17 September, 2019

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Sumanthiran’s Choice

By Mahesan Niranjan

Prof Mahesan Niranjan

I have two Tamil friends. Their names are SriLankan Tamil and Tamil Sri Lankan. “Aren’t they the same?” you ask. No, the order in which the identifiers appear is significant. Tamils often use their dads’ name followed by a given name. My friend Thevaram, son of Sivapuranam, writes his name as Sivapuranam Thevaram. Formally, he is known as Mr Thevaram, yet informally he is addressed as “Hey Thevaram.” He is found under T in the phone book. The British war criminal Tony Blair has the identifier Blair inherited from his father and Tony given to him at birth. “Hey Tony,” is how his friend – the other war criminal — calls him, he is “Mr Blair” in a formal setting and is found under  B in the phone book. Thus, order matters (except in the case of my other friend, Ting Ting).

My friend SriLankan Tamil (SLT for short) has the following take on the politics of Sri Lanka. History started on 4 February 1948, the day the suddhas (white folk) left the island after 500 years of colonial rule, leaving us to run our own business. Our independence was not won in a fight. The struggle in India, the weakened state of Britain after the war, and the discovery that to have a flow of wealth from the poor to the rich, you need not physically control them, were elements that made the suddhas leave. SLT is saddened by the decline since 1948. “Have we built a single yard of railway line on our own?” he often asks. “Have we developed the capacity to build and maintain clean toilets?” he often laments.

My friend Tamil Sri Lankan (TSL for short) has a different view of history. He starts further back in time and claims that we were different nations (the Tamils and Sinhalese, that is) before the suddhas arrived. And now that they are gone, we should get back to where we were and go our separate ways.  “Otherwise, the majority will simply destroy the minority,” he fears. And his fears are not without foundation.

Nationalism articulated by TSL has two causes that eminent scholars of social and political sciences find hard to disentangle. One is the realization by Sinhala politicians that manufactured racism is a big vote winner, and in recent years they have developed it to perfection.  Second is a superiority complex entrenched among Tamils they must necessarily be clever because the suddhas chose them to run post offices. Had you lived in Jaffna in 1976, when the Vaddukkoddai resolution calling for separation was passed and in 1977 when the TULF won a landslide victory with that resolution as mandate, you would have noticed how one type of racism served both as trigger and cover for the other.

SLT thinks that the 13th Amendment to the Sri Lankan Constitution can give a workable level of devolution to the provinces. Its implementation will be a framework in which Tamils, in parts of our country where they have lived for generations, can be empowered to make their own decisions in terms of preserving their cultural heritage and identity. That is no threat to the majority. Nor is it in any way a challenge to the territorial integrity of the Sri Lankan state. The autonomous region of Trento in Italy, the federal governance structures in India and Switzerland are all examples that a small amount of local decision making power actually makes the global state stronger, not weaker.

TSL disagrees. He thinks that the 13th Amendment is a non-starter. He has studied its provisions with a microscope. An example of something hilarious he has found is this: there is asymmetry in how the centrally appointed governor and the elected Provincial Council are supposed to share power. The Governor has discretionary control over certain things which over-rides powers of the elected local body. Now, who decides the topics in which the Governor exercises discretion? It is the Governor himself! “Funny,” do I hear you say?

We can also understand the differences between my friends from their professional training.

SLT happens to be a statistician. As such, his interest lies in average-case analysis. If life for his people can improve on average, he is rather pleased. He is aware that in situations that are polarised – bimodal distributions, the technical term for it — averages can be misleading, but usually ignores this fact. Let me explain. Two World Bank economists trained in statistics went hunting. They encounter a tiger. The first guy takes his gun out, aims and shoots. He misses by a foot to the left. The second guy takes his shot and misses by a foot to the right. The tiger attacks, kills and eats them. Later, when they meet in their reserved corner of Hell, one says to the other: “Machan, on average, we got him.”

TSL is trained in law. As a lawyer, he is interested in worst-case analysis. He concerns himself with each and every potential scenario in which things can go wrong, for it is when things go wrong he gets to earn a living. Let me explain. Once when our TV stopped working, we called in a repairman. The guy took just one look, knocked hard on one side of the TV and it started working again. “50 Rupees,” he asked for that work. Outrageous, but we paid up. Later that evening, we asked our lawyer friend if it was allowed to charge Rs. 50 for just one knock. “Yes,” he replied, “100 Rupees.”

In Tamil politics, my two friends never manage to reach agreement by discussion. Their exchanges on facebook, for example, have very short time constants. It goes like this. One of them copies an article favourable to his particular point of view and clicks “like”. The other makes a comment critical of it. And next we see are blows below the belt. “Oh, you sound just like VP,” SLT would say, to shut TSL up. “But that is just what MR is also saying,” TSL would say. They then part company, agreeing that facebook wall is not the place to have a political discussion — and repeat the same in a few months.

Have you noticed that debate has never been a way of resolving issues in Tamil politics? My friend Thevaram has come up with a theory on that. It has to do with intonation in language – a tool used stress parts of your speech. Such use of intonation for emphasis is not common in spoken Tamil. Let me explain. When Thevaram and his wife Manimekalai disagree on something, their kid Senguthu complains: “why are you guys shouting?”  “No, darling, we are discussing,” the parents would tell him. “No you are shouting,” Senguthu would insist. Note with a slight change of pitch, he can stress the “are.” Handicapped by the lack of intonation, the unfortunate couple have to raise their decibels to stress or emphasize a point. Beating people up when they disagree, tying them to lamp posts and shooting them, are all predictable manifestations of this, Thevaram’s theory claims.

 Enter Hon. Mathiaparanan Abraham Sumanthiran, Member of Parliament.

Terminology from consumer electronics helps to understand Sumanthiran MP. First, we had the radio, converting electromagnetic waves to sound. Then there was the tape recorder which played back recorded material. Remember, these were being sold separately during the Sixties until someone figured out you can package the two in a single box? A Two-In-One it used to be called, and served as a prize gift from a friend returning from a trip overseas. Set the switch to the right, it will act as a radio, switch to the left it will play cassette tapes. And possession of one made the neighbours envious, too!

MP Sumanthiran is the two-in-one of Tamil politics. He has both my friends, Sri Lankan Tamil and Tamil Sri Lankan, integrated in one.

Sumanthiran is appointed to parliament by the Tamil National Alliance. These guardians of Tamil Nationalism claim that, post-war, their call for separatism has ended. To show this to the world, they ditched from membership a gang of three, perceived to be closest to the LTTE. But whether they have indeed distanced themselves far enough from the evils that were committed in my name without my consent, is not entirely clear to me. This is particularly hard to judge because the TNA are exceptionally talented at saying different things at different times to different people, and though Sumanthiran’s discomfort in that setting sometimes shows, his appointment by the TNA puts him in good company of my friend, the Tamil Sri Lankan.

In parliament, Sumanthiran has delivered some admirable speeches, playing a one-man-band of an opposition.  His contribution when the 18th amendment to the constitution was passed, removing the last remaining rusty bolts holding Sri Lanka’s democracy together, was excellent. I found it to be of similar quality to the speech by P. Kandiah, former MP for Point-Pedro, in the debate on the Official Languages Act of 1956. When our hopes were further dashed by the removal from office of our country’s Chief Justice, Shirani Bandaranayake, Sumanthiran rose in Parliament to make another remarkable speech. These make him the perfect Sri Lankan Tamil.

So the coin that we see rolling along has two sides: the Sri Lankan Tamil and the Tamil Sri Lankan. How do we wish this man to go further? More to the point, how do we see in the choices he can make, the future of our country? Here is one suggestion in the form of two challenges.

Here is my challenge to Sumanthiran: Leave the TNA.

Recognize that the Tamil Nationalist politics has not made the lives of the Tamil people any better than in 1948. The way our nationalism was articulated has not won us any friends in the world. Promises made to the people, “vote for us, we know how to get federalism” to “accept us as sole representatives, we will carve out a separate state in which milk and honey will flow” have been miserable failures. It is time to think outside the box than sing from the same old hymn sheet.

Here is my challenge to the electorate in the South: Elect Sumanthiran to Parliament.

Recognize that there are issues, serious issues, we Sri Lankans have to address, and they have to be analysed and vocalized. In economic development, in good governance, in education, in irrigation and drainage, in electricity pricing, in running better railways, in building clean public toilets, in making appointments of Vice Chancellors, and in maintaining law and order — just to mention a  few — we have much to develop.  This man is highly talented and can speak on behalf of us all. Recognize also that speaking of the issues specific to the Tamil community — and believe me, there are such issues — is not separatism, for the Tamil people are also Sri Lankan.

If Sumanthiran and the southern electorate — the first time voters of the facebook generation in particular — can rise up to this coupled pair of challenges, and he is returned to parliament on a non-ethnic vote, that would be the desperately needed ray of light at the end of the long dark tunnel our country has travelled through in the last 60 years.

That also will be the beginning of the reconciliation we so urgently need, in memory of the thousands of Sri Lankans we have massacred – some of whose skeletons we are discovering in orderly deep graves in Matale, and others we are refusing to discover in chaotic shallow bunkers of Mullivaikkaal.

Are these graves to be our only achievement since the suddhas left us to mind our own business?

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Latest comments

  • 0
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    I love to read your views and the points you said. Not necessarily we agree rather I read as point of view of an intellectual.

    People make the decision to be SLT or TSL based on the personal experiences which is natural.

    We all know what majority of N&E would go for and still the frustrations shows by Mahinda Government about Northern Provincial council confirms that Tamil issue is still alive.
    The ethnic conflict will continue despite of SLT or TSL’s point of views but they both will not get a chance to chose the solution either. With this victorious mood , neither Sinhala nation would think the need of solution.

  • 0
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    Niranjan posed two challenges. To Sumanthiran, leave the TNA. To the electorate in the South, elect Sumanthiran to Parliament. Both are real and emblematic. The far reaching (symbolic) challenge as HL has suggested would be to elect (or at least put forward) a person like Sumanthiran to the presidency as a common candidate.

    It is good to see that at least some people think in these terms while realism of people like Senguttuvan or Rajendran is also taken into account. More practically useful might be Sumanthiran becoming TNA leader as Dayan has suggested. Simultaneously, there should be efforts to draw ‘Tamil and Muslim’ politicians into the southern polity as common leaders. In the trade union movement, Bala and Shan were accepted as leaders. The potential of transcending ethno nationalism should not be underestimated while recognizing differences and identity. Shall we work on a Sinhala-Tamil- Muslim Unity Movement perhaps first as a Forum in practical terms?

    Laksiri

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      Laksiri,

      You may have not failed to notice a sign of political maturity in the attitude of the Tamil Nation. In accepting Sumanthiran as a Tamil leader within a brief period, they continue the liberalism of Tamils, the large majority are Hindus, where they accepted the Christian SJVC not only as their undisputed leader but went to describe him reverently as Thanthai Chelva (Father Chelva)- even today. Comparatively, this has been lacking in the Sinhala side – the net result being we lost the services of leadership of educated and learned Christians in the Sinhala polity. In the event of a electoral change my good friend John Ameratunga will be an eminent choice for PM – but will the existing bigoted mindset, particularly in the influential Buddhist hierarchy, allow such a benign development? The answer will define the exact causes of the country’s serious political contradictions and its refusal to move forward towards genuine reconciliation.

      Senguttuvan

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    Being a Tamil moderate is very dangerous in SL and South India. They are the first to fall victim to violence. Extremists on both sides are after them. And they often succeed.

    e.g. Alfred Duraiappah, Lakshman Kadirgamar

    • 0
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      Why in south india?

    • 0
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      Not to mention Neelan Tiruchelvam, among countless others.

  • 0
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    I am not sure what the best model would be for a man of the calibre of MP Sumanthiran to be part of Southern politics. But please don’t make the mistake Lakshaman Kadiragarmar did. Inadvertently, he whitewashed racism and nepotism of the Sri Lanka Freedom Party. No matter how patriotic and brilliant he was, Kadiragarmar could not go beyond a minister because of his ethnicity. I honestly believe that people of the calibre of MP Sumanthiran should be the PM or the president of Sri Lanka. If anybody is in doubt, please listen again to the speech he made in the debate on the impeachment of CJ Dr. Shirani Banadaranayake. He was a beacon in a parliament of handcuffed baboons.

    So, for that challenge to be a reality, he must not join any Southern party that has racism and nepotism in its founding principles. UNP is an option, but not in its current form. So, unfortunately, Niranjan, several other conditions have to be ripe for that challenge to bear fruit. Wholeheartedly wish it will be a reality.

    Yes, as a Southerner, I must say that I can’t vote him as fr as he comes from TNA, because that is consolidating the other camp of ethnocentric Nationalism.

    A viable third option would be to form a new alliance.

    • 0
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      The caliber of a good politician is to be able to cunningly play both sides — and that is what this article says (slyly) that Sumanthiran is sid to do. He cannot win a seat in the North, and he probabaly cannot win a seat in Colombo? he might have a better chance in Colombo if he rejects parties with racist names (e.g., TULF, TNA, etc). Racism that is covert but real in Sinhala politics, and overt and real in Tamil politics have to be banished.

    • 0
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      If he is not prepared to do what LK did (according to you), no one will vote for him!

      When a political party gets someone onboard, it expects some benefit in return.

      Don’t forget T Maheswaran and Mano Ganesan were voted from the “south” (Colombo district). But that didn’t change anything.

      Only Tamils voted for them!!

      General Fonseka (RSP, RWP) got more votes from Jaffna than Sumanthiran will get from the south.

  • 0
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    Prof Mahesan Niranjan

    A very good article.

    But I have a few questions about your suggestions towards the end of your article.

    According to you Mr Sumanthiran should leave TNA and the south elect him to Parliament

    And Mr Sumanthiran will make some good speeches on national issues.

    This will lead to a ray of light at the end of the long dark tunnel our country has travelled through in the last 60 years.

    And it also will be the beginning of the reconciliation.

    This is very complementary of Mr Sumanthiran. Other than that I cannot see any positive outcome.

    What the Tamils lost Sri Lanka gains

    Why should Mr Sumanthiran leave TNA – against his conscience?
    Or as many commentators has suggested to become the President of the country

    What else he has to do to become electable?- change his religion? his name? hide his racial identity and put on a mask and make speeches

    Doesn’t this look a bit racist?

    Why not accept Sumanthiran as he is?

    Is there many barriers for others from other communities to emulate more and more Sumanthirans and the parliament to be saturated with Sumanthirans?

  • 0
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    The substance of the writer’s article and of some comments seek to convey that Sumanthiran is too good a leader for so bad a community. They are more a sneer at the latter than a compliment to the former. Divest the Tamils of a worthy leader since a person of Presidential material should not loose his fragrance in the dreary North.

    Without defiling your reputation any more betray your benefactor and desert your people. Principles count for nothing and values are a trifle when Mother Lanka cries for your services. A favourable arbour is in the South, not in the North or East is the message. Sumanthiran granted his character, will despise this gratuitous advisory most.

  • 0
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    Chanakya, I too sense a lot of sneer. But to be fair to the author, I think the sneer in the article clearly targets failed Tamil politics and not the Tamil community.

  • 0
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    We can always hope. But this present cycle of chauvinism has a long course to run.

  • 0
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    Dear Chanakyan, pointing out the fact that the destiny and welfare of the Tamil community is inextricably linked to the destiny and welfare of the Sri Lanka state does not amount to sneering at the Tamil community…it is simply stating a pretty obvious fact. It is patently clear that the sectarianism or tribalism that formed the backbone of the politics of the 70s and the 80s has taken Sri Lanka (and the Tamil community) down repeated cycles of death and destruction. The TSL mindset alluded to by the author and its Southern counterpart – “Jathika Chintanaya”, that provides the theoretical framework for the likes of JHU and BBS have to be overcome if Sri Lanka (and therefore the Tamils) is to avoid these cycles of violence that has consumed so many of its young lives.

    • 0
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      Nirmalan,

      I think in the interests of full disclosure, you should make clear that you are a brother of the author. And you should add, as you have done elsewhere, that you are one of the very few Tamil expatriates who thought that the murders of thousands of civilians was an acceptable price for defeating the LTTE.

      And I note that Niranjan has no hesitation in calling Tony Blair a war criminal, with the full knowledge that the country he lives in supports free speech and will not punish him for it, but is hesitant to call the Rajapaksa brothers war criminals despite the existence of ample evidence for it.

      • 0
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        “…I note that Niranjan has no hesitation in calling Tony Blair a war criminal, with the full knowledge that the country he lives in supports free speech and will not punish him for it…”

        Let’s all challenge Prof. Maheshan to stand at the Thummulla junction coffee shop and shout “Tony Blair is a war criminal”!

  • 0
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    Dear NV,

    I visit India more than once a year. The role university students in the all-India scene may play will be significant. Till now the support for Tamils was confined to a smaller section largely in Tamilnadu only (Vaiko, Nedumaran et al) but since students of the famed Loyola College in Chennai/Madras went on hunger-strike, the issue has gathered an All-India flavour. University students in India have a powerful network. SL consular people are unable to appreciate the gathering storm and are doing little about this.
    The Colombo governance-political establishment ditto.

    Obama recognising Sri Lankan Dr Sivananthan pleased me immensely.
    This is clear indication even when our local students start with the usual disadvantages – compared to those coming from developing countries – given the right opportunities they realise their infinite potential. There was another scientist who was knighted in the UK not long ago.

    Other than make brief comments I do not have the facilities, time or patience to come out with specific papers although to write a biographical article has been of some interest to me for a long time. Besides I believe having served both in the private/public sectors for many decades – and with a brief stint into the political landscape – one must enjoy music, the arts/paintings as one does not go older.
    I don’t know if the exasperation in the non-stop Lankan blood-letting has made me incurably cynical.

    Suggest you listen to the fabulous rendition of Ave Maria by the black South African diva Kimi Skota. Absolutely divine.

    Many thanks. Take Care
    Senguttuvan

    • 0
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      Senguttuvan

      Thanks a lot.

      I still think you ought to write a book about the history of this island including gossips as you seem to have in your possession a wealth of information that not many in this forum are likely to learn.

      • 0
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        NV, my friend:

        They are not gossip. I write mostly on what I can substantiate or
        told by those whose integrity is beyond reproach. Perhaps a few of
        us can meet you in London and have regular beer-hall katha on what should have been. With every passing day, I often feel the fate that took the Armenians will overtake us. In those days (1980/90s) I used to be in London spend my weekend noons at Speakers Corner, I used to meet the Armenian escapees and shared the pains of losing their land – now recovered.

        Senguttuvan

  • 0
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    Correction – One does not get younger

    Senguttuvan

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    General Fonseka (RSP, RWP) got more votes from Jaffna than Sumanthiran will get from the south.

  • 0
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    All I can say is that Sumanthiran is a great statesman and people see that from all walks of life in Sri Lanka. This man is the hope for a better future and unity. I hope there is a path to the presidency for him. I hope the intelligent minds of Sri Lanka will find a way to put him on that track…. You don’t get someone of this caliber often….

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