1 October, 2020

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The Citizenship Acts & The Birth Of The Federal Party

By Rajan Hoole

Dr. Rajan Hoole

Dr. Rajan Hoole

Authoritarianism and the Crisis of Identity – III

The basic ideological premise sketched, superimposed on global economic factors, local economic failures, corruption, particularly from 1977, and disaffection in the North-East, was largely to determine the country’s destiny.

The authoritarian and undemocratic compulsions of the ruling class can also be discerned in the Citizenship Acts of 1948/49, which rendered the Hill-Country (Plantation) Tamils non-citizens. These Acts had no precedent in any Commonwealth country, and the only other Commonwealth country to move in that direction was Idi Amin’s Uganda which started expelling its residents of Indian origin in the early 70s.

By the 1950s we also discern early cracks in the impartiality of the Law. The Federal Party contested the Acts of Parliament, which deprived the Hill-Country Tamils of citizenship and voting rights. These Acts were held to be contrary to Section 29 of the Constitution, which forbade legislation which discriminated against any community. Judge N. Sivanandasundaram of the Kegalle District Court ruled in favour of the petitioners, that the legislation concerned was invalid. The Supreme Court in 1952 in Mudanayake vs. Sivanandasundaram quashed the decision of the District Court by holding that the legislation was non-discriminatory since it applied equally to all communities.

DSA pointer to the quality of the Supreme Court judgement is that by the same argument, legislation which denied the vote to those who applied gingelly oil on their head could also be deemed non-discriminatory by its supposedly applying equally to everyone. We see here primarily class, and also ethnic factors, distorting the Law beyond a point of common acceptability, creating a precedent for much that followed. By 1983, as we shall see, more and more unacceptable compromises were being forced on the Judiciary.

The whole process of the Citizenship Acts was blatantly dishonest and a travesty of statesmanship. The Left strongly objected to the Acts and saw in them parallels to the Nazi State. The Tamil leader S.J.V. Chelvanayakam, who was soon to form the Federal Party, foresaw in the legislation dark times ahead for the minorities. He said in Parliament in December 1948, on the eve of the first Act: “But when the language question comes up, which will be the next one to follow in this series of legislation, we will know where we stand. Perhaps, that will not be the end of it. But whatever that may be, this Bill is a piece of legislation which is not based on the highest principles on which the differences and difficulties of inter- communal problems have to be solved…”

Earlier he had pointed out how the Prime Minister and the Minister for Food (A. Ratnayake, a Kandyan) were casting aspersions on the floating Indian population of traders and were cleverly by allusion generalising these to the permanently settled population on the plantations. It was for example stated that when Colombo was bombed during the Second World War, many from the Indian floating population in Colombo went to India – as did many Colombo residents who moved to other parts of Ceylon. It was also argued as though it was the plantation labour, rather than British capital, that took over Kandyan lands. Chelvanayakam said, “Every argument, for example, that can be used against that class of Indians for whom protection is not asked, is directed against the permanently settled Indian labour on the estates. Now take the case of the people who ran away because of the bombing. Did the tea estates stop working? For whose sake is this Bill being brought forward? In order to deprive whom of citizenship is this Bill being brought forward?”

Chelvanayakam also pointed out how the Indian Government had been systematically deceived. Prime Minister D.S. Senanayake had written the following to Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru of India on 22nd June 1948: “The present proposal of the Government of Ceylon extends to Indian residents in the Island full rights and privileges of Ceylon Citizenship.” Chelvanayakam stated that the Government had later substituted a different class of citizenship to that contained in the proposal submitted to the Indian PM. The real catch however came in the manner in which administrators later applied the Act selectively, so as to deprive practically the entire estate population of the vote.

This episode contained a strong hint of the direction in which the country was moving. An indignant Chelvanayakam went on to found a politics of self-imposed isolation of the Tamil- speaking people.

The Sinhala Only Act of 1956 and the Constitutions of 1972 and 1978 were further symptoms of the authoritarianism of the ruling class. They were so intent on their perceived narrow interests that they refused to see that there was a multiplicity of communities, not simply determined by ethnic labels, who wanted to be served differently by the government.

These developments also show the weakness of civil society. It had no corrective impact, in spite of the opposition to both the Citizenship and Sinhala Only legislation by the Left, then the main opposition in the South, and most of the Tamil representatives. The habit of undue deference to the party in power which represented the State, was also a carry-over from the colonial era. This allowed the State to get away with almost anything. By the end of the 80s, following the 1983 violence and the JVP rebellion, almost every section of society in the South was grievously compromised. Whether it was the Press, academia, religious bodies, study and research groups or lobbies for democracy and human rights, there was a crucial core of the Southern experience that they would not touch.

A particular consequence of the inability to bring about a consensus in the approach to problems, was the enhancement of communal politics.

*To be continued..

*From Rajan Hoole‘s “Sri Lanka: Arrogance of Power – Myth, Decadence and Murder”. Thanks to Rajan for giving us permission to republish. To read earlier parts click here

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Latest comments

  • 2
    9

    There is a fella called Sebastian. He is a resident of Canada I believe.

    His POVs run contrary to these run-of-the-mill Tamil nazi crap. They are real eye openers.

    It would help the donkey Tamils to come out of their quagmire. Silly banter among one another will not help.

    The Real Facts about Plantation Tamils of Sri Lanka.

    The Estate Tamils came to work in the Kandyan tea estates because, even if the conditions were bad, they were infinitely better than in India. In the face of the leftist threat, the 1948 citizenship act limited the citizenship to Estate Tamils who could show permanent residency in Sri Lanka for at least 7 years. This was more lenient than what is required by many countries, even today, for permanent citizenship. Most Tamil leaders including the main leader, G. G. Ponnambalam supported this.

    But the trade union leader Thondamon advised the Estate Tamils to tear up their passports and refuse to comply. This was a tactical move. S. J. V. Chelvanayakam, a hard-line Tamil nationalist who was seeking to oust G. G. Ponnambalam used this to declare that Ponnambalam was a “Traitor to the Tamil cause”, and attacked the citizenship act.

    • 7
      1

      Vibhushana,

      If these workers did not hope for a better life here, would they have come and struggled in the face of impenetrable jungles, wild animals, malaria and a very wet climate? According to recorded history, I have cited before, no Ceylonese was equipped or ready to do what they did. Many sacrificed their lives too. Their housing was abysmal and their Kankanis abused them.m but it was yet better because they had enough to eat and drink!

      However, what was done to them as a human entity in political terms in Ceylon/Sri Lanka was absolutely wrong. I will even venture to call it a sin. It is a their sweat that yet sustains our economy to a considerable extent. Whether some Tamil polticians here who supported that ‘Primordial Sin’ in terms of Post-independent Sri Lanka, makes no difference. They also sinned.

      What was done with the connivance of the Supreme Court and even the Privy Council was wrong to the power ten! Our rot started there, and has led to our utter rotten state.

      Thirukural says, ” En nandri kondraarkum-uyvundaam,
      Uyvillai sey nandri Kondra Mahatrku”

      ( There Is no redemption for those who have no gratitude for the help they have received, even if
      Other acts of ingratitude are forgiven)

      Dr.Rajasingham Narendran

      • 2
        6

        Hello Dr. RN,

        I sense an air of desperation in your writings.

        I would like to tell you the world you live now is infinitly better than what existed yesterday. The Tamils are not in dire straits, things are improving and the “Tamil plight” is something that appear to exist more so in conversations than in reality.

        As for no Ceylonese ready to the work they did – well that is perhaps true. Although why should they help a colonizer to build his empire?

        First of all, its a Citizenship Act – NOT a Tamil Naturalisation Act.

        So it has to be general enough to apply to all. On that score it was fair by any standard. Which is why even the Privy council concurred.

        If there were Tamil concerns then it should be discussed as an appendum to the act in consultation with the industry at a later date.

        • 6
          0

          Well the colonialists did what we could not do- gave us a modern aconomy, a modern educational system, a good administrative system and greater prosperity than most of Asia. They also left us a united country with fat currency reserves. We have dismantled all this now and are running around with a begging bowl. It is the sweat of the plantation workers that made the colonial success possible and yet keeps our head above the water line. Thank the colonialists for the good they did and fall at the feet of the plantation workers and ask for their forgiveness for what we did to them.

          Dr.RN

          • 1
            6

            Sri Lanka has no legal, moral or any other obligation to give migrant labour citizenship.

            Especially if they have been there less than 7 years.

            If you want fall on their feet go ahead.

            • 5
              0

              “Less than seven years is the extreme example.

              Many had been here for all their lives, and so had their ancestors for three or four generations. They, as individuals could remember no other home, I’m sure.

              Dear Vibhushana, let’s forget obligation, and work toward resolving conflicts in a wider context.

              • 0
                5

                The 7 years was the law you Tamil donkey pretending to be a Sinhala.

                It wasn’t in indication on how long shipped Tamils have been there.

                • 6
                  0

                  I happen to be “a Sinhalese” who knows next to no Tamil.

                  English is the language that I know best, but I’ve never been outside Asia.

                  Do some thinking, Vibhushana.

                  Also, please note that I don’t respond in the same rude tone as you have written to me.

                  There are certain values that you simply can’t comprehend!

                • 5
                  0

                  Vibhushana,

                  Sinhala_man is a Sinhalese named Edirisinghe. He represents the best of the Sinhalese- the majority, in this country.

                  Dr.RN

        • 0
          6

          Those Tamils got better treatment, what did they do, get free education and start badmouthing Sri lanka.

          They have to compare and understand what would have happened if they continued to live in Tamilnadu, Kerala, Singapore, Malaysia etc.

          Tamils are greedy and selfish.

          they have show proof with statistics to prove they were disadvantaged.

          • 0
            0

            Jim Softy,
            ” They have to compare and understand what would have happened if they continued to live in Tamilnadu, Kerala, Singapore, Malaysia etc.”
            Have you been to India recently or are you using some old lady’s impression of 4 days in “Dambadiva”?
            Let me tell you:
            If you get a salary of Rs. 30,000 in India, you can afford to:
            1. Buy a used car for 25,000
            2. Deposit 60,000 for a brand new one and pay 5000 monthly.
            3. When onions are Rs. 30 a KG, they think it’s expensive.
            4. Flour starts at 1Rs. 15 a Kg.
            5. Rice starts at Rs. 20 a Kg
            6. Get cable TV for Rs.150
            7. Chicken at Rs.100 a Kg
            Maybe you should go over and see who will hire you?
            Don’t forget, Jimmy, there are 150,000 SL refugees in India. Maybe they know something you don’t?

  • 4
    0

    Dr.Rajasingham Narendran,

    There was always method in the madness that became the rule in independent Ceylon/Sri Lanka! No community was exempt. We have been like proverbial bunch of crabs in a basket,pulling down which ever was trying escape! The same phenomenon is trying to raise its head again! The symptoms are becoming quite patent, in the face of what appears to be a genuine attempt to resolve the so- called national question and bring long term peace and progress to this country.

    Dr.Rajasingham Narendran

    • 1
      0

      The above comment is addressed to Dr.Rajan Hoole

      Dr.RN

  • 0
    9

    I have read lot of garbage articles from Tamils here in Colombo Telegraph.

    One so called Sri lankan Tamil comes here talks about the national question. Then his next several articles in his series are all about Tamilnadu.

    Another so called Sri lankan Tamil comes and talk about a Catholic Tamil who succeeded in Sri lanka getting free education, a becoming govt agent and later he says that Tamil was born in Myanmar.

    SJVC is a Malaysian Tamil whose father brought him into Sri lanka because of discrimination in Malaysia.

    Ponnambolam was another Malaysian Tamil politician who succeeded in Sri Lanka screwed up Sri lanka when to become SOil in Malaysia.

    Pabakaran was no different. Now this BS.

    In TamilNadu can there be a Thelugu only act. It has to be Tamil only. Why Sri lanka can not have Sinhala Only act.

    Can you ask Britain to have so many languages ?

    but you all Tamil happily talk english there.

    Only In India Tamils try to screw up India, but don’t have balls.

    • 7
      0

      Jim,

      “I have read lot of garbage articles from Tamils here in Colombo Telegraph.”

      This is because you do not have the mental capacity to comprehend their articles! One only have read your contributions on CT to now that!

      • 8
        0

        Well said Burning Issue. It is bigots like Jim Softly that has ruined this once most hospitable, beautiful nation into a pariah state.

    • 6
      0

      jimmy,
      A few answers to your questions:

      “Can you ask Britain to have so many languages ?”
      If you go to Wales, you will see all roadsigns are in Welsh and English.
      “Why Sri lanka can not have Sinhala Only act.”
      Because the Tamils and Muslims are not immigrants.
      “SJVC is a Malaysian Tamil whose father brought him into Sri lanka because of discrimination in Malaysia.”
      There was no Malaysia or discrimination at that time. His father was born here.

  • 7
    0

    It is the Tamil Indian Plantation labour that kept the Srilankan economy afloat.

    Morning to dusk work,retiring to those linerooms for a few hours of rest!
    Where is the compassion that people talk about?
    That Tea that we sip comes from their toil!
    They have been at the receiving end from day one,but we refuse to see their input towards the Economy of this country.
    Damn shame!

  • 11
    0

    There is a huge debt of gratitude we owe to the innocent Tamil Estate Plantation workers, who are stateless, exploited and have lived here for generations. My parents did own a tea estate once and I know first hand how hard they worked. We provided them with a school and nursery for their children and as their wages were standardised but low, we had a shop selling essentials at cost prices. It is time we exercised a bit of compassion to these people, almost all of them born here, and grant them their Human Right, with Sri Lankan Citizenship. Most developed nations, constitutionally grant citizenship to people born on their soil.

    • 8
      0

      What a lot of racist comments, one might say!

      This is a chapter from a book, and unless all this is seen in context, then it will attract even more comments of this sort. Next, somebody will say that your parents had no business to own the estate!

      I guess that Amarasiri or Native Veddah will have to remind us for the umpteenth time that we, Sinhalese, also came from India – and I’m sure that my genes are a mix of North and South Indian. What matters is that these are all human beings who have lived all their lives from birth to death in this land, and have an equal right with us – unless we start spinning yarns about our ancestry.

      I’m putting this comment in just to ask our Sinhala people to think before they make the many inflammatory comments I already see. Thanks for your own contribution, Sylvia Haik, but I fear it sounds a bit naive, given the mood of the other comments. Fortunately, many other readers are using their thumbs intelligently!

      Quite simply, in the world today, it is even more true than four hundred years ago that “no man is an island”. Our lives have all become a rich tapestry of cultures – and of fascinating inventions. We can’t expect to be titillated by all that variety, unless we also accept the fact that we have to share.

      And also, instead of generating employment in this country, we force our less privileged people to go abroad.

      I’m not sure that this comment of mine will make any more sense than this isolated chapter of this valuable book will!

    • 1
      0

      Dear Sylvia Haik,

      I didn’t realise that you were the lady with the “Morris Minor Traveller”, until my daughter told me. The author of this article was my classmate at Gurutalawa, and was the “Best Scholar” in 1964; you will find his name on a panel in the Foster Hall.

      Unfortunately, he’s become an absolute recluse (and a vegan) who will never visit the school again. But why don’t you re-visit your comment:

      https://www.colombotelegraph.com/index.php/belief-in-the-worth-of-teachers-at-s-thomas-colleges/comment-page-1/#comment-1952784

      It is sometimes useful to follow-up to make sure that your initial comment has produced a useful result. One cannot say so still!

  • 2
    8

    Why the hell Sinhalese accept tamil coolies brought in to SL by the British?
    Tamils should go and ask reparations from brits and at least, SL kept some tamils even though non of them have any documents as SL citizens. Tamils need to stop this BS since they should go and ask from british to settle in UK similar to what happen to indians from Uganda.

    Succesive SL govt’s treatment of tea plantation tamils is a national disgrace.

  • 2
    0

    The accompanying photograph is quite interesting and telling. Our Kalu Suddhas dressed in white suits with a much brilliant Jawaharlal Nehru elegantly dressed like an Indian.

    Dr.RN

    • 3
      0

      Dear Dr.Rajasingham Narendran,

      Perceptive of you! But “fellow Thomian, SWRD Banda,” conscious of nepotism (I mean of the Senanyakes), has clearly seen the chance offered by all that.

      Actually, I’ve seen it said that Banda wasn’t really a “Thomian”; that after being home tutored by Brits, he was enrolled in College just to enter whatever exam he had to sit. On the other hand, I prefer the version that says that he had as class-mates, S.J.V. Chelva, Justice Noel Gratien, (later Warden) Kungen de Saram, and my mother’s cousin, Eric Byrd Wikramanayake Q.C. who was to be Sir John’s Justice Minister (and always first in class). How much of this do we really know? Perhaps Satellite will know, since it so much concerns her father.

      Banda, the intellectual, realised that there was going to be too much Senanayake nepotism for him to get anywhere and smelt the “winds of change”, and wanted to de-throne this language that we are now using. Sir John competed; and J.R. completed the wrecking of a possible negotiation of a settlement with Chelva, by undertaking the “March to Kandy”. All this is just conjecture – and that is why Hoole’s labour is going to be so valuable for future historians.

      One thing that I have stumbled on is that Thomians list Dr N.M. Perera as an alumnus. Rubbish! He was at Annanda – but before that he had spent a year at “Cathedral College, Mutwal”, which was on the premises that S. Thomas’ vacated. “St. Thomas'” actually was “Bishop’s College” when it first began. On the basis of that we want to claim NM to be “ours”. And when did we first drop that “t” in “St. Thomas'” to confuse all but the initiated? Rajan Hoole first encountered the crazy Thomian system of naming what are now termed “Grades”, when he thought he was entering “Standard 9”, only to find it called the “Lower Sixth”. I’d encountered the system earlier in “Standard Six” which was the “Lower Fourth”. Human beings will do anything to make others of the species believe that they are “Special”.

      However, our then Headmaster, Dr R.L. Hayman (not initials – we thought it significant that his cars had been Rover, Lanchester, and finally Holden), was really different. Dressed in ungainly khaki shorts (no, not the “planters'” costume) and short-sleeved shirt, he taught Rajan and me Physics – brilliantly. He was more “progressive” than Cannor R.S. de Saram, the “disciplinarian”. He had learnt Sinhalese (something the students didn’t know, but which the “minor staff” have confirmed). He had wanted Sr Lankan citizenship, but it was refused in 1962. So he left in mid-63. How can we possibly check the veracity of all this?

      I may well have got some of the “facts” wrong, but last evening I attended the “Easter Carol Service” at STC, Bandarawela, and told the decent Priest-Headmaster a thing or two AFTER the impressive service was over. How to separate the need for human decency from the greater need to ensure that the truth has to get known is not an easy problem. These issues have to do with Universal Values, which is why I find it a bit strange that Dr.Rajasingham Narendran has not had the guts to trespass on unknown territory yet. We need comments that emphasise that Education everywhere in the country is connected. I’m sure that those four years of schooling in the South had a great deal to do with Rajan Hoole being the great man that he is now.

      By the way, some of you may not know how to navigate to earlier comments on CT. One is to go in to Archives, at the top of the page. Another is to put key words in to “search in site”, which has “memory”.

      • 1
        0

        Dear Sinhala_Man,

        Thanks for your comment. My concept of education of education is quite different from what is taken for granted in this country. Please see the the following link to what I wrote on the subject sometime back. It was originally presented as a paper in a seminar on the subject at the Luxshman Kadirgamar Institute. I consider what we call the education system a misnomer.

        http://transcurrents.com/news-views/archives/9497

        Dr.RN

        • 1
          0

          Thanks, Dr.Rajasingham Narendran,

          I’ve taken a quick look at what you’ve posted. You can be sure that I will study it all fairly soon. But now is the time for action!

          The one excuse for the continued existence of these private schools is that we do have genuine interaction among communities. My article is no longer seen by new readers, and even others will hardly return to it. However, I see the possibility to use the very arguments adduced by “the enemy” to launch a devastating attack on them.

          To do so on the present article would be to ruin the ammunition that we have – I can see that we are on the same side. You see, they attack Prbhath Jayasundera on the most ridiculous grounds; I don’t want to re-kindle any Marc Billimoria controversy, but there we had a man who came in only AFTER Belgian, Jacques Huyghebaert (please google his name) had rescued the school and Chickera and Marc actually waited for that (Marc put a foolish comment on the net, which is probably there – and in any case I have copied it – before they did something that the Supreme Court has ruled against in the Eksith Fernando case – now available on the net for payment (but I can e-mail).

          The enemy alone will see what we put as the last comments on my article, they will not see this, nor even what Sylvia Haik has posted in the MIDDLE of it, nor my response to it. WE have to unite! You have my name, you know that I teach IELTS in Maharagama; You can e-mail me through my ikman.lk ad, and you will actually see, there, my mobile phone numbers – ring; I will call you back! The “enemy” will not look at this article or spot this.

          “Old Codger Redux” is obviously good, so, I feel, is Komisiripala. I have no way of contacting them, nor of sending my contact details to those looking at my blog. There can be no fear for me even in “Jim Softy”; he may attack Rajan here, but when he studies the issues raised by me, he’ll support me on that! So will all, except those who have vested interests there.

          So, get started!

        • 1
          0

          Thanks, Dr.Rajasingham Narendran,

          I’ve taken a quick look at what you’ve posted. You can be sure that I will study it all fairly soon. But now is the time for action!

          The one excuse for the continued existence of these private schools is that we do have genuine interaction among communities. My article is no longer seen by new readers, and even others will hardly return to it. However, I see the possibility to use the very arguments adduced by “the enemy” to launch a devastating attack on them.

          To do so on the present article would be to ruin the ammunition that we have – I can see that we are on the same side. You see, they attack Prbhath Jayasundera on the most ridiculous grounds; I don’t want to re-kindle any Marc Billimoria controversy, but there we had a man who came in only AFTER Belgian, Jacques Huyghebaert (please google his name) had rescued the school and Chickera and Marc actually waited for that (Marc put a foolish comment on the net, which is probably there – and in any case I have copied it – before they did something that the Supreme Court has ruled against in the Eksith Fernando case – now available on the net for payment (but I can e-mail).

          The enemy alone will see what we put as the last comments on my article, they will not see this, nor even what Sylvia Haik has posted in the MIDDLE of it, nor my response to it. WE have to unite! You have my name, you know that I teach IELTS in Maharagama; You can e-mail me through my ikman.lk ad, and you will actually see, there, my mobile phone numbers – ring; I will call you back! The “enemy” will not look at this article or spot this.

          “Old Codger Redux” is obviously good, so, I feel, is Komisiripala. I have no way of contacting them, nor of sending my contact details to those looking at my blog. There can be no fear for me even in “Jim Softy” or of Vibhushana ; they may attack Rajan here, but when they study the issues raised by me, they’ll support me on that! So will all, except those who have vested interests there.

          So, get started!

  • 1
    0

    Sinhala Man.

    There was also another Physics teacher par Excellence-S.J.Anandanayagam sporting Khaki Shorts and White shirts.He drove a Volks:Beetle.
    So you are a kinsman of Eric Byrd and Eric Guy.Both brilliant QCC!

    EB was living just behind the College office in an enormous mansion!

    • 1
      0

      Dear Plato,

      I fear that we are straying far from the subjects under discussion here, but just to say EB’s mansion was at the bottom of Beach Road.

      However, still on the subject of Education and the Colonial legacy, this was my great-grandfather – and to my limited knowledge this is how that family saga began:

      http://www.richmond-college.com/past_headmasters.html

      There is no reference to him in this book, but it is fascinating, and incredibly well-researched, and written by a Buddhist:

      https://thuppahi.wordpress.com/2015/03/19/a-rich-history-richmond-college-galle/

      Details of where it is still available will be found at the bottom of the blog. It wouldn’t now be available if Mahinda R’paksa had not ruined the launch by wanting himself in it – and then letting down at the last moment.

      It’s so comprehensive it throws considerable light on Jaffna school development, and also S. Thomas’. How our old schools develop depends in great measure on how healthy our society as a whole was.

      By the way, S.J. Ana….. was still teaching when we got to Mt Lavinia, but then left and finally came back to be Warden. No shorts, but the Beetle was there. However, all that’s past, and what we have to focus on is the present.

  • 2
    0

    DS Senanayake killed two birds with one stone with the disenfranchisement of Hill Country Tamils:
    Minority representation in Parliament was reduced by seven seats and the potential for the left to secure seats in the Hill Country was reduced by a similar number.

    The Left with eyes trained on parliamentary seats by 1952 gradually lost interest in a minority that had little electoral value.
    There was trade union activity, but not much left political organization in the Hill Country until the Plantation Workers Union (under the CTUF) got active in the mid-50s.

    The FP did not push the case of the Hill Country Tamils with vigour after 1956, when it became a single issue party, harping on language until 1965.

  • 0
    0

    This is the forum to discuss about the citizenship Act and birth of SJV’s Federal Party and not to discuss who went to Royal/St.Thomas and or who else were wearing Khaki shorts in 1960s.
    As this is still a live issue, let me hear more on this and please use no more pseudo names!
    We like to hear from Rajan as to why SJV split the Tamils by forming a new party and against GG.

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