29 September, 2020

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Tamil Refugees In Tamil Nadu; Return To Their Native Land

By S. Sivathasan

S. Sivathasan

S. Sivathasan

“Will they be thinking of their own land?
Longing for the day to see it again, or
will they dream of their Mother’s abode?
They have wept and wept;
And wept and wept again.
Now they have lost their strength,
Even to weep any more”

A century old song of Bharathy in Tamil, on the plight of Tamil expatriate labour in the cane fields of Fiji.

Urge to be Back

If the above lines that melt anybody’s heart, do not apply harshly to the condition of the Sri Lankan Tamil refugees in Tamil Nadu, the benign treatment they have received would explain. Ethnic affinity has played its part. But having run its course, it is on its way yielding to fresh compulsions. However benevolent the host is, overstaying one’s welcome for decades and beyond, needs rethinking. For thoughts of a return to their land of birth, political environment is changing with a new government in position. Ground conditions too are turning for the better.Tamil Refugees In Tamilnadu

The country will soon see a return of the prodigals. About all what conditioned their past as exiles and what impels a life reborn, one may hold with the lines of Sir Walter Scott.

“BREATHES there the man with soul so dead,
Who never to himself hath said,
‘This is my own, my native land!’
Whose heart hath ne’er within him burn’d
As home his footsteps he hath turn’d
From wandering on a foreign strand?”

Not too “foreign” and not too far one would say. To the reality of renascent lives, both governments Indian and Sri Lankan would certainly respond positively and happily.

Logistics

Moving with poets is comfortable and pleasurable too. Not as much is the nitty gritty of seeing the operation through. A population of 120,000 comprising 3 generations call to be transplanted. Documentation from Birth Certificates to Passports is basic. The administration on both sides is equipped for the whole gamut of clerical operations. What is needed is to dedicate these cadres specifically to this operation. As protracted will be logistics for land transport to Rameshwaram and thence by ferry to Talaimannar. Air travel may be extended to the infirm and children.

Colombo to Jaffna 1983

The above operation has given us a great deal of experience. When the hour strikes, Sri Lanka responds. To 30,000 refugees by ship to Jaffna, much had to be done. Volunteers from many a strata happily came forward. Officials to engage with colleagues in Colombo and Jaffna, medical specialists and other personnel to attend to refugee needs were at hand. Very many society leaders and ladies provided food and drinks on arrival. Provisions flowed freely. Of invaluable assistance was free transport from KKS to refugee homes given in familial spirit by VAN DRIVERS. There was little time for planning and execution. Yet the effort spread over 5 weeks was a saga of success.

India to Sri Lanka 2016

Refugees to and from India at four times the 1983 numbers, is a different proposition. Organization needed for this long drawn out operation may last two years if the inflow per week is 1000. When they spread out to the North and East of Sri Lanka to settle down in towns and villages, accommodation and food on a prolonged basis will become necessary till they become self-supporting. Schooling will call for proactive responses from Principals and departmental officials.

Amidst the odds those who have roughed it out, burnt their midnight oil and made good their future would require sympathetic consideration. They are about 3,500 graduates. Not to be ignored but deserving attention are those qualified at Advanced Level or its equivalent. In this area governmental intervention will be needed. They will certainly sustain their families when they turn income earners.

Private Sector

Not leaving all responsibility to the government, but with capacity to take a share is the private sector. Captains in that wealthy segment will certainly extend their cooperation. Voluntary associations can take this as an opportunity to have them absorbed in the private sector. Younger ones not in the employable stream yet, can be adopted to be suitably trained. The better placed in society owe this duty by those battered for long. Employment is the ‘Fatted Calf’ that will sustain the prodigal families. Sri Lankan society aware of it fully can easily meet it.

A Rare Challenge

Receiving a human transplant of one’s own kind seldom happens. To minds empathetically conditioned, it can be a happy occasion. The writer was able to see such a happening at Trincomalee harbour in 2003. With all issues methodically attended to at Chennai end with personal attention by the Sri Lankan Deputy High Commissioner Sumith Nakalanda, 55 refugees engaged in fishing returned to Trincomalee in 53 boats. They were received with eats and drinks by AGA Arumainayagam who bore the brunt of the work. He is now GA Kilinochchi.

What was unique was the very friendly reception extended by officials of the Navy, Immigration officials and Customs officials. On display was Sri Lankan culture at its best. A repeat performance at Thalai Mannar and Palali can be looked forward to. This will be a challenge to draw on one’s stamina for two years.

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Latest comments

  • 2
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    [Edited out]

    • 9
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      Welcome back!

      Even if you go to heaven, it will not be as good as your traditional native homeland, your own historic habitat, the Tamil speaking territory of the island (formally Jaffna kingdom) that your ancestors lived and defended for several centuries as a separate nation with their own language, religion and culture.

      • 2
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        S. Sivathasan

        RE: Tamil Refugees In Tamil Nadu; Return To Their Native Land

        Yes. They should get back home and welcomed with open arms and resettled.

        East and West, and Home is Best!

        They were the refugees who left the shores.

        There other refugees who did not leave the shores. they were internally displaced because of LTTE Ethnic cleansing of Tamil speaking Northern Muslims.

        They want to get back home too, instead of staying in the jungle.

        Forgotten People – The Evicted and Displaced North Muslims of Sri Lanka (English)

        https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9JV60McNQ9o

        Published on Jun 1, 2013

        The Evicted and Displaced North Muslims of Sri Lanka. The expulsion of the Muslims and other nations from the Northern province was an act of ethnic cleansing carried out by the Tamil militant Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) organization in October 1990. In order to achieve their goal of creating a mono ethnic Tamil state in the North Sri Lanka, the LTTE forcibly expelled the 72,000 strong Muslim population from the Northern Province.

      • 1
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        Too bad the historic native We Thamizh habitat used to be almost entirely Sinhalam not long ago – right up until We Thmaizh coolie slave labour was imported en masse by the Dutch and then the British :D

        http://www.gahetna.nl/en/collectie/afbeeldingen/kaartencollectie/zoeken/start/16/weergave/detail/tstart/0/q/zoekterm/ceylon

        Ayayayooo! The Dutch Nationaal Archief is a Sinhalam conspiracy! Kadavule! Why would all these 100% pure native traditional separate We Thamizh homelands all have their names recorded in Sinhalam! :D

  • 8
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    The Sage has written well.

    I implore our President Yahapalanaya to set the pace, to expedite the project,and be there to welcome our Tamil brethren who have languished too long in reduced circumstances, so close and yet so far. (Why should young Trudeau have the monopoly on making grand gestures?) Come on Maithripala Sirisena, live up to your name.

    There is room, not just in the north, but in the whole island, for these people. Will that be a bridge too far?

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      If Syrian refugees could be accommodated in foreign western countries why cannot the Sri Lankan refugees could be resettled in their own soil.

      The UN should take immediate action to resettle these 150,000 Sri Lankan Tamil refugees from South India in the North and the East.

  • 6
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    Sivathasan,

    “Ground conditions too are turning for the better.”

    Are not leading Tamil politicians claiming that nothing has changed and a virtual hell exists in the North and East?

    • 8
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      How many take them seriously anymore? We vote for them, because the alternatives are worse. We tolerate them because we are a very patient people. We also know that our lives will continue to be what it is, despite them.

      Dr.Rajasingham Narendran

    • 4
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      Inspector Dirty Harry:

      You asked me who charged MR for Genocide and here is the Answer.
      US blocks visa for Field Marshal Fonseka

      The US Embassy has yet not given approval to the visa application submitted by Democratic Party Leader Field Marshal Sarath Fonseka two weeks ago, sources close to Field Marshal Fonseka said today

      Sources said the US State Department has blocked Field Marshal Fonseka’s visa application for the past two weeks in connection with war crimes charges against Sri Lanka during the time he was the army commander.

      “Most probably this must be why the US embassy has refused him a visa to visit the US. There are no other issues,” they said. “He has not visited the US during the past five years and his green card has also expired.”

      Sources also said Field Marshal Fonseka had applied for a visa to visit his daughters living in the US and to meet the Sri Lankan community living there.

      It was also reported that Sri Lankan Ambassador Prasad Kariyawasam had also contacted the State Department to obtain the visa for the Field Marshal.
      Gotha has also been refused a Visa to travel to US as Sri Lanka stands accused of Genocide.

      • 4
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        Inspector Dirty Harry:

        Mounam = Sammatham

      • 1
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        kali,

        “You asked me who charged MR for Genocide and here is the Answer.”

        Where?

        You wrote earlier something about MR and a UN court didn’t you?

  • 5
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    S. Sivathasan,

    Fiji is a far cry from Tamil Nadu Motherland……and sorry if fellow blood-brethren TN-Tamils are keeping Lankan Northerners in slavery status.

    As long as Northerners will not bringing a fervent and fanatical piece of TN-Motherland to Sinhalese-Motherland, it will be a joyous reunion.

    Therefore, all that is asked is that Northerners learn to also speak and write in Sinhalese. All we ask is for Hindu Northern parts to also love and accept 12% Sinhala Buddhist temples.

    Henceforth, all will be, as originally was : Singhalese.

  • 6
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    ramona mother therese fernando

    What are you on about?

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      NV,

      Tens of thousands of Dalits from South India who were settled in the Southern parts of Sri Lanka for Cinnamon, Coconut and other plantations got converted into Sinhala Buddhists. Some of them adopted Portuguse surnames such as Fernando, Silva, Perera and so on to hide their original names while others made minor changes to their original names to make them sound Sinhala, example: Marappan became Marapana, Naanaya Kaaran became Nanayakara and so on.

      ramona mother therese Fernando will become joyous if the Hindu Northern parts also adopt Sinhala and Buddhism and get converted into Sinhala Buddhists.

      Henceforth, all will be, ‘as originally was’ Singhalese.
      How beautiful Sri Lanka will be when Multi turns into Uni and monotonous.

      • 2
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        Guess we know our history Suresh. You might make a lame attempt yet again, at demeaning the Sinhala race…..guess you believe that that is your final trump card in the absence of advancing your Tamil chauvinism in our Sinhala land. But believe me, our history in an egalitarian Buddhist land, has not mired us in the bog of your castism.

        Whilst you and your lot lie mired in the shame of your Tamil castisism, many Sinhalese (Singhalese to support Tamils assimilation), converted to Christianity at one time, either by force, cohesion, or actual faith, and took on the names of their convertors. A great many of us have the European names by virtue of having the European blood. That a few Tamils of all sorts (including Dalits) might have got thrown into the mix, is something we have accepted in egalitarianism being thus Buddhistically inclined , having our ancestors living on our ancient island for millions of years.

        Pity the Northern parts were perpetually invaded by Tamil Nadu, therefore making you almost 100% Tamil. Time Suresh, for you to stay put in your original motherland. But you are also most welcome to assimilate with the ancient Sinhala Buddhist race. We are not discriminatory.

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          ramona mother therese fernando

          “Guess we know our history Suresh.”

          Do you?

          Tell us everything you know about our history, it won’t take more than couple of lines.

          • 2
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            It is, as I written above, Native Vedda. Sinhalese history is one of progressive evolution, and within assimilation and egalitarianism.

            Some of it naturally goes the way of the castist Hindus (as they live side-by-side), but sooner or later, such notions are put under the Buddhistic awareness technique, and put to rest.

            Notions from the Mahavamsa come and go; they are pondered on, but Buddha’s egalitarian word usually uplifts the Sinhala race from the bog and bigotry of racism and castism that unfortunately too many Tamils have a hard time casting out.

            • 2
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              ramona grandma therese fernando

              “It is, as I written above, Native Vedda. Sinhalese history is one of progressive evolution, and within assimilation and egalitarianism. “

              Read this:

              THE HISTORY OF TORTURE IN ANCIENT SRI LANKA

              TORTURE: ASIAN AND GLOBAL PERSPECTIVES | JUNE 2012
              VOLUME 01 NUMBER 02

              by UCP PERERA
              Abstract
              Torture has been practiced throughout the human civilization in various forms since time immemorial and Sri Lanka is no exception. Barbaric forms of torture were adopted in the country with full awareness and approval of the monarchy. Capital punishment was in practice since the Anuradhapura period (3rd century BC-10th century AD) and the ‘Mahavamsa’ or ‘Great Chronicle’ is full of descriptive events related to numerous massacres and homicides allegedly committed by the monarchial rulers to retain power. Slavery was continued in the society with Buddhist monasteries being the main beneficiary since medieval period. The western colonial powers who occupied Sri Lanka in early 16th century used torturous practices to achieve their own political goals. The conceptual denial of torture in modern Sri Lankan history originated in the early eighteenth century when British became signatories to the Kandyan Convention 1815. However they violated its conditions against torture by brutally massacring civilians in 1818 and 1848 rebellions. In 1948 Sri Lanka received its independence from western colonialism with a legacy of torture as a significant component of many other residual appendages from the past.

              The human rights portfolio of modern Sri Lanka is deeply entrenched with repeated events of torture, extra judicial killings and enforced disappearances that have occurred during the last four decades. Many international sessions including United Nations (UN) meetings and UN special rapporteurs highlighted the gravity of the issues concerneddespite denials of allegations by the state. Sri Lankan governments never accepted officially until recent times that torture is being committed by state machinery and such events were brought to the surface through the continuous efforts of non-governmental organizations and international pressure groups.A However two major government initiatives observed in the human rights field in Sri Lanka during the last two decades denote that torture is an unresolved ongoing major human rights violation. The first initiative was the adoption of the UN Convention against Torture into the domestic legal system in 1994.1The other one is the accommodation of a separate chapter for Torture in the most recent National Human Rights Action Plan2 put forward by the Sri Lankan government ahead of the critical UN Human Rights council meeting held in scheduled for March 2012. One can easily arrive at the following conclusions after analyzing the content and relevance of these two efforts.

              Torture is a continuously growing issue in modern Sri Lanka. It does not have an effective institutional structure to fight against torture despite adopting international principles on human rights into local legislation.

              The adoption of torturous practices against civilians by the state and its allies in post independent Sri Lanka have been increased in an exponential rate over the last three decades. The state has taken the stance of prevention of terrorism in some cases to negate the argument. The Prevention of Terrorism Act No. 48 of 19793 is such a draconian law which provides sweeping powers to the security forces to arrest and torture civilians in long term detention without a trial, bypassing and hence making the formal court procedures dysfunctional. The law enacted originally as temporary for
              3 years was made permanent in 1982.
              The recollection of a convict of the first youth uprising in 20th century Sri Lanka narrates the hidden aspects of the initial part of this gruesome story. “Frequently Lionel witnessed people being pulled out of the prison and taken to the police stations or CID for questioning. When they were brought back to the prison Lionel could see from their injuries that they had been tortured. News filtered through that around 10,000 people had been killed by the armed forces. The government had appointed military governors for each district.”4 According to the official Criminal Justice Commission (specifically appointed by then government to hear the charges against youth rebels in 1971) statistics the ratio between the deaths caused by the JVP (the political party behind 1971 uprising) and the youth and civilians killed by the state forces in retaliation was approximately 1: 100.B In the midst of the endemicity of torture currently experienced throughout Sri Lanka, it is essential to review the historical past of these activities and how it influenced the present regimes. It provides an essential preface for the understating of the mindset of rulers and the longevity of torturous practices in Sri Lanka.

              There is little doubt according to the historical narrations that torture existed in Sri Lanka for centuries prior to western colonization. Torturous practices were mainly in use as punishments executed by the monarchy. There was a wide range of punishments, which the Dhampiyā-atuvā-gatapada of Kassapa V (914-923), broadly classified as corporal (kāya-danda), verbal (vachi-danda), financial (dhana-danda), and mental (mano- danda). Death was a recognized form of punishment. A sentence of death could only be passed by, or with the acquiescence of, the king. The execution was a recognized part of the system even in the days of King Pandukabhaya (377-307 BC). Whipping, beating, branding, mutilation and cutting off hair were other recognized forms of punishments.5In ancient Sri Lanka, 32 types of torture were described. Though inflicted by the King’s men,C and “lawful”, they were inhuman, cruel and degrading.6

              The Mahāvamsa or Great Chronicle which is believed to be the main source of written history of ancient Sri Lanka provide ample evidence of application of torturous practices. The chapter X of Mahāvamsa which describes the consecration of Pandukābaya in detail illustrates how the killing spree continued at various stages before he claimed the throne after defeating his eight uncles. “The prince’s men killed all the soldiers of the enemy’s army and the eight uncles with them, and they raised a pyramid of skulls.”7,8 “Torture was originally recognised as a stage in the administration of the law, and in the original organisation of the capital in the fourth century B.C., a place for its infliction was established adjoining the place of execution and the cemetery as stated in Chapter X, Mahāvamsa.D It was abolished in the third century by king Wairatisso9; but the frightful punishments of impaling and crushing by elephants continued to the latest period of the Ceylon monarchy”.10

              The Sinhalese kings were absolute rulers whose will was the law of the land.11 They have had state torturers designated as “Wadhakaya”s. Robert Knox, who was a captive of king Rajasinghe II during the Dutch occupation in Sri Lanka (1658- 1796AD) gives a vivid description of cruel and inhuman punishments carried out at the Kandyan kingdom.
              “He seems to be naturally disposed to Cruelty: For he sheds a great deal of blood, and gives no reason for it. His Cruelty appears both in the Tortures and Painful deaths he inflicts, and in the extent of his punishments12, viz, upon whole Families for the miscarriage of one in them. For when the King is displeased with any, he does not alwayes command to kill them outright, but first to torment them, which is done by cutting and pulling away their flesh by Pincers, burning them with hot Irons clapped to them to make them confess of their Confederates; and this they do, to rid themselves of their Torments, confessing far more than ever they saw or knew. After their Confession, sometimes he commands to hang their two Hands about their Necks, and to make them eat their own flesh, and their own Mothers to eat of their own Children; and so to lead them thro the City in public view to terrifie all, unto the place of Execution, the Dogs following to eat them. For they are so accustomed to it, that they seeing a Prisoner led away, follow after. At the place of Execution, there are alwayes some sticking upon Poles, others hanging up in quarters upon Trees; besides, what lyes killed by Elephants on the ground, or by other ways. This place is alwayes in the greatest High-way, that all may see and stand in awe. For which end this is his constant practice.”13

              The Dutch were said to have been equally cruel when they conquered the island nation at the initial stages. “A conspiracy against them was discovered at Jaffna and fourteen of the alleged ringleaders were sentenced to death. It was considered necessary to strike terror into the hearts of the disaffected, and horrible punishments were inflicted on the condemned men; three of them were stretched out on wooden crosses laid on the ground, and after being stabbed in the neck and breast, were disembowelled; their hearts were then taken out and laid on their mouths, after which their heads were cut off and exposed in the market-place. A Jesuit was beheaded and eleven others were hanged, their bodies being left to rot on the gibbets.”E Some Dutch rulers such as PetrusVuyst (appointed in 1726) were cruel and inhuman in their administration. He began by quarrelling with the civil and military officials, whom he treated in the most imperious fashion; he ended by the infliction of inhuman tortures and murder.F The Dutch court system operated in the coastal areas of Sri Lanka was also not immune of adopting capital punishment and torturous practices. “The proceedings of the Courts were characterized by serious irregularities, delay and negligence. The system of penal law which prevailed, and which was in accordance with the practice in Europe, was appallingly severe. For instance it is recorded that in 1669 an unfortunate Chetty who had been guilty of what today is regarded as merely a social offence, was sentenced to be hanged, his corpse to be put into a sack and cast into the sea. However, this sentence was commuted, and instead, he was flogged under the gallows, branded, and banished for life. In 1751 a woman named Joana, who was found guilty of slave stealing, was strangled by being tied to a pole, her head was then sundered from her body, which latter was dragged to the public place of execution and stretched on the wheel and left there to be devoured by the fowls of the air.

              Breaking on the wheel was not customary, and instead it was usual to crush the thigh- bones of criminals with an iron club. As a rule the death sentence was executed by the gallows and not by the sword; an accused person could not be sentenced to death till he confessed his guilt, and the difficulty this created was taken care of by torturing the man whose guilt was considered proved, till a confession was wrung from him.”G

              Slavery in Sri Lanka

              Slavery is distinguished as one of the worst forms of cruel and inhuman treatment that has existed in human civilization. Many references pointed out the fact that Slaves were present in ancient and colonial Sri Lanka. Though detail documentation of practice of slavery in ancient Sri Lanka is not available it was shown that Buddhist monasteries in medieval times were the largest owners of slaves in Sri Lanka. In the tenth century the lord’s officials and the village headmen (kemiyan) were paid for their service by `maintenance’ (divel) lands, as were also the temple slaves and village servants.14 “……. the prevalence of slavery at monasteries is beyond doubt. According to Cūlavamsa, Silāmegavanna (AD 619-628) granted captives taken in battle as slaves to monasteries, and Aggabodhi IV (667- 683), Potthakuttha and Sena I (833-853) provided slaves for the various religious establishments which they founded. The Galpāta-vihāra inscription is even more specific. It mentions that two types of slaves – “hereditary slaves” (anvayāgata) and “bought slaves” (ranvahalin). In fact, it records an actual instance in which slaves were purchased with gold belonging to a monastery. It also lists eighty-three slaves, in groups of families, as having been granted to serve the monastery in various capacities as cowherds, potters and tailors.”15

              History often recounts the grant of men and women slaves with other movable property to temples. The unpublished documents connected with the dedication of land to PepiliyānaVihāra in the fifteenth century show that these slaves were, largely artisans, blacksmiths, potters, lime-burners, and the like, and doubtless the slaves of’ the tenth century already referred to performed similar duties. The tenants of the king’s villages in the early seventeenth century are definitely stated to, have been slaves, and their presence in the royal and temple villages, though long forgotten, accounts for the low esteem in which the tenants on those properties are still held.13 In fact, the Kandyan nation being the slaves of the monarch – slavery was permitted, and practiced to a greater extent throughout the kingdom.16

              Davy in his detailed account on the Kandyan kingdom17 describes how slavery was applied across the civilian life and the caste system. “Insolvency amongst the Singalese was very cruelly dealt with; slavery was its consequence. The creditor applied to the Dissave or Raté –mahatmeya, and having proved his claim just, and the debtor having acknowledged his incapacity to meet them, leave was granted to the former to make the debtor and his family his slaves, and to retain them and their offspring in slavery, till payment of the debt were made. The debtor could not be sold, but if he died, leaving his children in slavery, they and their children might be sold. No interest was allowed to accumulate for the original debt, the labour of the slaves being considered an equivalent. In respect to slavery, there was no privileged caste; it was a punishment to which all insolvent debtors were liable. It was not usual for the Goéewanse to become the slaves of people of low caste; when in danger of this degradation, some chief generally paid the debt and made the debtors his slaves. The state of slavery is of course considered disreputable; by marrying a slave, a free woman would be utterly disgraced.”17 Davi explored further into the slavery issue and had attempted to quantify the slaves in then Kandyan kingdom. “What the total number of slaves may be in the Kandyan country, no register having ever been kept, it is impossible to estimate with any precision: an intelligent chief, from whom I collected the above particulars, guessed that they amount to about 3000.”H Davy was one senior government servant who recommended the colonial rulers to abolish slavery in Sri Lanka.
              The Dutch were involved in extensive slave trade across Indian Ocean and it was recorded that 1791 slaves (most probably of non Ceylonese origin) were found in Colombo in 1694.18 The British continued the slave trade in more vigorous numbers. Although there were no recorded major events of distress or/and uprisings in Asian slave communities during their colonial period many references point out that they were subjected to inhuman living conditions.

              It could be seen that in many stages of the ancient and colonial history of Sri Lanka causing fear and terror among public had been the modus operandi of the administrators to maintain their policies and the survival. This practice has been continued in the post independent Sri Lanka by all elected governments up to now. The accuracy of Knox’s description on torturous practices could be verified by the contents of the Kandyan Convention19 signed between the British rulers and the Kandyan chieftains in March 1815, approximately 145 years after Knox’s departure from Sri Lanka.

              The 1st section of the Kandyan convention states as follows:

              “ That the Cruelties and Oppressions of the Malabar ruler, in the arbitrary and unjust infliction of bodily tortures and the pains of death, without trial and sometimes without an accusation or the possibility of a crime; and in the general contempt and contravention of al civil rights, have become flagrant, enormous , and intolerable;”
              According to the section 6 of the convention “every species of bodily torture and all mutilation of limb, member or organ are prohibited and abolished”. The Kandyan Convention 1815 could be considered as the first serious attempt in the recent history to eradicate torture in Sri Lanka. The draftsmen of this convention could well have been influenced by a preceding event witnessed in Europe in 1764 which saw the arrival of a landmark publication, “On crimes and punishments” by CesareBeccaria. He was an Italian jurist, philosopher and politician who put forward the first modern argument against torture and death penalty. “Every act of the will is invariably in proportion to the force of the impression on our senses. The impression of pain, then, may increase to such a degree that occupying the mind entirely, it will compel the sufferer to use the shortest method of freeing himself from torment. His answer, therefore, will be in effect, as necessary as that of fire or boiling water; and he will accuse himself of crimes of which he is innocent. In effect this implies that the very means employed to distinguish the innocent from the guilty, will most effectually destroy all difference between them.”20 Beccaria effectively nullified all reasoning behind the justification of torture in the criminal justice system. However it is regrettable to note that even almost after two centuries of legislative and institutional developments Sri Lanka has still not shown a significant attempt to intervene and prevent torture in civilian life.

              END NOTES
              A. Annual US Dept. of State reports on Sri Lanka, Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch, International Commission of Jurists and many other organizations have continuously referred to torture in Sri Lanka during the last decade. In 2011, the Asian Human Rights Commission(AHRC) has published 323 case narratives of police torture out of approximately 1500 torture cases reported to them from Sri Lanka between 1998 and 2011.
              B. Cooke MC. The Lionel Bopage Story. 2011. P160
              C. These state torturers were referred to as “wadhakayas”
              D. Geiger translation 1912, page 74, at lines 88-90
              E. Peiris PE. Ceylon and the Hollanders. 1918 . page 1
              F. Ibid, p.56
              G. Ibid, p. 58
              H. Davy J. An Account of the Interior of Ceylon. 1821. pages 184,185
              REFERENCES
              1. Convention against Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment Act, No. 22 of 1994
              2. National Human Rights Action Plan of Sri
              Lanka 2011
              3. Legislative Enactments of Sri Lanka, Prevention of Terrorism Act No. 48 of 1979
              4. Cooke MC. Rebellion, Repression and the Struggle for Justice in Sri Lanka. The Lionel Bopage Story. Agahas publishers Colombo,
              2011. p.186,
              5. Amerasinghe ARB. The Legal Heritage of Sri Lanka. SarvodayaVishvaLekha Publishers, Ratmalana, 1991
              6. De Zoysa P & Fernando R. Methods and sequelae of torture. A study in Sri Lanka. Torture Vol. 17 No.1, 2007, p. 53
              7. Geiger W. The Mahāvamsa or The Great Chronicle of Ceylon. Oxford University Press London, 1912, p. 73
              8. Wijesinha LC. The Mahāvamsa. Part I.
              Government Printer, Colombo 1889, p. 42
              9. Peiris PE. Ceylon and the Portuguese.
              American Ceylon Mission Press. 1920. p. 9
              10. Tennent JE. Ceylon An Account of the Island.
              Vol.I London,1859, p. 500
              11. Perera SG. A History of Ceylon for Schools.
              The Associated Newspapers of Ceylon Ltd. Colombo, 1943, p.2
              12. Peiris PE. Ceylon and the Hollanders.
              American Ceylon Mission Press. 1918, pp.26,27
              13. Knox R. An Historical Relation of the Island
              Ceylon. London 1681, Chapter II Part II, p. 39
              14. Codrington HW. A Short History of Ceylon.
              Macmillan and Company Ltd. London 1929. p. 46.
              15. Gunawardana RALH. Plough and Robe.
              Monasticism and Economic Interest in Early Medieval Sri Lanka. University of Arizona Press, 1979.p.121
              16. Sirr HC. Ceylon and the Cingalese. Vol. I London 1850. p. 283
              17. Davy J. An Account of the Interior of Ceylon.
              London.1821. p. 184
              18. Vink M. The Words Oldest Trade. Journal of
              World History, University of Hawaii Press,
              2003, Vol. 14, No. 2, p. 169
              19. Kandyan Convention, 1815 – Legislative
              Enactments of Sri Lanka 1980, Vol. XX, pp310-
              316
              20. Beccaria C. An Essay on Crimes and Punishments. Translation of original fourth edition. 1992. Boston, Chapter 16

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                You certainly enjoy all these gory details, don’t you Native Vedda. Such is the history of countries, world over. Nothing to do with the argument, anyhow.

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              Dona Ramona Theresa Pranandoo

              What’s bollocks about “””Sinhalese history is one of progressive evolution”””

              As I understand it, Vijaya, our Sinhala pride and joy, was the product of some bestiality between a priapic lion and a panting noblewoman. This was the same Vijaya who became the First Coloniser of this fair island, after being kicked out of his homeland due to ‘misbehaviour’. Apparently if Vijaya had stayed on in his homeland, history would have been different – he would have needed facial and genital reconstruction after his enemies had their pleasure, and the Sinhala nation would not have been born.

              That means that when the newly enlightened Prince of Kapilavastu came looking for a caretaker for his noble legacy, he would have had to hand them over the ancestors of our own Noble Native Vedda.

              Funny thing history!

              ps: Ramona, enjoy the Christmas bolo fiado.

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                Guess the numbers I have given on this discussion are too factual, and difficult for you to take. Hence your resorting to name calling and perverse thoughts.

                All men are equal Spring Koha. Shame on your name calling. Shame on your obsession with mythological history.

                Tamils and Sinhalese were decent with each other, but after your type came to Sri Lanka, their minds became twisted with your kind of perverse racism.

                Hope the new generation will deny the obsessiveness of their forefathers, and usher in a brand new Sri Lankan era.

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                  Ramona Theresa Pranandoo (for that is how we say it in Sinhala in Sri Lanka)

                  I may have many obsessions, but none to do with the hybrid stuff that you peddle. You give the Sinhalese a bad name. After all these long years it is time you ditched your Portuguese connections and reverted to you ge name. Are you ashamed of your original name or has the family forgotten it. The great G P Malalasekera changed his name from George Peiris to Gunapala Piyasena, and even the Anagarika changed his name from Don David.

                  I don’t know what you mean by ‘your type’ but talk about racism is a bit rich coming from you.

                  I can only excuse you if it a case of you having forgotten your medication.

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                    Oh!…..thought you were relegating me into some kind of relegated Burgher caste with Pranandoo and bolo fiado….my apologies….but if it is Sinhalese, I am all for it!!! However, Fernando is my married name, and many of them have taken on the original Sinhalese surname.

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                    Otherwise, proud to be Tamil as per my paternal grandfather (though it is written that I am Burgher on my BC….depends on the area of Sri Lanka one was born in maybe).

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          ramona therese Fernando

          “You might make a lame attempt yet again, at demeaning the Sinhala race…..guess you believe that that is your final trump card in the absence of advancing your Tamil chauvinism in our Sinhala land.”

          When I make an attempt to give the real facts, you call it demeaning the Sinhala race…..WHY?

          If you call it Tamil chauvinism, then what are you?

          When you say ‘our Sinhala land’ are you referring to the Sinhala speaking territory of the island? Because it is believed that the Veddha’s land is divided into two territories (Sinhala speaking and Tamil speaking) by the North & South Indian migrants to the island.

          “Our history in an egalitarian Buddhist land, has not mired us in the bog of your castism.”

          Then you should also read what Professor Carlo Fonseka wrote recently to the Island newspaper:

          “I do not find that reading the Mahavamsa enhances my self-esteem as a Sinhalese. On the contrary I feel greatly embarrassed and deeply humiliated when I learn that we the Sinhalese are the descendants of Vijaya, the banished profligate son of an incestuous marriage between (Sihabahu) and sister (Sihasivali) whose mother was so exceedingly lustful that only a real lion could satisfy her sexually. Moreover, Sihabahu killed his leonine father, the king of the brutes […] Thus, according to the Mahavamsa, brutishness, bestiality, incest, patricide and profligacy, were the stuff of our genesis […] of the 54 rulers recounted in the Mahavamsa, 22 were murdered by their successors; 11 were overthrown; 13 killed were killed in battle and 6 were assassinated” (The Island, 22 October 1995).

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            Demeaning only because Dalits are considered low-caste to untouchable to Tamils. And therefore you attempt to what you consider a shameful caste, onto the Sinhalese. But it doesn’t matter a jot to the Sinhalese, of how many low-castes and Dalits were assimilated with them.

            However, the validity of what you say cannot be too true. For I don’t see too many Sinhalese assimilating with the estate Tamils. And that only happens because estate Tamils usually prefer to assimilate within their own casts. If the amounts of Tamils came in the numbers you speak of to the south, as they did in the North, we wouldn’t have had to have a 30 year old war – too many would have been speaking and acting Tamil as you do in the North. Sri Lana would have been a Tamil country long ago. The numbers you speak of are too great for Sinhalese to have ever survived.

            It is well known that Mahavamsa is a legend and mythical tale. If Sinhalese are subscribing to the notions in the Mahavamsa, it is because that are cornered by the grasping and grappling Tamils who strive to demean them at genetic levels. Thankfully, their good Buddhistic sense prevails.

            You Suresh, have to shake off the shackles of ancient race notion and superiority/inferiority of castes. Don’t you at times, in this modern age of scientific research, feel ashamed to write as such?

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          ramona therese Fernando

          “That a few Tamils of all sorts (including Dalits) might have got thrown into the mix”

          NO, the Sinhalese became a majority in the island ONLY tens of thousands of South Indians assimilated into the Sinhala race. I know it is difficult for you people to stomach these facts. However, by denying the facts as lies, it is not going to change the truth/facts. Let me reproduce what Siva wrote on the other thread.

          The Sinhalese became a majority only after the European Colonials came to Sri Lanka. In the 16th century, the Portuguese and in the 18th century, the Dutch who occupied the island brought in tens of thousands of low caste (Dalit) people from South India (mainly from Cochin/Kochi in the Malabar coast/presently Kerala and from Tutucorin/Thootukudy in the Coromandel Coast/presently Tamil Nadu) and settled them in the Southern parts of the island from Puttalama up to Matara as menial laborers (for growing/peeling cinnamon – today known as Salagama caste, for fishing/pearl diving – today known as Karawa caste, coconut planting/plucking and toddy tapping – today known as Durawa caste, and for many other jobs). Within a few centuries, the Sinhala population in the South (low country) increased exponentially when these people assimilated with the local Sinhala population (Sinhalized) by adopting the Sinhala language/culture and the Buddhist/Christian religion and getting converted to Sinhala Buddhists and Sinhala Catholics.

          As evidence to prove the above, please read the book `A History of Sri Lanka`, by Professor K.M. de Silva, page 121 where it refers to the migration of the Karawe, Salagama, and Durawe castes from Southern India to Sri Lanka between the 14th and 17th centuries AD. He has explained how the migration of the Karawe, Salagama, and Durawe castes from South India to Sri Lanka took place between the 14th and 17th centuries AD. If you remove these South Indians (Karawe, Salagama, and Durawe castes) from the Sinhala population, it will reduce tremendously.

          These Sinhalised Tamils of the South (low country Sinhalese) whose ancestors were brought to Sri Lanka by the Portuguese/Dutch from South India as coolies (for growing/peeling cinnamon, fishing/pearl diving, coconut planting/plucking and toddy tapping) adopted Portuguese surnames such as Perera, De Silva, Fernando, and so on to hide their original South Indian identity.

          Dr. Paul E. Pieris has published extracts from the Portuguese tombo which gives the original names of the present day Sinhalese with Portuguese surnames before their conversion to Christianity and Buddhism. Dr. Pieris states: “The names deserve special attention, the majority appear to have been converted and adopted European Surnames names. For example, Fernando being the most popular surname, but the native name is also given among them being the following: Vira Cutti, Parama Cutti, Nila Cutti, Perumal, Nahepulle, Avepulle, etc. These point to recent South Indian origin.

          As further evidence, also read ‘The World’s Oldest Trade, Dutch Slavery and Slave Trade in the Indian Ocean in the Seventeenth Century’ by Markus Vink . You will come to know that tens of thousands of South Indian slaves were settled in the Southern Sri Lanka from Colombo to Galle during the Dutch period for cinnamon, coconut and other plantations. Today they have become Sinhala-Buddhists.

          Today, the genealogy researchers at the Human Genetics unit of the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Colombo will tell you that the DNA of most of the Sinhalese is matching with the South Indians (Tamils and Malabars). If you read the latest genetic studies on the Sri Lankan population, you will see that the Sinhalese and the South Indians have common genetic codes, very specially the DNA of low country Sinhalese is matching with the Tamil Nadu Tamils.

          After checking all the above, please come here with your opinion weather its lies or the truth/facts.

          If all the above had remained as Tamils, (without assimilating with the Sinhalese) today the Tamils would have been the majority in Sri Lanka, or if they had assimilated with the Veddas instead of Sinhalese, today the Veddas would have been considerably a large population in Sri Lanka.

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            Hilarious! The poor thing is now copying and pasting the garbage it copied and pasted before using a different name :D
            If only recorded historical facts were overlooked in favour of ramblings of We Thamizh on random blogs :D

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            Suresh,

            Of course. I agree 100%. But the historical progression (before any great long drawn out war), was that most speak Sinhalese, and most are Buddhist(genes-aside).

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          ramona therese Fernando

          “Pity the Northern parts were perpetually invaded by Tamil Nadu, therefore making you almost 100% Tamil.”

          According to the ‘Tamil invasion’ theory of the Mahavamsa, only the king of Anuradapura was replaced by either a Chola or a Pandaya king. Nowhere in the history it is said that the Sinhala population was replaced by a Tamil population.
          Did all the Sinhalese who were living in the Northern parts simply pack their bags and go to the South leaving all their lands to the newly arrived Tamils without any protest? If not, then what happened to all the Sinhalese in the North, did they all commit suicide?

          “Time Suresh, for you to stay put in your original motherland.”

          Weather you refer to Sri Lanka (North/South) or to India (North/South), as a country, your original motherland is the same as mine, as a region, you are from North (Bengal) and I am from South (TN), and now you are from South (SL) and I am from North (TE). So why me, what about you?

          “But you are also most welcome to assimilate with the ancient Sinhala Buddhist race.”

          In one of my next births, if I am born a Dalit, I may consider.

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            Suresh,

            Tamils invading the North killed off all the Sinhalese so as to take their fertile land. Others were driven away or escaped to the South. Any remaining Sinhalese were assimilated into Tamil society. In history books they did not speak of whole population, but kings and queens. What the King was, so were the people. It was not written as modern day history is written.

            The whole of Sri Lanka belongs to all races(everybody looks more or less the same, anyway). As in America, everybody has to learn to speak English, so it is in Sri Lanka that everybody has to learn to speak Sinhalese. Elementary concept, actually, because that is the main language for 80% of her people (whatever the subtle deviations of the genes are).

            And Sinhalese race will gladly accept you in your next life, Dalit and all. Better stay put in Tamil-Nadu to retain the high-caste Tamil tongue which will not be contaminated by the Sinhala tongue.

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              ramona therese Fernando

              “However, the validity of what you say cannot be too true.

              That is why I have given you references, that too from low-country Sinhalese academics/scholars with Portuguese names instead of Tamil or up-country Sinhalese academics/scholars. You can cross check, it is they who are saying all these.

              “For I don’t see too many Sinhalese assimilating with the estate Tamils.”

              The settlements in the up-country by the British was different from the settlements in the low-country by the Dutch and the Portuguese. The British cleared huge land areas in the upcountry for Tea estates and settled the Indian Tamils in those estates and allowed them to preserve their cultural identity whereas the Dutch and the Portuguese settled the South Indian slaves among the Sinhalese throughout the South (not confined to an area) without bothering about their cultural identities. They had no choice but to adopt the Sinhala culture.

              However now, many upcountry (Indian) estate Tamils are sending their children to Sinhalese schools to study in Sinhala medium.

              “And that only happens because estate Tamils usually prefer to assimilate within their own casts. If the amounts of Tamils came in the numbers you speak of to the south, as they did in the North, we wouldn’t have had to have a 30 year old war – too many would have been speaking and acting Tamil as you do in the North.”

              We are talking about nearly 5 centuries, four hundred to five hundred years ago (when the assimilation/conversion started taking place) they would have been speaking and acting Tamil but now their decedents (may be more than 15 generations) how can you expect them to speak and act Tamil?

              “So it is in Sri Lanka that everybody has to learn to speak Sinhalese. Elementary concept, actually, because that is the main language for 80% of her people”

              If you had visited the North, the entire population is Tamil speaking other than the occupied armed forces. If you go to the East, more than two-thirds of the population (Tamil & Muslim) is Tamil speaking. In other words, 80% of the population of North & East speak Tamil.

              What you are suggesting is already tried and tested by SWRD Bandaranayake by bringing ‘Sinhala Only’, it not only failed very badly but also was one of the reasons for the 30 years’ war. You cannot force the Tamil speaking North & East to learn Sinhala or Buddhism, they have strongly rejected both. For them the main language is Tamil.

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                Suresh,

                Certainly the historical facts are true. But one is talking about 10’s of thousands of South Indians being resettled. In the midst of say, 5 million Sinhalese, 50-thousand (e.g.) is just 5%. So, the coastal Tamil blood is about 5%. That is what is called a handful. That is also true about the histories of all other countries on earth. In England, for example, French have been coming in droves over for centuries, but after a generation or two, everybody becomes English, and speak English (with a few French words thrown in).

                However, many villages along the coast e.g. in Negombo retain their Tamil identity and tongue. They learn Sinhalese as 2nd language. Even your Tamil low-casts make sure they stick to their roots. Like the coastal Tamils, estate Tamils too will also learn Sinhalese as a 2nd language, and make sure they will remain true to their Tamil roots.

                In Negombo, for example, Sinhalese learn Tamil as 2nd language so as to interact with the Tamil fishermen. That is what is called human progression and evolution. Only in a Tamil Hindu caste system will castes stay away from each other, and you will get the results of what one sees in India, and only in India: the slums and slimes of the dredges of humanity, that will live on in perpetuity, with a castal blockage in ever knowing how to interact and live at any decent level.

                Tamil names have been incorporated into Sinhalese ones, because Buddhist people were decent and open enough to appreciate the other culture. Even in the Rajapaksa family, are many who are married to Tamils.

                Portuguese names were incorporated into Sinhalese because one time it was considered progressive to contain a Portuguese name. Many are going back to their original root names at this time. Many are also mixed with not only the Portuguese, but Dutch and English. Sinhalese, compared to Tamils, were always open to interaction and assimilation within races. That is why the Sinhalese will always win in graciousness and dignity over Tamils.

                To speak of people feeling ashamed of their roots is hardly a rational explanation. It’s like saying the earth is flat and to get from one edge to the other one has to go through nothingness. That the earth is obviously round and that’s the way to get from one end to the other gets glossed over, for the sake of validating an outdated mode of thought.

                Psychology and science of human interaction and assimilation shows otherwise. Each race/caste is proud of its own culture and heritage, and strives to be within their own. However, in the presence of another progressive group, assimilation and interaction is the natural consequence. What you say points to a doctrine attempting to hold onto its ancient roots and will embarrassingly use every bit of absurd justification to validate itself.

                80% of the population of North & East speaks Tamil, but they are yet only 15% of the total Lankan population. All that is asked is that Tamils learn Sinhalese as a 2nd language. That is all that is needed. That your pure Tamils (of all castes) are all over the south, and building your Hindu temples too, should give access to Sinhalese to your Northern areas as well, together with their Buddhist temples.

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                  ooops….1%….but ok….let’s make it 5%.

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              ramona therese Fernando

              “Demeaning only because Dalits are considered low-caste to untouchable to Tamils. And therefore you attempt to what you consider a shameful caste, onto the Sinhalese.”

              I know, both these ethnicities do not mean much to you even though you are married to one of them, but as a practising Buddhist you should not be bothered much weather its Dalit or whatever caste. In Buddhism, there is nothing called a caste system, Buddha condemned and discarded the superstitious beliefs and practices (including the caste system) of the Ancient Brahminical religion (Hinduism). As Buddhists, the Sinhala race should not get demeaned. If you see in South India, even today hundreds of Hindu Dalits get converted to Buddhism to avoid caste discrimination.

              “Tamils invading the North killed off all the Sinhalese so as to take their fertile land. In history books they did not speak of whole population, but kings and queens.”

              A very good assumption even though the history books do not say that the invading kings killed the Sinhala population. I wonder how they ruled the kingdom of Anuradapura for many years while killing the peasants. For example, Elara ruled Anuradapura for 44 years, how?

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                Suresh,

                Now you ramble on. [I know, both these ethnicities do not mean much to you even though you are married to one of them…..]

                Both ethnicities mean very much to me as I am a large part of them.

                [but as a practising Buddhist you should not be bothered much weather its Dalit or whatever caste.]

                Of course, that is exactly what I have been saying. But you have constantly being saying that the Dalits were ashamed of their roots and hence converted to Sinhalese and Buddhism. However, I have been saying that if this was so, Sinhalese do not care one jot, and have been progressively assimilating with these Dalits. But even Dalits will not mix too easily and stay true to the Tamil root.

                Anuradapura is mostly Sinhalese. It’s only Jaffna that the Sinhalese were driven away from.

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                  Ok Suresh,….it’s like this: Ellara presided over Anuradhapura. He was ultimately a peaceful king and allowed the Sinhalese to retain. He had high regard for the Buddhist culture (didn’t he convert to Buddhism at some point?), and admired the dignity of the Sinhalese. North however, was always a goner case as South India kept invading, and it was the closest to TN.

                  It also could have been like this (historical records are fuzzy) : All of Sri Lanka was originally Tamil till the gang from Bengal came in ( but that begs the question as to why there are no ancient Hindu temples and ancient Tamil script and language in the south). Most of Sri Lanka converted to Sinhalization and Buddhism, except the North that was closest to TN, and was therefore more prone to Indian Tamils coming over. Hence is why Northerners remain speaking Tamil.

                  From Sri Lanka did Tamil culture spread to TN. Jaffna could have been the original birthplace and bastion of the Tamils. Trouble is, as someone said it below, Tamil Nadu high-castes are mostly North Indians, and have relegated the original Tamil race. And some Sinhalese in the South got the ideas that they were North Indians too, and attempted to relegate Tamils also. So it must be very difficult that the ancient culture, verse, lyrics and dance that the Jaffna Tamil has to be demeaned as such.

                  But all that is ancient history. No race should go harping about fuzzy ancient history and culture, but must become progressive and evolutionary. Learning Sinhalese as a 2nd language will surely enhance your status amongst the Sinhalese, whist preserving your ancient tradition and genes (estate and coastal Tamils ensure they do so). Sinhalese will surely have more respect for Jaffna Tamils than the damned Tamil Naduians.

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                    A whole lot of assumptions and hallucinations, and you believe them as truth? You seem to be fully confused.

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                      It’s logical analysis Suresh.

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                      History is a social science and not a natural science like Physics where rational thinking, reasoning by analogy, or logical assumptions/hypothesis can be used to arrive at conclusions. Logic is not a reliable tool for finding the truth. Logical assumptions based on unobserved facts leads to falsehood.

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                      In the absence of clear history, it sure is, Suresh.

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                      That is why you have got everything wrong and is in a state of confusion.

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                      ramona grandma therese fernando

                      “It’s logical analysis Suresh.”

                      What has knowledge, logic and commonsense got to do with you?

                      Its a luxury you can’t afford to have when you habitually exhibit mendacity.

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                      A’Aahhh……now that is ad hominem on your part Native Vedda. Come on….give rational argument to what I say.

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          ramona therese Fernando

          You are saying, many Sinhalese converted to Christianity at one time, either by force, cohesion, or actual faith, and took on the names of their convertors.

          You are wrong, more than 80% of the Sinhalese with Portuguese names are NOT Christians but Buddhists.

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            Suresh,

            Sinhalese took on Portuguese names because at that time, Portuguese names were thought to be progressive. Many are going back to their original root-names at this time.

            Many of the Portuguese who came in, came without women. hence they took on local wives/mistresses, and had mixed offspring. By the time the Dutch and British came in, there was already a mixed race for the Dutch and British to take on as wives/mistresses. Also a number of Dutch and British came as whole families. Hence the Burgher community, of which many have gone to the Western lands.

            The remaining original Portuguese mixtures went back to their Sinhalese Buddhist roots. Hence the many Portuguese names amongst the Sinhala Buddhists.

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              “Sinhalese took on Portuguese names because at that time, Portuguese names were thought to be progressive.”

              The Portuguese gave the title ‘Don’ and ‘Dona’ to selected people among the Sinhalese and Tamils from the Govigama and Vellala castes who converted to Christianity and accepted names such as Don Juan, Don Frnscisco, Don Martino, Don David, Dona Katarina and so on with honor, which can be called progressive.

              But if you see the Sinhalese with Portuguese surnames Fernando, Silva, Perera, Fonseka, Zoysa and so on, they all belong to the castes Karawa, Durawa, and Salagama. In his book `A History of Sri Lanka`, Professor K.M. de Silva says, 3 new Sinhalese caste groups the Salagama, the Durawe, and the Karawe came to the island from South India in successive waves of migration which continued well beyond the 18th century (Refer page 121).

              On the other hand, Dr. Paul E. Pieris has published extracts from the Portuguese tombo which gives some popular Portuguese surnames like Fernando along with the original native names such as Vira Cutti, Parama Cutti, Nila Cutti, Perumal, Nahepulle, Avepulle, etc clearly pointing to South Indian origin.

              Portuguese coming without women and creating a Burgher community by taking local women is 100% true.
              The remaining original Portuguese mixtures went back to their Sinhalese Buddhist roots is not true. They actually went back to their Sinhalese roots but not as Buddhists, they still remain as Sinhala Catholics.

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                There were/still are, a large number of Dons and Donnas amongst the coastal people to this day, Suresh. That it was highlighted amongst the inland aristocracy, was because it was unusual as only few were conferred this, as they were more difficult to colonize (and hence their aristocracy was retained compared to coastal aristocracy).

                As I said before, the South Indians that were brought down to Sri Lanka were about 5%, and to this day, these Tamil communities still exist, though some have assimilated (therefore the Tamil gene amongst the Sinhalese must be less than 5%).

                All countries of the world had their original coastal people, before about 5 % of their nearest neighbor/s were brought in for as extra workers during colonization. Even before colonization, it was/is usual that one’s nearest neighbor interacted with each other in all countries of the world.

                Historical logic points towards Portuguese mixtures who didn’t assimilate with the other Europeans, either reverting back to their original Buddhist roots (usually by virtue of marriage, though some would have been genetically inclined towards the Buddhist faith), or remaining Catholic – Buddhists were in profusion, being the majority.

                That Buddhists seem to have South Indian names is because there was assimilation and appreciation of neighbors culture and language at one time (and a probably mixing of genes, as even Vijaya came to Sri Lanka) – Sinhalese went to India too, but became Tamils asap. Guess there won’t be much appreciation and assimilation of for a good long time in this era.

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                  ramona therese Fernando

                  “South Indians that were brought down to Sri Lanka were about 5%”

                  Professor K.M. de Silva was a famous Sri Lankan historian and he says in his book that all the 3 major Sinhalese caste groups the Salagama, the Durawe, and the Karawe came to the island from South India.

                  Are you saying that all these 3 major Sinhalese castes in Sri Lanka (Karawe, Durawe & Salagama) comprise only 5% of the Sinhala population?

                  Today, these people a scattered all over Sri Lanka and not all of them have Portuguese surnames but however these 3 major Sinhalese caste groups comprises a large part of the Sinhalese population.

                  On the other hand, if you refer the genetic studies done on the Sri Lankan population, the genetic admixture for the Sinhalese populations shows the Bengalis, the Tamils (Indian), and the Veddah are considered parental populations for the Sinhalese. The Bengali contribution is 25.41%, the Tamil (India) contribution is 69.86%, and the Veddah contribution is only 4.73%. Thus the Sinhalese have a predominantly Tamil (India) contribution followed by the Bengalis and the Veddahs. (Refer: Genetic affinities of Sri Lankan populations).

                  Your 5% theory does not match any of them. You cannot deny these established facts.

                  For example, the Fernandos would have come somewhere in the 18th century from South India. Today, after converting to Sinhala-Buddhists, they are talking about blood relationship with Dutugemunu. Absolutely hilarious!

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                    Suresh,

                    [ Are you saying that all these 3 major Sinhalese castes in Sri Lanka (Karawe, Durawe & Salagama) comprise only 5% of the Sinhala population? ]

                    No, I’m saying that these casts have 5% and less of the South Indian genes. 95% are Dutugamanu genes.

                    Sinhala/Dutugamanu genes probably contain a hellva lot of south Indian genes I’m sure.

                    More recent genetic tests show a greater amount of modern Bengali genes in Sinhalese(Bengali genes have a lot of south Indian in them too)…….

                    So, after all the mixing and matching and trying to prove who and what is superior and inferior by way of caste and race, it comes down to the fact that Sinhalese are entirely Sinhalese, and are progressive and assimilative, and higher evolutionary by virtue of their Buddhist religion.

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                      ramona therese Fernando

                      Not only Professor K.M. de Silva, many other historians have said that the entire Sinhalese caste groups (NOT 5% but 100%), the Salagama, the Durawe, and the Karawe came to Sri Lanka from South India after the 14th century up to the 18th century.

                      You are still denying the facts. Do not live in denial with your own imagination, read some academic/scholarly research articles/books and educate yourself.

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                      Oh no, no Suresh. You are are distorting the facts with false anology.

                      The writings say that 10’s of thousands of South Indian workers came down to Sri Lanka. There were already millions of original Sinhala inhabitants on the coastline with fishing, pearl diving, cinnamon peeling, toddy tapping occupations- naturally, as there has been fish in the sea, pearls in oysters, coconut trees to climb, and cinnamon trees to peel, for millions of years. Every country in the world have their coastal people with such jobs. Their numbers were augmented by the South Indians.

                      Sinhalese castes of the Salagama, the Durawe, and the Karawe merely augmented with about 5% South Indian genes (besides any other previous ancient South Indian gene that the Sinhala race comprised of).

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                      “Sinhalese castes of the Salagama, the Durawe, and the Karawe merely augmented with about 5% South Indian genes”

                      You are totally distorting what the historians have said and your 5% theory is your own imagination. None of the historians talk about 5%. These 3 major Sinhalese castes are new and originated only after the arrival of the South Indians. There was NO Salagama, Durawe, and Karawe castes before their arrival. I suggest you go to a library and look for the book `A History of Sri Lanka`, by Professor K.M. de Silva, and read page 121. There are many others also. Please educate yourself first without arguing with statistics invented from thin air.

                      There were fisher folk and cinnamon peelers in the country (coconut and toddy was introduced by the Portuguese), but cinnamon trade in large scale started with Arab merchants and taken over by the Portuguese. Only after the arrival of Portuguese, trading (export) started and they needed a large number of people for fishing/pearl diving, cinnamon plantation/peeling, and coconut plantation/toddy tapping. They brought tens of thousands of people from South India and settled in down South. They assimilated into the Sinhala-Buddhist society and multiplied into hundreds of thousands within the last 400 years. Today the Fernando whose original name would have been Perumal from Tutucorin/Thootukudy, a recent immigrant to the island is talking about Arya-Sinhala blood relationship. LOL!

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                      The Sinhalese along the coast were not yet organized into these commercial occupations before the colonists, but were self-sustaining and operated at village level.

                      But when they became commercial businesses for the colonists, about maybe 50-thousand (or less) were brought down and were organized into the caste unions and given these caste names (if they didn’t already have these names- Karawas were there since Vijaya…..they were also called Kasthriyas…..direct North Indian soldiers.

                      That’s exactly what I have said : 50-thousand South Indians assimilated with 5 million Sinhala-Buddhists, giving Sinhalese a 1% south Indian gene (I made a mistake when I said 5% at first).

                      But lets say it was 100-thousand south Indians assimilating with 1-million Sinhalese ….it’s still only a 10% South Indian gene. And all the better for the Sinhala race to have got those hardy Dalit genes too.

                      The numbers are more like 20-thousand South Indians amongst 10 million Sinhalese, making it a 0.2% south Indian gene for the Sinhalese.

                    • 0
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                      And taking about the Jaffna Northerners, they are probably 50%-75% Sinhalese (about 0.1% must be 100% Tamil)- whole populations couldn’t have been chased away and killed off. It a logical analysis of how groups live and behave – very easy to determine is one is objective.

                      As there are no historical Hindu temples and Tamil script in the south of Sri Lanka (and Hinduism and Dravidians have been around for 6-thousand years, long before Vijaya came around), it goes to show that all of Sri Lanka was Sinhalese after the advent of Vijaya!

                    • 1
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                      You are making us laugh with your endless speculation and hallucinations. If there were one million fisher folk and cinnamon peelers in the Southern parts of the country during the 16th century, nobody will bother to bring tens of thousands of people from South India and create 3 new caste groups for these 3 trades.

                      The South Indian Hindu Dalits (who were untouchables in their country) turning into very powerful Sinhalese castes in Sri Lanka (only second to Govigama), who on earth won’t give up their past culture, religion, language, etc and adopt the new and powerful caste with new culture, religion, language? Historians say, these 3 new Sinhalese castes were formed with the new migrants from South India. Those few Sinhalese fisher folk and cinnamon peelers who were already living in the south would have joined this group. Today, after 400 years, they have multiplied into hundreds of thousands. If you check the DNA of one of your Fernando relatives, I am sure it will indicate more than 80% South Indian genes.

                      “Karawas were there since Vijaya…..they were also called Kasthriyas”

                      You are confused between fishermen and warriors. Karawas are fisher folk, they came as coolies where as Kasthriyas were warriors who were believed to have come during Vijay’s time. Siddhartha Gautama was from a Kasthriya caste, they were warriors and not fishermen.

                    • 0
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                      Suresh,

                      It is certainly very troubling to see your resentment towards the dignity of the Sinhalese race. Sinhalese are never bogged down in racist castistism like the Tamils.

                      Most South Indians who came to Sri Lanka made sure they remained within their own Tamil communities. Hence the reason for the many Tamil communities around our Island, especially along the coast. A few might have assimilated. Anyway, those south Indians that came down were not Dalits – I believe (Dalits were communities that supported the aristocracy, and cleaned up after them). The workers that came down were worker casts (probably relegated to low castes because of they killed fish and drank toddy).

                      Millions of Sinhalese Buddhists were enough to start the trades for the colonists. But as it is with all trades, about 1% (tens of thousands) extra will always be needed to whip up the vigor. Happens in all countries, including the US when they take in the immigrants. That is what capitalism is all about.

                      Kasthriya caste patrolled the coasts to ward off invaders. Some eventually, became fishermen, village headmen, or business people. Many Fernandos have checked their DNA, and it shows a large part of Portuguese, and/or North Indian genes (which give evidence to the Kasthriya factor…..yep the Sinhala Fernandos are direct descendants of Sidhatha).

                    • 1
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                      “As there are no historical Hindu temples and Tamil script in the south of Sri Lanka”

                      Looks like you have not gone around Sri Lanka. There are many Hindu temples in the Sinhalese areas. Katharagama Devale is the most ancient Hindu temple. Seenigama Devale, Munneshwaram in Chilaw and many others. In every Buddhist temple, there is a Hindu Devale. Buddha has NEVER said to worship any Gods but the South Indian Hindus who got converted to Sinhala-Buddhists made sure to also have a Hindu Devale in every Buddhist Temples. Even after getting converted to Buddhism, they did not forget their old religion.

                    • 0
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                      Ok…I researched that, and what you say is true. So! It suggest that Tamils and Hindus might have been around Sri Lanka, pre-Vijaya.

                      Even if they were (and that’s what Elamists are howling about), everybody is Sinhalese now. If they were so Tamil and Hindu pre-Vijaya, Buddhism and Sinhalization would have never taken root 2,500 years ago.

                      It goes to show that Tamils and Hindus came down to the Island of Sri Lanka and tried to convert Veddas and indigenous people. They were successful somewhat (as per Kataragama temple). But when Vijaya and all those North Indians came it, they certainly had a greater hold on Sri Lanka.

                    • 0
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                      Millions of Sinhalese Buddhists were enough to start the trades for the colonists. But as it is with all trades, about 1% (tens of thousands) extra will always be needed to whip up the vigor.

                      1% South Indians to whip up the vigor???
                      My foot! LOL!
                      You are becoming a comedian.

                      “Many Fernandos have checked their DNA, and it shows a large part of Portuguese, and/or North Indian genes (which give evidence to the Kasthriya factor…..yep the Sinhala Fernandos are direct descendants of Sidhatha).”

                      The above statement is a blatant lie or just another good JOKE!
                      There were a few Burgher Fernandos in Colombo who had Portuguese and/or North Indian genes and that is why they are fair in complexion (both North Indians and Portuguese are fair/white skinned). The Sinhala Fernandos who live from Negambo up to Moratuwa are direct descendants of Thoothukudi Parawas (not a single drop of Portuguese or North Indian blood). A few of them may have got mixed but more than 80% are having south Indian genes. If you look at them, they look very similar to those people living in Tutucorin, including their behaviour and life style. If you refer to the publications by the famous historian Dr. Paul E. Peiris on colonial history, he has mentioned about these Sinhala Fernandos.

                      Your hallucinations and stories invented from thin air (imaginations) and the denial of established facts (including a few lies) are only good for your own mental satisfaction but it is not going to change any facts that have already been researched by scholars/intellectuals.

                    • 0
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                      Suresh,

                      Yes, 1% South Indians came over to whip up the vigor for the money making business of the colonists.

                      Guess that 1% extra South Indian gene in the Fernandos(plus all the other South Indian genes Sinhalese generally possess), would have made them one hellava tough-ass set of Sinhalese.

                      As per their looks, all Sinhalese look the same to me. If any Sinhalese or average North Indian, works and plays in the salt and sun of the coast, they would look like Tutucorin Tamils.

                      DNA tests sometimes yield surprising results. I know for sure that Sinhalese would prefer to admit to Tamil genes, rather than to Portuguese genes.

                      Facts have been written, but correct analysis is essential.

                      As per me, I give analysis as the truth is too obvious. Otherwise, I am proud to be part Tamil as per my paternal grandfather (although my BC places me as Burgher).

                    • 0
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                      Your 1% theory is absolutely hilarious.

                      “These Tuticorin Tamil people look nice.”

                      Of course, even the Sinhala Fernandos look nice and very similar to these people (if you remove the dot on their forehead). The people of Tutucorin/Thootukudy (Parawas)also wrongly believe that they are North Indians settled in Tamil Nadu. They also think (again wrongly) they have Portuguese blood relationship.

                    • 0
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                      Suresh,

                      Nah! Sinhala Fernandoes don’t have quite the same cute look. They have the sharper look of the original inhabitants of the Island.

                      The Tuticorin Tamil people have more of the look of the many Tamil communities around the Island (large part of the tens-of-thousands that came down).

                      But if you have such a complex towards North Indians and Portuguese, then all I can say is : Give it a break, for that is the reason Tamils had the 30 year Eelam war.

                    • 0
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                      I know you have an obsession for North Indians but if you happen to take a few Fernandos to North India and tell them these people were originally from their area, they’ll roll on the floor and laugh at you. If you further say, these people were from the Kasthriya caste they may laugh to death.

                      By the way, my Sinhalese friends tell me that, in the South there is a practice among the Sinhalese, when they get angry, they ask each other, from which Thootukudy did you come from or tell them to get lost, go back to Thootukudy. I thought only Fernandos were from Thootukudy.

                      Why are you still denying???

                    • 0
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                      Ok Suresh, the truth is, it is very difficult to tell a Sinhalese from a Tamil. There are subtle differences, but that is because of immigrants and colonists coming from around the world and settling in our land. Remove the pottu from any Tamilian, and they’d look Sinhalese (inland Sinhalese included), and vice versa. Take any Sri Lanka to North India, and there’ll be plenty who look like Sri Lankans. And regarding the tall fair Pashtan tribes (Kasthryas I think), one would find a few tall fair Lankans around, sometimes within individual families where one or two are taller and fairer than the others.

                      Sinhalese and Tamils, especially along the coast, have been assimilating and interacting with each other for millennia and more so within the last 500 years. The Tamil-Sinhalese divide in genes is probably only about a percentage point or two (if any). The percentage points between them are becoming point-percentage points. That is true of any country bordering each other. The difference is that the languages are different, but that can be easily remedied by the learning each other’s languages.

                      But racial notions from the Northern Tamils make it very difficult for people to love and trust each other. Lankans are constantly on the edge with caste and ethnicity factors.

                      I have lived outside Sri Lanka for a long time and in South East Asia when I was young, where we were constantly on edge because the Malays and Chinese used to ridicule us for being Indians. It was a shock when I first became aware of the actual extent of the racial divide between Sinhalese and Tamils. I felt I had come back to my homeland at last, but there was constant twitters and jibbing on who was what and without. A bunch of girls tried to convince me that they were all one happy family in spite of being of different races under one boarding roof. Another bunch of girls told me that Muslims were not a race, but came from Arabia, North India or Malaysia. I wondered what the heck they were all talking about because they all looked the same.

                      Amongst the more sophisticated Colombo crowd, the issue is either ignored, with those ignoring it closing themselves in their comfortable niches, and looking-down on others who try to even query into it. Or it takes on a subtle sexual theme, with people getting roused by ancient and colonial concepts, with bantering and verbal spats, and dancing and twirling of attraction, in Vijaya and Kuvani concepts. People keep trysting each other attempting to score points in heightened ribaldry- that’s sophisticated Colombo talk and ways. Or they talk about it wildly for individualistic attention and to prove leadership of the untried, but really do nothing kind, assuring, or constructive about it. I was horrified by the whole scenario when I first realized this when I was a teenager.

                      Someone has to put a stop to all this futile and shameless behavior. For while people ignore or belittle it, people without the means of the richness or privilege of the Colombo set will be killing and slaughtering each other, while the people who have the means or money to actually do something, live in their own world of whimsical fun, goody-goodiness, and personalized attention getting.

                      Is that the bloodiness the Northerners want for a vague and antiquated racial concept called Eelam? It is good that you write this way. It gives people who want true peace, a greater awareness and starting point to analyze the wide rage and extent of the racial psychosis, and cure it irrevocably once and for all.

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                      And Suresh, the Sinhala Fernandos I know look very North Indian to me. A few have the Tamilkan look, and that’s the 1% gene coming out.

                      Guess you sad Northerners are very unhappy about the unity between the coastal Sinhalese and Tamils. You were trying to convert the coastal Tamils to Eelamists. They didn’t buy it. So you indulge in the spreading of racist rumours. It might have worked a generation or two ago, but it won’t work now.

                      Haven’t you had enough of the pervisity, and blood and gore?

                • 1
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                  “Portuguese mixtures who didn’t assimilate with the other Europeans”

                  A large part of the Portuguese Burghers (Portuguese mixtures) migrated to Australia. Those that remained assimilated with the Sinhalese population in the South and Tamil population in the East (Batticaloa).

                  • 0
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                    Suresh,

                    Of course.

      • 2
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        Suresh,

        “Tens of thousands of Dalits from South India who were settled in the Southern parts of Sri Lanka for Cinnamon, Coconut and other plantations got converted into Sinhala Buddhists. Some of them adopted Portuguse surnames such as Fernando, Silva, Perera and so on to hide their original names while others made minor changes to their original names to make them sound Sinhala”

        Hopefully these Dalits you are referring to are other South Indians(Non Tamils).
        Wether it is a Brahmin or a Sakkiliya, Tamil is Tamil.

        By the way coastal belt sinhala community,while being an important element of the sinhala society make up only 9 – 10% of the sinhala population, besides being fully naturalised

        • 2
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          ravi perera

          “Hopefully these Dalits you are referring to are other South Indians (Non Tamils).”

          They were mainly from Cochin/Kochi in the Malabar coast/presently Kerala, Tutucorin/Thootukudy in the Coromandel Coast/presently Tamil Nadu and from the southeastern coast of Andara. For example the Sakkiliya caste is from Andara, they speak a Dravidian language called Telugu (somewhat similar to Tamil but not Tamil) and the Sinhalese called it Andara demala (Andara Tamil).

          “Whether it is a Brahmin or a Sakkiliya, Tamil is Tamil.”

          As a culture, yes you are right. Very similar to the Sinhalese, whether it is a Radala or a Rodi, as a culture, Sinhalese is Sinhalese.

          Someone once said, when you talk to Sinhalese, there is hardly any difference between well educated professionals/intellectuals and the uneducated street vendors or taxi drivers. They all have the same low mentality and narrow mindedness.

          “By the way coastal belt sinhala community, while being an important element of the sinhala society make up only 9 – 10% of the sinhala population, besides being fully naturalized”

          The Karawe (fishing) and the Durawe (coconut/toddy) were settled in the coastal belt, Salagama (cinnamon) were settled in the interior. Are you saying that all these 3 major castes in Sri Lanka (Karawe, Durawe & Salagama) comprise only 10% of the Sinhala population?

          • 0
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            Tamils use all kinds of high-flung British rhetoric (when they mean the opposite), for example,….eg. “what a warm, caring and generous person you are,”……”thank you for your courteous and gracious acts”…………”we appreciate you great candor”……etc. OMG! they even take on the British stance, intonation, and mouth movement (looks funny on the south Asian face).

            Sinhalese on the other hand, don’t give a sh#@……it’s like : “yeah, whatever”….:)

        • 3
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          ravi perera the Sinhala speaking Demela

          “Wether it is a Brahmin or a Sakkiliya, Tamil is Tamil.”

          Are you implying that you are a Sinhala speaking Demela Brahmin?

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    Let us invite our bretheran living in Tamil Nadu for the last few years to return home, not with the lament of the Tamils in far away Fiji, but with a popular, moving song known and enjoyed the world over, (though it is from the Carribean sung beautifully by Harry Balafonte)

    Oh, island in the sun
    Willed to me by my father’s hand
    All my days I will sing in praise
    Of your forest, waters, your shining sand

    As morning breaks the heaven on high
    I lift my heavy load to the sky
    Sun comes down with a burning glow
    Mingles my sweat with the earth below

    Oh, island in the sun
    Willed to me by my father’s hand
    All my days I will sing in praise
    Of your forest, waters, your shining sand

    I see woman on bended knee
    Cutting cane for her family
    I see man at the waterside
    Casting nets at the surging tide

    Oh, island in the sun
    Willed to me by my father’s hand
    All my days I will sing in praise
    Of your forest, waters, your shining sand

    I hope the day will never come
    When I can’t awake to the sound of drum
    Never let me miss carnival
    With calypso songs philosophical

    Oh, island in the sun
    Willed to me by my father’s hand
    All my days I will sing in praise
    Of your forest, waters, your shining sand

  • 4
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    ramona.

    For whom are these 12% Sinhala Buddhist Temples in the North?

    • 1
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      For the Hindus to appreciate the Southern culture.

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        ramona grand mother therese fernando

        “For the Hindus to appreciate the Southern culture.”

        What is the Southern Culture,

        Culture of Rednecks, Ku Klux Klan, Bible Belt, Mississippi Burning, To Kill a Mockingbird, …………

        • 0
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          Southern Culture is not the same as Northern Culture

          • 0
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            maalumiris

            “Southern Culture is not the same as Northern Culture”

            What is it then?

  • 3
    2

    “…..
    A century old song of Bharathy in Tamil, on the plight of Tamil expatriate labour in the cane fields of Fiji.”

    1) How is that this is not relevant to Sri Lanka plantation Tamils? When arrangements were made for them to return their motherland and live in an environment of their culture, language and religion it was and still caonsidered as a cruel action.

    2) No use writing emotive poetry. What if the mother India does not want them back? India should consider dual citizenship for all the Tamils of this category.

    Soma

  • 4
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    In Tamilnadu, only the Tamil speaking North Indians are bigger, Christians and Muslims are dalits.

    Most of the big shot Tamils in Sri lanka are Dalits in Tamilnadu.

    So, what else they should do except coming to the homelann by force.

    • 7
      5

      “Most of the big shot Tamils in Sri lanka are Dalits in Tamilnadu.”

      Jim softy

      Are you referring to your family?

      Can you please tell us from which TN tribal area (Dalit) your ancestors came to SL and got converted into Sinhala-Buddhists?

  • 5
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    Beware of Flood Affected South Indian Scroungers Invading Sri Lanka

    November 2015 brought South India one of the biggest natural disasters it faced in decades. Floods killed over 500 people, displaced over 2.5 million people and caused over $15 billion property damage. Mismanagement, corruption and callous disregard for human life, especially those considered “low-caste” have pushed many South Indians into utter desperation. Another Tamil illegal migration to Sri Lanka is expected soon from South India as happened in 17th, 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. Sri Lankan government must prevent this calamity by denying them entry into the island nation.

    In 1983, a similar flood inundated South India. However, Sri Lanka miraculously survived Tamil invasion thanks to the anti-Tamil riot that year. Given the security situation, Sri Lanka was the last destination of Tamils in South India then. However, today the atmosphere is more conducive to them and hundreds of thousands are expected to make the trip. Unfortunately, the Tamil language is given the official language status since 1987 and this acts as a powerful attraction to South Indian illegals. Most displaced people are from inundated farming areas who will find Sri Lanka an attractive destination to find work.

    Sri Lanka with its own problems cannot host these south Indian scroungers. Locals need work, land, clean water, roads, medical facilities, foreign reserves and public service and cannot compromise accommodating illegals. Unless the Sri Lankan government prevents the possibility of illegals coming to Sri Lanka to live or work, the island nation is in for economic and social disaster. In terms of the economic impact, it is not too distant from a locust invasion.

    It was reported in South Indian media that some Catholic and Hindu organisations with their presence in South India and Sri Lanka are facilitating the move of some of the affected unemployed people. This malicious plan must be defeated.

    In the long run, Sri Lanka must remove Tamil as an official language (even India doesn’t recognise it as an official language) to prevent South Indians invading the island nation. In the medium term, a civil-military partly self-financing organisation must be set up to identify, capture, fine and deport South Indians illegally working in Sri Lanka.

    • 4
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      Jim softy

      You are worried about South Indians, rightly so. I am worried about a far deadlier category – the Maldivian Muslims. Their country is going under water and Allah, as has always been, is deaf to their preyers. India at least will be there for the Kallatonis to be moved back if and when we decide to do so. While, as I understand, all countries are obliged to accomodate the Maldivians, their favorite destination unfortunately is Sri Lanka. Not Jafna, Not Kattankudi, the city of Colombo. Unlike the destitute Indians these Muslims are loaded with money , enough to buy whole of Colombo and all our politicians. There is already a substantial presence here investing in business and children atending school. Yahapalana Government is a god-send to them with freedom to buy land.

      The government, for some reason, is silent on yet another serious problem. The Pakistanis. They are claiming refugee status here in droves and would you believe the UN is focing us to accept them!

      To top it all Nothern Tamils are forcing the Muslims down. Saudi Government is funding them for buying Sinhala land.

      Keep your ears to the ground.

      Soma

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        What an assortment Sri Lanka has spawned.

      • 3
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        somass

        Remember according to your own myth, your forefathers the lumpen thugs 700 in total arrived here on kallathonies as asylum seekers. Why cannot the Pakistanis, Maldivians, Syrians, Iraqis …………. seek refuge in this island? Most of your Sinhala/Tamil brethren living in Europe, Americas and Down under went there as refugees and not highly skilled professionals and remitting foreign exchange.

        Why cannot those want to come and live here do what you have specialised in the past 30 odd years?

        “Saudi Government is funding them for buying Sinhala land.”

        You should ask Virathu for funds for the sole purpose of serving the Sinhala/Buddhists, buying land.

  • 4
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    Tamil native land is Tamil Nadu. and not Sri lanka

    • 3
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      jayt

      “Tamil native land is Tamil Nadu. and not Sri lanka”

      Sinhala native land is Sinhapura, Venga Lata land.

      Hela native land is Helsinki.

      Aryan’s native land is Prussia.

      Sakya land is Nepal

      Karava land is Coromandel Coast

      Nayake land is Madurai

      Vellaikkara Padei (Mercenaries) land is Errivirapattinam

      …….

      ……..

  • 9
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    S. Sivathasan

    Tamil Refugees In Tamil Nadu; Return To Their Native Land:

    *** It is time that Tamils all over the World including the South of Sri Lanka pack their bags and retun to Motherland ” EELAM”.
    The Dream has come true and this is just the begining of a new DAWN.

    I want to sing

    ” I am making my way back to you “babe” ( EELAM) with a burning Love Inside.

  • 4
    3

    Jim.

    Your line…..
    Another Tamil illegal immigration to Srilanka is expected soon from South India as happened in 17th,18th,19th,20th,centuries…….

    For your info:between the 14th-17th centuries,this immigration did take place.Wave after wave of South Indians landed on our shores.
    The present day Karaves,Durawes,& Salagama are the descendants of that immigration.They are very much part of the Landscape of this country!

    • 1
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      Plato

      “The present day Karaves,Durawes,& Salagama are the descendants of that immigration.They are very much part of the Landscape of this country!”

      How about the Nayakes?

      Most of the Radala could trace their origin to South India if they so desired.

  • 1
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    Unthan Desathin Kural By A R Rahman https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0BPihe6s7sQ
    (1)உந்தன் தேசத்தின் குரல்
    தொலை தூரத்தில் அதோ
    செவியில் விழாதா
    சொந்த வீடு உன்னை வா என்று அழைக்குதடா தமிழா

    Undhan desathin kural
    Tholaithoorathil atho
    Seviyil vizhadha
    Sondha veedu unnai vaa enru azhaikiradhu tamizha

    The voice of your country!
    is heard from afar!
    Doesn’t it reach your ears?
    Your home calls you to come back! Oh Thamizha!
    (2)அந்த நாட்களை நினை
    அவை நீங்குமா உனை
    நிழல் போல் வராதா
    அயல் நாடு உந்தன் வீடல்ல விடுதியடா தமிழா

    Antha naadkalai ninai
    Avai neenguma unai
    Nizhal pol varatha
    Ayal naadu unthan veedalla viduthiyada tamizha

    Think back of those days!
    will they (those memories) ever leave you,
    Wont they come with you like your shadow,
    Foreign land is not your home but just a temporary accommodation, Oh Thamizha!
    (3)வானம் எங்கும் பறந்தாலும்
    பறவை என்னும் தன் கூட்டில்
    உலகம் எங்கும் வாழ்ந்தாலும்
    தமிழன் என்னும் தாய் நாட்டில்
    சந்தர்ப்பங்கள் வாழ்ந்தாலும்
    அங்கு செல்வ மரம் காய்த்தாலும்
    உள் மனத்தின் கூவல் உந்தன் செவியில் விழாதா

    Vaanam engum paranthaalum
    Paravai ennum than kootil
    Ulagum engum vaazhnthaalum
    Tamizhan ennum thaai naatil
    Santharpangal vazhnthaalum
    Angu selva maram kaithaalum
    ul manathin kooval unthan seviyil vizhadha

    A bird may fly in the vastness of the sky,
    but its home is finally its nest,
    You may live in any part of the world,
    But you belong to your motherland, as a Tamilian
    Opportunities may be a plenty (in foreign land)
    it(foreign land) may be the land of prosperity and riches
    But, doesn’t the loud call from your inner self reach your ears?
    (4)கங்கை உன்னை அழைக்கிறது
    யமுனை உன்னை அழைக்கிறது
    இமயம் உன்னை அழைக்கிறது
    பல சமயம் உன்னை அழைக்கிறது
    கண்ணாமூச்சி ஆட்டம் அழைக்க
    சின்ன பட்டாம்பூச்சி கூட்டம் அழைக்க
    தென்னம் தோப்பு துறவுகள் அழைக்க
    கட்டி காத்த உறவுகள் அழைக்க
    நீ தான் தின்ன நிலா சோறு தான் அழைக்க

    Gangai unai azhaikiradhu
    Yamunai unai azhaikiradhu
    Imayam unai azhaikiradhu
    Pala samayam unnai azhaikiradhu
    Kannamoochi aatam azhaika
    Chinna pattam poochi kootam azhaika
    Thennam thoppu thuravukal unnai azhaika
    Katti kaatha uravukal azhaika
    Nee thaan thinna nila soru dhaan azhaika

    The grand Ganges river calls you back!
    The Yamuna river calls you back!
    The mighty Himalayas call you back!
    The numerous religions (and cultures) call you back!
    The hide and seek game calls you back!
    The flutter of butterflies call you back!
    The coconut groves and the agricultural lands call you back!
    The relationships that are dear and important to you call you back!
    The food that you ate under the basking moonlight calls you back!
    (5)பால் போல உள்ள வென்னிலவு
    பார்த்தால் சிறு கரை இருக்கு
    மலர் போல் உள்ள தாய் மண்ணில்
    மாறாத சில வலி இருக்கு
    கண்ணீர் துடைக்க வேண்டும் உந்தன் கைகள்
    அதில் செழிக்க வேண்டும் உன் மைகள்
    இந்த தேசம் உயரட்டும் உன்னாலே
    மக்கள் கூட்டம் வரட்டும் உன் பின்னாலே
    அன்பு தாயின் மடி உன்னை அழைக்குதே தமிழா

    Paal pola ulla vennilavu
    Paarthal siru karai irukku
    Malar pol ulla thai mannil
    Maaratha sila vali irukum
    Kanneer thudaika vendum unthan kaikal
    Athil serlika vendum unmaikal
    Intha desam uyarattum unnaleh
    Makkal kootam varattum un pinnaleh
    Anbu thaiyin madi unnai alaikuthey tamizha

    Even in the full moon which is as pure as milk,
    there are a few stains
    Similarly in your motherland which is like a flower(in its beauty and sanctity),
    there may be some pains (problems) which are unchanged,
    Your hands should remove (heal) our tears (sufferings),
    truth should prosper in it,
    Let this country rise in stature because of you
    Let the people join and follow you in support
    The lap of your loving mother(land) calls you back! Oh Thamizha!

  • 9
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    India to build sea bridge,tunnel to connect Sri Lanka”

    New Delhi, Dec 16 (PTI) Keen on promoting connectivity in the South Asian region, India is set to build a sea-bridge and tunnel connecting Sri Lanka while a pact has been inked with Bangladesh, Bhutan and Nepal for seamless flow of traffic and passenger vehicles, Union Minister Nitin Gadkari said today.

    “The Asian Development Bank is ready to fully finance a bridge building project connecting Rameshwaram to Sri Lanka.

    The project was also discussed by Prime Minister Narendra Modi with his counterpart during the latter’s recent visit,” Road Transport and Highways Minister Nitin Gadkari said in a suo motu statement in the Lok Sabha.

    The India-Sri Lanka connectivity project cost is pegged at about Rs 24,000 crore.

    “The Government, right from the day it assumed office, has been focussed on enhancing regional cooperation.

    Subsequent to PM’s announcement of ‘Act East policy’, India pro-actively engaged in building effective and credible links between South Asia and South East Asia through enhanced regional connectivity,” he said.

    A major milestone was the signing of the Bangladesh Bhutan India Nepal (BBIN) Motor Vehicles Agreement (MVA) in Thimphu to facilitate seamless movement of passenger and cargo vehicles in the region, he said.

    Under BBIN MVA, a cargo trial run was held on the 640 km Kolkata-Dhaka-Agartala route last month, which was a substantial reduction compared to the traditional 1,550 km transit route from Kolkata to Agartala via Siliguri-Guwahati- Silchar, he said.

    “The four countries have also identified 14 routes for passenger services and 7 routes for cargo movement under the BBIN MVA…Several major Road Transport Corridor Projects for approximately 2400 kms have been identified in India and particularly in the North Eastern region at an estimated investment of USD 4.6 billion which are proposed to be taken up with ADB support,” Gadkari said.

    Once BBIN and other agreements are operationalised, the dream of seamless movement of all types of vehicles between SAARC and ASEAN nations will become a reality and “I hope that this will happen soon”, he said.

    About 110 km on the Imphal-Moreh (NH 39) will be taken up for upgradation by NHIDCL with loan being provided by ADB while the Ministry has also proposed projects for JICA loan assistance for developing road infrastructure to connect neighbouring countries through the North East, he said.

    *** There is no need to rush to get back. If they wait for another 2 years they can all come in Rickshaws ( through the Tunnel or the Bridge) and bring all their Tamil friends ( Tamilnadu Tamils as opposed to Sri Lankan Tamils) with whom they have built up Private Lives. We could do with a few millions.

    • 2
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      20th century we were fed on the CANAL. 21st we will dream about the BRIDGE! For the 22nd too we have very many things on heaven and earth to think of; but never to come to terms with reality.

  • 3
    2

    Most of the Sri Lankan refugees in India will have to return home one day or other as they will only be looked upon as aliens in their host country. The earlier they come back, the better for them. All institutions such as the GoSL, the NPC and also diaspora organisations should co-operate to make this a reality. Those refugees may need not only homes but sometimes even a piece of land. Several pieces of land in the peninsula have absentee landlords in the diaspora. If need be action should be taken to purchase some of these fertile lands and distribute to the refugees.
    Sengodan. M

  • 2
    1

    Sengodan

    Sane, sedate and sensible comment after an effusion of patriotic gibberish, of no use to any reader.

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