4 April, 2020

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The Island Story: A Short History Of Sri Lanka

By Charles Ponnuthurai Sarvan –

Prof. Charles Sarvan

Book Review: K. M de Silva, The Island Story: A Short History of Sri Lanka, International Centre for Ethnic Studies, Kandy, Sri Lanka, 2017.

EPIGRAPH: Sri Lanka in the first few centuries after the early settlement was a multi-racial, multi-ethnic society: a conception which emphasises harmony and a spirit of live and let live (K. M. de Silva, op. cit., page 13)

It’s said that fools rush in where the wise fear even to walk. I tiptoe hesitantly, conscious that I am no historian (my discipline was Literature) while the author is perhaps the most eminent of Sri Lankan historians writing in English. The hope is that what I write will be taken as a layman’s perspective and contribution to discussion.

I begin by being pedantic: one wishes the title had had the indefinite article “an”, rather than the definite article with the (here undoubtedly unintended) implication of authority and singleness that the latter carries. The word “story” is embedded in “History” and there are several versions, varying narratives. History, over time and the world, has proved to be a much discussed, contested, field. Objectivity in History is difficult, if not impossible: see, for example, History the Betrayer by E. H. Dance. So too, one regrets the lack of scrupulous qualification in statements such as, “Sri Lanka is a Buddhist society” (p. xvi), rather than, for example, “Sri Lanka is overwhelmingly a Buddhist society” – Buddhist in public and pious protestation, if not in practice. Continuing to cavil, I note the author uses the word “colonial” (from the Latin ‘colonia’ meaning settlement) when what’s meant is “imperial”.  Of course, the author knows this but the accidental imprecision and the resulting misnomer will strengthen the lack of distinction between “colonialism” and “imperialism”, particularly since someone of his reputation uses it. (Now we have neo-imperialism,  though some right-wing groups in the West and elsewhere fear that the wave of migrants “flooding in” will colonise and dispossess them, even as they, in some instances, dispossessed the autochthonous.) The use of “India” and “South India” seems to me, in some contexts, to be an anachronism:  I am reminded of the assertion once made by a friend talking about the African slave-trade: “We never sold our fellow Africans into slavery”. Seeing my surprise, he clarified that neither the term nor the concept “Africa” then existed! Members of one (African) tribe sold foreigners, that is, those from other (African) tribes. So too, India as it exists and is known today simply did not exist. (Unwittingly, the reign of Parakramabahu is described as being “the Indian summer of Sinhalese greatness”: page 19). Writing about the Pandyans, Professor de Silva comments that “not all the Sinhalese rulers of this period were willing to accept the position and status” of a satellite state of “Tamil power in South India” (p. 24). I think the Pandyans saw themselves as Pandyans, and not as Tamil. In fact, they fought against other entities now seen as “Tamil”.  Similarly, it seems to me, a non-Historian, that there wasn’t then an overwhelming “Sinhalese” consciousness. For example, low-country Sinhalese joined Western powers (the Portuguese, the Dutch and finally the British) in their attacks on the Kandyan kingdom. ‘The Great Kandyan Uprising’ of 1817 – 1818 against British imperialism was put down with help from low-county Sinhalese. (The ancestors of Mr S W R D Bandaranaike – now seen as one of the fathers of Sri Lankan ethno-religious nationalism – were recognised and rewarded by the British for their active collaboration.)

The Island Story: A Short History of Sri Lanka

In the struggle between Sinhalese Dutthagamini and Tamil Elara (so falsely and injuriously celebrated in the Mahavamsa) there were “large reserves of support for Elara among the Sinhalese” (de Silva, page 12), and his victory was not, as it is now seen, one of Aryan triumph over the Dravidians. (Interestingly, it was the Tamil rulers who were known as Arya Chakravartis: page 26. “Arya” meant noble or excellent.)  There seems not to have been then, as now, an overriding Sinhalese consciousness: for example, Dravidian assistance was called upon to settle differences within the Island (page 20). Nor did the Island hesitate to send troops to (what is now known as) India: see page 15. These and other statements are likely to arouse the ire of Sinhalese nationalists (racists invariably describe themselves as “nationalists”). Nor will comments such as the following endear him to them: “In 1739 the dynasty established by Vimala Dharma Suriya became extinct in the male line, and the South Indian Nayakkar dynasty came to the Kandyan throne by virtue of marriage alliances with the ruling house in Kandy” (p. 44). But this did not lead to any substantial change because the Nayakkars “became more Kandyan than the Kandyans”. Under their patronage, there was a great Buddhist revival “and this had its influence on the low country as well” (ibid). 

About one-third of the book consists of events leading up to the internecine conflict, an ugly war in a beautiful island – “beautiful” geographically. It is now almost a cliché that History is written, preserved and passed down by the victors. (And not only through history books but also through other media such as fiction, orally transmitted stories, songs and films.) Secondly, there is the question of objectivity, something easier for the scientist to achieve than for those in the Humanities. As Heidegger commented, even objectivity is judged by a subjective self. (I am aware, and fully accept, that I’m no exception.) Yet another human trait is that we prefer, and are more comfortable with, clear and simple categories: black and white; bad and good. Varying shades of grey are problematic, even vexing. I must say I found this third part of the book a disappointment.

Professor de Silva writes (pp. 99-100) that separatist agitation began with peaceful political pressure in the mid-1950s. The phrase, “separatist agitation” occurs elsewhere as well in the book but, far from wanting separation, Tamils for long rejected even federalism. As I wrote in Volume 2 of my Public Writings on Sri Lanka (page 59): “In 1952, the Kankesuntharai parliamentary seat was contested by Chelvanayagam, as a member of the Federal Party. He was comfortably defeated by a U.N.P. candidate. See also, op. cit., page 58: “Even after the trauma of Standardisation (“racial” quota) in relation to University admission beginning in 1971, and the Draft Constitution of 1972, the All Ceylon Tamil Conference declared, ‘Our children and our children’s children should be able to say, with one voice, Lanka is our great motherland, and we are one people from shore to shore. We speak two noble languages, but with one voice’”.

The author writes of “the pathology of separation” (p. 137). The word “pathology” is derived from “disease” but there’s a failure to ‘connect the dots’ he himself has provided; a failure to perceive cause and effect. I cite a few of the former. The language policy proclaimed prior to independence was, post-independence, “unilaterally repudiated” (p. 105). The new constitution of 1972 was “the consolidation of the linguistic nationalism that had dominated Sri Lankan politics since 1956” (p. 108). The “landmark general election of 1956 was the beginning of Sri Lanka’s fall from grace. Ethnic harmony was replaced by ethnic conflict” (p. 105), marked by a succession of riots. (Riots imply rioters but there’s no need to specify who the rioters were and who the victims.) The introduction of a racial quota in the 1970s meant that “academic ability per se no longer sufficed to ensure entry to the university” (p. 113). ‘Affirmative action’ is usually understood as measures taken to help minority, disadvantaged, groups. But in Sri Lanka, it means further favouring the majority and disadvantaging minority groups: see, page 114. 

As William Ralph Inge (1860-1954; Professor of Divinity, Cambridge; Dean of St Paul’s) commented, historians have a power which not even God has: that of altering the past. The past (which conditions the present and shapes the future) is not inviolate; can be misinterpreted, distorted. In large part, this is because the majority of us, human beings, believe what we wish and want to believe. One could say; First comes the conviction – however vague or concrete – and then the (alleged) evidence.

Paradoxical though it may be, History is also preserved (or created) by what is not written. Not being recorded, people are not reminded; what’s not reminded is forgotten, and soon becomes ‘never-to-have-happened’. Silence also writes History. Sometimes, the omission is accidental (as I think with Professor de Silva) or perhaps dictated to by the exergies of space. An event that took place at the end of May 1981, one of the worst examples of ethnic biblioclasm of the 20th century, is not mentioned. The Jaffna Library, housing over 95,000 manuscripts, including texts on palm leaves – unique; irreplaceable – was burnt down. (More recently, the so-called Islamic Caliphate or ISIS carried out acts of cultural barbarism.) The Romantic poet, Heinrich Heine (Jewish-German; 1797-1856) wrote that those who burn books today will burn human beings tomorrow. It took several decades for Heine’s warning to come true but in Sri Lanka it was swifter, May/June 1981 being followed by ‘Black July 1983’.    (By coincidence, I write this in May, the month which saw the burning down of the Library and, almost three decades later, the end of the war.)

‘Black July’, a major, horrific, event for the Tamils is referred to as “the anti-Tamil riots of 1983” (p. 124): it was a pogrom and not a “riot”. (In this context, I recommend Worse Than War by Professor David Goldhagen who taught Political Science at Harvard University for many years.) Though some others have minimised the nightmare that was ‘Black July’; glossed it over or used the glib expressions –  “We must move on” – I believe this is not the intention of Professor de Silva. Much has been written about the intense hatred and resulting horror but I turn to a complete outsider, Shiva Naipaul: 1945-1985; younger brother of the famous V. S. Naipaul. In an article on him titled, ‘Ever a stranger: Shiva Naipaul in Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia and Sri Lanka’, I wrote:

Arriving shortly after the anti-Tamil pogrom of July 1983, Naipaul was horrified and revolted by what he learnt: a young boy hacked to “limbless death”. Murderers, looters and incendiarists “often had to rely on the information derived from the electoral registers…Their blood-lust was, in effect, regulated by the bureaucratic endeavours of the Civil Service. Before the axes could be wielded, before the petrol bombs could be thrown, before the pillaging could begin, a little paperwork was necessary”. Here, as elsewhere, the writer’s anger and indignation pulse beneath the urbane, seemingly detached, ironic tone. Of two Tamil sisters, aged about eleven and eighteen, the younger one has her head chopped off; the elder one is stripped naked, and when “there were no more volunteers, when there was nothing worth the violating, petrol was poured over the two bodies”, and they were set alight. As a critic has commented, group-animosity was symbolic for Naipaul of the hatred that arises when a people’s otherness isn’t freely granted. Impeccably wrought and morally charged, Naipaul’s essays are a testament to his generous humaneness (Public Writings on Sri Lanka, Volume 111, pages 19-20).

Immediately after July 1983, Tamils occupied the moral high-ground and there was international outrage on their behalf, but the actions of the Tigers quickly turned strong sympathy to acute antipathy.

Reading about the Punic Wars, I form the (erroneous?) impression that however brilliant and daring a general Hannibal was, his defeat by Rome was inevitable. And I wonder if there’s a parallel.  I quote from my ‘A “great” military victory?’ (Sunday Leader, 25 October 2009):

“It is thought that, at their height, the Tigers perhaps numbered 30,000. Towards the end, down to a few thousand (finally, a few hundred), they faced an army of (again, perhaps) 250,000. The Tigers did not have jets and helicopters. Their mono, propeller, planes were slow and clumsy, and of no real military value. Rejected by foreign governments, the Tigers were as isolated internationally as they were totally surrounded in geographic and military terms. In contrast, the government of Sri Lanka received help and advice from several countries, even from those states in competition with, and suspicious of, each other. The Taliban fight in mountainous, inaccessible, terrain, while the Tigers occupied flat land, albeit forested. Sri Lanka being an island (and the government of the nearest country, India, implacably hostile), the LTTE did not have borders over which they could easily slip, regroup, recover and return to continue the struggle. The wonder is not that the government eventually won but that it took so long for final victory to be achieved.”

For this phase of the war, I would suggest Paul Moorcraft’s ‘Total Destruction of the Tamil Tigers: The Rare Victory of Sri Lanka’s Long War’, 2012. Professor Moorcraft has written several books on recent wars. His Total Destruction is short but contains a wealth of information and detail. The author has read on Sri Lanka, visited sites, and conducted interviews including with army commanders, the Permanent Secretary (Defence), the President, Kumaran Pathmanathan (“K.P.”), Colonel Karuna and others: see, Sarvan, Colombo Telegraph, 9 June 2013.

For a study published in 2017, Island Story makes no mention of the final phase of the war, and the maiming and killing of thousands of children, women and men. The Tigers had corralled civilians, desperately hoping their presence would deter the army. Having set out as liberators, they ended as those willing to sacrifice their own on a calculation that was at once selfish and cruel. (No doubt, some will be incensed at me for this statement but those who lack the honesty and courage to acknowledge mistakes, crimes and “sins” have no moral right to criticise and condemn others.) The Tigers’ major miscalculation on the one hand, and the army’s “Go to hell” policy on the other led to a carnage massive in scale and pitiful in nature, succinctly conveyed in this New York Times cartoon reproduced below. Words from the poem, ‘Elegy written in a country churchyard’ come to mind: to wade through slaughter [to victory] and “shut the gates of mercy on mankind”.

And what of post-war Sri Lanka? As I have written elsewhere, peace is of two kinds. ‘Negative peace’ is absence, the absence of overt conflict; positive peace is presence, the presence of harmony which, in turn, is the product of justice. (And it is the notion of “fairness” that leads to principles of justice: see John Rawls, A Theory of Justice.) To what extent, if any, positive peace prevails in Sri Lanka is for those with far better knowledge to judge and comment on.

Professor K. M. de Silva has compressed wide scholarship, conducted over many years, into a compact work, a book he surely will not wish to see “swallowed” uncritically but, on the contrary, to be engaged with. His is a story of the Island. As evidence increases and perspectives alter, there will be other voices, other histories: no doubt, the author will welcome them.

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Latest comments

  • 15
    1

    Professor Sarvan has made fair comment. Of necessity, a ‘short’ History entails selectivity, and, our recent post-colonial events are too steeped in the visceral involvement of all Sri Lankans for any other than an independent observer to bring some impartial balance. Still, this work must take its place amongst the growing mountain of our ‘histories’. To those who say that the victors write history, the rebut is that there were no winners in the 30 years of misery and mayhem we endured. All Sri Lankans lost, and we have been scarred for generations to come. One day a definitive, unbiased work will surely emerge, but whether that will receive approval of all Sri Lankans must remain a moot point.

    • 0
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      This is trying to establish Protestant history. IF some one say what faith is KMD silva, every thing clear up. HE may say I believe in buddhism but I am Methodist.

    • 3
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      Spring Koha,

      ” All Sri Lankans lost, and we have been scarred for generations to come. One day a definitive, unbiased work will surely emerge, but whether that will receive approval of all Sri Lankans must remain a moot point.”

      Yes, and the truth and facts, supported by data must prevail.

      Sri Lanka’s currency suffers as debt trap deepens
      China-financed infrastructure projects put country in vicious cycle

      https://asia.nikkei.com/Economy/Sri-Lanka-s-currency-suffers-as-debt-trap-deepens

      The nation of over 20 million people holds some of the highest debt levels in Asia. International Monetary Fund estimates for 2018 peg the island’s debt at 11.23 trillion rupees ($71.9 billion), or 77% of gross domestic product. The country’s debt payments are forecast to hit 14.1% of GDP this year, while revenue is only expected to equal 14.4%.

      The truth is that except for the Native Veddah Arthho, who discovered their homeland by walking and claiming the Land between 8.,000 and 30,000 years ago. ALL others are Paras, Aliens, strangers, foreigners.. Included are the Para-Sinhala, Para-Tamils, Para-Malbars, and a host of other Paras.

      Mitochondrial DNA history of Sri Lankan ethnic people

      https://www.nature.com/articles/jhg2013112

      Through a comparison with the mtDNA HVS-1 and part of HVS-2 of Indian database, both Tamils and Sinhalese clusters were affiliated with Indian subcontinent populations than Vedda people who are believed to be the native population of the island of Sri Lanka.

    • 5
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      How these – Nayaka , annexed to Sinkeleyas names. ?
      Sinhalese and Tamils been cheated by Nayakar means Senanayaka, Bandaranayaka,Ramanayaka,Attanayaka, Disanayaka, Dasanayaka are not either real Buddhist or Sinhalese. WATCH THIS VIDEO.. its in TAMIL.. anyone translate…pl

      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=weYLhPE9Wfc

      ceylon Mudaliyars ;
      https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ceylonese_Mudaliyars

      • 7
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        Ceylonee

        In this current parliament there are about 14 Nayakas marking their time for good remuneration package, and other benefits, including impunity from every crime you could think of.

  • 7
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    Prof Sarvan: I am wondering whether your PhD is from a Theological colleage. Generally, this kind if anthropoligical evidence should be presented in a corresponding conference like place. but, you present it here in CT. My knowledge is that Tamil writers in CT have proved that you are wrong. for example Recently one KArunakaran wrote that both chelvanayagam and Ponnambalam were born in Malaysia and they migrated to Sinhale to run the Tamil – Seperatist struggle or Sathyagrha movement what ever it is. The Dr. Indrapalan name changed to Indrapala (I heard he married a beautiful Sinhala girl) had said Tamil migration to Sri lanka occured very recently. Besides, if you Tamils were living for ages in Sinhale why did you have to get Tamil LEaders from Malaysia. Remember, British favoured you over the Sinhala people which became mostly rural farmers. Even SWRD B is desending from Tamils. YOu write here, the Pre christian times of Sri lanka at which times, the races and ethnicity or what ever was Hindian system based and not the Western classification based. YOu are tlaking about Yaksha, Raksha, Naga and divya as different races and ethnic groups. what we know is they rulers (NAga), Preists (Divya), Raksha and Yaksha (lay people). I think one of these groups from the last groups can be Dravideans. As you say, there were not Tamils. Even Tamilnadu began after 1964, Even though you refuse to accept that we have a documented history for over 2600 years at least the since the date that Lord Buddha passed away. Anyway, to shorten the long explanation. We have not treated Tamils badly. It is the Tamils custons that brought from South India, that is Casteism and because of that they were aligned with Middle eastern religions – that destreoyed them. Sinhala buddhists had good relations with HIndu Tamils. It is unfortunate that Non-Hindu Tamils ask exactly the same rights when we can not accept those Tamils as True Tamils.

    • 8
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      Poor Jim softy
      You proved yourself a worthless analyst. You cannot even understand who you are and what is your background.
      One example of your analysis:
      There is no Tamil Nadu before 1964, So Tamils were not there before 1964.

      • 1
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        Ajith: IS that the only thing that you can not agree with ?

        • 3
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          Read fully. It is one of the example.

    • 1
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      Tell me egg came first or chicken came first
      Seperatist struggle or Sathyagrha movement Which came first
      You are very confused your self

  • 3
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    YOur article is highly mixed with facts from different eras in order to build a story. I think that is wrong. YOu are using ancient Dravidean stories to justify what Mordern Tamils are doing. We do not deny, from time to time, that Dravideans invaded Srilanka. I do not know how much you are aware We sinhala people also have invaded South India from time to time.

    • 3
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      Hi Jimmy, your made up history is fading…. how sad is that.

      • 1
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        Inner Voice. So, why you can not explain it. why don’t you prove that I am wrong.

  • 4
    2

    A fresh perspective adding a new dimension to a historians view of a beautiful Island that was destroyed for future generations to whom we owe an answer. I have never been to the Jaffna Library, but destroying it must go down in history as one of the worst crimes of this beautiful Island.

    • 3
      2

      Within months of defeating the Tigers a group of Sinhalese went to the library and threw books off many shelves and with difficulty librariary staff managed to leave the place. It was the time when busloads of scores of villages in the Deep South were paid by the former govt masters to tour the Vanni.
      If I manage to get the website source I’ll post it here.

      • 2
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        Punitham

        The Jaffna Library was burned down in May 1981, according to this article.

        • 5
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          Steve

          Read Punitham’s comment once again for she did not mention burning of the library however her point was that immediately after the war had ended buses loads of Sinhala/Buddhists were sent to Jaffna see the sanitized version of Gota’s hollow victory. Part of the tour consisted of the library. Some arses went to use toilets in the library, messed them up then forcefully entered the halls where books were kept where they grabbed books and threw them on the floor then pushed the shelves to the floor.

          What was the reason or were the reasons for such unruly behaviour of those arses?

          Isn’t it the behaviour of the concurring army, raping the people, destroying their cultural symbols, …………………… exercising their dominance, …….. Those arses must have thought and behaved as though they were the conquerors, they could actually do anything to the defeated people and get away from punishment or repercussion.

          Those arses must be fuming with envy.

          The librarian refused me entry inside the library without certain document only available to the local people. Since I went from South I was unable to submit any of it. Because of the behaviour of a few Sinhala/Buddhist arses, I lost an opportunity to visit inside the library.

  • 17
    5

    Prof. Sarvan’s review deserves to be widely read as part of our ongoing attempt to come to terms with the past. Sarvan himself admits that our perspectives are coloured by our placement in time, space and communal loyalties we are born with – which we cannot renounce without diminishing our humanity.
    Prof. K.M. de Silva taught us History under General Engineering in 1971 – how rapidly time flies – and I with many fellow students were highly impressed.
    As Sarvan remarks, many of us Tamils who spent several happy years with Sinhalese friends, were taken aback by the complacency with which most educated Sinhalese viewed the horror of July 1983. Even more surprising was how persons of the standing of K.M. de Silva and Godfrey Goonetilleke were drawn in by the UNP government to write treatises discrediting the Tamil homeland concept, treating it as an isolated issue by itself. Also puzzling are Prof. de Silva’s references to Tamils as Dravidian and Sinhalese as Aryan – both mythical entities that have caused so much mischief in politics. I am sure Prof. De Silva knows that he is ‘Dravidian’ in origin and ‘Aryan’ in politics.
    As for Sarvan’s own placement in time and space, he need not be too impressed by the Tigers’ ability to hold down for a time, armies several times numerically stronger. Had he lived in Jaffna in the 1980s he would have known: Place machine gun positions in front of a temple where large numbers of civilians were cowering in terror; and from there attack the advancing Indian Army. It was a winning formula. Gotabhaya was no doubt ruthless as seen for example by the Rathupaswala incident. But even in the Vanni , during the massive civilian loss, there was somewhere a restraining hand.

    • 2
      6

      RAJAN HOOLE: Thank you for being honest. That this Prof KMD SILVA is Dravidean in in his birth, I heard he is related to Estate Tamils, and then Aryan in politics. I heard he is MEthodist. So, he has written a book promote Protestants. This gentleman should be born Again Christian who writes world history in a new format.

      • 5
        1

        JS
        You specialize in writing sensational nonsense.

        • 3
          1

          It is evidently clear from genetic and anthropological studies that every one in Sri Lanka are arrivals from Malabar coast at different periods of time. Even Veddhas walked from South India to Sri Lanka as both were a contiguous land mass over 10,000 years ago before being separated by sea upheavals. Veddhas are here for more than 60,000 years, perhaps more as they have found remains of Adhivasis in Tamil Nadu dating back to over 200,000 years. Subsequent to Veddhas others also migrated into Sri Lanka first from South India and then from North India and middle east, producing a mix of the present day people. For anyone to say that Sinhalese are the natives and others are foreigners is not correct. Geological evidence by the discovery of NASA and Indian Institute of Oceanology (IIOC) proves that Sri Lanka and South India were a single land mass which corroborates Tamil fork lore about Kumarikandam which included Sri Lanka, Maldives and beyond. Therefore the people who were in Sri Lanka would be the same as those in South India, which could be corroborated by the findings in the two genetic studies conducted amongst Sinhalese and Tamils in Sri Lanka.

  • 5
    15

    First off it is evidently clear that Tamils of Jaffna and Eastern province are recent arrivals from Malabar coast. The British army officer Major Davy wrote in his travelogue to the island back in 1818s that Sri Lanka had two distinctive communities of people. One was the natives which he identified as Sinhalese and the other, foreigners which is identified as Malabars and Moors. Do we need more proofs?

    Secondly Sri Lankan government could have easily crunched the Tamil rebellion. In 1986 they have almost done that. If not for the Indian intervention, Prabhakaran would have been easily killed and his organization would have been decimated then. After that SLG had lost the resolution to destroy the LTTE completely for various reasons until the arrival of Mahinda. He finished the job with in 3 years.

    • 8
      1

      Shenal,
      First of all, it is abundantly clear that Sinhalese of Coastal areas (including your recent ancestors) were recent arrivals from Malabar coast. Just go and spend a day in the ID office and listen to the full names as they are read out. Sellaperumage, Samarapullige, Singapullige, Marakkalage, just to name a few. Would you be good enough to provide your own family name for comparison?
      Do you think the good Major Davy missed these people?
      Stop calling the kettle black.

      • 1
        12

        Raman,

        Those people in the coastal areas were from India. But they got assimilated. That is why Major Davy does not see difference about them. Moreover, it was only the people living in the coastal belt. The interiors were populated by native Sinhalese. The evidence is overwhelming. Tamils have no right to ask for a separate homeland in Sri Lanka.

        • 2
          1

          In the 6th century, Mahanama wrote, there were 32 Tamil Chieftains had to be won on the path from South to Middle to fight with the Central Tamil Kingdom. What you think might have happened that may Tamils of the Southern area? Medamulana Old King might have “cluster and chemical” bombed them too with MIGs and bulldozed them?

          Don’t tell me again that Sinhala Bald Head monks like Mahanama are only liars but you only talk only truth. Let the readers to guess whether you are true or Mahanama is true. Let that be not a competition between kettle and pot decided only by you.

          Don’t come from a single travelogue, out of context. Show the proof of any other Major Davys giving the count of the ships landed in North East and British Colonist cataloging those arrives like they did in up country. Do you know anything about spoken Language of North East Tamils? At least did Major Davy did know about that before he categories the Tamils. Can you bring some notes from his log about the spoken languages of the Tamils in this island?

          • 2
            5

            Mallaiyuran,

            There were Tamils in Sri Lanka in the ancient times. But there was no independent Tamil kingdom that had existed for 1000s of years. Hence Tamils have no right to ask for a separate country.

            The evidence is overwhelming. Even the British officers who had visited the island says that Malabars were foreigners. Who are you to say no? Those Malabars were the ones who got settled down in Jaffna and Eastern parts of the island. The story of the thousand years old kingdom is a pure fiction.

            As I have already said before, every colonial power who had visited Sri Lanka made pacts with the Sinhalese people. Not with Tamils. Even they knew Tamils had no right to this island.

            • 0
              1

              Under Monarchy times where did an independent state state existed? 32, subkings and 1 Main king mentioned by Mahavamsa proves that there were no Independent Taml Kingdom existed but there was a Sinhala Independent Kingdom existed even before the Sinhala Language existed?

              Please don’t show your ignorance of Malayalam. It is only a 800 years old Language. It was nor there for 1,000 years. North East Tamil did not come from Any sectorial Tamil. It is recognized as the original Singam Tamil version.

              Nowwhere Portuguese have said they were witnessing the Malabaris migrating into Ceylon. Now are you arguing Major Davy is Portuguese?

              • 1
                2

                Mallaiyuran,

                The sub kingdoms paid tribute to the main king residing in the royal capital. There were times however that the sub kingdoms enjoyed relative autonomy for short periods of time. But, still they were considered as part of the Sinhale.

                Sinhala language was developed gradually from the time of king Devanampiyatissa. It didn’t sprang up suddenly at one particular time.

                The main Malabar migration had occurred during the Dutch period.

                • 0
                  0

                  Now what you are saying is, the 32 Tamil sub kings were paying tribute to Ellala and rejecting an invader fought against Gemunu(A Tamil Hindu King-Mahavamsa is saying other way, but you contents Mahavamsa is wrong anyway). The Sinhala Language developed from the language 32 Tamil Sub Kings, Ellala and Gamunu were speaking in the South and the middle. The Tamil area spread into far deep of South. Malabar migrated to Cinnamon Peeling that Dutch accounted. Tamils lived in North East with a very distinct, age old Language, and resemble Sangam style. You may not want to decode that Sangamitta Landed in Mathagal and converted Muttu Shivan, which Mahavamsa is not contradicting with any realities, even if there is any untruth.

                  Thanks. That is all what I looked for you to understand.

                  Remember one thing, if the 32 Tamil Kings’ land became Sinhala Property by winning an illusory Sinhala King(As per you, Gamunu was not speaking Sinhala- it evolved eventually), if Vijaya Chased Vijayalaxmi(Her name was not Kuveni – Kuveni cannot in Pali as Mahanama as it was brought in only by Vijaya. _He did not say, but assumed. Kuveni is what in what Language? ) and declared the land as Sinhala Land, then Kandy is a Tamil Kingdom rules by Tamil king. It is Sinhala Traitors worked with Whites to capture it, just like now they sold Lankawe to China. There was never any independent state existed as per your logic.

            • 3
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              Prior to Portuguese conquest, there was Jaffna kingdom since 13th century extending its control from Trincomalee district north of Mahavali, entire present day northern province, northern parts of Anuradhapura district and coastal Puttalam district north of Deduru Oya. If anyone denies this despite historical records, then there is something wrong with him. When Vijaya and his men landed in Sri Lanka, there were several chieftains in the north, north-east and north-west parts of the country. Kuveni was only one such chieftain. Recent discovery of seat of power of Veddhas in Vaharai proves that they too had sovereignty over areas from south of Mahaveli in Trincomalee district to Kataragama along eastern coast. Veddhas have been absorbed into Sinhala and Tamil communities as evidenced by recent genetic studies, but to say that Veddhas do not have a distinct genetic sequence is wrong. There is no proof of existence of Sinhala language in written form more that 1200 years ago, though spoken from would have existed much prior to that as a hybrid between, Elu (proto-Tamil), Tamil, Maghadi of Vijaya et al and Sanskrit. Similar to some people adopting a new language of Sinhala, others would have come under influence of Tamil and had adopted it as their language. Recent discoveries of ancient civilisation in Settikulam and around Giant’s Tank throws away Sinhala claim that people were uncivilised and that their ancestors came to Sri Lanka and established a 2500 year old civilisation. These discoveries show that there was more than 10,000 year old civilisation in Sri Lanka similar to that found in Tamil Nadu proving that it was the same ethnic group that lived on both sides of the divide prior to sea upheaval.

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          Shenal,
          You have certainly not read Davy’s book. The dedication is to ” Sir Robert Brownrigg (who) rescued the Kandyan Provinces from oppression, with the consent of the people,and made them an integral part of the British Dominions”.Also, on Page 109, he says “The pure Singalese of the interior …..are completely Indians in person,customs, language, religion and government”.

          I suppose you agree with that too. Please do your homework before you quote random “facts” to support imaginary theories.

          • 1
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            Raman,

            I could agree with Davy about his remark of the interior Sinhalese as they were heavily influenced by the Nayakkar Kings and their culture.

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              1

              Shenali, you are a die hard bigoted individual who is not prepared to accept modern evidence which is countering the entrenched beliefs about Sri Lanka and the people inhabiting it. With advancing technology you cannot continue to churn out lies and myths and very soon the truth will come to light, perhaps not during our life time. Your arguments will receive applause in a Sinhala audience only and you will look like a fool in a intellectual intelligent forum.

              • 0
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                Dr. Gnana Sankaralingam,

                What are the modern evidence which is countering the entrenched beliefs about Sri Lanka and the people inhabiting it? As far as I am concerned you have not provide one conclusive evidence yet.

            • 4
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              Shenal i

              Could you let me have the name of coloniser Davy’s book and cite the chapter, verse and year of publication.

              Could you cite reference of interior Sinhalese again citing name of the book(s) and cite the chapter, verse and year of publication.

      • 3
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        He name Waduge means from the Telugu house. Vadugu is another name for Telugu in Tamil ,meaning the language of the north( Vadaku). Telugus were also called Vadgan in Tamil or derogatively Vaduva. The Vaduga ( Telugu) origin soldiers during the Jaffna kingdom were considered low castes by the Jaffna Tamils. This means some of her ancestors are descended from fishing folk from what is now Southern Andhra but most of her low caste Karawa ancestors would have been from southern Tamil Nadu. British officer Major Davy must be like currently British politician Lord Nasby. Is this man a historian? Anyway I googled and searched for this so called Brtish Davy could not get any results, only these Sinhalese extremists seem to be finding all sorts of findings, that no one else finds and quote from all sorts of people. Tomorrow if some idiot or a paid lackey westerner posts something about Sri Lanka calling the Sinhalese true natives and Tamils not, she and the rest of the extremists will quote what these idiots state, instead of real historians , proven history and genes state. Everything about the Sinhalese reflects the Tamils . Their origin, the gods they worship, their festivals , food , dress, music. Their language is 40% Tamil in vocabulary and this is the foundation. Take out all the Tamil derived words from Sinhalese and there will be no language called Sinhalese. What they call Hela ( old Sinhalese) is a mixture of Elu( island’s native Tamil dialect) and Prakrit. It is very close in pronunciation to its Tamil mother. Most important is the Sinhalese DNA it is 70% Indian Tamil. This South Indian origin Karawa woman is desperate now and is clutching for straws.

        • 5
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          RSSS,
          You are mistaken. Shenal is not Shenali Waduge. Shenali Waduge comes up with similar (but better backed-up arguments, and writes better English.
          The websites she uses have very tight comment policies, so it is difficult to counter her.

          • 3
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            She is one and the same. She has come here to argue and win more converts to her cause but is failing. People are challenging her here. Whereas her adoring fans, at these websites, who are as racist as her, meekly accept her stupid arguments

      • 0
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        RAMAN: You have made you an IDIOT. Try to understand what you have written.

      • 2
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        Shenal,
        If you actually read the book, you can see that Davy got his information from a few Kandyan chiefs and Buddhist monks. He even says that one of them had a copy of a “historical romance of Ceylon”. What else could that be but the Mahavamsa?

    • 7
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      Shenal is living evidence of the problem we have. A living, breathing, vitriol spewing specimen of the Cyril Mathew school of racial superiority; we, we, we, and us only. If she thinks that MR the Great Liberator ‘finished the job’ she’s got another think coming. If earlier generations were smarter we would have avoided the years of misery. Instead we allowed devious politicians intent on power to lead us down Misery Road. Shenal/i may twist the facts to suit her tunnel vision, but most informed readers will recognise the visceral hate in her ‘facts’.

      • 7
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        Shenal,

        “First off it is evidently clear that Tamils of Jaffna and Eastern province are recent arrivals from Malabar Coast.”

        If we were to believe what you people (Sinhala Buddhist chauvinists) say, that the Tamils of North and Eastern province are recent arrivals from Malabar, there were no Tamils in the NE before the Dutch and there never existed a Jaffna Kingdom, but only Sinhalese were living there, it prompts us to ask the following questions,
        1. In the recorded history of Sri Lanka, where is it mentioned that there was a mass influx/settlement of Tamils from South India to the North of Sri Lanka during or after the 12th CAD? The Chola invaders only converted the native Tamil Buddhists into Hindus but did not settle people in large numbers. It is true that the Dutch brought a few Dalit coolies from South India (Pallar caste) and sold them to the Tamil Vellalar farmers in Jaffna to help them grow tobacco but those people are very few in numbers and they are still considered as low castes.

        However, the main reason for the Portuguese in the 16th century and later Dutch in the 18th century to occupy the island was Cinnamon, NOT Tobacco and cinnamon grew only in the South. You should also know that the same Dutch settled much more (tens of thousands) of the same Dalit coolies from South India in the Southern parts of Sri Lanka for cinnamon, coconut and other plantations. Today their decedents are Sinhala-Buddhists. If you read the book “The World’s Oldest Trade”: Dutch Slavery and Slave Trade in the Indian Ocean in the Seventeenth Century” you will see that the Dutch settled most of them in the South from Colombo to Galle.

        In order to avoid the caste issue, all those South Indian Dalit coolies adopted Buddhist & Christian religions and eventually got naturalized as Sinhalese. Today their decedents are Sinhala-Buddhists and Sinhala-Christians. That is how the Sinhalese became a majority.

        Continued…

        • 0
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          Adida Sundaralingam,

          1) In fact there are no records of any independent Tamil settlement even after the 12th century CE. The map prepared by Davy clearly mentions Valikamma reigon as “Weligama”. It is safe to assume Tamils settled in Sinhalese villages and the Sinhalese who were living there changed their identity into Tamil. There is a cast called “Koviar” in Jaffna which could be the corrupted word of “Govigama”.

          //Dutch settled much more (tens of thousands) of the same Dalit coolies from South India in the Southern parts of Sri Lanka for cinnamon, coconut and other plantations.//

          There is no record that Dutch settled tens of thousands of Dalit coolies from South India in the Southern sea board. Those people were present in the island as far back as 12th century. The cinnamon plantations were pre existing when Dutch and Portuguese arrived.

          //That is how the Sinhalese became a majority.//

          Those people only constitute about 30% of the entire Sinhalese population. Maybe even less. Sinhalese were never the minority of the island from the known age.

      • 4
        1

        2. In the recorded history of Sri Lanka, where is it mentioned that there was a mass exodus of Sinhalese from the North to the South? Did all the Sinhalese simply pack their bags and go to the South leaving all their precious lands to the newly arrived Tamils without any protest? (Please do not come up with stupid answers like malaria). If not, then what happened to all the Sinhalese in the North and East, did they all commit suicide?

        Most of the Sinhalese have their ancestral native place name also as a part of their name, known as Vasagama. Is there any Sinhalese person from any part of Sri Lanka who can come out and say that his Vasagama is a name from any part of North & East?

        Even those Sinhalese who are living in the NorthEast today were colonized after 1948 by DS Senanayake, if you ask them each one of them will say that their grandfather or great grandfather is from the South.

        3. Bhuvanekabahu VI (Sapumal Kumaraya aka Chempaha Perumal) the adopted son of Parakrama Bahu VI captured the Jaffna Kingdom in 1450 (much before the Portuguese arrived). During his rule in Jaffna, he renovated/re-built the premier shrine of Hindu worship in the heart of Jaffna – the Nallur Kandaswamy Kovil (he did not build or re-build any Buddhist temple) for the people of Jaffna peninsula. The Tamils of Jaffna are still invoking his name and singing thevarams to him in the Nallur Kovil before the temple procession of Lord Murukan.

        As per your argument, if the Dutch brought the Jaffna Tamils, then the people of Jaffna before the Dutch arrived should have been the Sinhalese. If the people of Jaffna during the 13th Century AD were Sinhalese, then Sapumal Kumaraya should have built a Buddhist temple and NOT a Hindu temple in the heart of Jaffna. Why did he build the Hindu Nallur Kandaswamy Kovil in the 13th Century AD for the so called Sinhalese of Jaffna?

        Contd…

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          Adida Sundaralingam,

          2) Maybe you haven’t heard about the Kalinga Magha invasion. That was the catalyst for the Sinhalese exodus from the Northern areas of the island. It is recorded in the sources.

          3) I do not deny what Prince Sapumal did. But, that does not validated the eelamists claim that Tamils were the original inhabitants of the Northern and Eastern provinces. Prince Sapumal invaded the Jaffna peninsula specially because they considered it to be part of the Kotte kingdom a.k.a The Sinhale (Ceylon)

      • 5
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        4. In his book ‘Jaffna under the Portuguese’, Tikiri Abeyasinghe who was the Professor of Modern History at the University of Colombo till 1985 notes that in the period 1624-1626 (during Portuguese rule of Jaffna), the Franciscans converted 52,000 Jaffna Tamil Hindus into Catholics. Prof. Tikiri Abeysinghe is one of the very few who has done extensive research on Portuguese archives and Goa archives by living in those countries. Read “Jaffna under the Portuguese” by Prof Tikiri Abeyasinghe.

        5. In 1672, the Dutch Predikant PHILIPPUS BALDEAES was living in Jaffna and was preaching Christianity to the people of Jaffna (in Tamil language). In his famous 1682 historical account of Jaffna, he never says the people of Jaffna were brought by the Dutch. During the Dutch period, the Jaffna Tamil Vellala Cannecapul Moddeley Tamby revolted against the Dutch by rounding up the powerful Vellalas of Jaffna along with some extra help from the Vanni that shook the Dutch administration. How can he organize such a revolt if he was brought by the Dutch?

        6. The people of Kerala are known as Malayalees (Malabars) and they speak a language called Malayalam (not Tamil). The Malayalees (Malabars) are proud of their own language Malayalam. How come those Malayalees (Malabars) tobacco farmers from Malabar Coastal in Kerala became Tamils and adopted Tamil language/culture instead of Malayalam language/culture after coming to Sri Lanka? Why did the Malayalees (Malabars) convert to Tamils (any advantage) and how did they convert themselves to Tamils (especially change their mother tongue)?

        There is enough of authentic evidence (I can list you many and quote from reputed Sinhala historians) to prove that the large majority of the Sinhalese were originally low caste Indian Tamils brought in by the Portuguese and settled in the south who eventually got converted to Sinhala Buddhists but what authentic evidence do you have to prove that the majority of Jaffna Tamils were are recent arrivals brought in by the Dutch?

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        Cyril Mathew the Sinhala racist again was descended from recently migrated low caste Malayalis and was spewing anti Tamil venom. The language of Kerala even as late as 1830s was a form of Tamil called Malyalama or Malabar Tamil. That was written in the Tamil script. This was the mother tongue of more than 80% of population of Kerala at that time and the powerful Syrian Christian Church of Kerala was using Tamil as their language. Until the British at the behest of their Namboothiri and Nair allies banned the use of this language and destroyed all literary and other records of this and made the Grantha dialect of the Namboothiris that was 80% Sanskrit , written in a Tulu based script the official language of what is now Kerala and called this Malayalam, As compromise they incorporated more Tamil words into this new language called Malayalam and destroyed Tamil in Kerala. This is the reason you will simple spoken Malayalam is almost Tamil but the language of the TV Newspapers a highly Sanskrit based dialect.

        http://www.thehindu.com/2005/10/14/stories/2005101407670300.htm
        The so called Malabar language of this time was Tamil . The dialect of the Tamil language spoken in Kerala in the 1700=1850 was called Malabar language or Lingua Malabar Tamul. Therefore when these people speak of Malabar and Malabar people , they are speaking of Tamil people.
        https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EEDp6NW8NHc&list=RDEEDp6NW8NHc&start_radio=1#t=64
        This is Malayalam movie from which the Tamil movie Chandramukhi was made. It depicts the language of Kerala in the 1700s-1850s which was Tamil/Malabar until the British banned it

      • 6
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        Spring Koha

        “Shenal is living evidence of the problem we have.”

        Shenali is not alone in this enterprise.
        Please see below a initial list of such people and hope to update when time permits:

        R.S. Wanasundara
        S.W. Walpita Chairman
        A.D.T.M.P Tennekone Member
        Professor A.D.V. de S. Indraratna Member
        Professor P.A. de Silva Member
        P.D. Uduwela Member
        Professor Mrs. Lily de Silva Member
        G.P.S.H. de Silva Member
        Padmashantha Wickramasooriya
        Gunadasa Amarasekara
        Nalin De Silva
        Champika Ranawake
        HLD Mahindapala
        Kamalika Pieris
        Bandu De Silva
        Omalpe Sophitha
        Athuraliya Ratna Thero
        Gangodavila Soma
        Gnanasara
        …..
        …..
        ….
        Rajeewa Jayaweera
        C Wijeyawickrema
        Shenali Waduge
        Sarath Fonseka
        Dayan Jayatilleke
        Shamindra Ferdinando
        Members and supporters of
        ‘Sinha Le’ campaigners
        SPUR
        Sinhala Urumaya
        Jathika Hela Urumaya
        Sinhala Ravaya
        Ravana Balaya
        Bodu Bala Sena
        NFF
        JVP
        UNP
        SLFP
        MahaSangha
        …..
        …..
        …..

    • 6
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      Shenali

      We know you are unable to control your bowl movement however it does not mean you often need to s..t when you see an open space.

      “One was the natives which he identified as Sinhalese and the other, foreigners which is identified as Malabars and Moors.”

      He identified your ancestors as Malabars and Moors.
      Why didn’t he identify my people as the sons and daughters of the land? Was he still under the blissful state after receiving delightful Kandyan hospitality or simply being an ignorant or ………..?

      • 1
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        Native Vedda: A failed journalist trying to create Protestant history in Srilanka. What is the faith of KMD silva ? there are many such authors, even HL SENEVIRATHNE. IS thsi author writing from MExico ?.

      • 1
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        Native Vedda,

        Educated person can make good observations. Besides, you are no Veddha. Veddha are natives who stood beside the Sinhalese during hard times. You are a traitor masqueraded as a Veddha.

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          Shenal

          “Educated person can make good observations.”

          Sensible persons know when and where to s**t. Please make sure you do not do it when you see an open space.

          “Besides, you are no Veddha.”

          As a recent Kallathonie arrival and convert from south India what do you know about my people or for that matter their history. By repeating the lie over and over again do you think you could change your genetic markers and our foot prints.

          When did the word Sinhala originate?

    • 0
      2

      SHENAI
      Recent arrivals? Does that mean a couple of weeks/months back?

      • 1
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        K.Anaga,

        Several centuries perhaps. That does not grant them autonomy or a separate country. Either they can stay with us by assimilating or they can go to Tamilnadu. Choice is theirs.

        • 3
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          “Choice is theirs.”

          They have chosen to separate…

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            Jamis Banda,

            They have no legality to separate from Sri Lanka. If they try to break the law, they will be seen as criminals and traitors so necessary actions will be taken.

        • 3
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          Unlike your low caste South Indian immigrant ancestors who were imported to work as slaves and indentured labour, the Tamils from the North and east are not immigrants but indigenous to the island and live in their own land where they ruled until European colonisation. They have no need to assimilate. They have the same right to their land , like the Sinhalese have to theirs. The English do not ask to Scots or Welsh to assimilate .Your low caste immigrant Tamil ancestors from South India , like the ancestors of around 50% 0f the present day Sinhalese, were forced to assimilate as they were poor ignorant, defenceless and had no other choice . other than to assimilate to survive. They would not have even known that there was a thriving native Tamil population living in the island in their own land , just a few miles north and east of them. They may have taken a different path and not assimilated, if they were made aware of this. The largely South Indian origin so called Sinhalese arisctocracy/Upper castes , were aware of this but deliberately assimilated to the Sinhalese identity , in order preserve their newly acquired wealth and privilege in the island. They would have been nobodies if they returned to their South Indian homeland. They were minor aristocrats there and came here and made good and became powerful. Like Nellaperumal Pandaranayakam. Thambi Jayawardene. and all the Banda/ Bandara , Nayakas. It is like during colonial times the penniless younger sons of British and other European aristocrats and upper classed sent to the colonies to make good.

    • 2
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      Shenal ,

      1.) ‘The British army officer Major Davy wrote in his travelogue to the island back in 1818s that Sri Lanka had two distinctive communities of people. One was the natives which he identified as Sinhalese and the other, foreigners which is identified as Malabars and Moors. Do we need more proofs?”

      In 1818, Science and genetics was not advanced. It was only in 1543 Copernicus wrote about the Heliocentric solar model. which the Church rejected, while persecuting Galileo.Remember, both the Sinhala and Tamils are Paras, as shown bu modern genetics.

      Despite the Lies and Imaginations of the Para-Monk Mahanama, who wrote the Mahawamsa, Para-Sinhala did not evolve from a lion, and the Veddah from Kuveni.

      References:

      Mitochondrial DNA history of Sri Lankan ethnic people

      https://www.nature.com/articles/jhg2013112

      Through a comparison with the mtDNA HVS-1 and part of HVS-2 of Indian database, both Tamils and Sinhalese clusters were affiliated with Indian subcontinent populations than Vedda people who are believed to be the native population of the island of Sri Lanka.

      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f89NuukY32U

      The Veddah Tribe

      2.) ” Secondly Sri Lankan government could have easily crunched the Tamil rebellion. In 1986 they have almost done that. If not for the Indian intervention, Prabhakaran would have been easily killed and his organization would have been decimated then. “

      Yes. It was the stupid Indian Rajiv Gandhi, courtesy of the ego op his mother Indira, aided and abetted by the Tamil Nadu Tamils, that prevented it. On the other hand, the Indians could have done Bangla Desh or Turkish Cypriot style invasion or Goa type invasion,

      However, the core cause is the racism of the ParaSinhala Para-Sinhala Buddhism, exemplified by numerous Para-Sinhala “Buddhist” riots of 1958, 1977, 1983 and many other discriminations, that still continues..

      • 0
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        Amarasiri,

        1) That DNA report is highly suspicious. There are no true Veddhas left in Sri Lanka. They have died long before 1900s. The remaining people are highly mixed with either Sinhalese or Tamils. There is no credible way to assert Veddhas are different to Sinhalese or Tamils.

        2) How can India invade Sri Lanka? Where is the justification? If they have done that Kashmir and Mizoram would have been annexed by Pakistan and China.

        • 2
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          Shenal,
          “2) How can India invade Sri Lanka? Where is the justification? If they have done that Kashmir and Mizoram would have been annexed by Pakistan and China.”
          Don’t be stupid. India annexed Sikim and China did nothing
          India invaded East Pakistan and Pakistan surrendered.
          Did China help us when India dropped parippu in 1987?

        • 1
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          Shenal
          (296 Words)

          1. “That DNA report is highly suspicious.”

          Mitochondrial DNA history of Sri Lankan ethnic people.

          https://www.nature.com/articles/jhg2013112

          The data supports that Para-Sinhala and Para-Tamils are Paras.

          This study, in which 271 individuals, representing the Sri Lankan ethnic populations mentioned, were typed for their mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) hypervariable segment 1 (HVS-1) and part of hypervariable segment 2 (HVS-2), provides implications for their settlement history on the island.

          Molecular biology and genetics are now well established, and can even tell the archaic DNA sequences of Neanderthals and Denisovans. You need to get beyond the lies and imaginations of the Para-Monk Mahanama in the Mahawamsa. Even the Catholic Church now admits that the Earth rotates on its axis and orbits the sun, even though the Bible claims otherwise in Joshua, and they persecuted the astronomers.

          2. “There are no true Veddhas left in Sri Lanka. They have died long before 1900s”
          Wrong!. No need to lie, even though lying is a Para-Sinhala characteristic tradition coming from monk Mahanama of Mahawamsa. See what Buddha said about lying.

          The DNA and genetics data shows that they are the original people of the Land of Native Veddah Aethho.

          https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vedda

          Veddas were originally hunter-gatherers. They used bows and arrows to hunt game, harpoons and toxic plants for fishing and gathered wild plants, yams, honey, fruit and nuts. Many Veddas also farm, frequently using slash and burn or swidden cultivation, which is called “chena” in Sri Lanka. East Coast Veddas also practice sea fishing. Veddas are famously known for their rich meat diet. Venison and the flesh of rabbit, turtle, tortoise, monitor lizard, wild boar and the common brown monkey are consumed with much relish. The Veddas kill only for food and do not harm young or pregnant animals, unlike Para-Sinhala “Buddhists”.

          • 0
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            Amarasiri,

            1) The research was conducted on 271 individuals of the modern era. As we all know modern Sinhalese genes are heavily mixed with the Tamil genomes. Besides, we don’t know for sure what are the ancestries of the people chosen for this experiment. Therefore, you cannot claim ancient Sinhalese had the Tamil DNA. You just can’t.

            2) Why should I lie. It was stated by Dr. R.L Spittle himself. The original Veddha people never resorted to farming. They were primeval hunters. They despised the farming process and the people involved in it. But, as time wore on. Veddha’s had to settled down among Sinhalese and Tamil people just to ensure their survival. The original “Jungle” Veddhas’ were died out soon after due to various reasons.

            • 1
              0

              Dear Shenal,
              ( 299words)

              1. “Besides, we don’t know for sure what are the ancestries of the people chosen for this experiment. Therefore, you cannot claim ancient Sinhalese had the Tamil DNA. You just can’t.”

              http://www.nature.com/articles/jhg2013112?message=remove

              Lanka Ranaweera, Supannee Kaewsutthi, Aung Win Tun, Hathaichanoke Boonyarit, Samerchai Poolsuwan & Patcharee Lertrit

              These are valid points. However, the researchers were quite selective of the 271 people for the study. Bedsides some of the researchers were Sri Lankan, and others foreign, all experts in genetics. and was published in a well- known and acclaimed scientific journal.

              The study with data proves that the Par-Sinhala and the Para-Tamil DNA came from Southern India. Please read the full paper and get the help of a biologist or geneticist to explain the results.

              2. “Why should I lie”. Most Para-Sinhala “Buddhists” lie, and it may be the civilizational effect of the Para-Monk Mahanama of Mahawamsa, to advance his own lies and imaginations, without proper evidence, such as Sinhala have lion genes, Kuveni was the mother of Native Veddah Aethho, (disproved by mathematics and genetics) and the Buddha visited the Land three times, and flew to the top of a mountain to imprint his footprint etc. Now what did the Enlightened Buddha say about lying?

              3. The hypothesis of the Para-Sinhala is that they are the original inhabitants, calling them Hela, Hela-Urumaya, Ravana Balaya etc., all based on lies.. like the lies of the Catholic Church on the Sun.

              4. “The original Veddah People never resorted to farming, It was stated by
              Dr. R.L. Spittle himself”. He was observing the Veddah Aethho in the 20th century who were chased inland by the Para=Sinhala and Para-Tamils over millennia. When the Paras arrived 2 to 3 millennia ago, illegally, the Veddah farmed, Chena Cultivation, fished and hunted.

              http://www.lankalibrary.com/cul/veddha/spittel.htm

            • 1
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              Dear Shenal,

              (290 Words)

              “1) The research was conducted on 271 individuals of the modern era. As we all know modern Sinhalese genes are heavily mixed with the Tamil genomes. Besides, we don’t know for sure what are the ancestries of the people chosen for this experiment. “

              This is well-designed and peer reviewed study. Sometimes MYTHS are CONFIRMED and sometimes MYTHS are DISCREDITED. So, the data show that the Sinhala and Tamils are Paras in the Land of Native Veddah Aethho.

              Acknowledgements

              We are grateful to all the people who have donated their hair samples for making this study possible. We would like to thank Dr Upeksha Samaraweerachchi, Deepal Edirisinghe, Nirmala Ranaweera, Dayarathna Ranaweera, Sanjeewa Jayakody, G.G. Sirisena, U.S. Yapa, K. Sanath, Achala Chandradasa, T. Kumarasiri, M. Pushpawathi, Nimesha Palliyaguruge and H. Ranaweera for their excellent help in the field trips. Our special thanks extended to Professor Dr Senake Bandaranayake, Associate Professor Dr Suraphan Na Bangchang and Dr Bhoom Suktitipat and the three anonymous reviewers for their critical comments of the manuscript and their constructive discussions, to Dr Russell Thomson for the proof-reading of this manuscript and to Professor Drs Hans Jurgen Bandelt and Walther Parson for their valuable comments on the dataset validation. We also thank scholars who kindly provided their published mtDNA HVS-1 sequences. This work was partly supported by Siriraj Graduate Thesis Scholarship, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital Mahidol University, Thailand to LR. PL is supported by ‘Chalermphrakiat’ Grant, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Thailand.

              Author information and Author notes

              Lanka Ranaweera & Supannee Kaewsutthi
              These authors contributed equally to this work.
              Affiliations
              1. Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
              Lanka Ranaweera, Supannee Kaewsutthi , Aung Win Tun

              • 0
                2

                Amarasiri,

                The data is very subjective. We cannot come to the conclusion that ancient Sinhalese were having the same gene pool as their modern counter parts.

                Moreover, simple publishing of a research paper does not establish itself as a scientific fact. It needs to be cross examined. Have it been cross examined ?

                • 3
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                  Shenali the stupid

                  It is better to leave science to the scientists and history to the historians.

                  “We cannot come to the conclusion that ancient Sinhalese were having the same gene pool as their modern counter parts.”

                  Stupid is as stupid types.
                  Go bring Shenali Waduge, HLD M, Kamalika Pieris, Champika Ranawake, … renown historian Wimal Sangili Karuppan Weerawansa, Bandu De Silva, …. ………………….. to fight your corner.

                  • 0
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                    Native Vedda,

                    This is no rocket science for most of us. Maybe your underdeveloped brain cannot fathom these things.

                • 2
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                  Shenal,
                  “We cannot come to the conclusion that ancient Sinhalese were having the same gene pool as their modern counter parts. “
                  So you mean that present-day “Sinhalese” are not really Sinhalese?
                  You can’t have the cake and eat it, child.

                  • 1
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                    raman

                    “So you mean that present-day “Sinhalese” are not really Sinhalese?

                    They are Southern Indians. The genetics data supports that,

                    Mitochondrial DNA history of Sri Lankan ethnic people

                    https://www.nature.com/articles/jhg2013112

                    Through a comparison with the mtDNA HVS-1 and part of HVS-2 of Indian database, both Tamils and Sinhalese clusters were affiliated with Indian subcontinent populations than Vedda people who are believed to be the native population of the island of Sri Lanka.

                    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f89NuukY32U

                    The Veddah Tribe

                • 1
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                  Dear Shenal,

                  1. “The data is very subjective. “

                  “We are grateful to all the people who have donated their hair samples for making this study possible.” – The authors.

                  The data is applicable to the 271 individuals in the sample. Those 271 individuals were selected by the researchers and by those whom they acknowledged, as representative of the Native Veddah Aethho, Para-Sinhala, Para-Sri Lankan Tamil and Para-Up Country Indian Tamil., so that the genetics can be properly categorized.

                  This is representative statistical sampling. One cannot sample the whole population, as it is not practical.

                  Therefore, the data is NOT subjective.

                  2. “We cannot come to the conclusion that ancient Sinhalese were having the same gene pool as their modern counter parts. “

                  Per Mahawamsa, the “ancient Sinhalese” are 2,500 years old, and had Bengali genes mixed with lion genes. However, no lion genes were found on the Para-Sinhala, or the researchers did not look for lion genes for obvious common sense reasons.

                  However, if t he “ancient Sinhalese” were million years old or so, yes, we can consider that the “ancient Sinhalese” did not have the same gene pool, as their modern counterparts, such as couple of extra chromosomes.

                  Ken Miller on Human Evolution

                  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zi8FfMBYCkk

                  2. “Moreover, simple publishing of a research paper does not establish itself as a scientific fact. It needs to be cross examined. Have it been cross examined ?”

                  The authors, their affiliations and those who helped them with the study were given above for your pursuance. You should follow up with them for further details, concerns and conclusions.

                  https://genographic.nationalgeographic.com/

                  Why not get your hair tested or cells from inside the cheek tested?

    • 6
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      Shenal,

      “Do we need more proofs?”

      Do you need proofs from the colonial officers and historians about Tamils living in a separate region in Ceylon?

      If you read the books/articles written by the colonial writers/historians, the Dutch Predikant, Philippus Baldaeus who was in the Island during the mid-17th century, the Dutch Governor Rjklof Van Goen’s account dated 1675, first British Governor of Sri Lanka, namely Frederick North in 1799, the Colonial Secretary Hugh Cleghorn, Jacob Burnand, a Swiss soldier in the service of the Dutch and later the English (was the governor of Batticaloa), and many others; out of all the statements these gentlemen made, only one thing is very clear, what all of them clearly saw and experienced during their period was that, there were two different Nations (Sinhalese & Tamils) in the Island having two different languages, religions, cultures, and living in two well defined and clearly and naturally demarcated land areas and both were majorities in their traditional areas.

      Commenting on the provenance of the Tamil and Sinhalese languages the Dutch Predikant, Philippus Baldaeus who was in the Island during the mid 17th century asserts,
      ‘It is to be observed that in Ceylon they not only speak the Cinghalesche but also the Malabaarsche languages, the former from Negombo to Colombo, Caleture, Berbering, Alican, Gale, Belligamme, Matura, Donders etc., But in all other parts of the Island which are contiguous to the coromandel coast Malabaarsche is the prevailing language.’

      Hugh Cleghorn, who served as Colonial Secretary to the first British Governor of Sri Lanka, namely Frederick North in 1798. He observed that:
      “Two different nations, from very ancient period, have divided between them the possession of the Island. First the Cingalese inhabiting the interior of the country, in its Southern and Western parts, from the river Wallouve, to that of Chilow, and secondly the Malabars who posses the northern and eastern districts. These two nations differ entirely in their religion, language and manners.”

      Continued…

    • 2
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      Continued from above…

      Shenal,

      “Do we need more proofs?”

      Jacob Burnand, a Swiss soldier in the service of the Dutch and later the English, was the governor of Batticaloa between 1784 and 1794. In 1798 he composes a ‘memoir’ on the North and Northeast, in which he mentions that from time immemorial Sinhalese and Tamils had divided the rule of the island between the two of them.

      The above view is also corroborated by the Governor Rjklof Van Goens account dated 1675. Referring to Batticaloa he made the following comment:

      ‘And since all the inhabitants of Batticalo (both in customs, religion, origin and other characteristics) together with those of Jaffnapatnam, Cotjaar and on Westward right over to Calpentyn and the Northern portion of the Mangul Corle inclusive, have been from the remotest times and are still now Malabaars, divided into their tribes, and very unwillingly mix with the Cingalese, Weddas or others outside their tribes, they are up till now to be considered no otherwise than that they form with those of Jaffnapatnam, Cotjaar, & a people separate from the Cingalese, and have up till now remained pretty well in their freedom’

      The Chief Justice in the British Government, Sir Alexander Johnston wrote on 01.07.1827 to the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland as follows:

      ‘I think it may safely be concluded both from them and all the different histories which I have in my possession, that the race of people who inhabited the whole of the Northern and Eastern Provinces of the Island of Ceylon, at the period of their greatest agricultural prosperity spoke the same language, used the same written character, and had the same origin, religion, castes, laws and manners, as the race of people who at the same period inhabited the southern peninsula of India.’

      Continued…

      • 1
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        Kumar

        Thanks.

        ‘And since all the inhabitants of Batticalo (both in customs, religion, origin and other characteristics) together with those of Jaffnapatnam, Cotjaar and on Westward right over to Calpentyn and the Northern portion of the Mangul Corle inclusive, have been from the remotest times and are still now Malabaars, divided into their tribes, and very unwillingly mix with the Cingalese, Weddas or others outside their tribes, they are up till now to be considered no otherwise than that they form with those of Jaffnapatnam, Cotjaar, & a people separate from the Cingalese, and have up till now remained pretty well in their freedom’

        “Malabaars, divided into their tribes, and very unwillingly mix with the Cingalese, Weddas or others outside their tribes,”

        So, the Weddas were different from the Cingalese and the Malabaars, who are Paras.

        Modern Genetics data of the Land of Native Veddah Aethho supports that.

        Mitochondrial DNA history of Sri Lankan ethnic people: their relations within the island and with the Indian subcontinental populations

        https://www.nature.com/articles/jhg2013112

        It has been hypothesized that the Vedda was probably the earliest inhabitants of the area, followed by Sinhalese and Tamil from the Indian mainland. This study, in which 271 individuals, representing the Sri Lankan ethnic populations mentioned, were typed for their mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) hypervariable segment 1 (HVS-1) and part of hypervariable segment 2 (HVS-2), provides implications for their settlement history on the island.

        Through a comparison with the mtDNA HVS-1 and part of HVS-2 of Indian database, both Tamils and Sinhalese clusters were affiliated with Indian subcontinent populations than Vedda people who are believed to be the native population of the island of Sri Lanka.

      • 0
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        Kumar,

        The irony is that those very same British never formed any agreement with those “ancient” Tamils. In fact they never took their opinion even when the provinces were created. Why is that?

        • 1
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          The British never formed any agreement with anybody. They signed the Kandyan convention with the kandyan kingdom (not Sinhalese) because that was the ONLY kingdom prevailing. Kotte and Jaffna have already fallen. They did not take anybody’s opinion when the provinces were formed, however they formed separate provinces for the North and East.

    • 1
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      Continued from above…

      Shenal,

      “Do we need more proofs?”

      The limits of these Sinhalese and Tamil settlements have even been documented in 19th century maps prepared by British map makers. In particular, Arrowsmith’s 1857 map of Ceylon, indicate that Sinhalese area can be distinguished from Tamil areas by the language used for place-names, including those designated for natural and human-made features (Emerson, 1859). The boundaries between the two peoples coincide with areas where Sinhalese names, such as oya, wewa, gama, gamwa, wia, etc. switch to Tamil names, such as colom, aar, oor, madoo, tivoo, etc. . .It also appears that the areas occupied by the two peoples were distinct enough to persuade the British colonial government to designate the territory inhabited almost exclusive by Tamils as the Northern and Eastern provinces in 1873.

      In 1939, one of the governors of the country, Sir Andrew Caldicott reflected the views of many of his predecessors when he said that all ‘fissures radiate from the vexed question of minority representation.’ When the question of Sri Lanka (then Ceylon) was before the British House of Commons, the Conservative M P for Hornsey referring to the Tamils made the following observation:
      ‘Ceylon . . . . is not a single unit. There are two races, Sinhalese and Tamils. The Tamils differ from the Sinhalese in race, religion and to a large extent in background. Where there is a racial minority in a country the danger is, it may become a permanent political minority’ (Hansard November 22, 1947).

      All above statements reveal two important facts,

      firstly, what these gentlemen saw physically, what they experienced personally, and what they believed.

      Secondly, from the above statements it is very clear that during the colonial period, the colonial rulers were calling the south Indian land which is closest to Sri Lanka (Jaffna) as Coromandel and NOT as Tamil Nadu or Chola/Pandya Nadu. They are also calling the Tamil people/language as Malabar/Malabaarsche and NOT Tamil.

      • 2
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        Kumar,
        Save your breath and your keyboard. Shenal the child historian has run away as usual..He will ask his parents for answers and come back later.

    • 3
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      Shenal,

      Who is this British army officer Major Davy? Has he ever lived in Sri Lanka among the people of North and South? Has he ever visited Jaffna? I am sure he must have talked to some Moda-Sinhalayas (just like you) in the south who would have told him that Tamils are foreigners and Sinhalese are natives. That is what you people are trying to say even today knowing very well that it is not the truth.

  • 4
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    “The Tigers had corralled civilians, desperately hoping their presence would deter the army.”
    A better way of saying Tigers held the civilians hostage and shot at those who attempted to flee.
    Prof Savan is a scholar of English Literature.
    I always read prof Savan with the idea of improving my English.
    Soma

    • 1
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      somass

      “A better way of saying Tigers held the civilians hostage and shot at those who attempted to flee.”

      So did the war criminals under another psychopath Dr Gota. I thought you would not want to leave history incomplete.

      “I always read prof Savan with the idea of improving my English.”

      So you are not interested in his messages, ideas, information, diversity of his subjects, perspectives, different viewpoints, making you think critically, …………………………… how to challenge your own stale parochial notions of a country, ……………………

      • 1
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        NAtive Vedda: Protestants lost their struggle for domination of Sinhale in GonKalapuwa. so, you are still mourning. You failed journalists, LTTE is no more to provide money. YOu can sell Bettle and areca nut for income. WAARakan Kaaleda dan ?

  • 8
    4

    All was well and good when natural movements and assimilation of people occurred (even with conquest through guns). However, when capitalism raised its ugly head during and after colonization, Tamils were in the forefront to take over the system. This was over the 2-5 million Sinhalese displaced from their ancient and traditional lands for the colonial tea and rubber estates, with little hope in their lives- Tamils having the backing of the larger Dravidian nation in India. Hence the ’83 racial unrest was inevitable, though awful. And with 75% of Sri Lanka speaking the Sinhala language, Tamil language simply couldn’t be implemented on par with the Sinhala language, except in the Northern areas – the two languages being too different, except for few similar words and expressions.

    • 0
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      Ramona,
      “the two languages being too different, except for few similar words and expressions.”
      In case you didn’t know, About 30% of Sinhala words are of Tamil origin. Sinhala has a Dravidian alphabet, like Tamil. Most “traditional ” Sinhala foods can be found in Kerala. Just ask Shenal.

      • 2
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        RAMAN: Sanskrit and Dravidean languages coexisted for millinia. Sinhala is mostly Pali. PAli and Sanskrtia are almost the same language. So, you say Sinhala came from Tamil. what a stupid argument. rice is eaten all over the asia. So, Rice came to us from KErala from South India ?.This is how Tamil struggle is also. JUST LIES. This is this THEOLOGICAL PROF IS TRYING TO JUSTIFY ANCIENT EXISTENCE OF PROTESTANTS.

        • 1
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          Jimbo,
          Don’t you know that kavum, kokis, hoppers. stringhoppers, pittu, halapa are only some of the things that came from Kerala? . I don’t know whether they were Methodists or not. Maybe Shenal can help you.

          • 2
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            Kokis are for certain of Dutch origin.
            Pittu is Tamil.
            I doubt there being a Kerala equivalent for Halapa.
            String hoppers may have originated outside the sub-continent.
            Rice was exported from South India since ancient times, and the source word is Tamil.

            • 0
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              S.J,
              In Kerala, halapa is called “elayappam” which means “leaf-cake”. It is made in a banana leaf.
              “Hlapa” is an obvious corruption.
              Kokis is the Dutch word for cookies. It is very unlikely that the Dutch would make cookies out of rice flour. In the same way, though Lamprais is a Dutch word, the dish is Indonesian.
              Hoppers (appam), string hoppers (idiappam), kavums(neyiappam), pittu (puttu)are all common foods in Kerala. The names actually mean something in Malayalam.
              There are some foods in Kerala and here that are not found in Tamilnadu
              Do go there and see.

              • 1
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                Raman
                Thanks for the info on halapa etc.
                The Dutch were here for 150 years and promoted rice cultivation. But Kokis are made with wheat flour batter.
                Lamprais I agree tastes more Indonesian than anything South Asian or European.
                Puttu is Tamil although cooked only in the Southern districts. It is referred to in 10th Century Saivaite literature. Using the bamboo may have been a Malayali idea.
                String hoppers seems related to noodles and involves a device more refined than that for the other South Indian foods. But again, Kerala could have been its route to this country.
                I have been to both Kerala and TN several times, and have tasted the difference even in items that are nominally the same. Coconut makes a difference, but that has to do with availability.

                • 0
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                  S.J,
                  Thanks.
                  Kokis is usually made from rice flour, though I suppose it is possible to use wheat flour.
                  https://www.196flavors.com/sri-lanka-kokis/
                  “Puttu is Tamil although cooked only in the Southern districts”
                  You must know that some Southern districts were part of Travancore till re-organized in the 50’s ?

                  • 2
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                    Raman/SJ – Kokkis is Portuguese word for cakes and was introduced by them to Sri Lanka and not Dutch. The same Kokkis is found in Malacca which was once a Portuguese colony. Puttu and Appam are mentioned in Tamil texts and taken to Malaysia and Indonesia by Tamil merchants and sailors and are called Puttu and Appam in their languages. Idiyappam must have come from Kerala as they call strands of hair or coir as “idi”. This too was introduced by Tamils to Malays who call it Puttumayong. These are certainly not indigenous to Sri Lanka as Sinhalese try to make in international forums. As for Lamprais it is an Indonesian dish called Lempers, which originally contained rice cooked in coconut milk and wrapped in banana leaf with meat curry and steamed. Later they added Pisan Goreng (fried bananas) and prawn belachchan (fermented prawn paste). Dutch modified it by adding frikadelle (fried meat ball) and Brinjal Paella (tempered egg plant) and introduced it to Sri Lanka. Sri Lankans further modified by adding boiled egg and replacing frikadelle with cutlets , pisan goreng with ash plantain curry and prawn belachchan with Maldive fish kata sambol. Unfortunately lamprais that are made in Sri Lanka have only white rice or yellow rice cooked in water instead of cooking rice in coconut milk as per original recipe. This makes those lamprais as mere buth packets distorting the rich taste.

                    • 0
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                      Dr. GS,
                      The Sinhalese diet must have been pretty boring before the Portuguese brought all those South American foods (including chillies /tomatoes/ brinjals/ potatoes) and the Keralites/ Tamils brought the Kavum, idiaappa, etc. Let’s not forget the music either.
                      What a dull life it must have been for Shenal’s great ancestors, living on rice , coconut, and nelum-mal. Building temples must have been entertainment, that’s why there are so many.

      • 2
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        Raman,

        Even English has lot of words with French origin. The linguists haven’t classified Sinhalese as a Hindu Aryan group for nothing.

        • 0
          1

          What is that “Not Nothing”. Only Plagiarism, no understanding?
          How did they got the Aryan language as their original mother tongue? Is then when Mahanama arrived with Pali they were dump and didn’t speak any language until that time?

          Or is that the proposal Sinhalese are Aryan is correct? They came by Vijaya’s boat? Children of a Lion? After all Mahanama is correct and you are wrong?

        • 2
          1

          Shenal,
          As a resident of a well, you have no idea of the origins of Sinhala and its related languages. Sinhala has a lot of Tamil words, Sanskrit/Pali words AND indigenous aboriginal (Vedda) words.
          Malayalam has Tamil and Sanskrit mixed. So , is it your theory that Malayalam is even more “Aryan”(whatever that is) than Sinhala?

        • 1
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          SHENAL,
          What have we here? You don’t know what language the Mahavamsa is written in, but you try to teach the origins of Sinhala? Ha Ha.

        • 2
          1

          Shenal,
          Your great authority Major Davy himself says that the Sinhalese have no system of numbers, and therefore use the Tamil decimal system. Isn’t that humiliating?

        • 2
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          Shenal

          “The linguists haven’t classified Sinhalese as a Hindu Aryan group for nothing.”

          Please clarify.
          Also remember to note you are not compelled to s**t in the public.

        • 2
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          S&R
          The word in Indo-Aryan.
          The word stock of a language can comprise a bulk of foreign words which enter the language by way of various social interactions.
          Sinhala was influenced by Pali (Heenayana Buddhism), Sanskrit (Mahayana Buddhism) and Tamil, which besides being the language of the nearest neighbour was also the dominant language of trade in the region for several centuries. But Tamil in the process absorbed and Tamilized many foreign words (mainly Sanskrit). So Sanskrit entered Sinhala through Tamil as well.
          Notably, Batticaloa Tamil has significant Sinhala influence.
          *
          The current Sinhala grammar I think is based on Viracoziyam, a book of Tamil grammar. But then the earliest texts of Tamil grammar were influenced by Panini’s work. (People who believe that Tamil was the language of the first dinosaur will strongly disagree.)

      • 1
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        30%….yes, that’s how much was assimilated. But yet the 30% always transmuted to the Sinhala tongue (the original language of the Yakas and Nagas for 10’s of millennia, before some Bengalis come in). Even the script might be similar. Yes, the two countries learned from each other before the Tamils tried to overpower the Sinhalese for capitalistic gains.

        • 2
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          ramona therese Fernando

          Started hallucinating again, blabbering all sort of gibberish? Are you hearing voices in your head? Did you forget your medicine today?

        • 2
          1

          What is now called modern Malayalam is the highly Sankskritsed dialect of the Namboothiri Brahmins who migrated to the Kerala country from the north via Tulu Nadu. This dialect is written in a Tulu based script and was only confined to them and to around 20% of the population. Their half caste bastard Nair descendants. This language was called Grantham or Grantha Basha. The rest of the population of Kerala(80%) , including the powerful Syrian Christian church was using the local dialect of Tamil called Malayalama or lingua Malabar Tamul or Malabar. Around the 1850s the British at the behest of their Namboothiri and Nair/Mennon allies banned the use of this language its publication and destroyed all traces of this local Tamil language including ancient manuscripts. As a compromise to the local population they added a lot of Tamil words to this highly Sanskritised Grantha dialect of the Namboothiris and now called this dialect written in the Tulu based script, Malayalam and the official language of Kerala. The British destroyed the existence Tamil in Kerala , that was still existing until the early 1800s. The British never favoured the Tamils but only used them for their hard work. The lower classes/castes for hard manual work like in the tea and rubber estates. The middle upper castes and classed for white collar jobs to man their civil service or a doctors lawyers etc. You can still see many of these Kerala Nairs Menons, Nambiars etc are quite anti Tamil and many of them were complicit with the Sri Lankan government in the Eelam Tamil genocide. During the 1700s and 1800s when these people were referring to Malabars and Malabar language , they were referring to Tamil people and the Tamil language, as they were one and the same. The Tamil spoken in Kerala at that time was called Malabar or Lingua Malabar Tamul. Are you the same Raman who lives in the UK and used to post in the Sri Lanakan Forumn? A Brahmin?

          • 0
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            RSSS,
            “Are you the same Raman who lives in the UK and used to post in the Sri Lanakan Forumn? A Brahmin?”
            No, I am a resident of Rama, the spaceship in Arthur. C. Clarke’s trilogy. Look it up. Since I am alien, I try not to take sides between you humans.

          • 2
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            “This dialect is written in a Tulu based script”
            *
            The Kannada script is the native script for the Tulu language. … Historically, Brahmins of Tulu Nadu and Havyaka Brahmins used the Tigalari script to write Vedas and other Sanskrit works. The Tigalari script is descended from the Brahmi through the Grantha script. It is a sister script of the Malayalam script.
            *
            Malayalam used a Tamil script (based on vattezuththu) before it adopted the Grantha-based script prescribed Thunjan (Ezuththachchan, a scholar of Sanskrit but no Brahmin of any description) who lived in the 15th-16th Century. The modern Tamil script too has drawn heavily on the Grantha script.
            *
            Tulu ‘nationalists’, however, like to claim that they granted their script to Malayalam.

            • 2
              2

              Kannada Script and Telugu scripts are very similar and originated from one script. They look similar to the Sinhalese script. The Tulu language now uses the Kannada script as ironically the British whilst banning the local Tamil dialect of Kerala ( Malayalama or Malabar Tamul) written in the Tamil script and promoting the highly Sanskritised Grantha dialect of Namboothiri Brahmins written in their Tilgari based script , as the official language of Kerala and called this Malayalam , banned the Tilgari script in its homeland Tulu Nadu and more or less imposed Kannda on them. They did this , as they felt the Tamil identity and the Dravidian masses of Kerala were a threat to their authority and the Tulu identity and the Tulu masses again were a threat to British authority along the western Indian coast just north of modern Kerala. Therefore they took steps to supress these identities,more or less kill them and create new identities from them. They were successful in Kerala where other than in a few tribals and areas close to Tamil Nadu . Malabar Tamil or Malayalama has been fully erased from the state, most modern Malayali are not aware of this large scale language replacement that was under taken by the British with the help of their Namboothiri and Nair allies. This was easy due to feudal make up of the then Kerala society, where the Namboothiri held sway. It is due to this horrible feudal caste based system that was practised in Kerala even until the 1930s , that 50% of its population converted to Islam and Christianity, as a form of escape. In Tulu Nadu they almost killed the Tulu language but it is now reviving.

              • 1
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                “Kannada Script and Telugu scripts are very similar and originated from one script. They look similar to the Sinhalese script. “
                *
                They have much in common, but nothing to do with the Sinhala script which is a more rounded version of the Grantha sript.
                There are easily accessible schedules of these scripts. You can check it out.
                *
                Your theories about conversion are flawed.
                Syrian Christianity started very early.

                Cheraman Juma Masjid at Kodungallur
                Islam arrived in Kerala through Arab traders during the time of Prophet Muhammad(CE 570 – CE 632). Kerala has a very ancient relation with the middle east even during the Pre-Islamic period. Muslim merchants (Malik Deenar) settled in Kerala by the 7th century AD and introduced Islam. The Cheraman Juma Masjid said to be the very first mosque in India situated in Kodungallur Taluk, in state of Kerala. According to a tradition, Cheraman Perumal, the last of the Chera kings, became Muslim and traveled to visit prophet Muhammad and this event helped the spread of Islam.”
                The above from Wikipedia sounds more credible. (the last bit is only a belief.)

                • 0
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                  SJ,
                  “Your theories about conversion are flawed.
                  Syrian Christianity started very early.”
                  Yes, on the dot. What many people do not realize is that Middle Easterners / Arabs have been coming to this region for spices even when they were Christians /Jews before Islam. Christianity arrived in India from the Middle East, as did Judaism, though most of the Jews have migrated to Israel.

                  • 1
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                    Yes Christianity arrived very early to Kerala ( then Tamil Chera Nadu) so did the Jews. This is correct. Even Islam arrived quite early to Kerala. Christianity, also arrived in the Tamil country very early but did not flourish there . However many of the present day Christians( especially the Latin and Protestant Christians) and Muslims in Kerala are low caste converts . They converted to escape the horrible feudal and caste system , that was imposed on the land by the Namboothiris and their largely half caste bastard Nair henchmen. In North Kerala during the reign of Tippu Sultan many thousands of Hindus were forcibly converted to Islam. This is the reason this area is now a Muslim stronghold. You can see that over the years the percentage of Hindus in Kerala has been gradually declining. it now around 50%. the rest are Christians and Muslims. I think around 30% Muslim and 20% Christian

                • 1
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                  I stated around 50% of the present day Malayali have now converted to either Islam or Christianity and most of these people are low castes and I stick by this. This was due to the horrible feudal and caste system that was practised in Kerala even until the mid 1950s. I am aware of the ancient history of the original Syrian Christians and Mappilas .

    • 2
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      ramona grandma therese fernando

      Could you cite your evidence for your scatterbrain utterances.

      • 1
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        EVEANGELIST Vedda: What you say sinhala peole cannot get angry and react because Tamils are more emotional and they have voice because they are all over the world, has block votes and the Church and Spy agencies help them with the money.

    • 0
      1

      Racist Grandma: Don’t write your own history. Tamil chased you out of the living area(,as per you, but I thought your history is your ship to Netherland swayed by wind and went to Australia, and now you are deported back to Lankawe) but they fed you free. You chased Tamils from the Estates and you are going as slave to Saudi Arabia. Please ask me next time which selection is better for you. I pick you the good one.

      1983 was not the only pogrom against Ceylon Tamils. But it was only against Ceylon Tamils not about the Up Country Tamils, whom you think with the help of India chased 2.5 million Sinhalese. Then now the dollar is 160 rupees. Thanks for your heartburn by the free rice you got from exported tea & rubber, and Ramanathan who had have released Don Stephen out of the prison. If Don Stephen had not displaced the upcountry Tamils, for the growth Lankawe was having that time, Rupee would have appreciated from 14 for a dollar, (i.e. estimated floating rate, otherwise it was only 2 in fixed rate) in 1948 to now 5 rupees for a dollar.

      At least now, see a gastroenterologist and take treatment for your heartburn. Otherwise for the Kandy riot you created, your new Colonial Master Abdul-Aziz is going to send an army of ISIS, capture more Sinhala women and take them to work as slaves in Saudi Arabia.

  • 0
    0

    Professor de Silva is completely right when he writes that “Sri Lanka is a Buddhhist society” and Sarvan totally wrong in objecting.
    Why?
    Because the Hindus and Muslims have been, and are being, “overwhelmed”!

  • 0
    0

    ………….Objectivity in History is difficult,if not impossible……..
    Prof: K.M De.Silva is no doubt the most eminent of Srilankan Historians.
    History would judge whether his Biography of J.R.Jayewardena co-authored with Howard Wriggins did have the ingredients that go to make objectivity of the true JR.

  • 2
    0

    When one has to quote Shiva Naipaul to strength ones argument that one is sadly grabbing at the straws. History is always more of an interpretation and less of a factual report unless of course there was an omniscient CCD camera recording all from above and below. I agree completely that ’83 was a pogrom against Tamils because the government aided an abated it, at the same time I am concerned by the ever elaborating stories about the atrocities committed, yes there were atrocities but expanding that hundred times while completely disregarding the ordinary Sinhala people;s efforts in shielding the Tamil people during those horrible days is not going to help the two communities making peace with each other.
    If readers want to know more about Shiva Naipaul’s manufactured reality you should read the comments by “Sinhala man” in response to a previous article by the learned Profesor.

    • 0
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      Wannihami,
      ” while completely disregarding the ordinary Sinhala people;s efforts in shielding the Tamil people during those horrible days is not going to help the two communities making peace with each other.”
      This an oft-told tale to alleviate the Sinhala conscience. The average Sinhalese , imbued with Mahavamsa exclusivity, views non-Sinhala Buddhists as tourists in this land. That also neatly explains why they treat tourists inhumanely, doesn’t it?
      If you want proof, just hop into any 3-wheeler and talk about their current hate objects, the Muslims.
      There is a great gap between you and contributors such as Shenal, but I still think you are fooling yourself about the Sinhalese capacity for mindless violence.
      If the communities are to reconcile, the FIRST step should be to immediately stop brainwashing children with tales of Tamil invaders , both in school and disguised as religious education. But which self-respecting Buddhist monk will agree to that?

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      Wannihami: what a stupid way to presetns the facts. Govt began the 193 Tamil pogrom. then what started in borell Cemetry once the 13 bodies were creamted or burried in Borella even without parents getting the bodies. What would have happened if the 13 bodies were given to parent and they were all over in the south.

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      wannihami

      “History is always more of an interpretation and less of a factual report unless of course there was an omniscient CCD camera recording all from above and below.”

      If the history is always more of an interpretation it would be a great help to the bigots, racists, land grabbers, crooks, …. and the aspiring fascists to champion their causes if they repeat the lies (in your words interpretation) often enough to make it authentic.

      ” I agree completely that ’83 was a pogrom against Tamils because the government aided an abated it,”

      Whether you like it or not it was more than a simple pogrom. I note that in your fantasy world the day has stopped dawning since 1983. Do you know exactly when?

      Shiva had “problem” with Muslims because he was married to a Pakistani Muslim.

    • 2
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      Wannihami,
      ,
      So, you, too remember Shiva Naipaul’s visit to Peradeniya, do you?
      .
      https://www.colombotelegraph.com/index.php/ever-a-stranger-shiva-naipaul-in-kenya-tanzania-zambia-sri-lanka/
      .
      It is true that Shiva Naipaul was looking for sensational stories to write up, but the problem was that those stories were true. I think that we must focus on this article which assesses Prof. Kingsley de Silva’s History of our country, and account for any of its shortcomings.
      .
      I think that I’d better put any further comments at the bottom of the pile.

  • 1
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    To quote Colombo Telegraph
    https://www.colombotelegraph.com/index.php/ever-a-stranger-shiva-naipaul-in-kenya-tanzania-zambia-sri-lanka/

    Read Diogenes comment on Shiva Naipaul

    • 1
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      I just rush through the Shiva NAIPUL article. what this gentleman says is HE is Tamil.He is methodist but he likes buddhism. Yet, he is not recognized or identified with his own. the reason is he is completely a foreigner for Tamil culture. Further to that, you are again trying to establish a foreign culture in the south. Explain whether your PhD is from theology. then that is something hostile to Sinhala culture. So, understand you created your own fate your own world and not any one else. That is KARMA.

  • 2
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    Prof. Charles Sarvan,

    RE: The Island Story: A Short History Of Sri Lanka

    “Also puzzling are Prof. de Silva’s references to Tamils as Dravidian and Sinhalese as Aryan – both mythical entities that have caused so much mischief in politics. I am sure Prof. De Silva knows that he is ‘Dravidian’ in origin and ‘Aryan’ in politics.”- Comment by Rajan Hoole

    The so-called Prof. de Silva’ is quite ignorant. To begin with the so-called Prof. de Silva is a Para, Paradeshi, Foreigner , Stranger, in the Land of Native Veddah Aethho, notwithstanding, the Para-Portuguese name , de Silva ( of the forest) . Both Sinhala and Tamils are Para, and the genetics cannot tell one from the other.

    The so-called Prof. de Silva is typical of Para-Sinhala, in the Land of Native Veddah Aethho, who deny the fact that they are Para-from Southern India, as conclusively shown by the genetics of the Para-Sinhala and Para-Tamils. Yes. Arya means noble, but Arya are Paras too, and it is not genetics, the way North Indians meant for the invaders from central Asia.

    Did the so-called Prof. de Silva make any mention of the Native Veddah Aethho, who discovered and claimed Lanka, as the Land of Native Veddah Aethho?

    There was another so-called Prof. Ediriweera Sarathchandra, who produced and popularized the drama Sinhabahu, expanding on the Lies and Imaginations of the Para-Monk Mahanama, who wrote the Mahawamsa.

    References:

    Mitochondrial DNA history of Sri Lankan ethnic people

    https://www.nature.com/articles/jhg2013112

    Through a comparison with the mtDNA HVS-1 and part of HVS-2 of Indian database, both Tamils and Sinhalese clusters were affiliated with Indian subcontinent populations than Vedda people who are believed to be the native population of the island of Sri Lanka.

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f89NuukY32U

    The Veddah Tribe

    • 1
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      AMARASIRI: Find a job instead of writing this very same crap comment everyday and earn some coins from CT.

      • 2
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        Jim softy,

        “See what you have done is bullying and bashing sinhala people and even Tamils because they are silent.”

        Amarasiri is calling a spade a spade, a duck a duck, and a Para, Para, based on DATA.. The Paras came from Southern India, Bharat,. That is confirmed fact.

        Nicholas Copernicus presented data in support of the Heliocentric Planetary model in 1543, and it was shown to be correct by Galileo, Kepler and later Newton, and experimentally proven by Foucault. Despite 3 1/2 centuries, STILL, 25% of Americans, 33% of Europeans and perhaps 50% pf the others STILL belie that the Sun goes around the Earth.

        1 In 4 Americans Thinks The Sun Goes Around The Earth, Survey Says

        https://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2014/02/14/277058739/1-in-4-americans-think-the-sun-goes-around-the-earth-survey-says

        Just the same way the Catholic Church had to accept that the Earth rotates on its axis, and orbits the Sun, the Para-Sinhala have to accept they they are Paras in the Land of Native Veddah Aethho, based on modern genetics data.

        What did the enlightened Buddha say about the Truth.

        May be in Para-Sinhala Buddhism, lying is acceptable, as was claimed by the Para-Monk Mahanama in the Mahawamsa with the Lion genes, Kuveni and Buddha flying and visiting the Land of Native Veddah Aethho.

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          Amarasiri: Read ans see whether you wrote anything worth. Just crap.

    • 1
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      See what you have done is bullying and bashing sinhala people and even Tamils because they are silent. YOu are not certain whether Vedda were true sinhale or SIV HELE natives because you say “BELIEVED to be”.. IDIOT: Vedda are Sinhala people from that neighbourhood. for Example WANNIYALA ATHTHO were people used live to din the forests but from WANNI because of the CONSTANT Dravidean invasions from KAVERI PATUNA.do you know what it is ?

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    Both Professors De Silva and Sarwan have stirred a lot of nests of hornets. They are buzzing around in a drunken stupor not knowing what to do. One recent book based on genetic studies suggests that the South Asian region was wholly Dravidian prior to the coming of the Aryans. This would mean that Sri Lanka was wholly Dravidian in the early stages. This controversy between Aryans and Dravidians is a useless one. One look at the wholly Sinhala cricket team shows that they are darker than the West Indian or the Zimbabwe team and are unlikely Aryans. No major Sinhalese caste claims origin other than in India. Even the Mahavamsa claims that Vijaya, spawned of the buggery of a lion, came from India. The Karawes, fisherfolk from Malabar, claim descent from the Kauravas of the Mahabaratha. The Salagama claim that they were Brahmins brought on the shoulders of Marakala people from Saligramam though they were brought to work on cinnamon plantations by the Dutch. All these stories are myths. The reality is that most of us have our roots in India, as our languages and religions show.

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      Mama Sinhalam

      “The reality is that most of us have our roots in India, as our languages and religions show.”

      Mitochondrial DNA history of Sri Lankan ethnic people. That says it All, with modern genetics data.

      https://www.nature.com/articles/jhg2013112

      Through a comparison with the mtDNA HVS-1 and part of HVS-2 of Indian database, both Tamils and Sinhalese clusters were affiliated with Indian subcontinent populations than Vedda people who are believed to be the native population of the island of Sri Lanka.

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        Sorry Amarasiri for not stating that. I agree with you. We, the Tamils and the Sinhalese, are subsequent arrivals in your country. You would be better off if these subsequent arrivals were deported back to India.

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          mama Sinhalam,

          “You would be better off if these subsequent arrivals were deported back to India.”

          Yes.

          A new “Srima-Shastri Pact” is needed called the Para-Pact to send the Paras back to their homeland to join their Para brethen.

          The Veddah Tribe

          https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f89NuukY32U

          Tamil-speaking Veddas of Vaharai await war recovery support

          https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HeFCuZwexRw

  • 2
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    Prof. Saravan, Can you produce any archeological evidence as Tamils are natives of Sri Lanka whereas if you dig any lace in this island nation of Sri Lanka, it is abundance of evidence for Sinhalese Buddhists There is no doubt about it.

    People have come from invaders, plunderers, smugglers, kallathonies, slaves are talking about homelands today. How funny it is?

    Whatever, your talks or facts unproven though, you can dream about homelands for tamils or Tamil Elam as those demands were effectively defeated, answered and annihilated with Vellupillai Prabhakaran on the banks of Nanthikadal on the 19th May 20009.

    If you really have the love for the well being of Tamils, you shall talk about Economic and Infrastructure development of the country to be benefitted to all the eole living in this beautiful country.

    Do not waste your time for unrealistic and non-existing demands as it may lead to another round of destruction mainly to Tamil People specifically and all the people living in this country as a whole.

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      Nimal Tissass Wijethunga

      “Can you produce any archeological evidence as Tamils are natives of Sri Lanka whereas if you dig any lace in this island nation of Sri Lanka, it is abundance of evidence for Sinhalese Buddhists There is no doubt about it.”

      I am sorry he can’t produce any archaeological evidence by waving his hands. However you ought to ask the Archaeological Survey Department show some evidence to the people for the nativity of “Sinhalese/Buddhist” in this island. Please note Buddha’s year of birth was 563 B.C.

      Therefore there was no Buddhist in this island nor any Sinhalese before 563 BC. Sinhala/Buddhist identity was concocted only about hundred years ago.

      Don’t waste your time proving the ancientness of the non existent Sinhala/Buddhists before 1918.

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      Nimal Tissa Wijethunga

      Can you produce any archeological evidence to prove that the Sinhalese Buddhists are natives of Sri Lanka?

      There are enough of ancient archaeological evidence in Sri Lanka such as Brahmi stone inscriptions, cave writings, Pali chronicles, etc where the terms ‘Dameda’, ‘Damela’, ‘Damila’, ‘Demel’ are mentioned as a group of people living in the island. Even in the Jataka stories such as Akitti Jataka, there is a reference to Tamil country (Damila-rattha), where as there is NO archeological evidence what so ever about the terms ‘Sihala’, or ‘Sinhala’ before and even a many centuries after the Pali chronicles were written.

      People who came from South India as invaders, plunderers, smugglers, kallathonies, slaves, low caste coolies and so on have got converted into Sinhala Buddhists. That is how the Sinhalese became a majority.

      In his book `A History of Sri Lanka` by Professor K.M. de Silva, page 121. He has explained how the migration of the Karawe, Salagama, and Durawe castes from South India to Sri Lanka took place between the 14th and 17th centuries AD. If you remove these South Indians (Karawe, Salagama, and Durawe castes) from the Sinhala population, it will reduce tremendously.

      On the other hand, Dr. Paul E. Pieris has published extracts from the Portuguese tombo records which gives some popular Portuguese surnames along with the original native names such as Vira Cutti, Parama Cutti, Nila Cutti, Nahepulle, Avepulle, etc clearly pointing to low caste South Indian origin.

      Professor of Anthropology Gananath Obeyesekere (in his book “Buddhism, Ethnicity, and Identity,”) states that “viewed in long term historical perspective Sinhalas have been for the most part South Indian migrants who have been sasanized (converted to Buddhism)”.

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        Adida Sundaralingam,

        You have just proven that Sinhalese Buddhist were natives of Sri Lanka. You your self has said “Brahmi stone inscriptions, cave writings, Pali chronicles, etc where the terms ‘Dameda’, ‘Damela’, ‘Damila’, ‘Demel’ are mentioned as a group of people living in the island. ” They are all references to a difference ethnicity which was living in the island with Sinhalese. No where do these inscriptions or Chronicles say that Tamils were living in their own independent country in North and East.

        The Karawa, Durawa, Salagama casts only constituting about 30% of all the Sinhalese people. It is not a considerable number when we compare them with their contemporaries.

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          Shenali

          Sinhalese Buddhist, the language is foreign, the religion is foreign, the culture is borrowed from Southern India, Food is foreign, Gene is foreign, Technology is foreign, ……………………………………..Origin Myth is foreign, ………………… your mode of communication is foreign, ………………

          There has never been anything you could call yours except your ego and stupidity.

          Give us John Davy’s reference.

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          Shenal,
          ” They are all references to a difference ethnicity which was living in the island with Sinhalese. No where do these inscriptions or Chronicles say that Tamils were living in their own independent country in North and East. “

          Damila, Damela, Demela, Malabars, Tamils, Tamuls, are all the same people.
          Simhela, Sinhala, Sihala, Singhala, Sinhalese are all the same people.
          Stonewalling is not argument , grown-ups concede when they are beaten.

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          Shenal,
          The terms ‘Dameda’, ‘Damela’, ‘Damila’, ‘Demel’ are Prakrit, Pali, Sanskrit, Elu equivalents of the term Tamil. Sinhalese came from India. Buddhism came from India. However, the Sinhalese Buddhist are so foolish that they still cannot understand that they are migrants from India. The Sinhalese Buddhist are citizens of Sri Lanka just like all others, they are NOT the natives of Sri Lanka.
          90% of the present day Sinhalese are from South India.

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    Lankawe Appe Aanduwa had hidden 18 Commissions’ reports. IIGEP watched how the truth was suppressed during legal investigation. Paranagama distorted truths and forced to close his commission. 42 War Criminal report from OISL is torn off. One Million refugees’ cases are classified info in many counties’ Immigration departments. Here, extremely important, serious and prominent people are holding hidden Tamils history.
    Frasier volunteered going to UNHRC during the Muslims riots to work against Tamils. The reason to send Hakeem or Faiszer is to make those things known as false become as truth and believable. This is where Kathirgamar, Sumanthiran et al are used. Now, 18 New Ministers appointed, including Ameer Ali Shihabdeen, Faiszer Musthapha, H.M.M. Haree, Hizbullah, Kabir Hashim & Seyed Ali Zahir Moulana. Six of them appear from the Muslim community. Kandy riots cover up needs extra effort from Muslim Ministers. Muslim countries’ donation has to be collected. That has to be shared. This is how Sinhala government handles the problems. But it was different when Kathirgamar was alive. He alone handled all destructions needed for the Sinhala Government against Tamils, instead of now six new Muslim ministers are about to do. Neither Original Modayas, nor the Hat and Burka wearing Modayas bothers or at least get it. Further to take away Muslim Community’s attention, Yahapalanaya has set up Trico Hindu College Saga. It has hired many Muslims Tamil & Sinhala Writers to actively distort the facts on this matter. Colombo media helps to hide, but does not write the truth.

    Ceylon history lost track two times. 1). When Mahanama converted legends into Mahavamsa. He added the color of surging Religious Civil war in Tamil Nadu to the story. So anything during Mahanama and before his time was distorted. After him, some recording took place. When Europeans came in, they took the entire thing as true.

  • 1
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    2). Kathirgamar time. For the second time, Tamils history was distorted to entire world. Black July is accepted by world as happened. One or two writers may hide the facts on that. But more than Million refugee’s cases are filed in immigration departments of about 15 countries. These classified documents going to come out one day. This is how the Blacks Slavery came out little by little, to the light of present day knowledge. After 1983, India recognized Tamils’ plight and intervened. Yes; It was Tamils’ mistake to have struggled to send back India as per the Sinhala government’s need.

    Later Tigers went up to Kaithady capturing the peninsula. Kathirgamar went to Vajpayee and got it reversed through India. He convinced the entire world that Tamils course is not justified but it was only terrorism. That time World too, took from Kathirgamar what they liked and dropped out not wanted. That was the only reason Condoleezza Rice forced the UN sponsored SLMM to withdraw. He re-wrote the Tamils’ suffering only as greed to control Sinhalese, just like now Sumanthiran doing. This is where now new Idea to jaffnahistory. com came out. i.e. history of Tamils can be written to adverse for Tamils and benefits reaping from that is easy, just like opening a website.

    People like to hear what they like. While winner tell the history, listener drop off he/she doesn’t like. This is what in advertisements one see in the media during election time. He/she pick the candidate as true as per their feeling. It is called propaganda. Distorting facts are needed to convince the forces active to obtain favors. Sinhala Intellectuals writing propaganda materials to help government to defuse UNHRC or have donations collected for Kandy riots and shared with in them, in the name of history.

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    How these – Nayaka , annexed to Sinkeleyas names. ?
    Sinhalese and Tamils been cheated by Nayakar means Senanayaka, Bandaranayaka,Ramanayaka,Attanayaka, Disanayaka, Dasanayaka are not either real Buddhist or Sinhalese. WATCH THIS VIDEO.. its in TAMIL.. anyone translate…pl

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=weYLhPE9Wfc

    ceylon Mudaliyars ;
    https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ceylonese_Mudaliyars

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    Prof. Sarvan,

    Thanks for an excellent review. I haven’t read much of K.M. de Silva, and I take the claim of him being ’eminent’ with a a certain amount of skepticism.

    Many Sinhalese continue to minimize the outrage of July 1983 pogroms by calling it ‘riots.’ And a poster above, Ramona Fernando, from the comfort of her home in the US, calls it ‘ racial unrest’ and ‘inevitable.’ So is positive peace ever possible?

    It seems the country is heading in the direction of being dominated by China and India, and perhaps being carved out into protectorates, to the detriment of all the people of the country. Majoritarian racists will have to take the blame, but when it happens, people will be forced to accept it, and there will be no consolation and no use in any blame game.

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      Agnos
      More than Kingsley’s eminence what seems questionable is his intellectual honesty, especially on matters concerning Tamils.

  • 1
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    Shenal.

    Your line.
    …………He finished the job in 3 years….
    Single handedly eh?
    There were more than 30 other countries involved in the exercise!

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      Pygmalion,

      Oh really? 30 countries. Why then it is only Sinhalese that get punishment for killing off the LTTE? Why don’t UNHRC passes resolution against all those 30 countries?

      • 2
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        Shenali the very very stupid

        “Oh really? 30 countries.”

        ????????????

        ” Why then it is only Sinhalese that get punishment for killing off the LTTE?”

        Don’t be silly you dimwit.
        Read carefully:
        No one has been punished yet.
        The resolution never meant to punish Sinhalese.
        The resolution just request the Sri Lankan government to investigate, identify the incidents of war crimes, the perpetrators, ……………
        Its been 9 whole years, nothing had happened and nothing will happened to the state war criminals.
        As I told you stop s******g in public forums.

        Please you don’t have to bang your head on a wall to think a clever answer.

  • 3
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    Shenal.

    You quote a British Army officer- Major Davy[1818].
    Read what Hugh Cleghorn,the First Colonial Secretary,to the British Governor had to observe in 1799.
    …..Two different nations,from a very ancient period had divided between them the possession of the Island. First the Cinhalese[Sinhalese] inhabiting the interior of the country,in its SOUTHERN AND WESTERN PARTS, from the river Wallowe to that of Chilaw,and secondly the Malabars[Tamils] who posses the Northern and Eastern districts. These two nations differ entirely in their religions,language and manners…..
    Lets be objective as far as possible rather than carried away with emotion based on ethnicity!

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      Plato:
      Excerpt
      COLONISERS AND. SETTLERS
      In the Mahavamsa, that irreplaceable source for the reconstruction of the early history of the island, the story of man in Sri Lanka begins with the arrival there, sometime in the fifth century bc, of Vijaya (the legendary founding father of the Sinhalese) and his turbulent companions—700 in all—who had been banished for misconduct from the Kingdom of Sihapura in Northern India by Sihabahu, Vijaya’s father. After a long and eventful voyage they landed near the present site of Puttalam on the north-west coast, and set about the business of establishing a foothold in the island. Beneath this charming exercise in myth-making lurks a kernel of historical truth—the colonisation of the island by Indo-Aryan tribes from Northern India.* The original home of the first Indo-Aryan inmiigrants to Sri Lanka was probably north-west India and the Indus region.
      There was, very likely, a later immigration from the east around Bengal and Orissa. The Mahawamsa story of Vijaya has it that towards the end of his reign he invited his younger brother in Sihapura to come to Sri Lanka as his successor. This the latter was unwilling to do but he sent his youngest son Paanduvasudeva instead, who landed at Gokanna (now Trincomalee) in the north-east in the north-east of the island with thirty-two followers, and was subsequently enthroned at Upatissagama, thus ensuring the continuity of the Vijayan dynasty. Gokanna was a natural port of disembarkation for boats arriving from the Bay of Bengal, and thus this account of the arrival of Panduvasudeva affords evidence of the possibility of a second wave of colonisation, a hypothesis strengthened by the linguistic affinities between the Sin- halese language in the early phase of its development and the prakrits of Eastern India.
      KMD Silva
      A History of SriLanka

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        Plato

        Please let us know what is the historical message K M D Silva is trying to convey to the rest of the world with his opening paragraph.

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      Plato,

      Even if Hugh Cleghorn had written what you have quoted, it is a completely wrong statement. It was clear knowledge that Kandy possessed the Eastern part of the country at that time. He was clearly mistaken. Besides, how on earth can he separate Kandy from the Sinhalese nation?

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        Shenali

        When did Kandyan kingdom come into existence?

        • 1
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          Native Vedda,

          Contemporary to the Jaffna kingdom.

  • 0
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    ‘History’ is as ‘scientific’ as the recent Lankan cabinet ‘reshuffle’- perhaps less. ‘Historians’ often quote epics like Ramayana, Mahabaradha, Mahawamsa etc.
    Repeat something several times and this gets incorporated into ‘History’. For example the of visit by Buddha to the island was probably symbolic but has got actualised.
    Even very recent events has had the politically correct effect. The pogroms over the past seventy years get the name ”riots’ described as ‘reaction to minority rebellion’.
    The Nandikadal episode is called ‘liberation’ by some and ‘massacre’ by some.
    History will never be history!

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    The Tigers did not have jets and helicopters. Their mono, propeller, planes were slow and clumsy, and of no real military value. Rejected by foreign governments, the Tigers were as isolated internationally as they were totally surrounded in geographic and military terms. In contrast, the government of Sri Lanka received help and advice from several countries, even from those states in competition with, and suspicious of, each other.
    So why the hell the SL government needed all the help to beat LTTE ?

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    Native Veddaha,

    Every inch you dig in this land that you find archaeological evidence of Sinhalese Buddhist as their ancestors living 125,000 years ago being the oldest to-date.

    I am not here to provide you documents or anything and if you are interested , you can go to roer channels and do the research if you want.

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      Nimal,
      I know Lions were living in the jungles of this island for many years.

      • 1
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        Ajith

        There is no evidence to prove either lions or tigers ever existed in the island until the Zoo was built and two factions of human being aligned themselves with those respective animals and started fighting each other under different animal flags.

    • 0
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      Don’t be stupid. Buddhism is not 125,000 years old. The Pancha Sila requires that when you lie, you must make the lie as close to the truth as possible so that you could be believed. Sinhala Buddhists have a lot to learn from the new Pancha Sila of Sinhala Buddhism.

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      Nimal Tissa Wijethunga sounds like a nut case. He may even say the dinosaurs also spoke Sinhala and Buddha was actually born in Sri Lanka. He may be already having enough fans at the Angoda mental institute.

      • 0
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        Agree, but need we even talk about a guy who speaks of the existence of Sinhalese Buddhist 125,000 years ago?
        .
        I’d avoid meeting the guy because it’ll prove extremely difficult to convince him that he’s wrong.
        .
        Many Buddhists not as mad, do believe that Buddha was born in Sri Lanka.

    • 1
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      Nimal Tissass Wijethunga

      You are right. I agree with you.

      “Never argue with an idiot. They will only bring you down to their level and beat you with experience.”

      ― George Carlin

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    Native.

    Frankly, I have still to read this book.It is the brilliant review of Prof:Charles Sarvan that is there.
    But anyway after the first few centuries when it was a Multiracial,Multiethnic society we now have a Buddhist society according to Prof: K.M.de Silva.
    His Kinsman Dr.Colvin R.de Silva when framing that Republican Constitution in1972 enshrined Buddhism to a foremost place.
    As the centuries roll by even the Mahawamsa would be revised, to reflect some weird history to make it still more weird!

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      Plato

      I stopped reading K M D Silva’s contribution to Sri Lankan history when I happened to read one of his articles in which he completely denied the existence of standardization of university entrance.

      People need “something” to justify their existence. In this island Mahawamsa provides the origin myth to support Sinhala/Buddhists thoughts, words and their actions.
      We know what that means.

      • 1
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        Native

        What an insightful article by Dr Sarwan!

        We should be ever so grateful to Prof K M De Silva for keeping the learned readership of Colombo Telegraph on their toes by writing this new treatise. I had a look at faculty members in history departments in Colombo, Kelaniya via the respective web pages.There is no doubt in my mind on Prof Silva’s experience or expertise in Srilankan history.

        However, I wonder whether he understand the gravity of the errors, eloquently expressed by Prof Sarwan. I would like to get hold of the book before saying further. It does not look like Amazon have it in their stock.

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    THERE ARE NO ETHNIC TAMILS IN SRI LANKA, but Tamil language speakers are of Malabari descent.
    /
    Elara, Arya Chakrawarthi, Chelvanayagam, Prabakaran, Ponnamalam, Ponnathure, Sambandan, Sumanthiran, etc are all Malabari (Keralites).
    /
    Finishing off Kallathoni LTTE terrorists should have been a 3 hour job that took 30 year, because of JRJ’s weak leadership. If Sirimawo were the executive president instead of weak but power greedy JRJ, Sirimawo would definitely finish off scum LTTE terrorists. JRJ thought his biggest enemy was Sirimawo, so he was busy fighting with her and as the West ordered him; he took Sirimawo’s civic rights away, granted the citizenship to millions of Kallathonies and coolies, released the imperialist’s proxy – ’71’ JVP terrorists and signed the illegal ’13 amendment’ under duress. Premadasa was busy fighting JVP, the so called IPKF and LTTE- all three at the same time. JVP was 100 times more powerful than the then LTTE terrorists. Prmadasa was even unable to complete his first term as the president. Then came mild mannered Wijetunga whose job was to maintain the stability of the government and the country. Wijetunga only served less than 2 years as the president of Sri Lanka. After Wijetunaga, came ‘The’ Chandriaka the weakest leader in Sri Lanka’s history, she gave 11 years of hell to Sinhalese, the swines like Assroff were in her cabinet. After The Chandrika’s weakest leadership, then came the strongest leadership of Mahinda and Gota who kicked the LTTE arse.
    /
    There were several opportunities to capture Prabakaran which the SL leaders weren’t bothered about. The Tamil police officers at the time beg JRJ to let them give the scum Prabakaran a good treat, for which they weren’t allowed by useless JRJ.
    /
    Every time Kallathoni LTTE terrorists were about to lose the war, they beg for ceasefire with the help of the West, which they were given by the then stupid leaders. During the ceasefires, LTTE terrorists accumulated money and weapons and started attacking Sinhalese again and again. More than 70% of LTTE terrorists were from Tamil Nadu
    /
    Even though the West and India condemned LTTE terrorists openly, they were funding and arming LTTE terrorists secretary. LTTE was one of the richest terrorist organization in the world, if not ‘The’ richest terrorist organization. LTTE received millions of dollars from Canada, Switzerland, Norway, Britain, Malaysia, India, France, Sweden, etc. Still, LTTE and Eelamist diaspora are said to be worth more than 100 billion dollars. Another reason, before Mahinda, no leader dared finishing off LTTE was, those leaders were threatened with false war crime charges by the West, see now, what Mahinda has to deal with.
    /
    Tamil Eelamists started the 83 black July by killing some Sinhalese in the North. Tamil Eelamist butchered innocent Sinhalese barbarically and send their corps to Colombo by the train.
    /
    Eelamists used the Jaffna library as a hub for planning attacks on Sinhalese and their country Sri Lanka.

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    John,

    You have gone back as far as King Elara who ruled between 205-161 BCE.
    .
    You have also said, that
    .
    “Elara, Arya Chakrawarthi, Chelvanayagam, Prabakaran, Ponnamalam, Ponnathure, Sambandan, Sumanthiran, etc are all Malabari (Keralites).”
    .
    If you trace all the ancestors of Sambandan, Sumanthiran, as far as 205 BCE, how many will there be? Are you suggesting that all those ancestors were Keralites. And what about yourself, John, and myself? Not one of those ancestors a Keralite?
    .
    I suggest that to come up with a more convincing argument you study the life of dear Dolly.
    .
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dolly_(sheep)
    .
    You see, a living being NEED have more than one parent. Perhaps it’s been something like that, the History of Our Island.
    .
    Please, for the sake of proving our Aryan purity, I beg that you click on that link.

    • 0
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      Sorry, I decided to CAPITALISE the spelling of one word, and typed in “need” instead of its opposite, “needn’t”.
      .
      That notwithstanding, I hope that John will click on that link to learn about Dolly.

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        Dear S.M,
        You are in danger of arguing with an idiot.

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          oldcodger

          Is Sinhala_Man working for Vatican, LTTE, LTTE diaspora, Tamils Diaspora, INGO, Karunanithy, Vaiko, Seeman, the West, … UNHRC, ……………………? Is he even a authentic Sinhala_Man?

          By the way being intellectually honest Sinhala_Man does not “suffer fools gladly”.

    • 0
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      SINHALA-MAN: The story about the dolly is written by some one and not the absolute truth. Anyway, depending on your religious belief the conclusion changes. Use your same argument to prove that why Sinhala people should give extra to Tamil -protestants. It is simply the desire of protestants to spread their cult and the need of foreign countries to take advantages of that.

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        Jimmy,
        “Use your same argument to prove that why Sinhala people should give extra to Tamil -protestants”
        So it is OK to give extra to Tamil Catholics and Hindus?

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    The variety, relevance (or irrelevance) of the comments here show our tendency to move away from the theme and go ballistic blah blah blah.
    There is lot of oral tradition in history. A century can change the truth.
    Mahawamsa is the result of several centuries of transmission and interpretations.

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    How Pofessor Kingsley Possibly Perceived More Recent Events
    .
    PART ONE
    .

    What impresses me most in this book review is the care with which Professor Sarvan writes; his fastidious choice of words; his humility when dealing with a subject which is not strictly within his field.
    .
    I’ve looked at many of the comments, but can’t swear that I have followed all the links, although I’ve spent more than an hour on those given by:
    .
    Ceylonee / May 5, 2018
    .
    Thanks that’s a lot of information carefully presented, but of how much practical use? The very next comment brings us back to earth:
    .
    Agnos / May 5, 2018
    .
    Yes, the earliest event that it makes sense to now start studying is July 1983, and I have particularly noted what the other Great Historian, Dr Rajan Hoole (Qualification PhD in Mathematics, Oxford University) has to say in a comment above. Yes, through the care he exercises, and his scrupulous honesty, he will be remembered as THE Historian of these troubled times.
    .
    There seems to be general praise for Prof. K.M. de Silva’s “History”, which I have not seen, and am judging entirely on what I see on this blog. This is increasingly becoming our way of reading. It even seems to hold out advantages over how we used to study, since we can jump around the web so much. The main reservations regarding the period before Europeans arrived in 1505 seem to centre upon semantics . Although without a clear break, it all gets more complicated as we get close to the present.
    .
    Dr Rajan Hoole says that when Prof. Kingsley de Silva taught them in 1971 (that must have been in his final year as a student of Electrical Engineering), they were highly impressed.

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      PART FOUR
      ..
      There were posters of all sorts denouncing the government; some of the more entertaining centred upon this case which the JVP had dug up:

      https://www.lawnet.gov.lk/1977/12/31/c-v-udalagama-appellant-and-iranganie-boange-respondent/

      This episode ended with “the Government” ostensibly giving in when the Dean /Science, Professor Dias, who was regarded as a hard-line government supporter, was kidnapped and forced on to the concrete roof-slab joining the Library and the Arts Faculty.
      .
      Here is an account of the background to what was happening:
      .
      http://www.island.lk/index.php?page_cat=article-details&page=article-details&code_title=181957
      .
      Try as we might we cannot get the author of that to part with the valuable material that he has.
      .
      What most of us are now more familiar with is Dr Rajan Hoole’s own account of events in the University leading to the island-wide pogrom:
      .
      https://www.colombotelegraph.com/index.php/university-of-peradeniya-may-1983-when-majesty-stoops-to-folly/
      .
      But what was foremost in the minds of the Administration at this time was keeping “unruly elements” in check. Before the end of 1983, there was a Police Post in the University. I think that by mid-1984, there was an almost accidental shooting of an undergrad by the Police. The Police Station was removed. That same unnecessary death led to the replacement of Vice-Chancellor, Prof. B.L. Panditharatne by Dr Malcolm Fernando, Professor of Community Medicine, who turned out to be surprisingly liberal.

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    Sinhala_Man

    Now you know how we have wasted 70 years of golden opportunity just arguing imagined history with terribly ill-informed Sinhala/Buddhist nationalists/fascists.

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      Yes, NV. Our leaders have always found it easy to drive herds.

      PART TWO : sketched a few days ago – may I put it on now?

      As Rajan says, “our perspectives are coloured by our placement in time, space and communal loyalties we are born with.”
      .
      The same applies to Prof. K.M.de S. As I entered the University in Nov. 1982, to read English as a SECOND-year SAQ student we, too, launched on a background paper which required us to study our Sinhala and Tamil heritages. However, our course was handled by the Departments of Sinhalese and Tamil. It was a useful course.
      .
      The History Department had many Professors/ Lecturers with Doctorates, but very few students. Although we had no lectures from the History Department, we did interact outside lecture hours with a good many of the History staff. Prof. Lelslie Gunewardena used to turn up for tennis; Prof. C.R. de Silva had a daughter who entered the University about 1984, and we organised a few talks by him; Dr Kanapathipilai (I hope I’ve got the name right – he was the Warden of Akbar Hall) was very popular with us.
      .
      We knew that Prof. K.M was quite liberal where ethnic relations were concerned, but by then he was associated in the minds of all undergrads with being an Establishment Figure. He was a member of the U.G.C. and was regarded as the power behind the throne. Today, most readers are aware of the anti-Tamil violence which began on the 11th of May 1983 in the University. But even as all that was going on, there was another quite different struggle going on between the JVP-controlled Student Council and the “Junta” – the UNP establishment.

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        Sinhala_Man

        Thanks.
        Professors R A L H Gunewardena, C.R. de Silva, H. L. Seneviratne, Gananath Obeysekere, ……. in a class of their own where as I would not rank Prof. K.M.de Silva among them.

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          Dear NV,
          .
          I knew nothing of Prof. H.L. Seneviratne. I learn much from you, and am grateful.
          .
          Prof. Gananath Obeysekera was much better known to us in the Department of English. Not just because we knew that he was one of the very few who got a First Class in History. It was also because of his wife, Ranjini whose work continued to be in the field of English.
          .
          And their daughter, Nalinkika, was in the Veterinary Science faculty.
          .
          Yes, it’s nice to give way to some nostalgia!

          .

          https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N1DgTKedZ0k

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            Readers,
            .
            I apologise for the mistake; Prof. Gananath Obeysekera’s first degree was in English where he achieved a First Class. It got typed in wrong, but it cannot be excused as a “typo”.
            .
            I guess many of us make mistakes, this was so bad it warranted correction.
            .
            The fewer mistakes we make the better, but I’ve noticed at least a trend towards honesty – for example this headline,
            .
            https://www.newsfirst.lk/2018/05/205160/
            .
            At least we are beginning to acknowledge the truth, and that we are faced with certain dilemmas. A few others, for instance: we are told that a guy named Polgampola has been removed from Chairmanship of the Timber Corporation, because he had too often been on “the wrong side of the law. So, this man named Shantha Bandara, who has been of the wrong side of the UPFA (i.e. Maithri’s, and not Mahinda’s) at the 2015 General Elections is the replacement.
            .
            The Island headline tells us that clearly: “A plum post for another defeated UPFA candidate”. What sort of guy he turns out to be, we wouldn’t know, but at least we have balanced reporting.
            .
            If I may tie that up with Prof. Sarvan’s article: for about two centuries we, Sinhalese prided ourselves with belief in this Mahawamsa myth. Try to understand us: who wouldn’t like to be flattered with fiction about undiluted noble myths? Many decent village folk who are now departed but who would have been centenarians today, used to speak (when speaking Sinhalese) respectfully of a Tamil man as being “Dravidian”. The myth may have been believed, but it was not nasty. They thought that the politer way to refer to a Tamil speaker.
            .
            This is just to tell Tamil speakers, give us guys time to accustom ourselves to this more accurate version, that many Sinhalese are beginning to accept, which must be at least half way towards Prof. Indrapala’s interpretation, . Emulate Prof. Sarvan’s careful reservations of Kingsley de Silva.

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      PART THREE
      .
      In December 1982, I think that there were Student Council Elections, which resulted in a clash between the two forces. A Commission headed by retired Justice C.V. Udalagama spent much of early and mid-1983, hearing evidence on that, and by the end of the 1983 or so the University Council decided to act on the recommendations although we knew that one of the three Commissioners, “L. R. L. Perera. a retired Deputy Director of Agriculture (Engineering)” had submitted point by point dissent running in to several pages .
      .
      https://www.lawnet.gov.lk/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/021-SLLR-SLLR-1985-V1-NANAYAKKARA-v.-UNIVERSITY-OF-PERADENIYA-AND-OTHERS.pdf
      .
      The JVP was certainly not racist, but they didn’t mind a certain amount of chaos. It was a situation in which no one was quite sure what line to take.
      .
      By 1983 a large section of the staff had taken to being aloof of the students, especially those in the Arts Faculty. So a lot of them were herded out to “The Dumbara Campus” in Polgolla just to make sure that “trouble-making JVP types didn’t disturb the serious studies of the others. This reasoning was, of course, all wrong. However, I feel that English-speaking Sri Lanka, and The Establishment went along with this. I think that they downplayed all the problems, including the pogrom. I’m sure that some of them genuinely thought that all that racist unrest came from the JVP, which I realised even then was far from the truth.
      .

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      PART THREE
      .
      In December 1982, I think that there were Student Council Elections, which resulted in a clash between two forces – The UNP vs The JVP . A Commission headed by retired Justice C.V. Udalagama spent much of early and mid-1983, hearing evidence on that, and by the end of the 1983 or so the University Council decided to act on the recommendations although we knew that one of the three Commissioners, “L. R. L. Perera. a retired Deputy Director of Agriculture (Engineering)” had submitted point by point dissent running in to several pages .
      .
      https://www.lawnet.gov.lk/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/021-SLLR-SLLR-1985-V1-NANAYAKKARA-v.-UNIVERSITY-OF-PERADENIYA-AND-OTHERS.pdf
      .
      The JVP was certainly not racist, but they didn’t mind a certain amount of chaos. It was a situation in which no one was quite sure what line to take.
      .
      By 1983 a large section of the staff had taken to being aloof of the students, especially those in the Arts Faculty. So a lot of them were herded out to “The Dumbara Campus” in Polgolla just to make sure that “trouble-making JVP types didn’t disturb the serious studies of the others. This reasoning was, of course, all wrong. However, I feel that English-speaking Sri Lanka, and The Establishment went along with this. I think that they downplayed all the problems, including the pogrom. I’m sure that some of them genuinely thought that all that racist unrest came from the JVP, which I realised even then was far from the truth.
      .

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      PART FIVE
      .
      By this time there were no Student Councils (all banned), and I remember meeting Prof. Malcolm Fernando in 1984 to discuss the request by some Tamil students to be considered for the award of Classes despite their missing their “Proper Exam” in 1983. When I referred to the Lanerolle Committee report, he could remember nothing of it, but thought that I was talking about the Udalalgama Commission Report – not surprising because now I see that this was about when Sarath Nanayakkara returned to the University – the dates on the order are OCTOBER 2, 3, 4 , 5 AND NOVEMBER 16. 1984.
      .
      As I remember them, these problems with Left-Wing students were what seemed to concern most people in the University at that time. This must have been a particularly difficult time for Prof. Kingsley de Silva to interact freely with students, or even with staff.
      .
      As for the Aryan-Dravidian divide, I can’t help feeling that although many of us today have come to know of DNA testing and realising that there is no such thing as “Pure Racial Stock”, I can’t help feeling that forty years ago even Professors of History may not have been really conscious of the extent to which the Sinhalese and the Tamils are ethnically close to identical.
      .
      These are common-sensical thoughts which arise in my mind as I try to account for Prof. De Silva not much knowing ideas which seem fairly well disseminated today. For lay readers like me, it has become possible to gain access to ideas floating on the Internet, but the less curious will possibly still end up remembering what they are told as children before they even enter schools, namely that we Sinhalese are all Aryans.

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