8 April, 2020

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Sri Lanka Descending Toward Dictatorship, Critics say; U.S. Determined To Remain Engaged

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Washington Post -The defeat of one of the world’s largest and most lethal terrorist organizations — and the end of a three-decade civil war — should have heralded a bright new dawn for the tropical Indian Ocean island of Sri Lanka.

The economy is one of Asia’s fastest growing, and tourism is booming. But three years after the war ended, human rights groups and opposition leaders warn that the country is descending toward dictatorship, with dissent brutally crushed, the media cowed and the minority Tamils, whose insurrection caused the war in the first place, still treated like second-class citizens.

The United States and India, Sri Lanka’s two main trading partners, had largely looked the other way as the government crushed the Tamil Tiger rebels three years ago in a campaign that left between 7,721 and 40,000 people dead, according to U.N. estimates. But the two countries have expressed frustration at the lack of postwar reconciliation and urged Sri Lanka to do more to protect human rights.

At the same time, Washington and New Delhi have found themselves increasingly marginalized, their leverage limited as the government in Colombo has forged close economic and diplomatic links with China and Iran.

“The Sri Lanka government have the wind in their sails, and they want to define the future of their country on their own terms,” said Harsh V. Pant, who teaches at the Department of Defense Studies at King’s College in London. “It is going to be very difficult for outsiders like India and America to influence anything domestically. And if Sri Lanka has problems in international institutions, they know they can rely on China.”

At the height of their power, the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) ran vast swathes of Tamil-dominated northern and eastern Sri Lanka as a virtual mini-state. But they had also turned a struggle for the rights of the island’s Hindu and Christian Tamils into a terrorist campaign involving suicide bombers and child soldiers — assassinating anyone who stood in their way, including thousands of moderate Tamils, a Sri Lankan president and former Indian prime minister Rajiv Gandhi in 1991.

But after a long stalemate, the Sri Lankan government of President Mahinda Rajapaksa took the war to the Tigers with unprecedented ruthlessness and single-mindedness.

As the scorched earth campaign entered its final stages in 2009, it cost tens of thousands of lives – a U.N. report called for an investigation into war crimes by both sides, accusing the Tigers of using civilians as human shields and the Sri Lankan military of indiscriminate shelling and denying civilians access to humanitarian aid.

Rajapaksa is enormously popular among the island’s Buddhist Sinhala majority for ridding this country of 20 million of the specter of terrorism and war, but critics say he is in danger of squandering the peace.

The military still runs northern and eastern Sri Lanka, with locals complaining that its control of every aspect of daily life is deeply intrusive and humiliating, and that anyone who challenge it risks deadly retribution.

But the disappearances of government opponents are perhaps the most obvious manifestation of a regime gone wrong, human rights groups say.

This year, 52 people have gone missing in the south of the country.

Most who have disappeared since the end of the war are Tamils, but also at risk are moderate Sinhalese who raise their voices. In 2009, a prominent newspaper editor was shot and killed; in January 2010, a cartoonist and political analyst, Prageeth Eknaligoda, left his office and was never seen again.

A few months before, Eknaligoda had been handcuffed and bundled into one of the white vans that have become the symbol of the disappearances here. He was released the next day but subsequently faced several death threats for his denunciation of rampant corruption within the government, said his wife, Sandya.

The Committee to Protect Journalists says that 23 journalists have been forced into exile since 2007 and that only three have returned. Self-censorship is widespread, but still the intimidation continues. The Sri Lankan police recently raided the offices of two Web sites and arrested nine journalistsfor “propagating false and unethical news on Sri Lanka.”

The U.S. Embassy in Colombo expressed its“deep concern over efforts to suppress independent news media.” and called for the harassment to end. Reporters Without Borders ranks Sri Lanka 163 out of 179 nations on its global Press Freedom Index.

Foreign Minister G.L. Peiris said the accusations about disappearances and intimidation are vastly overblown, a “cloud” thrown up by people who want to claim political asylum abroad.

“Whatever happens, the finger is pointed at the government,” he said.

Firm grip on reins of power

There was a flicker of hope after the war when President Rajapaksa set up a Lessons Learned and Reconciliation Committee, known as the LLRC, though human rights groups had low expectations of the handpicked tribunal.

After an 18-month inquiry, the committee cleared the army of systematic human rights abuses but called for a few individual incidents to be investigated. More forcefully, it recommended a series of measures to promote postwar reconciliation, including the demilitarization of the north of the country and the investigation of disappearances.

But even those limited recommendations have so far proved beyond a Sri Lankan government that has held the reins of power tightly.

After a thumping election victory in 2010, Rajapaksa changed the constitution not only to increase his powers over the police, judiciary and civil service, but also to end the two-term limit for the presidency. He then arrested his opponent in the elections, Sarath Fonseka, and jailed him for two years.

The president’s brother Gotabhaya runs the security apparatus and parts of the economy through the Ministry of Defense and Urban Development; another brother, Basil, heads the Ministry of Economic Development, and a third is parliamentary speaker. Other close family members serve as ambassadors or chief ministers, while a nephew runs the state airline. Corruption, business leaders and lawyers say, is at an all-time high.

International engagement

In March the United States, with India’s backing, sponsored a resolution at the U.N. Human Rights Council urging Sri Lanka to act on the recommendations of its own reconciliation commission.

The Sri Lankans reacted with anger, organizing almost daily protests outside the U.S. Embassy in Colombo and using state-run media to denounce those Sri Lankans who had testified against the government in Geneva as “traitors.”

Indian attempts to prod Sri Lanka were also rebuffed. India’s Foreign Minister S.M. Krishna emerged from a meeting with Rajapaksa in January saying the president had promised to honor a 15-year-old amendment in the country’s constitution that would give limited autonomy to the Tamil-dominated north. No sooner had Krishna left the country than Rajapaksa denied having ever made such a commitment, to India’s fury.

Foreign Minister Peiris said the government was eager to implement the commission’s recommendations but not under “duress” from abroad.

But in Rajapaksa’s home constituency of Hambantota, a brand-new deep-sea port offers a clue to the government’s attitude. The port is just one of many infrastructure projects underway here that is being built and funded by the Chinese, and one that has deeply irked India’s government as an unwelcome Chinese intrusion into its Indian Ocean “back yard.”

Chinese weapons had been instrumental in helping the Sri Lankan government end the war. Now Chinese support is allowing the government to design its future.

But despite the challenges, diplomats and officials said the United States and India are determined to remain engaged with Sri Lanka. Neither country wants Sri Lanka to follow Burma’s path into increasing isolation from the West, or to push it more deeply into China’s embrace, the officials say.

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Latest comments

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    MR will never work towards dictatorship government.He is not an army personal.If fonseka was elcted by mistake that was day our END of democracy of Sri lanka.MR save our NATIONAL independence, Sovereignity, terirtorial intregriety and unity of Islnad.
    FURTHER MORE HE WILL GOES TO HISTORY OF OUR CIVILIZATION MAN WHO PROTECTED right of the BALLOT OF PEOPLE SOVEREIGNITY OF SRI LANKA.DEFATING TERRORISM OF LTTE-OUTFIT GUN POLITICS, UNDOUBDTLY, VICTORY DEMOCRACY OF ISLAND.HISTORY WILL BE WRITE AS ” MAN WHO SAVE DEMOCRACY OF SRI LANKA”

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      Two words to describe what Amarnath P has to say: “UNMITIGATED NONSENSE!”

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      R u sure u r human? Because u dont seem a brain in ur head. Sure i feel sorry for ur country….. but with people like u….. this is why u have reached this situation. Please do all of country a favour and stick ur head back in the hole it came from. Poor u and people like u. The smile of the Sri Lankan people is slowing disappearing.

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    A monster created by SL. A Dictator, a clan which kills people. Dont you think he is worst a monster than Prabhakaran? He has already sold the country to the chinese. Wait till they come knocking at your door. An opportunity to develop the country through democratic process was given the back door. No one can help you, only SL can help itself. When Journalist and media are censored then starts the dictatorship. When they are killed then starts the hand of the monster. From there it will lead to innocent people disappearing. SL should have joined with the right people, but chose to go the chinese way. God help you.

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    It certainly seems to be heading toward a dictatorship. Anyone looking without rose tint glasses at this regime, and how they operate, can see it quite clearly. Never in the history of our country has such a large family run a government, with relatives being sent as ambassadors, and unqualified in laws heading our national carriers, and who knows what. Yes, they were successful in destroying the terrorists, but that does NOT give them the right to nor the entitlement to more powers, and rampant corruption. It also does not give them the right to stall and block any investigations into their crimes. The disappearance of citizens, including journalists is despicable, and yes, again points to what a dictator might do. This is no democracy by any stretch of the imagination. There is only a few in the world who can put pressure on this family, and it is not from within this country. This has become a ruthless regime all out to safeguard themselves at any cost.

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    Referring to LTTE as “one of the world’s largest and most lethal terrorist organizations” is thought provoking! Could it be because they employed the poor man’s version of the sophisticated UAV bomber – the suicide bomber?

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      Velu Balendran:

      “Could it be because they employed the poor man’s version of the sophisticated UAV bomber – the suicide bomber?”

      No, both UAV and suicide bomber were/are stupid men’s idea of life and death.

      Both were/are mutually destructive and self destructive, eventually self defeating.

      I don’t think what you wrote is in praise of suicide bombers. Please let me know if I am wrong.

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        I have not come to a conclusion yet (as it is a thought provoking matter as I have said :-). But you sir, hailing from the ancient tribe of Veddas – who I believe introduced the bow and arrow into the human armoury – may have a thing or two to educate us on the demerits of the bombers! However, I am persuaded to accept that you may be right.

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          Velu Balendran:

          I am always right because I don’t belong to stupid Sinhalese or stupid Tamil people.

          If you indeed want to discuss the merits of suicide bombers please feel free to have a bash at it. Let me see if there is any merit in your argument.

          I am so sorry to respond to your comment late in the day as I was tied up with collecting honey and mending my leaking roof.

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    three words for you Amarnath: GO GET A LIFE!

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      That’s three is it? I thought only politicians count that way!

  • 0
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    He has got used to looking under the skirts so much, it has become a habit now. He is nothing but a MKR.

    • 0
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      What is more he can’t see a skirt/womens underwear on a clothes line, and he gets sexcited?????

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    It is a falsehood to say, that MR won the War against LTTE, indeed any body with an iota of intelligence ought to Know, when US/UK axis and its proxies In INDIA, PAKISTAN and ISRAEL joined hands with China and Russia to defeat the Tigers, the LTTE was doomed, since the parity of access to armaments and intelligence moved dis-proportionately in favour of GOSL. In other words it was world War iii, against the doomed Tamil liberationist. Hence it is mis-leading to say that GOSL single-mindedly wiped out Tigers.
    Indeed it patent, that the whole world participated in the elimination and regretfully the genocide of the 150,000 tamils, yet unaccounted for. The latter supplied the
    GOSL with Banned Cluster munitions, Phosperous Bombs, chemical weapons to eliminate the well organised rebels in a matter of days.
    Dare to publish this
    Ranjith

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