4 December, 2020

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When Education For Everyone Excluded Everyone Else

By Uditha Devapriya

Uditha Devapriya

The second in a series of essays delving into the problems of our education system

It has been pointed out that vernacular education in Sri Lanka predates the Kannangara reforms, an argument that is usually made by those who have an axe to grind with Kannangara and those reforms. It is, of course, a flawed argument, given that while the Morgan Committee was ostensibly concerned with the establishment of vernacular schools this was not done with the aim of providing a decent education for everyone and anyone. Indeed the cost of schooling became so prohibitive that it deterred everyone but the more affluent sections of the rural petty bourgeoisie from attending them. Besides, with the implementation of distance clauses, such schools were shut down if a missionary institution was nearby. They did not teach in English, moreover, which in colonial society was essential in getting to the top.

Antipathy to free education stems from two schools of thought. The first discounts what Kannangara did on the basis that he fuelled an entire generation of chauvinists through an education system differentiated on the basis of language and ethnicity. Kannangara, however, has been vilified like Bandaranaike for the wrong reasons here, because in the original proposals for free education he called for a bilingual education. In a context where less than 5% or 6% of the country spoke English, it was essential not only that Sinhala and Tamil be taught but also that education in swabasha be accompanied by education in the colonial tongue.

It’s ironic that the beneficiaries of free education themselves write against it, but they are preferable to that other school of thought which criticises Kannangara: those who believe that the colonial distinctions between “elite” and “mass” education promoted a nationalism that brought together all the ethnicities of the country. The proponents of this rather strange theory are, to be sure, a dying breed, and their argument rests on the assumption that the educationists who opposed the Kannangara proposals were moved by benign motives and that those proposals, when implemented, fermented rebellion against the elite (which, for these people, is strangely a bad thing).

In that sense, what Canon R. S. De Saram, Warden of S. Thomas’ College and a member of the National Education Committee, once said in a speech in front of Kannangara must be quoted verbatim:

… [i]t would be a pity if criticism should be allowed to degenerate into mere acrimony between those who differ on fundamental problems. Ill temper or partisanship will not solve our difficulties; nor the imposition by decree or otherwise of any one rigid system for all schools. On the contrary, toleration within limits of many varieties of educational practice is indicated by our varying conditions as the right and wise policy.

Note the hostility to any attempt made by the State to impose a uniform standard for all schools. If this argument can be considered valid, it can also be discounted by the simple fact that the State, i.e. the colonial government, had already implemented such a standard, for the vernacular and so-called Central Schools. There were hardly any differences between them, and they were distinguished by the lack of funds and the lack of proper maintenance they had to suffer on account of the government concentrating on the prestigious state and assisted schools.

This is not to say that the colonial government neglected other schools altogether: expenditure on education rose from Rs. 3,465,703 in 1920 to Rs. 12,053,379 in 1930, an increase of almost 250%. But the question to be raised at this point is whether the government was spending enough on schools that needed to be spent on. Even if State schools received a lion’s share of this rise in spending, it received that at a time when education had in effect been made compulsory through Ordinance No. 1 of 1920, which set up a Board of Education and empowered a Director of Education. Sydney Wanasinghe referred to this as “the first comprehensive education Ordinance” in Sri Lanka: it was followed 11 years later by the more democratic Executive Committee on Education that the Donoughmore Constitution created. Kannangara, of course, became the first Chairman of this Committee.

Those who contend that these changes were achieved by a benign elite concerned with the welfare of poor children are thus deluding themselves. There were several factors that made the shift in policy during these years inevitable, especially the rise of the labour movement in Ceylon and the rise of the Labour Party in Britain.

Even that most heralded document, the Morgan Committee Report, qualified its proposal for vernacular education with the caveat that it was to be just “elementary education in Sinhalese and Tamil”, to be laid aside, if circumstances compelled it, in favour of “greater encouragement… to denominational schools” (Wanasinghe 1968). The so-called benign spirit that prevailed over the Report was seen only too clearly for what it was 10 years later, when with the coffee crash the government did everything to cut back on spending, especially via the then Director of Public Instruction Charles Bruce’s Revised Education Code. The effects were slow in coming, but they came: government spending on education fell between 1880 and 1885, because of the Code, but more importantly (according to Roland Wenzlhuemer in his extensive work From Coffee to Tea Cultivation in Ceylon, 1880-1900) because of the distance clauses that led to the closure of rural schools.

A careful perusal of debates, committee and administrative reports, and sessional papers from these years and decades will “enlighten” anyone who believes that the great education policymakers, attached to the prestigious schools as principals or major officials and administrators, believed in education for all. Mention has been made of J. M. Harward, who made the case for the “higher education of the few” over the “elementary education of the many” in 1904 (The History of Royal College, 1931). Naming names is rather distasteful and in a way irrelevant to this piece, but it is also essential in order to dispel the notion that colonial education policy was concerned with the many rather than the few.

Among the riders to the Report of the Special Committee on Education of 1943 was Kannangara’s erstwhile foe, the redoubtable R. S. De Saram, whose dissent was the most pronounced. The argument made by De Saram, one shared by almost all those who opposed the proposed scheme to make education free for all, was that it was being rushed into without accounting for the changes that were sweeping across the country: some of the provisions in the proposals were, at times, “obscure in some respects.” But just what were these “respects”?

It was the usual contention: “universal free education at all stages is an ideal to be aimed at but that approach to it should be made in cautious steps.” The argument was that the country could ill afford such a scheme, and the solution, for De Saram at least, was “the principle… that each pupil pays according to his ability”, or in other words, a scholarship scheme whereby “[b]oys paying full fees, those paying part fees and those paying none are in the same school.” This latter scheme was similar to the one that had been “successfully adopted in England.”

To the argument that conditions “were different in Ceylon”, his rejoinder was that it was not a convincing point to make. But then it was, not because conditions in Ceylon (following the Donoughmore Constitution and the granting of the franchise) were different, but because the British system hadn’t achieved the target that De Saram had thought it successfully had. N. M. Perera, from his cell at the Bogambara Prison, was at the time writing a critique of the Special Committee, The Case for Free Education, which laid down as to why this was so. I will get to this essay (copies of which were distributed then and there) next week, because many of the issues in it that Perera highlighted are relevant to our time and to this issue.

De Saram, meanwhile, was not to have his way: his tenure as Warden at S. Thomas’ was set against not just the speedy implementation of the proposals of the Committee Report, but also the dismantling of English education in favour of vernacular/bilingual education, the introduction of a scholarship scheme that continues in an evolved form today, and the effective removal of de facto State subsidies which were being granted to the denominational schools, whose principals ironically had opposed the handing over of subsidies to poor government schools in the first place.

Free Education, viewed this way, had to be fought for, not just against the colonial authorities, but also against the local educated elite who, in the guise of this or that excuse (such as the prohibitive costs that would have to be incurred to maintain free schools in the country), fought vehemently to preserve their interests. Those interests incidentally were in the form of State patronage to their schools, the same kind of patronage they had wanted to deny to the poorer schools.

*Uditha Devapriya is a freelance writer who can be reached at udakdev1@gmail.com

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Latest comments

  • 10
    3

    Uditha my man,

    It’s a nice piece …………. but you have to first define what you mean by “education.” …….. Your idea of education might be different from others.

    Mahinda too, gave his brood an education – which I consider is one of the best – to rise to the top and live in luxury with zero marketable skills/talents. ………Isn’t that what we want for our offspring? Rise to the top? If your “education” means something else, please define.

    Look at the other millions of “honest” parents daily carting their brood to schools/tuition ……… 95% of them will end up poor and suffering. Aren’t they all fools/idiots? …….. After all, at the core, we are all still animals trying to wade through the “survival-jungle!”

    If we are smart, we should convert all schools/education to turn out the best grifters in the world ………… you may be unable to see it and wouldn’t be able to even bring yourself to think about it (how many times must a man look up
    before he can see the sky?) ……….but look around ……… that’s what we are doing and admire the most anyway ………. how did Donald and Mahinda become so popular ……… and admired? :))

    When Mahinda dies there will be 5,000,000 people at his funeral ……… and I know people who donated all their wealth to schools/education, orphanages and old-age-homes ……….. and even the recipients of their largess weren’t at their funerals.

    People instinctively recognise Mahinda as a great “educationist.” :))

    • 3
      0

      Nothing but nationalism was instrumental aforementioned men to become so popular.
      :
      In lanken context, whoever whatever being said and done, average mind set would never see it right, so long local main stream media refrain from telling truths. If local media for exmaple, repeated that LTTE was defeated by the collectivity placing the much higher sacrifices of lanken army and other two forces. Sarath Fonseka would have been held above altar by LANKENs.
      :
      It was the family politics and their might and abuse nature painted the picture in favour their political survival for the future. Meaning not necessarily that MR was that pragmatic even if he led it. Some experts analyse it today, it was the GOBBELS style propaganda made him an untouchable in tihs country. But we very well know how INHUMAN he has been in the post war scenario inthe country; not being even safeguard basic human rights, even if so called alleged war crimes would have been put aside.
      :
      And the people’s gullibility in this country – over 90% of people are brainwashed by SORCERY and Astrology. Longer they stay linked to those supertious beliefs, politicians could easily reap the harvest (grabbing their votes).

      Tobe contd,

  • 10
    2

    continued

    Education is training to see the world “as is” ……… not getting trapped in an illusion of what ye want it to be.

    In most institutions of “education” ………. more than learning ………..you learn about things you shouldn’t learn.

    That’s why in photographs I’m not standing behind Mahinda (or Ranil) with an innocent smile (only babies first attempting to smile do that) ……… I don’t need anything from them ……….. “education” has given me the wherewithal to survive on my own.

    btw ……. now you are a good analyst ……. write a piece why fully grown Lankan adults stand next to powerful Lankan figurers with that peculiar babyish smile! :))

    Ah humans! I wish I had your ability to …….. not understand them ……

    “We Cannot Not Know History”

    • 7
      0

      To add,

      Let me venture out to say something that might turn out to be very controversial but true.

      The failing of our school system is, not that they don’t produce enough moral, ethical, honest, dedicated, what-ever-you-prefer ………. products ……… but they don’t produce enough world-class grifters/ethics-morals-benders who can “get away with it!”

      What do you think the output of Yale-law and Harvard-business is? World-class moralists? Ethicists? :))

      That’s why America is America and Sri Lanka is Sri Lanka. …………… It’s a societal-fault ……. They are light years ahead in understanding human-nature ……….. while we are still searching for a nonexistent morality and waiting for the pristine messiah to fall from the sky!

      ……. just when I was thinking that Donald fell from the sky!

      Anyone care to discuss/argue this?

  • 2
    1

    “In 1971, a system of standardisation of marks was introduced for admissions to the universities, obviously directed against Tamil-medium students (referred to earlier). K.M. de Silva describes it as follows:
    ‘The qualifying mark for admission to the medical faculties was 250 (out of 400) for Tamil students, whereas it was only 229 for the Sinhalese. Worse still, this same pattern of a lower qualifying mark applied even when Sinhalese and Tamil students sat for the examination in English. In short, students sitting for examinations in the same language, but belonging to two ethnic groups, had different qualifying marks.’
    He observes that by doing this in such an obviously discriminatory way, ‘the United Front Government of the 1970s caused enormous harm to ethnic relations.’
    This was not the end; in 1972 the ‘district quota system’ was introduced, again to the detriment of the Sri Lankan Tamil people. The (Sinhalese) historian C.R. de Silva wrote:
    ‘By 1977 the issue of university admissions had become a focal point of the conflict between the government and Tamil leaders. Tamil youth, embittered by what they considered discrimination against them, formed the radical wing of the Tamil United Liberation Front. Many advocated the use of violence to establish a separate Tamil state of Eelam. It was an object lesson of how inept policy measures and insensitivity to minority interests can exacerbate ethnic tensions .’

  • 9
    0

    I believe the reforms that led to the sinhala/tamil-medium education has helped several generations. My paternal grandfather was a school principal in an outer-lying suburb of Colombo 1920-50s. He educated his 7 children well, starting in the rural schools. Several of his children joined more “prestigious” ones such as Ananda College and Visakha Vidyalaya for their secondary school education. His grandchildren attended the “elite” government schools in Colombo (Royal,Visakha), and some private (Ladies’) and ended up doing well professionally with several emigrating to work as doctors, engineers etc. in UK, North America and Australia.
    What happened on my maternal grandfather’s side is ironic. He was anglicized, having successfully passed the Oxford entrance exam (although his widowed mother was not rich enough to send him to England for higher studies). He lived in the city of Colombo, in a upper-middle class section and educated his 7 children in private primary schools, where they learnt “good” English from nuns and burghers. Only a few of them were successful in attending university though, and even fewer of them became professionals. Among his grandchildren, the ones that did succeed attended the Colombo International School, or were children of graduates of the University of Peradeniya.
    Wealth in Sri Lanka seems to bring about a kind of academic lethargy that seems to stymie advancement in the professions. Yet, my cousins who are not professionals seem to do fine in Colombo, due to the fact that they own land and have capital to go in to the business arena or short spells of work in the Middle East.
    It is my experience that the most academically gifted Sri Lankans emigrate for professional jobs in the UK, Australia and the US. This emigration opens up space for the next tier of Sri Lankans to fill in the vacancies left by the departing professionals.

  • 9
    1

    sinhalese buddhist

    “It is my experience that the most academically gifted Sri Lankans emigrate for professional jobs in the UK, Australia and the US. This emigration opens up space for the next tier of Sri Lankans to fill in the vacancies left by the departing professionals.”

    Its brain drain on a larger scale.
    Whoever replace the leavers may not fill the quantity are they of the same quality?
    Why do they leave?

  • 12
    1

    Thanks, Uditha, for getting back on track with this article. I think that you make your points very well.
    .
    However, more searing by far are the two comments by “nimal fernando”. It is true; for us today Education has become the means whereby individuals “get somewhere”. It appears no longer to serve any nobler purpose. Pandering to these vanities, our people are ideed reduced to being imbeciles.
    .
    Effectively reaping benefits are despicable tuition masters like Bandula Gunawardena.
    .
    I’m glad that Anpu and “sinhalese buddhist” too have come up with authentic experiences. I’m mulling on whether I have anything of value to contribute, having spent my entire life in this field, focussing especially on English.

    • 6
      1

      Dear Uditha,
      .
      Many busy readers read only the main articles, skipping the comments. May I suggest that you give them the link to the related articles in the body of the article?
      .
      Let me do it here:
      .
      https://www.colombotelegraph.com/index.php/on-bandula-gunawardanes-point-the-historical-context/
      .
      and hope that many others give us their thoughts on this vitally important subject.
      .
      To my mind an educated man serves the society that he lives in; we are producing people with learning who give themselves airs, while deluding ourselves that morality is what rules here.

      • 7
        0

        SM,

        “To my mind an educated man serves the society that he lives in”

        How many? Willingly or unwillingly?

        What “service” did Einstein do to society …….. in proportion/comparison to his own prestige/fame?

        Even Mother Theresa was more about herself …… than the poor/sick ……. it’s another facet of self-interest ……. therapy/happiness.

        “The invisible hand is a term used by Adam Smith to describe the unintended social benefits of an individual’s self-interested actions. The phrase was employed by Smith with respect to income distribution (1759) and production (1776). The exact phrase is used just three times in Smith’s writings, but has come to capture his notion that individuals’ efforts to pursue their own interest may frequently benefit society more than if their actions were directly intending to benefit society.”

        Gotta be brutal …… brutally realistic ………. if not what is the use of “education” ……. unless only to be used as a drug for self-pacification. ……. to find some illusionary mental-comfort. ………..

        • 7
          2

          Thanks for refining my statement, nimal.
          .
          By “the society he lives in”, I mean something much broader than this narrow Nationalistic thing that too many are obsessed with. However, unless a person can relate to those in his family, village, and country, it all becomes spurious.
          .
          On the other hand, the world has become a more cosmopolitan place. You obviously live outside the land of your birth, but your ability to comment so meaningfully on what happens here demonstrates that you are living in a way that has meaning to you; thereby you are able to see clearly the problems that confront this land of ours, where we emphasise so much its political independence.
          .
          The opposite of independence is not being subjected to a colonial power. That happened, and is past. What we should do is to live our lives so that they are meaningful to us. Thereby we ought to be contributing to the well-being of society. As you have quoted, the “invisible hand”. There is no need to be consciously altruistic.
          .
          There is much more to be said, but where are the observations of others? With this comment of mine it becomes only eleven – four most insightful comments from “nimal”, three from me. Anpu, sinhalese buddhist, and NV have also said sensible things, but where are the others?
          .
          We’re getting swamped by all the politics!

          • 7
            0

            Dear SM,
            thanks for your coments. I fond of reading your finely formed comments.
            :
            Education – has several meanings in the REGION than any other parts of the world. This reminded me how Indian political disclosures used the term “educated” to distinquish the nature of Rajaakshe and Sirisena from Ranil Wickramasinghe. They used the term educated whenever they spoke about the behaviour of Ranil Wickramasinghe.
            My elders used the word ” educated” to name cultured and mannerd people, not necessarily they had been even basic degree holders.
            .
            Eudcation:educated
            /ˈɛdjʊkeɪtɪd
            adjective
            having been educated.
            “a Harvard-educated lawyer”
            resulting from or having had a good education.
            “educated tastes”
            synonyms: informed, literate, schooled, tutored, well informed, well read, learned, knowledgeable, intellectually aware, enlightened, discerning, discriminating; intellectual, academic, erudite, scholarly, studious, bookish, highbrow, literary, cultivated, cultured, refined; informalcerebral; datedlettered
            “an educated workforce learns how to exploit new technology”

            sorry if I bothered you not being coherent to the topic, but I thought to add this to you this way.
            :
            And I am afraid, I di dnot go to read the article but your comments only.

          • 4
            1

            I’m sorry, I should have been more careful with my punctuation in the fourth paragraph. Please read the first sentence there as:
            .
            The opposite of independence is not “being subjected to a colonial power”.
            .
            What I mean is, we don’t want to be ordered around by some foreign people, but we must interact with other peoples on the basis of equal dignity. I fear that if we want true equality, we have to achieve a lot more in terms of the economy, and winning the respect of people for our own decency.
            .
            MsMaralathoni, thanks for kind words, but I think that you must read the article as well. I guess youmeant to say that you would do so, as soon as time permits. We’ve got to get our facts right, and I’m hoping that Uditha will do that hard work.

            • 2
              0

              Thank you Sinhala Man@
              .
              All is well with you. I just wanted to check your posts and logged me on.
              :
              I sometimes dont read the articles if the guys belong to that estranged guy – Mr Self-proclaimed POLITICIAL analyst (Dayan Silva Jayathilaka).
              .
              Udhitha may be a good guy, but he should not be guided by DJ. DJ is absolutedly a mutation that is born to destroy this nation.
              :
              By the way, as a subtle thinker, you may also bring good articles Mr Sinhala Man.
              There are whole lot of topics that need to be addressed in a forum such CT.
              – why LOCAL MAIN STREAM media are biased and totally abused/ entwined going by Rajapakshe abusive poltiics
              – why LOCAL MAIN STREMA media keep away the information of vital importance – like hugely reduced prices of MEDICAL drugs/Medical Devices (Stents) ( stents prices have gone down by 2/3 of their prices during the last 3 years- instead 3 lacks or more, now they pay 1 lack something)
              – Roads accidents and the law reforms etc.

              • 2
                0

                Dayan Jayatilleke is a brilliant man, but I agree that it’s best to steer clear of his writings.
                .
                Our lives are getting shorter relative to the amount of knowledge that each of us can access. Little purpose in spending time figuring what a chameleon-writer really means.
                .
                Lives are getting chronologically longer of course, and given the change of pace of technological change, it is dangerous for the old (like me) to attempt to govern. I have never governed, so that message is meant for our aging trio of Sinhala politicians.

                • 0
                  0

                  Dear Sinhala Man,
                  I am afraid, I beg to differ you about Mr Selfproclaimed (DJ) even if lanken BLACK media may have lifted his for some reasons. Btw, Why you think he is a brillant man. It is not all its cracked up to be. I am afraid, I have not noticed his person being ever consistent from what he has always been uttering to the public. To be honest, to me he is an another WIMAL WEERAWANSE in English version.
                  .
                  Let alone, his hypocrite nature is public secret. He may be good at rabblerousing the nation going by the vendetta he may have with PM Wickramasinghe, but I have not evidence to hold him as brilliant in any areas
                  ..
                  Now being in Russia, his boths ends being shut, may well be trying to go for an another rabblerousing event to come. Alone his diehard argument to protect Rajapakshes make him an another stupid person, who would no different to the masses who have now been caught by Rajapakshe mantra.

  • 8
    0

    Emil

    The rest of my post has been truncated by CT. Therein I was bemoaning the loss of the investment our government-funded schools made in the people who have emigrated. Your point about the potential lowering of the quality of the professionals left behind is a good one.

    Even those that choose to return to the island, find it difficult to find meaningful work in their fields of expertise – partly due to the inherent nepotism in our professions, and the corrupting power of politicians, elites and their family dynasties.

    Sirisena is said to have made a plea for Sri Lankan emigres to return to serve in SL. But I doubt they would take him seriously, until and unless he and our other politicians can prove that our spheres of employment is corruption-free and practice meritocracy.

  • 2
    1

    What I was hoping is that this article would lead to us knowing more facts about Education and help relate education to social conditions etc. For instance, by now my own mind is a bit hazy about the Morgan Committee Report; Uditha has helpfully drawn our attention to the fact that when there was a loss of revenue owing to the Coffee Blight about 135 years ago, the British cut back on spending. That was the Colonial set up.
    .
    R.S. de Saram’s 25 years at the helm of S. Thomas’ can rightly be seen as an era of transition. For all the reservations that have been made, the school was run well, and a lot of good resulted. But we must move on from there.
    .
    Now see the situation today. The problems here are much to do with the inability to move on from one special problem to a solution that transcends the particular.
    .
    https://www.colombotelegraph.com/index.php/justice-delayed-is-justice-denied-to-a-11-year-old/comment-page-1/#comment-2246406
    .
    It would be good if Uditha gives us some idea of the scope of his study. A proper on-line discussion is very necessary. Let me respond to “nimal fernando’s” challenging observations separately.

  • 3
    0

    There was a major flaw in the Free Education legislation.
    It totally ignored the plantation workers whose education was left at the mercy of the planters, to whom ability to place one\’s signature on a piece of paper was more than enough educatin for an ‘estate coolie’.

  • 2
    0

    SJ, aka Prof Sivasegaram, is one of the most intelligent persons who comment on CT. Lesser mortals like us ramble.
    .
    I feel that it is my duty to write about these “Estate Schools”, but the prospect daunts me. I must write an article on that fairly soon, even if I know that it will hardly be the valuable one that must come.
    .
    I’m not a Tamil, I don’t know the language at all. I haven’t really taught Tamil children; maybe one or two “quislings” to be found in essentially Sinhalese classes. On the other hand, I feel that it is my duty to kick start this and leave it to others to take me to task for all the distortions that will be ubiquitous. No shame in confessing ignorance, I guess, since I will be doing it since nobody else has done it. To embark on this one needs to have an overview of education elsewhere in the country.
    .
    I have trained some Tamil teachers of English who work in State-Recognised schools. I have acquired some knowledge of “International Schools”. More that all else, I have seen for myself what abject conditions still prevail, although I must tell you that there have been huge changes for the better during the fifty years of my experience. How am I going to face the cross-examination, when I have no facts at my finger-tips?
    .
    I have already written articles on CT on three quite different schools (or one might even say four schools were involved). They evoked interest, but we got nowhere. With Sirisena mad, it would be opportune to expose those who pose as paragons of rectitude.
    is one of the most intelligent persons who comment on CT. Lesser mortals like us ramble.

  • 1
    0

    PART TWO
    .
    Uditha, Malinda Seneviratne (whom I used to know very well 35 years ago), and Malinda’s father want the Rajapaksas to return – a prospect as dismal as the continuance of the stubborn Ranil. Now they are trying to compare “young ” Nasheed’s entry into the Maldivian Parliament with Rajapaksa’s Kurunegala sojourn. SJ may not be very happy with the way I expose that.
    .
    My unique perspectives have been a curse to me, but some work of interest may yet be done by me. I know that I will be “rewarded” handsomely if I embark on this venture: I will be lauded by my own, Sinhalese, people, as the “Lord of the Qislings”, worse even that that other Seneviratne, Brian of that ilk.
    .
    It’d desperately necessary for us to realise that “land has been taken away”, injustices have always got precipitated throughout history, in other places as well. Take America. Trump is an extremist; there are black terrorist groups, but there’s so much positive that we can learn from this incident. Here’s the white boy:

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c8ZhDGaQMS4

    Nathan Philips, the Native American is so decent and civilised:

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?reload=9&v=71Jw0UrjvbA

    Please watch these; I travelled by CTB bus from Colombo to Bandarawela last morning. Then got my bike repaired and then spent all night at the computer appalled, yet thrilled that in some places in the world there are sane people. I hope I manage some sleep tonight.
    .
    SJ, I remember how much we Arts students venerated a number of Engineering Professors including you. If lessons are not getting drawn from all this, please point them out in your inimitable style.

    https://www.azcentral.com/story/entertainment/media/2019/01/23/savannah-guthries-interview-nick-sandmann-wasnt-great-but/2662262002/

    How must more must we do, before our aching bones are allowed to rest at last?

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