has no idea of what subject he is talking. He has no idea that this new stampede in Colombo is about Yasmin Sooka syndrome only. Yahapalanaya has set UNHRC‘s two years extension end to match with 2019 election. The next step on Secret Solution is after April; that is practically after next year local election and March UNHRC’s interim report. Just to tell and insult to Tamils that like SWRD brought in Sinhala Only, this time Buddhism Only is coming, Kornal is predicting something he does know. Kornal is bargaining the price of hind meat while still the goat is grazing in the field.
    Let me ask a question from Kornal? Did he change after devastating Indian army’s loss in Tamil Eelam? Can he tell what change he has noted in the Tamils’ mind after the loss of war? Within the TNA MPs, Sumanthiran is 2nd to last. In NPC election Tamils voted for Sumanthiran drafted internal self-determination manifesto, with 80% turn out. When Sumanthiran asked to vote to CC, at a time Sobitha Thero was alive and Tamils believed the change of the government is change of Sinhalese mind, only 43% of the Tamils voted in that election. This the voting pattern after the war.

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    I have a suggestion to all Buddhists in Sri Lanka. There are a large amount of real estate connected to temples and related entities. Then all the donations made by devotees which theoretically should be sent to the government treasury-but always embezzled by rouge monks. If we have a secular constitution who is going to look after all this? Therefore it is easy to understand why Buddhists want to have foremost treatment to Buddhism. There is a solution, in fact a better one than the current system. Have a supreme council consisting of chief prelates of Maha Sanga to look after all these assets and donations. Assets vested in this council. Wealth is power. It will transform the chief prelates into powerful set which could control rogue monks. Currently they are toothless. In the current system corrupt politicians, government officials and rogue monks steal from the public at large.

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      LAL SILVA: You christians do not know Sinhale culture. There should be more lands as there were many NINDAGAMS under the control of the tempels and all those nindamgs people had to feed the temple. Now, most of those ninda gams are gone. Most of the Mahanuwara Town and PEradeniya university are part of Dalada Maligamawa Ninda. Upto Hindagala or beyond IT is the Nindagama. dumb politicians are silent.

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    Hariharan please read the real history of the island , before posting articles. The history of Saivaism is far older and predates Buddhism in the island and in 1/3 of the island ( the Tamil North and East) this was the religion and not Buddhism that was given patronage by the rulers. Even the indigenous Veddah population were Saivite and also worship the Tamil Lord Mudugan and are still so in the east. Many ancient prehistoric Saivite shrines in the deep south of the east, as well as Kathikammam in the south , all associated with the Vedda ,attest to this ancient Saivite presence in the island that predates Buddhism . The five ancient Iswarams venerating Lord Siva dotting the north east west north west and south are also proof of the prehistoric eminent presence of Saivaism in the island. Naguleseswaram in Jaffna, Thirukeetheswaran in Mannar, Thirukoneswaram in Trincomalee, Muneswaram on Chilapam and Thondeswaran ( that is now destroyed ) in the deep south, however the places is still called Dondra. Corruption of the Tamil word Thevan Thurai ( God’s port) In Sinhalese this area is called Devi Nuwara meaning god’s city . Attesting to the ancient Siva temple that was destroyed here. The king who converted to Buddhism was a Saivite Naga( Tamil) . As we know his father was King Mootha Sivan meaning the great or venerated Lord Siva.

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      get a history book and read gono

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        sach the stupid II

        “get a history book and read gono”

        Any specific title?

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    contd. None of the ancient kings in the island ever called themselves Aryan or Sinhalese , as they were neither. They were all Buddhist or Hindu Naga( Tamil ) or from Tamil dynasties from South India and they patronized both religions Buddhism and Hinduism. The so called Sinhalese hero Dutta Gammini who lived 2300 years ago ( sic when there was no Sinhalese language or people existing ,as Sinhalese language and people only came into existence from around the 8TH century AD) , who defeated the Tamil Hindu King Ellalan , had a Tamil father whose name was Kaavan Theesan meaning the king or great man who guards from the Tamil word Kaavalan . You are a Tamil and have you read the verse “Kaavalan Kaavan Enin” from Thirukurral? or Kakkai Vanna Theesan meaning the Great man or king the colour of crow. He was a Tamil Naga , Hindu or Buddhist. How can a Tamil father have a Sinhalese son, especially when there was no such thing called Sinhalese existing 2300 years ago. This was a war between the Island’s Tamil Hindus and the ruling Hindu establishment that was ruling the important northern and north central parts of the island and the newly converted Tamil Buddhist population ( Naga.Yakka) down south who were trying to establish themselves. It is from these converted southern Tamil Buddhists( Naga /Yakka) that the original Sinhalese were descended.

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      This Naga nonsense by Tamils have gone beyond tolerable limit, in fact it has killed a lot of people in SL.
      1. There are island wide evidence to say a tribe called Naga lived all over SL.
      2. There are evidence to say North and east was UNDER THE ANURADHAPURA king most of the time until Kalinga Maga invasion in 1245 AD
      3. It is well documented many Tamil place names have origins in Sinhala place names, Ex: Vadukkodai was Batakotte ( source: Dutch source)
      4. In TN sources, Chola inscriptions they talk ONLY about Sinhala kingdom in SL and does not even mention about any indegenous Tamils.
      5. No proper research has proven that ancient Nagas who lived all over SL are the ancestors of modern day Tamils.

      And can anyone answer this qn?
      We can see the products of 2000 years old Sinhala civilization all over SL….there are reservoirs, viharas, Buddha statues, native dance forms, pali literature, sinhala literature. in SL……why did not so called 2000 year old Nagas who became Tamil did NOT leave a single thing? Why did not even Cholas in Nadu mention about them? Were they invisible?


      About Tamil Buddhists

      Normally the example given is Welgamwehera temple in Trinco. Because it has both Sinhala and Tamil inscriptions made by Buddhists. And what do these Tamil inscriptions say? It says the Buddhists who offered prayers actually came from TN and even mentioned the very place they come from in TN…And they had used the Sinhala name ‘Welgamwehera temple’ to refer to the temple.

      Does any Naga nonsense fellow have any answer?

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        sach the stupid II

        Please cite your reference book.

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          which book? And give me a reference to your Naga nonsense book?
          Shall I give u a link to download K.Indrapala’s 1965 thesis?

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            sassch the very stupid

            “And give me a reference to your Naga nonsense book?”

            What Naga nonsense book?
            Are you seriously suffering from dementia, amnesia, Alzheimer’s, …… Alien hand syndrome (AHS), …..temporary insanity, ?

            Go see a good doctor.

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              Native, I have been following your conversation with Sach for a couple of days now. I actually wanted to see your answer. What is your reference to the version of SL history that you think is accurate ? Your last comment looks like you are running away from answering this. Why are you not talking to the point ? Why are you running away from this argument ?

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          It is a well recorded fact that the Dravidian Naga in the island became fully assimilated into the Tamil identity around 2500 years ago and many of their inscriptions both Hindu and Buddhist in Tamil Brahmi have been found in the island Especially in the east

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            Again, where is it recorded ? Give your reference. Not TamilNet or some eelam propaganda site. Also give the reference that details these eastern inscriptions ? What do colonial and established historians say about these ?

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        Sach
        There is a lot of speculation about Yakkas and Nagas. That such people existed seems likely. But who they were and what tongue they spoke or believed in has been utter speculation.
        Indrapala is among the most scientific of Lankan historians and deserves to be read widely.
        *
        Tamil Buddhism thrived in what is Tamilnadu in ways different from that in Andhra.
        It was a popular religion which captured the imagination of scholars and ordinary folk for several centuries. Of the five major classics of the early post Christ era two (Manimekalai and Kuntalakesi) are Buddhist and the rest Jain.
        There were debates between Buddihists and Saivaites between the 6th and 10th Centuries, with reported participation by Buddhists from Lanka..
        The fall of Buddhism in India is owed to Sankara (Aadhi Sankara) who established what we know as Hinduism today across the sub-continent.
        *
        Tamils owe much of their moral values to Buddhist and Jain monks. (Jains authored several works of grammar and ethics.)
        Remnants of Tamil Buddhism have been uncovered only since late last century.
        Return to Buddhism was pioneered by Pandit Ayothidasar in the last decade of the 19th Century, much before Ambedkar. (But Ayothidasar did not make it a political movement like Ambedkar.)
        It is sad that Tamils are poorly aware of a great religion which had close links with the Tamils for much longer than the modern religions among them.
        Many take a blinkered Tamil-Saivaite view, unfortunately like the the Sinhala-Buddhist perception that is gaining currency.

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    Instead of barking at Sri Lanka, go and tell your hiduistic politicians to act in accordance with approved constitution there. Non-Hindus are openly discriminated using caste system ignoring all acts of the constitution. So, first change that illegal activities at your home and come back. Then we will talk about minor issues in Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka is far greater than politics when it come to religious aspects. Sri Lanka is not run by dogmatic caste attitudes but by prevailing constitution.

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      You mean a sour mouthed Kurukal Namboodri change his ID? Rock may float on the river water. What you wish cannot happen. The hope is as and when Industrial India pick up, the oppressed ones may start to do better in economy.

      If you have been reading news in Tamil you might have seen how many caste related murders, especially in love marriages, taking place in TN. This is the province where for almost for a century Ramaswamy, Annadurai, even Karunanidhi pounded the orthodox Hinduism. Then leave alone other Ram –nized states’ condition. Though Kornel is not a real Malayalee, Kornal sees Jaffna Tamils with CN and Karunanidhi’s camp. To wipe out the Karunanidhi supporters, in his perception, he is cursing Lankawe should be turned into a “Buddhism Only” country by a constitutional change. Kornal is on a tour of “Enakku Mookku Poonaalum, Ethirukku Sakunapilayaawathu varaddum” (Let me cut my nose to bring bad Omen to Jaffna Tamils) .You know these Malayalee consultants kept Sonia in the dark and forced to India lose on China’s String of Perl initiation(especially on Ceylon theater), even after for long time American Military experts warned Sonia.

      Kornal like Sonia class military guys have no military expertise, or know nothing about military. They know only how to pocket people money, associating them with Old Royal family. All the Malayalees milked the White Elephants with Old Royals are gone, but this Kurukkal Namboodri is hanging around like the “Tick wouldn’t leave the cow even after its death”.
      Losing Lankawe for non-Sonia team, Yahapalanaya is, losing their golden egg duck (loss for Kornal, Chidambaram, and Sonia…) If Sinhalese are not Modayas, they would ask to pay for half of the maintenance cost of Hangbangtota harbor, Mahinda Bachan Airport and other commission milked White Elephants, instead of selling them off to foreign countries.

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        Most of these Indian Tamil Brahmins , whether from Kerala or Tamil Nadu or elsewhere , are very angry with the Dravidian parties in Tamil Nadu for dethroning them from their entrenched superior status. Despite the fact the ADMK was led by a Tamil Brahmin( Jayalalitha). It was only after the rule of these Dravidian parties that the Tamil masses started to thrive and come up and due to this, unlike the neighbouring caste ridden Kerala, large scale conversions to Islam and Christianity was averted. These Hinduvata advocates will never talk about this, as the Dravidian parties in Tamil Nadu did not promote caste. Unlike in Jaffna and in the east, where the Brahmin population is totally assimilated with the rest of the Tamil population , in India they are not. Not only in Tamil Nadu but even in other states. Brahmin oppression of non Brahmins was the worst in Kerala, where the local Namboothiri Brahmins not only owned most of the land but were given a free reign in the name of religion , to have sex and seduce all the young women in the area and the light skinned bastards from these unions were considered god given. Especially by the Nairs. Now these Tamil Brahmins want revenge for actual and imagined slights by the Dravidian parties in Tamil Nadu , who toppled them from their perches. However they cannot do it in India, so have decided the hapless Eelam Tamil population, who have nothing to with them or their plight will do and are doing everything to destroy them. Not all Tamil Brahmins share this sentiment but most do. The irony is very soon in caste ridden Kerala a Dalit is going to be the chief priest in an important temple in Kerala and very soon the same will happen in Tamil Nadu

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          RSS
          You sang a different tune in your response to me about a section of Tamil Brahmins!
          Very interesting!
          That is why the saying goes: “Switch on your brain before opening your mouth”– in this case, putting finger on keyboard.

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            Poor bitter creature. Just look at you pathetic. Going around nit picking at all my comments as you have a personal vendetta against me for stating the obvious truth, that the Sri Lankan Muslims have very little Arab or any other western Asian blood but in reality low caste immigrant Indian Tamils who converted to Islam. This not only what I state but even your Wahhabi Arab masters stated this and so does DNA. Learn to accept who really are and be proud of it, Instead of trying to pretend to be something else . Please switch off your emotions and feelings before vomiting out your frustration and venom. At least I have the guts to call out the hypocrisy of my own caste and people the Tamil Brahmins. You don’t. Like most Sri Lankan Muslims you will try to defend the myth that you are of Arab/Moor descent and will attack anyone who tries to dispel this lie and myth about their actual largely low caste converted Hindu Indian Tamil origin.

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              I long gave up on correcting your weird versions of history.
              I simply amuse myself with your imbecile obsession with race and caste to interpret everything.
              *
              Even when I have fun, I try to be factual and consistent– unlike you know who.

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                Only person weird and vindictive here is you. The only weird version of history is the imagined Arab origin of the Sri Lankan Muslims. Stating the obvious truth and the actual low caste origins of the Sri Lankan Muslims is not obsessive. It is you who is an imbecile as you do not want to come to terms with your actual origin and badly want to cling to some imagined Arab origin to make you feel great. Only imbeciles do this. Are you one?

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                ” Obsession with race and caste” This is why you openly side with Sinhalese racists like Shenal and Wahhabi Muslim extremist , who attack all Tamils , especially the Tamil bloggers here. It is you who is obsessed with race and caste. This is the reason your community claims an Arab origin that everyone know is fake and deny their actual South Indian origin, as they feel Arab is better than an Indian. Who is the hypocrite here?

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      Rel Paa

      “Sri Lanka is not run by dogmatic caste attitudes but by prevailing constitution.”

      Does the constitution allow Rs 650 millions to be swindled by issuing Sil Redda?
      Does the constitution allow war criminals to go scot-free?
      Does the constitution allow the arsonists to burn down entire collection of old and new books?
      Does constitution prevent you from using your brain?
      Does CHAPTER II of the constitution allow crooks, thieves, criminals, …………… to hide behind Buddhism?

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    contd:There was immigration from North East India but they never triggered the formation of Sinhalese, It was the arrival of Buddhism in the island 2300 years ago and the large scale conversion of the population down south of the island to Buddhism that triggered the gradual evolution of Sinhalese down the south of the island , as they gradually started to corrupt their local Tamil dialect ( Elu) with the Pali and Sanskrit of Buddhism to evolve a new language and identity by 8TH century Ad. Genetics have revealed that the Sri Lankan Tamil population have higher Bengali ancestry than the Sinhalese. They share a 30% DNA with the Bengali compared to 25% of the present day Sinhalese. The Sinhalese share a 70% DNA with Indian Tamils compared to the 17% DNA Sri Lankan Tamils share with Indian Tamils. As the vast majority of the present day Sinhalese both low and high born are in reality recent immigrants from South India, whose Tamil ancestors took on a Sinhalese Buddhist or in many cases Catholic identity a century or two ago This includes the ancestors of many of the present day Sinhalese politicians journalists and leaders now beating the anti Tamil drum. Interestingly the Sri Lankan Tamils share a 55% DNA in common with the original Sinhalese proving both these people originated from the same Dravidian stock , the semi Tamil Elu speaking Naga and Yakka tribes. Elu is the ancient indigenous dialect of the island. Both Elu and the Veddah dialect, are simple Dravidian dialects , that was very close to Tamil, basically semi Tamil dialects,, These dialects as well as old Sinhalese ( Hela a mixture of Elu and Prakrkt) were very close to their Tamil mother in pronunciation, compared to modern Sinhalese. Even now 40% of modern Sinhalese vocabulary is from Tamil, Its grammar lexicon syntax and alphabet are all 100% based on Tamil not Pali or Sanskrit. This is not due migration conquest etc but due to the fact Sinhalese is based on a Dravidian ( Tamil ) foundation Elu .

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      Other than the Veddah the other population in the island were the Naga and Yakka both Dravidian people speaking a simple Dravidian dialect that was semi Tamil called Elu. Basically they are the same. The Naga were the elite and the Yakka were the simple peasants. The original Sinhalese are largely descended from the Yakka and the Sri Lankan Tamils largely from the Naga. When Buddhism arrived it was largely embraced in the areas where the Yakka predominated and hardly in the areas where the Naga predominated. The Naga did not get converted to Buddhism on a large scale and even if they did many of them retained their ancient Tamil identity. On the other hand the Yakka peasants embraced Buddhism and were not averse to the Prakritisation of the Tamil dialect that ultimately resulted in the Sinhalese language and people. There were many Tamil Buddhists in the north and east and Sinhalese Hindus in the south. The ancient Tamil Buddhists belonged to both sects Mahayana and Theravada. The Sinhalese only belonged to the Theravada sect. The ancient Buddhist ruins in the north and east belong to these ancient Tamil Buddhist and not to the Sinhalese as the establishment is now trying to portray. Many of them belonged to the Mahayana sect and the Sinhalese were never Mahayana.

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      contd:After the conquest of the Cholas around the 10-12 centuries Buddhism like in the rest of India , had died of in the Tamil areas . Around the 13th century on ward the island’s population really divided in religious and ethnic lines. Any one who was Hindu and or Tamil moved to the north east and the north west coast. Any one who was Buddhist and identified as Sinhalese moved to south west and central parts of the island and definite Sinhalese and Tamil kingdoms arose in these areas. However all were ruled by Tamil origin monarchs and aristocracy. All monarchs be they Tamil or nominally Sinhalese ( as most of the monarchs had a Tamil origin) Hindu or Buddhist, fostered Tamil and Saivaism in the north and east and Sinhalese and Buddhism in the south. When parts of the southern parts of the east came under the loose control of the Tamil speaking Naicke kings from Madurai. The Tamil people in these areas or their chieftains never saw any conflict as to them he was a Tamil Hindu King , who dealt with them in Tamil . Contrary to popular belief the Kandyan kingdom was a Tamil/Sinhalese kingdom and not just a Sinhalese kingdom and its court languages were both Tamil and Sinhalese. Half the so called Kandyan cheiftains signed the convention in 1815 in Tamil , as the mother tongue of the king and many of these chieftains was Tamil. This included the ancestor of Mrs. Srimavo Bandaranaicke. A well known anti Tamil. Please keep your Hinduvata agenda to north India as even most of South India has rejected it. Do not for your petty hatred impose Buddhist supremacy on us the Eelam Tamils and the Tamil Muslims from the north and east, as Buddhism was never supreme or patronized by anyone here . It only now Sinhalese Buddhist fascists are trying to use force to impose it in our areas. We are secular and want everyone living here to be equal.

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