23 October, 2021

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Yes, The Sinhalese Have Their Origins In Bengal, Odisha

The genetic, cultural and linguistic relation that the Sinhalese population shares with the Bengalis and Odiyas, though of scholarly interest, has remained largely ignored by the popular masses, writes Indian Express’ journalist Adrija Roychowdhury.

One of the murals at the Ajanta caves carry an elaborate depiction of King Vijaya’s travel to the Sinhalese town. (Source: Wikimedia Commons)

One of the murals at the Ajanta caves carry an elaborate depiction of King Vijaya’s travel to the Sinhalese town. (Source: Wikimedia Commons)

In a recent book, “The ocean of churn: How the Indian ocean shaped human history”, writer Sanjiv Sanyal remarks that the symbol of the lion that is so important among the Sinhalese is equally revered among the Odiyas and Bengalis. While the Narasimha (God Vishnu as half man and half lion) is worshipped in Odisha, among Bengalis the image of Goddess Durga is incomplete without the lion upon which she rides. In the opinion of Sanyal, the image of the lion on the Sri Lankan flag and the religious symbolism of the lion in Odisha and Bengal have the same cultural origins.

But it is not just mythology that reflects upon this connection. In his study titled “Genetic affinities of Sri Lankan Populations”, Gautam Kumar Kshatriya found that 25.41 per cent of the genetic make up on the Sinhalese population was contributed by the Bengalis. Linguistically too, scholars have for long remarked upon the Indo-Aryan origins of the Sinhalese speech.

In her celebrated account on the development of the Bengali language, Suniti Kumar Chatterjee comments upon the Indo-Aryan content in the Sinhalese speech in the following words: “The first immigrants who carried the Indo-Aryan speech to Ceylon seem to have been from the Western Indian coast. Later from 3rd century BC onwards Ceylon seems to have come in touch with Magadha through Bengal and traditions of intimate connections between Bengal and Ceylon are preserved in Bengali literature.”

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  • 16
    5

    Expose the infiltrators from North India and settled in Southern island

    • 11
      4

      Adrija Roychowdhury and Sanjiv Sanyal,

      RE: Yes, The Sinhalese Have Their Origins In Bengal, Odisha

      Yes, The Sinhalese are Para-Sinhala from In Bengal, Odisha, in the Land of Native Veddah Aethho.

      “In his study titled “Genetic affinities of Sri Lankan Populations”, Gautam Kumar Kshatriya found that 25.41 per cent of the genetic make up on the Sinhalese population was contributed by the Bengalis. Linguistically too, scholars have for long remarked upon the Indo-Aryan origins of the Sinhalese speech.”

      Yes, the Sinhala are Paras from Bengal and the balance 75% is Para Genes from South India. The Sinhala are 100% Para, just like their Para-Cousins, Para-Tamils.

      Mitochondrial DNA history of Sri Lankan ethnic people: their relations within the island and with the Indian subcontinental populations

      Journal of Human Genetics (2014) 59, 28–36; doi:10.1038/jhg.2013.112; published online 7 November 2013

      Through a comparison with the mtDNA HVS-1 and part of HVS-2 of Indian database, both Tamils and Sinhalese clusters were affiliated with Indian subcontinent populations than Vedda people who are believed to be the native population of the island of Sri Lanka.

      http://www.nature.com/jhg/journal/v59/n1/full/jhg2013112a.html

      • 4
        1

        Amarey, I knew you will have a contribution to make.
        Reading the link you mention, there is ‘No’ difference in the genetic make up btw the Sinhalese and the Tamils in SL.

        For sure, the ancestors of the Genetic commoner ( Sinhalese and Tamils ) genocided (emphasis mine ) the original Vedda people. A case of ‘Replacement Theory’ as it is known.

        May I recommend, to your reading list, Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind by Yuval Noah Harari.

        Cheers.
        V.

      • 5
        1

        Amarasiri:-

        “Yes, The Sinhalese are Para-Sinhala from Bengal, Odisha, in the Land of Native Veddah Aethho.”

        But you can’t get away from the fact that the ‘Native Veddah Aethho’
        also originated in Africa! Check your DNA!

        • 14
          6

          Hamlet

          “also originated in Africa! Check your DNA!”

          My ancestors walked, and walked and walked … until they reached this land, unlike the Kallthonies who came here much later in the history of this island.

          Since we have some prove, it’s high time we deported Aryan Sinhala/Buddhists such racists as somasss, lal loo, jim softy, Nuisance, such, SLcitizen, De Silva, Wimal Weera sangili ge, Taraki, max moron, ……. ballah, Sinhala Panda, ……… back to where they belong, Kalinga.

          • 4
            16

            Dumb native veddo:

            My ancestors walked, and walked and walked … until they reached this land, unlike the Kallthonies who came here much later in the history of this island.

            I understand you write like a monkey.

            Do you walk like a monkey walking with two legs ?

            • 11
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              jim softy dimwit

              “Do you walk like a monkey walking with two legs ?”

              What a stupid question I do walk with two legs.

              Your typing reminds me of your ancestors and how the drunken monkey hypothesis (proposed by scientists Robert Dudley and Dustin Stephens) applies to you.

            • 6
              3

              In my view, I would be comfortable to have the monkey as my forefather compred to having,
              – a lion as the first forefather,
              – two sibilings are my great great great,,, grandparents,
              – Vijaya, a rogue who was abandoned and deported by his grandfather, and his righe friends as great great.. grandfathers
              – Tamil Pandya girls as the great great.. grandmothers

              What kind of blood does an average Sinhala person have?

              Pure monkey blood is much better than mixed blood like a third world sewage.

              By the way, ho do Sinhalese people claim they have lion blood? After all, Vijaya was one of 701 useless kallaththoni boys on that boat that landed in the Mannar area. Only Vijaya had half lion blood. But, all kallaththoni boys were married to Pandya girls. So, all Sinhalese people should have 50% Indian Tamil blood.

              DNA test anyone?????

              • 7
                1

                Rohan

                “By the way, ho do Sinhalese people claim they have lion blood? “

                Sinhala/Buddhists were the pioneers in genetic engineering, they were able to create the first ever hybrid of beauty and a beast.

                The stupid Tamils have no such achievement to call theirs.

        • 3
          3

          Hamlet

          “But you can’t get away from the fact that the ‘Native Veddah Aethho’ also originated in Africa! Check your DNA!”

          Yes, All Home Sapiens, originated from Africa. However, the Native Veddah Aethho were the FIRST to The Land and claim the Land as that belonging to the Native Veddah Aethho from around 30,000 to 8.000 years ago, when the sea levels were low, and they most probably walked.

          The Para-Sinhala invasion happened from around 2,500 years ago from the Para homelands, India, Baharat, Damba Diva followed by Para-Tamils.

          Remember, the Para-Sinhala who came by illegal Boats, Hora-Oru, Kalla-Thoni are using the same argument against the Para-Tamils and other Paras, in the and of Native Veddah Aethho.

          Sri Lanka’s Indigenous Wanniya-laeto: A Case History

          http://vedda.org/wanniyalaeto.htm

          Sri Lanka’s indigenous inhabitants, the Veddas or Wanniya-laeto (‘forest-dwellers’) as they call themselves, preserve a direct line of descent from the island’s original Neolithic community dating from at least 14,000 BC and probably far earlier according to current scientific opinion.1 Even today, the surviving Wanniya-laeto community retains much of its own distinctive cyclic worldview, prehistoric cultural memory, and time-tested knowledge of their semi-evergreen dry monsoon forest habitat that has enabled their ancestor-revering culture to meet the diverse challenges to their collective identity and survival. With the impending extinction of Wanniya-laeto culture, however, Sri Lanka and the world stand to lose a rich body of indigenous lore and living ecological wisdom that is urgently needed for the sustainable future of the rest of mankind.

          • 11
            1

            2″The Para-Sinhala invasion happened from around 2,500 years ago from the Para homelands, India, Baharat, Damba Diva followed by Para-Tamils””

            This is hard to believe. 326 BC Even Alexander the Great came by land the same way the Spanish Gitano’s (Romanian gypsies) of north India trekked 50k years ago (that is how the horses were taken to Greece and Spain from Eurasia).The Spanish took the horses to America which had none.
            When Alexander the Great had destroyed Punjab he attempted to trek to UP/Bihar (Chandragupta Maurya) but his army afraid of the river and the army ahead revolted- that was the return of Alexander the Great.

            The para could never have climbed the mountain ranges dividing the north and south which is 10’s of kilometers high.
            You think the world is flat and has no topography??

          • 3
            0

            Amarasiri

            you talk like a hero on mt DNA test result. do you know what is the formula used in testing machines.do you know how to calibrate those equipments. have you done mathematic up to university degree levels.if not you can not understand anything on those formulas like ME1 or anything though talk like expert.

            if you studied evolution theory upto certain level. tell me percentage of genetic affinities between chimp and present day human. if it is larger can you say human evolved from chimps or vis a versa. explain please it is good for people who done arts subjects not science subjects at O/L and A/L who studied mahawamsa for their exams.

            • 1
              0

              he will do the shape shape because,??
              He is Amara tribe ISIS the repeating record from Peradeniya minaret

              doing the waaallla……wackbar….boom! with hussain at dehiwala zoo.

        • 0
          1

          So, do you mean to concede that they are among the first people of the island?

          • 1
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            ROHAN

            what I learn and what I believe does not permit me to believe what these lunatics quoting about.I know very well our ancestors early hominids evolved in Africa fossils evidences found so far good enough to believe it.so far scientists recovered fossils evidences of more than ten such species of hominids.they roamed all our the world freely with the help of environment that existed at that periods. it was during two to twenty millions years ago.last such specie is homo sapience who were responsible for begetting of modern day human.as such every human being should show some percentage of genetic affinities with each other. that may vary on magnitude of admixing or interbreeding with early hominids before arrivals who survived on this lands. Europeans are one such example.

            these people make their comments base on bullshit published by Indian doctor called kastriya. if you go through his report on genetic affinities of Sinhalese race you can see it is filled with rubbish.in some places he says population live here show no big genetic difference to each other.somewhere he says there is no genetic contribution from Malaynesians stock at all to our Island population.we know lanken Muslims made up of various ethnicities.like Tamils, Arab ,north Indians Gujarati, Malays and Javanese. we know Malays and Javanese are malaynesians .how-come he makes such contradictory statement if his research is a genuine one.thirdly he says genetic affinities between Sinhalese and vannila aththo or veddaloid is negligible. as you know we have three different caste in our Sinhalese society considered as hunters and gathers same as vannila aththo. rodiyas and kinnerys are actually hunters and gathers but karava or fishing community is sea hunters and growers.that is seasonal depend on vadadeya and badeya seasons rough sea and normal seasons.rough sea period some do chena cultivation or migrated to east for their job. all three communities helu dialects is very much in line with vedda dialect.as such Dr. kastriya’s selection criterion for his research is violated basic principles of such researches.as such I have my own doubt on genuineness of his work.

            as we all know modern day chimps genomes ninety nine percent identical with modern day human being but that does not mean modern day humans are descendants of chimps as per evolution theory I learn. but primates of both species should be same.

            as such with Indian bullshit reports you can not determine origin of Sinhalese race.I still firmly believe that vannila aththo and Sinhalese primates are same. recent findings of ancient human settlements in south of Island pallay malala and bandagiriya area vouched for my belief.sites were very near to sea.remains of sea mammals found there provide ample evidence to researches who are doing genetic affinities research on Sinhalese race.one thing is certain we Sinhalese are Africans descendants of part of gang of hominids who settled here. others went further via beaches of south, south east India, bay of bangol,Myanmar, east Malaysian peninsula, Sumatra up to Australia via various atoll in east Indian island lots.

            • 1
              1

              “”what I learn and what I believe does not permit me to believe what these lunatics quoting about.”

              subhuman pseudo engineer- basunna!

              Say whoop, whoop, whoop ..screech Sinha le Gibbon (the primates southern Lanka monkey Sir David Attenborough BBC)

              Humans cannot reason because they are bigots.

              Humans with dignity can reason because whenever they think they are facing a contradiction, they check their premises and find that one of them is wrong.

              • 0
                0

                jai bolo

                we like it or not old monkeys and modern monkeys are distance cousins of human. their roaming pattern is seasonal. all animals now live on earth and extinct upto date have some percentage of genetic contribution to modern day human. even once believed to be lived predators like dynasources. as such every human can claim any animals genome are identical with their own genomes in some minor or substantial percentage.as such if some section of Sinhalese claim their blood have some percentage of affinities with blood of lions nothing wrong with that claim. that is the beauty of human evolution or all living beings on earth.you do not have to worry about it.it is natural.

                Any way has your BBS Master mentioned his affinities with monkeys.Europeans are mixer of one or more earliest hominids(Neanderthal and errectus) and the last hominid homo sapience. as such their affinities with monkeys old and moderns are more closer than ours.

                • 0
                  0

                  Ho ho… you seem to have some knowledge in genetics. We are no far from apes – is what we got to know from genetics. We have much in common with Chimps and Bonaboos like 97% genes are the same. But I believe the gene expressions that rally round to support MR et al should have been filled with all variety of mutations – them not to see anything right towards the peace and harmony in this country. Just a single point mutation could make them have common patterns to behave the way they ve been upto.

                  • 0
                    0

                    very well. our free education system provide everybody to master their interested fields. we must be grateful to leaders who introduced that system here.likewise we must be grateful to political leadership that restored peace in this land for all.

                    yes we all should live here as one race respecting each other. diversity is the beauty.coexistence means respect for all.no traditional historical home land for section of population. it is historical traditional home land of all. everybody should have freedom to live anywhere within Island with respect and dignity. One’s own religion rituals should be practiced without harming others belief. universal brotherhood should be prevailed.one law and order should be prevailed. law should not be mended as per anybody’s religions requirements. our age old cultural values should be upheld.Then only real peace will prevail.

                    if anybody try to insult us on the cover of coexistence will be dealt with severely. we are equip with necessary tools.

                    anyway we are for peaceful coexistence with all with self dignity and self respect.

                • 0
                  1

                  You could keep the first para to yourself and scream till the hee haw comes home if you think you are mule.

                  the fact remains the island was governed upto 1948 by british raj and you and your genome were their slaves yes slaves. the island left with a treaty known as treaty of London (London treaties are archived all over England so that rats don’t burn kacheries) Gaddafi and Saddam thought Allah gave them that piece of land and the rest is history. No ones tatthi or ammi owns the land- you are vulnerable. even a bassunna will understand that.

                  I am my master of my destiny and you are slave people in our colony.

                  foot soldier many Muslims Yugoslavian from 90’s spoke your way. now they are begging to come to my homeland england.
                  so you better do dana bana with radala but after November 8 your life will hang on a cliff so worry about that Higgannan ge dupata.

                  Putin is to have election before 2018 and he needs money like he took 2 billion from bush to allow us to bomb Iraq.
                  Trump has promised to undo the undo the spin and he would nuke if necessary there wont be what you seen in your lifetime – bayee, bayee.
                  He would start with north korea then pakistan then it would be lanka turn. Turn to kataddiya or the devil and ask himto look after your baggage but we wonlt let you come here like stupid merkel. we voted brexit- no more refugee!
                  Republican Hindu Congress.

                  • 1
                    0

                    You British are parasites. feed on others blood. just like louse. but insult others. first learn how to respect people if you want respect. monkeys behave same way you behave.go before mirror see you can see modern day monkey.

                  • 1
                    0

                    get lost man we Sinhalese never seek refuge anywhere.we fight for our mother land until our last drop of blood.you should know that.we are not parasites like you all are.get lost you nit wit.if we have a trouble we have other countries to go not your land developed on poor third world countries people blood.

                    • 0
                      1

                      “”get lost man””

                      Sinhala Puddhu, thank you for the complement from `sub human invertebrate` that we are `man`

                      stupid are always cock sure that is the problem with the world.

                      Pooooya- tomorrow is autumn equinox 1/2 and 1/2 . the one who has 1/2 always lives in peace.

                      get yourself a PhD like profs we could have more fun form puddhu’s

    • 8
      4

      Sanjiv Sanyal

      RE: Yes, The Sinhalese Have Their Origins In Bengal, Odisha

      “Genetic studies have shown that Tamils from South India have contributed to the majority of the genetic composition of present day Sinhalese. However, the genetic, cultural and linguistic relation that the Sinhalese population shares with the Bengalis and Odiyas, though of scholarly interest, has remained largely ignored by the popular masses.”

      http://indianexpress.com/article/research/yes-the-sinhalese-have-their-origins-in-bengal-odisha/

      Yes, the Sinhala are 26%-Bengal, Osisha, and 75% Tamil, South India.

      The Sinhala are also called Sinhala Speaking Para-Tamils or Sinhala-speaking Para-Demalas.

      • 4
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        Sanjiv Sanyal

        “The Sinhala are also called Sinhala Speaking Para-Tamils or Sinhala-speaking Para-Demalas.”

        The Sinhala and Tamils are Paras, Foreigners, Strangers, in the Land of Native Veddah Aethho(people).

        Thus the Sinhalese of Sri Lanka are genetically more similar to the Tamils of Sri Lanka and India, who were always in close proximity with each other historically, linguistically, geographically, and culturally.

        http://www.lankanewspapers.com/news/2007/6/15923_space.html

        In conclusion, the original inhabitants of Sri Lanka were the Veddahs, who have had little admixture with the Sinhalese and possibly none with the Tamils. The Veddahs are distinct because they were confined to inhospitable dry zones and were hardly influenced by the neighboring inhabitants. Furthermore, the Sinhalese and the Sri Lankan Tamils are an admixed population genetically. The Sinhalese, who first came from northwest India under the leadership of Prince Vijaya in 543 B.C., have received and exchanged a substantial amount of their genes with the populations of northeastern and southern India. The Sinhalese and the Tamils have no contribution from the population groups of northwest India. In fact, the contribution made by Prince Vijaya and his small band of 700 companions to the original pool of the Sinhalese must have been eliminated by the long-standing contribution (over 2000 years) of the population groups of northeastern and southern India.

      • 0
        1

        Bengal was not a place where hominids evolved.that land too was inhabited by some hominids came from Africa via some other places. may be sea roots via our island beaches. at the same time some of these lots should have come to our Island as well.as such primate may be same. as such some percentage of genetic affinities should be shown. in case of Maldives and lakadive island people do not show genetic affinities with south Indians or lanken. they may be from early settlers of hominids of another lot.like that genetic affinities alone can not determine origin of races.though you talk with tail up like captain of vanara sena.

        Ramayanaya does not talk on existence of Nagas. as such naga Tamil theory is a bullshit.if possible prove that bangal early settlers from some other planet. no possibility of migrating other part of subcontinent until vijaya. invaded here with some of them.

        haemoglobin’s complexity factor Sinhalese have in their blood show only panjabis not bangalis. as such genetic affinity shown may be due to error in machine used to measure mtDNA frequencies.

        south India and our island inhabited by same wave of hominids from Africa via beaches. as such these hominids had no time sight seen like looking at our beaches in morning.they had other works to do. collection of foods.

  • 9
    3

    It is True !! Correct !! But The people here don’t like to relate them with Indians !! In anyway !! Specially the intellectual !! Who mislead others !!

    • 12
      2

      like the Muslim Turks of turko-mughal origin who can never ever be a part of Europe but just cannon fodder.
      Looks are deceptive- its all in the way of life and how one solves problems.

    • 7
      2

      “”It is True !! Correct !! But The people here don’t like to relate them with Indians !! In anyway !! Specially the intellectual !! Who mislead others !! “

      Pity the nation whose leaders are liars, whose sages are silenced,
      and whose bigots haunt the airwaves.

      The island fears takeover like Pakistan, Bangala and Ceylon were given away by the American Harry Truman and the Buddhist Chakra was inscribed as emblem of 95% of the world of Hindus.
      The naked fakir lived his life as a pedophile and is still venerated by idiots.

      • 1
        12

        The naked fakir lived his life as a pedophile and is still venerated by idiots.

        I think the recent Indian history was written by British. Westerners made the naked Fakir a celebrity. Otherwise, there were true heroes there and their names are never mentioned.

        Even Nehru had died with STD.

        • 8
          0

          “”The naked fakir lived his life as a pedophile and is still venerated by idiots.””

          Only until the American liberal democrats are exposed of their treachery.
          Modi and Desi Americans are on it. They got rid of unfair trading partner with 9/11 like you got rid of VP tiger terror.

          The truth will prevail and bigots like Jim will have to grow hair like a monkey to survive.;)

        • 6
          0

          Jimsofty the stupid,
          Your Punjabi’s have never won a war but are pol haliyas like you.
          but you do not have their dna. perhaps the kotchi mixed with muslim and from village .
          British did not write the only history but are able to promote theirs as the best because its their language and BBC is part of it. The french too wrote like the Spanish.
          All rulers of commonwealth (socialist/democrat) as still dependent on Anglo-American aid support to survive.

          When Japan funds an excavation by UNESCO the lecturers from Oxford are called in why so??

  • 4
    0

    Blood is thicker than Water

    • 6
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      Hussain Fahmy

      “Blood is thicker than Water”

      Brainwashing and stupidity is thicker than reason and intelligence for the Paras. in the Land of Native Veddah Aethho.

  • 6
    1

    It is of academic interest where people’s ancestors originated from, although the described historical event is undisputed by Sinhala. For all practical purposes, what matters is making the best of living now where ever they are, integrating culturally and genetically with all others that share the land. We cannot force people to integrate, but it has to come from their own needs. Either economic reasons, or simply falling in love leading to intermarriage.

    Take UK for instance, some of the original claimants to the land Saxons could very rarely be found today as they have well and truly mixed with the invading Normans: AD 1066 the country was invaded by Normans from North of France. During the passage of 20-centuries, many other ethnically different peoples have settled in the country en mass: Jews, Poles, Indians and Pakistanis, Sri Lankans, Arabs, Africans, West Indians are just a few. But all of them are nationally integrated under common laws applicable to all. Yes, there are visible and subtle discrimination, some class division, and each ethnic groups trying to preserve their root cultures imported from their home countries, but largely the society functions without having wars. This model functions reasonably successfully in US and Australia, Canada and New Zealand as far as I am aware of.

    It is the intelligence of people and loyalty to the common flag, being proud of the adopted land that need to make the model work, not uncontrolled emotions, rebellion nor people running back to their roots and complaining. It says in the Bible: Children Shall Inherit the Earth. It does not matter what the root is, we cannot undo history. Accept the present, live peacefully and share common assets and pass on what we have to our children peacefully.

    • 5
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      Thrisu, I am bit scared, if you hve already been caught by biblical religions….

      Once upon a time you were strong buddhist- about to attain even SOVAN.

      • 5
        1

        Nothing wrong with biblical quotations if they are undisputable truths. It is said that the teachings of Jesus might have been rooted in Buddhist teachings, when it is alleged that he travelled to East and studied, i.e. during the interim years between his childhood and preaching. It is synonymous with the Buddhist teaching, that despite your belief that you have assets and children, at the end you have nothing, or the fundamental teaching that all conditional phenomena has no permanence, not yours, and is subject to transition. In any event, apply this truth to yourself, unless you intend to survive your children if you have had any. Why don’t you go and widen your knowledge instead of having knee jerk reactions. PD

        • 7
          5

          Yes, you MAY BE right.

          We can learn a lot form other religions too. This should be the message you the guys have to pass to the country being misguided by Mahawanse led SRILANKEN so called sinhala buddhists. I am born buddhist as over 70% of the population but I respect each and every religions not harming anyone by any means. All religions have much in common. Ours should be to take the good from each of them.

          Like Mahanayaka Thero added to visting Wimal Buruwa yesterday, no such so called SINHALA BUDDHISTs should have special rights to lead and riots on minorities as was the case in Aluthgama two years ago. BBS men in sanga costumes should be hung by their balls by strengthening the prevailing laws inthe country. First their foul langauge, and then the behavirous. Hate speeches are no means promoted by anyone – this shold to be valid to BBS lead too.

          • 6
            5

            You are right

            Wimal Buruwasne the Drag Queen of the nation is hot tempered as never before having visited the FCID today.

            He is attacking Prez MS and others today openly as he can.. Wait and see the next to be jailed will be this man.

            All the JVP and others shining a voice pro this man s arrest will be able to see it soon I hope for the better future, this man should be LOCK up at least for 6 months.

        • 5
          6

          While living on the west, you may also feel the same.

          Last weekend I happened to travel to Colonge- the beautiful cathedral.. there I felt the same as I woudl feel as a buddhist being on Kelaniya Temple. Colonge Cathedral is unique.

          I believe all religions have much in common in shaping up the human life.

          The problem lies on the extremists that abuse religions for their versions in taking revenge on their enemies.
          Like ones marching under BBS in SL
          lIKE ONES marchin under IS in Syria
          Like One maching under HIndu but born fantists in India
          Like some politicians like Mahinda Raja et al today abuse the religion for their political survivial…. even yesterday, he was combining religion and politics… in building up a new front for their abusive politics.

          • 8
            1

            komiss kakka!
            extremist under rajapakse turned gate keeper to the milk maids of anuradhpura.

            once of village heritage always of village gullibility and a bigot as most villagers are.

            Square head like the Germans.

            • 0
              0

              Jealousy bugger, how come I be a commiskaka… I have never taken a ct from lanken govt except to my schooling. But we have done much sofar for the poor down there. Ballige puthas of your kind make every effort to attack anyone for your abusive mind sets.

            • 0
              0

              Then protest not going to medical docs int he country. MOst of them are coming from rural backgrounds. You the swollen idiots have learnt nothign but to attack the villageers that way is beyond all morals.

  • 14
    1

    Kshatriya’s studies have been superseded by the more recent studies of Ranawana et.al (2014).

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24196378

    Ranawana et. al ( 2014) mitochondrial RNA markers seem to indicate a closer relationship between The Sinhalese and Sri Lankan Tamils than with the Indian Tamils in Sri Lanka and those from the Indian subcontinent. The Veddas had a closer relationship with the Kandyan Sinhalese and the Indian Tamils.

    Dr.Rajasingham Narendran

    • 9
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      Dr.Rajasingham Narendran

      Ken Robert studied this paper and wrote a detailed comment in CT some months ago.

      He was not satisfied with authors’ conclusion. I thought the paper was to technical and was unable grasp evidence and conclusion based on the research and discussion.

      I rely on Ken Robert’s knowledge and his interest in this area of studies. I will go along with his comments. If I remember correctly he wrote that this was another peace of article to support Mahawamsa.

      • 6
        3

        NV,

        Herewith I am providing the link to an article by Prof. Laksiri Fernando on the topic. The comments by Prof.H.L.D Seneviratne and Prof.Laksiri Fernando, provide interesting insights.

        https://www.colombotelegraph.com/index.php/are-the-tamils-and-the-sinhalese-same-or-different/

        Late Sir Paul Pieris, a historian of repute, asked a very relevant question: how could the South Indians, who could see the Sri Lankan coastline when they wake up every day, were not the first visitors to Lanka.

        The Yalpana Vaipava Malai, also mentions the arrival of Visaya Maharasa in Sri Lanka. This corroborates the Mahavamsa legend. He and his brigands may have contributed to the Sri Lankan gene pool through Kuveni and her friends. They have also contributed to the gene pool through the Pandyan. ladies and retinue they imported. South Indian craftsmen , Farm workers and soldiers were also invited to Sri Lanka, settled here and became part of the gene pool.

        Logically, the South Indian influence has to be greater, though we have also developed over the ages as a distinct people’s. The antipathy towards marrying Indians was very dominant in Jaffna in the pre-war times- the vadakathairs -those from the north of Jaffna.

        As had I had pointed out earlier, we did not shed our tails in Lanka. We shed it elsewhere and then arrived here, although skeletal evidence indicates human presence 70,000 years back.

        Dr.RN

        Dr.R. Narendran

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          Native and balu dostara,

          “Late Sir Paul Pieris, a historian of repute, asked a very relevant question: how could the South Indians, who could see the Sri Lankan coastline when they wake up every day, were not the first visitors to Lanka.””
          He had stupid students who could not think.
          Because they were not nomads and did not have the wherewithal to travel.
          Haven’t you heard of millionaire Indians still sit on bed by the street and do the job next to it then get a man to take away his excreta- money is everything- gold and silver were the items the Chinese and Indians traded with.
          “”Logically, the South Indian influence has to be greater, though we have also developed over the ages as a distinct people’s. The antipathy towards marrying Indians was very dominant in Jaffna in the pre-war times- the vadakathairs -those from the north of Jaffna.””

          Marrying Indians was simple jealousy like the low class of europe feel when one of theirs marries a coloured. General nationalist come from low class have not’s.
          That is where social engineering by liberals is a shit subject.

          Brahmins do not believe that there were dravadian or aryans. and does not mean Tamil only at 635,780 km²
          South India consists of the five southern Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu as well as the union territories of Puducherry, Lakshadweep and Andaman and Nicobar.

          Recent excavations at kolar, karnataka, found a site of indus valley age, many more in maharashtra, western uttarpradesh, madhya pradesh e.t.c., It is just a Indian civilization continued even after sarasvathi river drying up by moving to other areas, Archealogical evidiences of the IVC sites proves that rather than Indus river people lived near or associated with saraswathi river which was mentioned in vedas and it was dried up due to climatic conditions, NASA scientists found the saraswathi river course track and found it dried up atleast 5000 years back. these are all latest findings but we are just reading those aryan/dravidian invasion theory which was first coined up by max muller in his young age with his affinity to racism and later he himself mentioned that aryan invasion theory was false in his mid ages. But british just took that phrase and used explicitly on indians to divide us by aryans and dravidians. Now Indian government is trying to give rebirth to this saraswathi river tracks by divertinng the other river channel through canals to these dried up tracks with the help of haryana/rajasthan/gujarath state governments.

          there is no “ARYAN” word in sanskrit, but “ARYA” word is there but it never used as a race, used as a respecting word means noble person just like we use SIR/Respected/noble e.t.c., in english. Most of the western thinkers were facinated by RACISM, they gave the same color to our history as well to divide and rule, and still we are fighting within ourselves for supremacy of this terminology by Dravidian parties like DMK. Again, there is no word “DRAVIDIAN” in sanskrit, but “TRAVIDA” a saskrit word means land covered with water on three sides, that word went to corrupted form by tamil as for them “ta,tha,da,dha” syllables pronounced as just with one syllable or letter that is “da”, thats how dravida word came into being means land which covered by water on three sides.

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      Dr.Rajasingham Narendran

      The Full Original Article is Given Below. Both the Sinhala and Tamils are Paras in the land of Native Veddah Aethho!

      Lanka Ranaweera1,3, Supannee Kaewsutthi1,3, Aung Win Tun1, Hathaichanoke Boonyarit1, Samerchai Poolsuwan2 and Patcharee Lertrit1

      Mitochondrial DNA history of Sri Lankan ethnic people: their relations within the island and with the Indian subcontinental populations

      Journal of Human Genetics (2014) 59, 28–36; doi:10.1038/jhg.2013.112; published online 7 November 2013

      http://www.nature.com/jhg/journal/v59/n1/full/jhg2013112a.html

      Anstract.

      Located only a short distance off the southernmost shore of the Greater Indian subcontinent, the island of Sri Lanka has long been inhabited by various ethnic populations. Mainly comprising the Vedda, Sinhalese (Up- and Low-country) and Tamil (Sri Lankan and Indian); their history of settlements on the island and the biological relationships among them have remained obscure. It has been hypothesized that the Vedda was probably the earliest inhabitants of the area, followed by Sinhalese and Tamil from the Indian mainland. This study, in which 271 individuals, representing the Sri Lankan ethnic populations mentioned, were typed for their mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) hypervariable segment 1 (HVS-1) and part of hypervariable segment 2 (HVS-2), provides implications for their settlement history on the island. From the phylogenetic, principal coordinate and analysis of molecular variance results, the Vedda occupied a position separated from all other ethnic people of the island, who formed relatively close affiliations among themselves, suggesting a separate origin of the former. The haplotypes and analysis of molecular variance revealed that Vedda people’s mitochondrial sequences are more related to the Sinhalese and Sri Lankan Tamils’ than the Indian Tamils’ sequences. MtDNA haplogroup analysis revealed that several West Eurasian haplogroups as well as Indian-specific mtDNA clades were found amongst the Sri Lankan populations. Through a comparison with the mtDNA HVS-1 and part of HVS-2 of Indian database, both Tamils and Sinhalese clusters were affiliated with Indian subcontinent populations than Vedda people who are believed to be the native population of the island of Sri Lanka.

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    They could not win but came as masquerading as refugees. Not refugees but kallathonies. Doesn’t matter but be humans rather than Lions.

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    Thanks DR RN.

    “The Tamils and all the tribes of Meso-America, from Mexico to Panama, played the same board game: Pachesi. The Meso-Americans called it by a linguistically similar name: Patolli. (Note: CH and T are linguistically similar. LL was the only way the Renaissance Spaniards could approximate the sounds of Z and J. This proves that Patolli derived from Pachesi.) I myself saw a Patolli board game at the National Museum of Costa Rica, in San Jose.”
    http://frontiers-of-anthropology.blogspot.co.uk/2011/05/more-connections-between-ancient-india.html

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    The Indian article says;
    Over the years, Sri Lanka came to be inhabited by several different communities who went on to impact the genetic make up on the population. The colonial encounters with the Portuguese, the Dutch and then the British had its impact on the local population. Genetic studies have shown that Tamils from South India have contributed to the majority of the genetic composition of present day Sinhalese. However, the genetic, cultural and linguistic relation that the Sinhalese population shares with the Bengalis and Odiyas, though of scholarly interest, has remained largely ignored by the popular masses.

    This confirms why majority of Sinhalese are black like crows, but they say are Indo-Arian race.

    By adapting to Bengalis and Odiyas, speaking Sinhalese language, following a new culture does not mean majority of people to be Bengalis and Odiyas.

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      Both Ajanta and Sigiriya paintings 450-500 AD by Hindu Kings and the Structure comes from South Indian Tamil Nadu Engineering (central shaft)

      “”This confirms why majority of Sinhalese are black like crows, but they say are Indo-Arian race.”2

      What is Indo-Aryan but Mughal. Mughals are not europeans but asians- can’t you see where turkey finally is ? its going back to its asian clan. The parses (Iranian)stopped marrying outside then got into genetic problems so recently government of India changed their religious laws. TATA is in big trouble without its Indira politics but is backed by old British and Gordon Brown church.
      Hindi is Persian and Sanskrit. Aryan is the abode of Iranian in Persian language not Hitlers Germany- blue eyes blond hair.

      The Sinhalese language starts with Portuguese not Bengali.
      Sinhala Ulu is not Bengali but Spanish Missionary 1/2 round clay roofing tiles we see even today covering the southern bungalows of USA.

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        Mughals were Mongols/Central Asians who married into Iranians/Persians.

        Turco does not mean Turkey, but Central Asian people

        Central Asian ruler who was descended from the Turco-Mongol conqueror Timur (the founder of the Timurid Empire) on his father’s side and from Chagatai, the second son of the Mongol ruler Genghis Khan, on his mother’s side.[34] Ousted from his ancestral domains in Central Asia, Babur turned to India to satisfy his ambitions.

        https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mughal_Empire

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          Did you see them marry?? There isn’t much in their eyes where even Nigerians have it because they are bush boys.

          whether you say Iranian or Turkish they are both Asian and non European.
          that is the point not Wiki telling me as i have traveled those regions like no other.
          They do not belong to the category of `white Europeans` as much as Latino Hispanics (in the US 30% of the Latinos with blonde hair who write white have no DNA of Europeans.)

          social worker kids born black like Obama are trying to social engineer but it won’t happen.
          you heard the president of Philippines to Obama. (son of a bitch then said i should not have, he deserved it)

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            ay Iranian or Turkish they are both Asian and non European.that is the point not Wiki telling me as i have traveled those regions like no other.

            Look up Genotype vs. Phenotype:
            Very important concept. Even if the genes are identical (genotype) the outward expression / looks (phenotype) could be different. Example would be identical twin, who have the same genes will have differences and fingerprints will be different. Another example would be children of short parents (and also have the sort genes) could be taller because of better nutrition.

            The opposite is also true in that just because outward appearance is similar (phenotype) the genes (genotype) do not have to be similar. Example: Africans and Papua New Guineans though superficially similar are about the furthest apart genetically.

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      Yes, The Sinhalese Have Their Origins In Bengal, Odisha

      Yes in ancient times people were of migratory than of later stages, there was a Mongolic origin migratory people who even in latter stages involved in intercepted migration – after mixing with local, still migration for survival had been their way. Such nonconformists were always migratory mixed with Bengalis Odishis, and reached Madras as well. Mongolian language resembles many Dravidian languages including Tamil and Sinhala as well. In Madras these people were known as Tamilities later migrated to this Southern Island as well.
      This explains modern finding of Mitochondrial DNA Studies.

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        “”Yes in ancient times people were of migratory than of later stages, “”

        You are in a tropical climate and there was no need in ancient times to migrate. lanka was forest and the Europeans brought the cash crops, built infrastructure (The portugese transported the labour not necessarily india they even transported Chinese to bombay but since the chinese were fishing there long ago the locals rescued them.

        No wonder Asians are still Settled, Rooted.
        Unlike the Europeans with Nomadic Lifestyle.
        you had one music festival and now its banned by president because its not your culture.
        There are jet sams and float sams looking for gold and end up as cleaners of Europe and drug smugglers etc. saying funding a racist war.

        Only the Japanese were a recluse and advanced society.
        It was after the 70’s that they were forced by the Americans to travel and see the world. they carry Japanese maps or hand held devices and would never ask for directions from other than Europeans in Europe.They are most particular about cleanness and says yak to Bangladeshi, smelling of fish
        (Manchester human rights).

        passing a faith did not need even a dozen people.

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      Ceylonese ,
      when your homeland was bombed the minister of defense was Pranab Mukherjee (bengali) the present president of India.
      You see the support sinhalese muster while you expected Rescue Bangladesh type. Indians do not trust Jaffna Tamils anymore – once bitten twice shy. throughout history the northern tamils have been hand in glove against foreigners. Now the float sams and jet sams have no interest in the land but escaping to the west for economic reasons. Even the Jewish people in the UK/US who run Israel would never live at Israel because they are used to a new lifestyle that does not blend with their ancient homeland.
      Present, idea of the diaspora is to destroy Lanka like voting MR2 when not even asked for. Southern Sinhala Mangala+ Northern Tamil Porriki SS and Rev.the devil.
      TGTE (cheap village commissioners son) have no clout even with Trump so like the Diego Garcia the army will make you move out totally and get hammered at colombo 7 that the refugees smugglers have purchased. sinhalese are no fools they are observing from wella to cinnamon gardens.
      The poor uneducated groups went all out to kill the Tamil intelligentsia established at colombo- the final local straw.

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      Vast majority of Bengalis are also dark skinned, and similar in phenotype to South Indians.

      The language of the Aryans was adopted by the non-Aryans ,who went on to develop it and substantially change it. Indo-Aryan languages have retroflexion but Indo-European languages do not, so linguists have pointed out that this is due to indigenous inhabitants of Northern India adopting Aryan speech and changing. Linguists have also stated that Dravidian makes much use of retroflexion.

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    “” Linguistically too, scholars have for long remarked upon the Indo-Aryan origins of the Sinhalese speech.””
    “” “The first immigrants who carried the Indo-Aryan speech to Ceylon seem to have been from the Western Indian coast.”2

    These Bengali’s are still anti European and pro Iranian because the Iranians/Turks raped them truly.No wonder the Hindus follow Muslim traditions in the north.
    Place where the Iranian lived is called Aryana in Persian.

    Calcutta was the headquarters for Dutch East India and English East India company and the Portuguese had handed over Bombay as dowry to England 1661.
    the influx of slaves and servitude labour from the south to Ceylon was inevitable.

    Its the Buddhist Bengali Pala empire that created another influx into Ceylon.
    We see many similarities of the Bangaladeshi’s fishermen and Lankan fishermen in way of doing things in the west.
    There were other Sinhalese brought from far off Asia close to Indonesia.

    Did you do a DNA of Radala caste to ascertain where this dynasty maker came from to hold a cannine tooth and people worship.

    “”While the Narasimha (God Vishnu as half man and half lion) is worshipped in Odisha, among Bengalis the image of Goddess Durga is incomplete without the lion upon which she rides. In the opinion of Sanyal, the image of the lion on the Sri Lankan flag and the religious symbolism of the lion in Odisha and Bengal have the same cultural origins.””

    Both are biscuit eating buffons. You both eat rice and fish which are nearby and bengali enjoy Mughal sweets while Sinhalese enjoy dutch sweets.
    The sinhalese like bengalis are shape, shape burp burp.

    There are no lions in Asia or Europe and Hinduism never started in Africa.
    Even Bengal has no lion but tiger like the Chinese. the Chinese folk lore also carried half man half tiger. The maximum Buddhist are at China not Bengal India.
    Religion is emotions for artist historians, Lawyers, English, History, Political Science, Government and International Affairs…..thick heads to spin doctors spin vulture eaten culture as if there is any science in it??

    When I ask an Indian artisan make a powerful voodoo image he it off a lions features not Extra Terrestrial.

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      @Fukushima: you can read the National Geographic article on Asian Lions that would demolish your arguments: http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/animals/mammals/asian-lion/

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        “Asian lions once prowled from the Middle East to India.””
        is one of the largest nonprofit scientific and educational institutions in the world.
        how come sinhala/Buddha rely on NGO’s??

        Pity the nation whose leaders are liars, whose sages are silenced, and whose bigots haunt the airwaves.

        The Arabs were in Africa before venturing to India.
        VP’s tigers also `prowled.`

        In the west we have 48 different types butterflies in areas of snow how come? they flew??

        a recent study revealed lions from western and central Africa differ genetically from lions of southern or eastern Africa. According to this study, Western African lions are more closely related to Asian lions than to South or East African lions. These findings might be explained by a late Pleistocene extinction event of lions in western and central Africa, and a subsequent recolonisation of these parts from Asia.

        Washington DC are no fools and Europe have a lion on flag. Sinhalese are shape shape crooks
        P. leo evolved in Africa between 1 million and 800,000 years ago, before spreading throughout the Holarctic region.It appeared in the fossil record in Europe for the first time 700,000 years ago with the subspecies Panthera leo fossilis at Isernia in Italy. From this lion derived the later cave lion (Panthera leo spelaea), which appeared about 300,000 years ago. Lions died out in northern Eurasia at the end of the last glaciation, about 10,000 years ago; this may have been secondary to the extinction of Pleistocene megafauna.

        So where is your veg eating rhino when Malaysia and Sumatra has??

        Why only the Cheater and Cheetah are left??

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      The Asiatic lion is one of five big cat species found in India
      The former habitat of the species included Southeastern Europe, Black Sea Basin, Caucasus, Persia, Canaan, Mesopotamia, Baluchistan, from Sindh in the west to Bengal in the east, and from Rampur and Rohilkund in the north to Nerbudda in the south

      https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asiatic_lion

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        Wiki God school drop out??

        In 1969 a young Australian, John Rendall and his friend Ace Bourke, bought a small lion cub from Harrods pet department, which was then legal.
        Many Americans have Lions Cougars as pets 35 P/SqKm while SL has 335.
        Buy a Lion from Harrods and feed it.

        https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GLW3v1yUbEg full documentary
        https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cvCjyWp3rEk full ending.

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    Dont we look a lot like the people of Bangladesh?

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      Yeah – dark people are real dark and the ‘fair’ people are real fair as well.

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    I remember having read an article by a Peradeniya Prof:of History to the effect that Prince Vijaya was expelled for UNRULY behaviour,and he and his followers landed in Tambapanni.

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    This is fantasy. There are more Tamil words in Sinhala than Bengali words. One has to look at whether the words were common words from another root language like Sanskrit.

    The lion is not what the Mother Goddess of Bengal and India sits on. It is more the tiger. The lion is not common to the region. The lion is a fantasy. The same as the story on fornication between the lion and Kuveni, the origin myth of Mama Sinhalam.

    Anyway, the Salagama Sinhalese have their origin myth that they are Brahmins from Saligramam. The Karawes claim descent from the Kauravas and have fancy names like Aresecularatne, and Kurukularatne. They would not want to be part of Bengal. Good story though. We can pack the Sinhalams back to Bengal. All our troubles will be over.

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      Mama Sinhalam Demalo:

      Don’t think like a dumb demala.

      Human migration was free those days. HIndan were known even in Baghdad area where europenas met asians.

      Sri lanka got people even from modern day Punjab, IN buddhist books that region is identified as an area where five rivers met. Remember punjabis in punjab are as old as Tamil kallathonis in Sri lanka just about 800 years.

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        “2Remember punjabis in punjab are as old as Tamil kallathonis in Sri lanka just about 800 years. “2

        Punjabis of Punjab without the turban are the loud mouth pol haliyas not the warrior but the black marketer, liar, con men with who Raj rajaratnam made hay marrying one and ended in jail.

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    Bengali and Tamil DNA must match more than 25.41. That is fallowed Jaffnahistory.com funded research. Recently another North Indian in USA released some kind of external comparisons like that. The learned PhDs are reluctant to think that Pali is an imported language to Lankawe. Bengalis are not speaking Pali. Then how did Pali came into Sinhalese? Yarli is the males lion depicted in all Jaffna and South Indian temples’ chariots and Chaparams and other decorations (It might have adopted from Bengal- That is a reach on a different subject). Practically all these arts come to Jaffna from Tamil Nadu. It is not just Bengalis celebrate the lion; Sikh and related pure Aryan races have their names as Singh. Other than human connection there is no connection with Sikhs and Sinhalese. When millions and million similarities exist between Tamils and Sinhalese, these people trying to pick up one or two similarities to prove their point. Sinhalese’s’ caste system does not have the Varna classification. It is pure Dravidian artistic caste system. That system completely wiped out of all other Indian races following modern Hinduism. That is why researchists misidentify that Jaffna caste system is adopted from Sinhalese. In fact Sinhala and Jaffna system is not one picked from other. They were one and the same. But Jaffna system allowed the Hindu system trickled down during the Arya Chakarawarthies’ ruling. Sinhala system remained intact. In Jaffna, the Varna system is not practically operating. In Tamil Nadu the system is present only mildly. But it is present all over India. If Sinhalese had migrated 2500 years ago, when the Manu’s Aryan’s Varuna-Color system was rampant, how did they miss it? How come they are Aryans but none of their scripts or culture showing the Varuna system? Varuna system was imposed on Dravidians as soon as the Indus Valley captured. This alone telling or proving that Sinhalese are an isolated Tamil Nadu race for long time. The North’s property they shows was brought by Mahanama (Mahanama was Telugu Priest chased out of Tamil Nadu) time Pali Priests.

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    Can this fish loving Bengali explain why Sinhalese eat Kerala food and follow Kerala traditions ?
    Even Bangladesh historians agree that Bengal people are Dravidian origin….
    Cheers

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      That some Indians from the East side of the Sub-Continent (Bengal, Orissa, Bihar, the UP) came here cannot be disputed. This includes the truant Prince Vijaya and his 400 + friends who came and cohabited with the Rakshani Kuveni and her people. It would have been in the smaller thousands only then. The names are indicators viz:- Vijay Singh, Vikram Singh, Vira Singh, Amar Singh to mention a few. And these remain, with minor changes.

      The larger numbers came from nearby present day Tamilnadu, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh mainly through warfare, conquest, marriage, trade etc. This would have been over the centuries when today’s Sri Lanka was not divided from her Northern neighbours by the sea (abt 9,000 years ago)

      Without doubt there is nothing hybrid in the Sinhalese or Sinhala. It is a product from many sources – all from the Indian mainland.

      There is nothing new in this young journalist’s writing to cause excitement or unknown history. Our own Professors Sudharshan Seneviratne, Shiran Deraniyagala, Pathmanathan and many others have produced over the years a wider repertoire of reliable material. As the late Reggie Siriwardena was to say we (Sri Lankans) are the proud fabric of many weaves of different strands/colours from across the Straits in the earlier centuries. It might not please the BBS, JHU types but that is our undeniable legacy.

      Backlash

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        Backlash

        “Our own Professors Sudharshan Seneviratne, Shiran Deraniyagala, Pathmanathan and many others have produced over the years a wider repertoire of reliable material.”

        You have missed out eminent teachers such as Professors Gananath Obeysekere, R A L H Gunawardana, H L Seniviratne, K Indrapala, K Sivathamby, …. Osmund Bopearachchi, ……..

        ” It might not please the BBS, JHU types but that is our undeniable legacy.”

        National Freedom Front (NFF) & ‘Pivithuru Hela Urumaya’ (PHU)

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    Listen Idiotic “Sinhala Le” Chauvinists, including Gota and Mara.

    Your “Sinhala Le” myth exploded. We Sinhalese carry “Le” from all Parayas including Bengalis and Tamils from south India.

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      Sinha Le is not in the blood or genes, it is in the mind.

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        Paul

        “Sinha Le is not in the blood or genes, it is in the mind.”

        You are right. Their state of mind commands them to Tattoo “Sinha Le” on their bump, seemingly where their brain is.

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      So is Tamil.

      It is dravidean languages speaking different tribes getting together to speak Tamil which differs from area to area because it is different dialects. Go to India and see how fast the dialect changes if you travel 30 or 40 miles. Tamils are just toddy tappers, barbers, tobacco farmers, fishermen, priests, gypsies making one language group what they call Tamils.

      Even According to buddhist books, Sri lanka is considered a part of the country called Jumbudweepa. Passports and boundries came because of westerners. Otherwise, jungle or the forest demarcated different villages. That is how vanni came into being too.

      Anyway, The sinhala-buddhist civilization is unique not enitrely Indian. There is no similar civilization in Hindia.

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        jim softy dimwit

        “Go to India and see how fast the dialect changes if you travel 30 or 40 miles. “

        Don’t be silly, who is going to pay for their travel expenses to go to India. Will you be paying for them? There are at least 30 commentators in this forum.

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        Take the Indian subcontinent as a whole which includes Lanka. There is only one Tamil culture,only one Bengali culture, only one Telugu culture……..and only one Sinhalese culture. What point are you trying to make by saying there is no similar Sinhalese culture in India? Thanks.

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          “” What point are you trying to make by saying there is no similar Sinhalese culture in India? Thanks. “”

          I think like the vast majority of posts by politically twisted minds you are asking what, why, (shape , shape, cheater) with no formal idea of the words you use. You are stupid lazy godaya like Eusense.

          sinhalese like the americans are settlers with many problems of their own due to their own creation. your language Spanish beginings and roman style grammar.Like the rest of indian states sinhalese copied sanskrit (it was not Gautama language because he was not a brahmin) to secure favour from mother india which ruled from Madras presidency until 1948.

          you have no idea of 2 words `culture and art`

          Difference between art and culture Art
          Art is the creative expression of one’s experiences, emotions and other qualities
          Art is one aspect of culture.
          Art is influenced heavily by culture and is born as a by- product of culture, reflecting some of its customs, beliefs and values. culture  it comprises a wide variety of human behaviours
          The evolved human capacity to act creatively and imaginatively and represent and classify experiences with symbols
          Culture is the ensemble of social forms, material traits, customary beliefs, and other human phenomena that cannot be directly attributed to a genetic inheritance of a religious, racial, or social group.
          Understanding of Indian art
          architecture has been described as an art of organizing space, functionally and beautifully.
          The character of Indian art is best described as plastic, organic and sculptural
          Also in ancient India, the arts were not separated as they unfortunately are today the architect; the sculptor and the painter were often one man.
          Qualities of Indian artists
          If the Greeks excelled in the portrayal of the physical charm of the human body, the Egyptians in the grandeur of their pyramids and the Chinese in the beauty of their landscapes, the Indians were unsurpassed in transmitting the spiritual contents into their plastic forms embodying the high ideals and the common beliefs of the people.
          Indian artists visualized the qualities of various gods and goddesses as mentioned in their scriptures and infused these qualities into their images whose proportions they based on the idealized figures of man and woman.
          There were two qualities about which the Indian artists cared more than about anything else, namely, a feeling for volume and vivid representation, even at the risk of sacrificing, at times, anatomical truth or perspective.
          Indian art is a treasure house of ancient contemporary life, its faiths and beliefs, customs and manners.

          Your heritage is one of float sam and 500 years of servitude in plantation. See the float sams and jet sams from lanka flooding the world as economic refugees?

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    It appears to me that people are twisting DNA studies to suit their political point. After more than 2500 years of intermingling (wars, rapes, migration etc), we should expect lot of mixing up of genes among the mainstream populations. This is evident from the range of complexion of people in India (there are dark skinned people throughout Northern India as well). I have not come across any studies or discussions that dealt with DNA variations within individual ethnic groups.

    Please listen to the following audio from BBC on Emperor Asoka’s message which is very relevant even today!

    http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b0511tm1#play

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      Who is Asoka’s father??
      Where is Gautama mother??
      The west will answer neither.
      But everybody at India knows Chandragupta Mauryan and the sanskrit/greek inscription that came into being

      Harry Truman did not win an election to become president. But he won English East India company where creepy people in pajamas and sarong lived.

      He alone divided it on faith of the middle east prominence and hailed pedophile Gandhi as a great man. He brought the Buddha chakra etc into prominence where 95% of Hindu inhabitants of the world live.

      You need negotiation with the world not bigots with English, politics, law, political sciences to enlighten people.
      When Modi tried to get rid of the large Gandhi the Desi Americans had created to inaugurate him He was cautioned that the west would not like it.

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    Reading the article and all the comments, what jumps out is that all the Tamils, Bengalis, and Indians want to align themselves with the Sinhalese. They are clamouring that the Sinhalese DNA is part of their own DNA. It just goes to show that they hold the Sinhalese Aryans in high esteem and want to align their DNA with the Sinhalese. The Sinhalese on the other hand, want no part of Tamils, Bengalis, Kalingas or any part of Indian DNA. They want to be left alone to be just the Sinhalese people. Why do Tamils and Indians want so desperately to claim the Sinhalese as part of their own? Is this because they want to lay claim to Heladiva as part of their own as well? Most of the Tamils came to Heladiva throughout historical wars fought with South India, and as ‘kallathonis’. Just like the descendants of Portuguese, Dutch and the English, some Tamils too never left. All these people are integrated to the country and with the Sinhalese.Tamils need to learn to live together with the majority Sinhalese, just like the Portuguese, Dutch and English descendants have done, and continue to do so with harmony. Just because the Tamil mainland Tamil Nadu is separated only by 20 miles of ocean does not mean that they can clamour to own part of Heladiva. Heladiva has a majority – and it’s the Sinhalese. Minority Tamils need to recognise that fact and try to live in harmony.

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      Derby

      ” It just goes to show that they hold the Sinhalese Aryans in high esteem and want to align their DNA with the Sinhalese.”

      No, what it shows is that Tamils, Bengalis, and Indians share their stupid/self-destructive gene with the Aryan Sinhalese.

      It is a great achievement for the Sinhala/Buddhists.

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        Native Vedda:

        Polonnaruwa, Sigiriya, & the Dambulla temple are considered UNESCO World Heritage sites. So, even the Western World recognizes the achievements of the Sinhala Buddhists. What about Veddas, maybe we can train them for the Olympics.

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          Polonnaruwa was founded by the Cholas and not the Sinhalese and all the great Hindu and Buddhist ruins were built by them and not by the Sinhalese but now falsely portrayed as Sinhalese.

          There is some north east Indian blood not only amongst the Sinhalese but also amongst the indigenous Sri Lankan Tamils. However this contribution is minor. The major contributors to the Sinhalese genetic pool are the Tamils. Anyway the Bengali are not Indo Aryan but are Dravidian or Dravidian/Mongol or Dravidian/Australoid. if there is any Aryan blood in them it is only amongst a few upper castes. They are only Indo Aryan in speech but in every other aspect very Dravidian.

          There were already people living in the island when these few thousand immigrants from north east India arrived. They were the Vedda Naga Yaksha ETC. The latter two were Dravidian already speaking Tamil or the semi Tamil Elu dialect. The former also spoke a dialect very close to Tamil. There were also indigenous Tamils living in the island. Most of these people after the arrival of Buddhism gradually evolved into Sinhalese whilst a significant minority of them became the Sri Lankan Tamils. Other than this small insignificant amount of immigration from North East India, all the rest of the immigration to the island from ancient to modern times were all from South India and more than 95% of this from the then Tamil country. Kerala and Tamil Nadu. They came as invaders soldiers mercenaries and ordinary immigrants and the vast majority of them got assimilated as Sinhalese with a smaller number into the Sri Lankan Tamils.

          After the 12th century immigration from south India was only trickle to the Tamil parts of the island but became significant in the south, especially during the Portuguese and Dutch era when hundreds of thousands of low caste Indian Tamil slave labour was imported and settled in the southern parts of the island. Their Sinhalised descendants now the Sinhalese Karawa, Salagama Durawa Hunu Hali ETC now make up 50% of the present day Sinhalese.

          Old Sinhalese as well as the Vedah language and the native Elu language all were very close to Tamil in pronunciation. Elu and the Vedah dialect were simple semi Tamil Dravidian dialects. The indigenous dialect of the island was Elu this was a semi Tamil Dravidian dialect. Elu mixed with Prakrit became Hela basically old Sinhalese Hela mixed with Pali Sanskrit and proper Tamil gradually evolved into Sinhalese. It is the Tamil language that has given the greatest contribution to the Sinhalese language not Pali nor Sanskrit. Together contributed a huge amount of vocabulary to modern Sinhalese around 65% but nothing else. Tamil is the largest single language that has contributed to modern Sinhalese. Around 35-40% of modern Sinhalese vocabulary is derived from Tamil. Its grammar lexicon syntax and alphabet is all purely derived from Tamil. Take all the Tamil from modern Sinhalese there will be no Sinhalese. Sinhalese basically has strong Dravidian/Tamil foundation with an Indo Aryan super structure built upon it. This was not due to the arrival of these insignificant amount of North East Indian immigrants but because of the arrival of Buddhism.
          There is no Bengali contribution to the Sinhalese language or culture. No such language called Bengali or Bengali people existed at the time of the so called migration. Only a province called Vanga. If there is any common words between modern Bengali and Sinhalese there are derivate from Sanskrit.

          The Sinhalese culture food habits dress festivals and even the gods they worship all reflect the southern two Indian states Tamil Nadu and Kerala ( that was Tamil until a few centuries ago) nothing vaguely reflecting any part of north India or the Bengal. Only now a deliberate attempt is being made by certain sections of the Sinhalese. Go and visit Kerala or Southern Tamil Nadu and you can see how similar the people are to the people of Sri Lanka. Not any part of North India or Bengal.

          Non of the ancient kings in the island ever called themselves Aryans or Sinhalese as they were not. They were all Buddhist or Hindu Dravidian Naga or from other South Indian dynasties. Duttugemunu’s father had a Tamil name so did Deva Nambiya Tissa’s father. Kakkai Vanna Theesan and Mutta Sivan.

          Mahanama and the monks who wrote Mahavamas hatched out a plot to differentiate the population who converted to Buddhism and were now evolving into the another people from their unconverted Hindu Tamil or Semi Tamil speaking brothers and sisters. So created this Vijaya/Bengali/Aryan origin for these people, form an insignificant incident and called them truly indigenous and the ones who remained Hindu and Tamil as outsiders not belonging to the island to be ultimately chased out to the Hindu Indian mainland, that is still deeply embedded in the Sinhalese psyche. This sort of demonising occurred in Christian Europe and in other places too Calling the population that did not convert to Christianity as Pagan witches and wizards and burning them. In India especially in the north people who did not follow the Vedic form of Hinduism were demonised and called Manthira karan ( magician) Thanthira Karan( A person who practised the Tantra calling them devious cunning person).

          Many Bengali nationalists and extremist without clearly researching anything now want to claim the Sinhalese as theirs or some form of trophy that belongs to them and feel great. A small amount of immigration from the ancient Vanga area of India, that contributed the gene pool of not only the modern day Sinhalese but also the Sri Lankan Tamils does not make either of them Bengali in anyway. We all have a little bit of everything and that little may contribute to who we are but does not define us. It is the large bit.

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            It won’t be an independent nation in another 20 years.The pawn brokers would take over. keep up the fight.
            End of Indus valley civilization The Indus civilization came to an end in about C.1500 B.C. probably due to the Aryan invasion of India (Aryan means Iranian invasion; like Anti-clockwise Swastika) But this intervening period of about 1000 years is important, because it was during this time that a synthesis took place between the fertility cults of the Dravidians, who were the original inhabitants of India, and the Aryan elements of rites and rituals. the only sources to study Harappan civilization which had flourished 3000 BCE and vanishes around 1500 BCE. Recently during excavation at Rakhigarhiin Haryana 4 skeletons and lot of terracotta’s and potteries were found. Reconstruct facial Software and DNA test would reveal the physical structure of the harrapan people, their height and skin colours, eye colours etc.Idli shaped terracotta found in Rakhigarhi are more than other Harrapan sites and perhaps which shows the terracotta may be manufactured in Rakhigarhi. The size of burial pit and the quality & quantity of goods kept with burial pit would perhaps reveal the socio economic condition of the Harrapan people. Huge amount of painted potteries were found at the Rakhigarhi site so the site may be the home of rich and dominants people of society. Excavation near burial pits has revealed about the Burial customs and rituals, being followed

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              rajamahal

              “End of Indus valley civilization The Indus civilization came to an end in about C.1500 B.C. probably due to the Aryan invasion of India (Aryan means Iranian invasion”

              The Indian eminent scholar thinks otherwise. Here is something you chose not to read:

              Redefining secularism

              Sir, — I am writing with reference to the article “Redefining secularism” (March 18) by Subramanian Swamy. I was rather amused to read his comments on my views of `the Aryans’, in which he accuses me of having defined Aryan and Dravidian as racial categories and now having changed my mind in accordance with the views of the RSS, since the BJP came to power.

              If he had read anything on the debate among historians concerning the Aryan theory, he would have known that for the last 30 years I, together with other historians, have been refuting the concept of an Aryan race or a Dravidian race. I have stated categorically in “A History of India,” Vol. I, published in 1966, that Aryan is a linguistic term. I discussed this in greater detail in my presidential address to the Ancient Indian History Section of the Indian History Congress in Varanasi in 1968, where I argued that Aryan is a linguistic label and not a racial category. And just for the record, since I am frequently misquoted on this by some people, I argued further that although I did not accept the notion of an Aryan invasion, I did support the idea of a graduated migration of Aryan-speaking peoples from the Indo-Iranian borderlands into north-western India. This resulted in an interface of various cultures and this interface needs to be explored — and many of us have done so, as would be apparent from our other publications on the subject.

              It would seem that the Subramanian Swamys of this world do not believe in reading the books of those whom they accuse of having incorrect ideas on history. They attribute theories of various kinds to whomsoever they chose. Surely this was not the training that Dr. Swamy was given at Harvard?

              As for my toeing the RSS line on the Aryan theory, after the BJP having come to power, the shoe is actually on the other foot. The mentors of the RSS spoke of race and the race spirit with reference to the Aryans in the 1920s and 1930s. If the RSS has now decided, as Dr. Swamy asserts, that Aryan is a language label and not a racial category, they are stating what many of us have been saying for some decades now. As for those sympathetic to the RSS choosing to repeat what others and I had said 30 years ago — that’s their choice!

              Romila Thapar,
              New Delhi

              http://www.thehindu.com/
              2004/03/22/stories/
              2004032201661001.htm

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                The maths teacher who got a position at Delhi IIT because his pop was surveyor general. When the Janata party and auto urine therapy Moraji Desi wanted to capture power at the center they the Indian nationalist like the Iranian nationalist used the word Aryan.
                Congress was a dictatorship.Democracy means more than one party where all parties are corrupt to the core.
                Thapar is low caste and nepali so her problem.- she talks about 30 years ago when I was there and the RSS was talking about Aryan to secure the votes.
                Swamy should do the Kundalini Yoga because too many IIT B.Tech graduates are carrying away the CSE jobs because it alone draws respect for any worker.

                Western notions of an “Aryan race” rose to prominence in late-19th and early-20th century racialist thought, an idea most notably embraced by Nazi ideology (see master race). The Nazis believed that the “Nordic peoples” (who were also referred to as the “Germanic peoples”) represent an ideal and “pure race” that was the purest representation of the original racial stock of those who were then called the Proto-Aryans.[4] The Nazis declared that the Nordics were the true Aryans because they claimed that they were more “pure” (less racially mixed with non-native Indo-European peoples) than other people of what were then called the Aryan people (now called the Indo-European people).

                In Iranian context the original self-identifier lives on in ethnic names like “Alani”, “Ir”. Similarly, The word Iran is the Persian word for land/place of the Aryan.

                As a translation of Latin Ariānus for Ariāna (“the eastern part of ancient Persia”), Arian(es) has long been in English use. Aryan is of recent introduction in comparative philology.

                The English word “Aryan” is borrowed from the Sanskrit word ārya meaning ‘Noble’;[1] but apparently, it was initially used as a national name to designate those who worshipped the Vedic deities (especially Indra) and followed Vedic culture (e.g. performance of sacrifice, Yajna).[1][12] The Zend airya ‘venerable’ and Old Persian ariya are also thought to be national names.[1][13]

                Patel corner shop economist and president of Ambani Reliance has taken over RBI. It means the $$1/2 trillion would vanish(that is what industrialist wanted without modernizing programs). Gujarati would sit on pot of money and never spend its theirs- they all want to be laxmi.
                Modi would lose next election but the next would be as corrupt.

                Only Trump can bomb sub continent without Putin interfering.Then start new order unlike Truman.

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                “”Surely this was not the training that Dr. Swamy was given at Harvard? “”

                His scholarship was for general science mathematics not engineering.
                His pop thought he would become a Ramanujan but then he decided to marry a skin peeling parse so that the byproduct wold not have that albino gene.

                With so many IIT guys now following Dr R.R style (He was one of the first IIT ians to join the civil service.) by sitting for civil service. He is going to have a tough time when BJP loses seat- probably from Priyanka hubby Robert (1/2 Scot and 1/2 Pakistani)
                JT’s gave him the break to prominence and like passe he did the use and throw away.

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                The AIT has only been modified ; to where it is now a gradual colonization. That does not mean there was no invasion just as colonization of the Americas does not mean there was no invasion by Europeans.

                Aryans were very warlike, we see it in their own writings , and they held the native dark skinned inhabitants in contempt. The fact that history of IVC was lost and its language and writings ceased to exists is evidence the Aryans did impose their will on the natives.

                Environmental change would have hurt IVC but it was the Aryans that really genocided the culture because nature does not consciously go after a culture for millennia trying to extinguish it. The Mayan civilization took a downturn before the Spanish arrived but it was the Spanish who burned many Mayan texts and consciously went after Mayan and other Native cultures trying to exterminate them. Ancient Egyptian culture petered off before Arab Islamic invasions but it was the Muslim Arabs that killed and or converted the majority of the people and divorced them from their ancient Egyptian language , with just the Copts being the holdouts

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            No one in Polonnaruwa speaks Tamil. That is rather funny, a city founded by Tamils, but the so-called “descendants” don’t speak any Tamil. Unless your Eelamist logic also dictates that Sinhala comes from Tamil. Italy was founded by Latin-speaking Romans; the Italian language still bears a very strong resemblance to Latin. The Sinhala language is based on the Brahmi script. Since Sinhalese is based on the Brahmi script, there is a much closer resemblance to Sanskrit/Hindi than Tamil. Of course, you Tamil nationalists also claim that Sanskrit came from Tamil, another rubbish idea.

            Cholas were in Sri Lanka for only 80 years; the engineering marvels in Anuradhapura & Polonnaruwa were built over 900 years.

            “Go and visit Kerala or Southern Tamil Nadu and you can see how similar the people are to the people of Sri Lanka.”

            There is no similarity. Tamils are Dravidians; Dravidians are related to the Australian aboriginees. One can easily see the difference with Sinhalese. I do not think Tamils and Sinhalese intermarried on any significant scale, that is why you find very few Tamil-speaking Sinhalese. One can argue Buddhism contains elements of Hinduism. Yet Theravada Buddhism at its core is atheistic. One should not confuse cultural practices such as Kataragama pilgrimage with original Buddhist ideas.

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              Ranting from a pathetic racist bigot not worth answering

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          bigot, if you have nothing to say go away.
          do not compare abstracts with the living.

          The suspension of US contributions, which accounted for $80m a year – 22% of Unesco’s overall budget – brought the agency to the brink of a financial crisis and forced it to cut or scale back US-led initiatives such as Holocaust education and tsunami research.
          November 12, 2015 The United States was re-elected to the executive board of the U.N. Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization on Wednesday, despite having withheld funds from the organization for four years. Secretary of State John Kerry reiterated his determination to get Congress to relent and restore funding.
          The administration has been trying since then to obtain congressional waiver authority to enable it to restore funding, but to no avail.
          Trump will not because Palestine in all UN bodies is dangerous.

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          Lester,’

          Yes, they are heritage sites we can be proud of.

          However, did we Sri Lankans,Sinhalese or Tamils create them? Very likely imported Indian artisans and craftsman, we hired , created these.’

          Even today, the mammoth Buddha statues , Hindu temples and Hindu-religious statues we are making involve Indian artisans and craftsman, if they are beautiful to behold. If anyone wants to see a monstrosity created by our craftsman, visit the Koneswaram temple to behold in disgust/ distress the monstrous and ugly statue of Siva built near its entrance.

          There are Buddha statues which are of a similar too.

          Dr.Rajasingham Narendran

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            even 5 star hotels of colombo are made by imported artisans. Ramada Renaissance and the timber work was buy artisans from Hindu Bali better than any Indian of today.

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            To the government of India and it’s civil service all Indians were Dravidian until the Iranians invasions during the Harrapa periodand lastly during the mughal period.Muslim period is like ISIS in town sex and kill.Then the EIC period of welsh man Clive the NaBob until Queen Victoria took over to stop the unwanted children.(till the Beatles there were no condoms) Harappan civilization which had flourished 3000 BCE and vanishes around 1500 BCE
            there is a lull in history for 1000 years but now new excavations and new technology is probing that period at Haryana.

            “There are Buddha statues which are of a similar too. “

            There were no Buddha statutes until the christian era.
            It was Hinayana transferring to Mahayana during Ajanta period AD.

            3 schools and their features (1)Gandhar school of sculpture (2)Mathura school of sculpture (3)Amravati School of sculpture

            Gandhar • Outside influence • Grey sandstone • Completely Buddhist • Kushana • NWFP • Spiritual Buddha • Reminds Apollo • Bearded,mushtaq, eyes-half closed, propumurance, weavy hair,large ears,seated in ‘yogi’ posture Mathura • Mathura • Indegeneous • Spotted red sandstone • All 3 religions • Kushana • Around UP • delighted buddha • Reminds Yaksha • Masculine,Grace on the face,energetic body,tight dress,seated in padmasana Amravati • Amravati • Indegeneous • White marble • Buddhism dominated • Satvahana • Krishna-Godavri lower valley • Narrative art • Depicting themes from jataka tales,life of Buddha
            Contribution of Gandhar school
            Most important contribution Evolution of beautiful images of Buddha and bodhisattva difference between a Buddha and Bodhisattava- Buddha is one who has attained the enlightenment of supreme knowledge, while the Bodhisattva is still a candidate for it.Executed in black stone and modelled on the characteristics of indo-graeco-roman-pantheon.Tallest rock cut statue of lord Buddha- Bamiyan,Afghanistan(3rd or 4th A.D.)image of the Buddha reached perfection in the Gupta age, three centuries later.
            Gandhar Mathura Amravati
            Gandhara sculpture owed as much to the romans as to the greeks.
            Bamiyan,Afghanistan two 6th-century monumental statues of standingbuddha carved into the side of a cliff in the Bamyan valley in the Hazarajat region of central Afghanistan. The statues represented the classic blended style of Gandhara art. The main bodies were hewn directly from the sandstone cliffs, but details were modeled in mud mixed with straw, coated with stucco. This coating, practically all of which wore away long ago, was painted to enhance the expressions of the faces, hands, and folds of the robes; the larger one was painted carmine red and the smaller one was painted multiple colors. They were dynamited and destroyed in March 2001 by the Taliban

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            Dr. Rajasingham Narendran:

            Did the “imported Indian artisan & craftsman” also paint the murals at Sigiriya? Did the “imported Indian artistans and craftsmen” figure out how to keep the dry zone irrigated for 9 centuries?

            “C.R. Panabokke stated at a recent talk before the Royal Asiatic Society, that irrigation in ancient Sri Lanka was an indigenous development. The techniques were not introduced from India. The dry zone was not flat, though it appears so. It is undulating, which meant that it contained valleys and had a lot of drainage. The irrigation schemes of the north central province were set in these valleys. Ancient irrigation started first with channels, then ponds using first and second order streams then came the creation of small tanks and thereafter the large irrigation schemes. “

            It is rather ridiculous to claim that Indians were responsible for the construction of Sinhalese architectural wonders. The Sinhalese knew how to use steel and copper, how to make axes and swords, etc. Similar materials were used to construct the engineering marvels. These materials can be found in abundance in Northern Sri Lanka. Detailed knowledge of the topography and advanced surveying techniques, best known to indigenous inhabitants, were employed to optimize the designs. The style of these landmarks does not resemble anything found in India. Compare with the Taj Mahal, which looks like something from the Middle East, which makes sense, since some Moghul maniac built it. There is no relevance to Indians coming to Sri Lanka today and building things. Germans export BMW’s to China, does that mean the Chinese are incapable of building their own car?

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              “”It is rather ridiculous to claim that Indians were responsible for the construction of Sinhalese architectural wonders””

              chicken farm, Panabokka Who?? you mean badabokku??

              You are the product of a settler afraid of the europeans as much as the indians. The portugese slaves (1497- 1970) as my portugese say-

              Indus valley architecture Indigenous art No influence of outside. Different from ancient and medieval architecture. No integral use of sculpture. Concentration on utility factor rather than artistic factor. (Decorative embellishment may have been lost over time)

              Town planning  3rd millennium B.C.  On and around Indus river bank. Walled cities for security.  No evidence of temples or any religious structure.  Burnt brick was widely used  roads were wide and at right angles to one another- rectangular grid pattern of layout  Existence of assembly halls,workshops,hostels and market place
              Two parts of the town 1.citadel-upper part-for elite class -dominant citadel suggests some kind of political authority. 2.non-citadel-lower part-for common people

              Houses  Built of baked clay  Fixed size  Use of stone and wood  Included bath,upper-story and wells.  Evidence of big buildings-public buildings or administrative or business center-pillared halls and courtyard.
              Public bath  Tank type,stairs  Small rooms along with the bath.  Importance of ritual bathing.  Importance of cleanliness.  ex. The great bath of mo-hen-jo-daro  Still functional. No leakages or cracks
               Granaries  Found in citadel  Intelligent construction-strategic air ducts and platform  Drainage system  Almost like modern system  Temporarily covered drains-cleaning purpose
              Dockyard of Lothal  The dockyard was located away from the main current to avoid deposition of silt.  It is speculated that Lothal engineers studied tidal movements, and their effects on brick-built structures, since the walls are of kiln-burnt bricks.  The dock, with a canal opening to allow water to flow into the river, thereby maintaining a stable water level.  The dock also possessed a lock-gate system—a wooden door could be lowered at the mouth of the outlet to retain a minimum column of water in the basin so as to ensure flotation at low tides.
              Indus valley sculpture Seals  square or rectangular,circular and few are cylindrical piece of stone  Average size-2*2 inches  Stone-soft riverstone- statite,copper and terracotta  Decorated with animal motifs-except cow  Pictographic script on both sides of the seals  Some gold, silver and ivory seals.
              script  Script- pictographic -along with animal impressions which are yet to be deciphered. -direction of writing-right to left.

              Seal of pashupati  This seal shows a seated figure of a Yogi, probably Shiva Pashupati, surrounded by four animals – a rhino, a buffalo, an elephant and a tiger. There are two deer shown under the throne. Pashupati means the lord of animals.  religion of the Harappan age  Most of these seals have a knob at the back through which runs a hole and it is believed that they were used by different guilds or merchants and traders for stamping purposes.
              Purpose of the seal  Unit of trade and commerce-found in Mesopotamia  Copper seal-as an immolate -proof-some seals had small hole in upper side.  As an education tool-pie is shown in one seal.  Examples- pashupati seal-lord Shiva type deity -Unicorn seal-bull
              Terracotta sculpture  The sculptor at Mohenjodaro was adept in his art and could fashion both realistically as well as stylistically.  Technique-hand-made  Pinching method  Famous figures—  Mother Goddess-  from mohenjo-daro  Worshiped for fertility and prosperity
              Toy carts-The toy animal, with a movable head  Birds and animals  Terracotta figure of a bull- shows the study of anatomy  The pair of squirrels – in a very natural and characteristic fashion seated on their haunches and nibbling at some fruit.
              Bronze sculpture  Technique-lost wax method (cire perdue)  Used for bronze casting  At first the wax figures are covered with the coating of clay  Then allowed it to dry.  Then it is heated and the molten wax is allowed to drain out through a tiny hall at the bottom of clay curve.  The hollow mould is then filled with bronze or any other metal.  Once the metal is cooled, the clay is removed.
               Major sites – kalibangan,Harappa,Diemabath  Bronze Dancing girl  Found at Mohenjo-Daro  Naked sculpture-a naked woman only wearing ornaments  Bangles, necklace, emulates and a particular hair-style  figure shows a female dancing figure
              stone Sculpture Bearded priest  from Mohenjodaro  weaving a shawl with trefoil pattern.  It bears a close resemblance to a similar figure discovered in the Sumerian sites of Ur and Susa.  Male torso-made of red limestone.  From Harappa  remarkable for its naturalistic pose and sophisticated modeling, highlighting its physical beauty.  The head and arms of this figure were carved separately and socketed into the drilled holes of the torso.  The figure of a male dancer belonging to the same period and discovered at Harappa
              Ornaments  Use of ornaments by both male and female  Large variety of material- bone,precious metal,gem stone,baked clay  Some unisex ornaments-necklace,armlets etc.  Evidences of dead bodies with ornaments.  Spinning of cotton and wool.  Consciousness of fashion.  Cinnabar was used as a cosmetic  Variety of cosmetics-lipstick ,eye-liner,face paint
              Pottery  Red and black pottery.  Use of 2 colours- red and black background color –red color To draw some design –black color Hence the name black and red pottery.  Not hand made but wheel made ware.  Some plain pottery which was more common.  Some painted pottery.
              Use of pottery Household purpose For decoration purpose-  Proof- some very small sized pottery.  can’t be used for household or storage purpose Perforated pottery-for straining liqueur.
              End of Indus valley civilization. v
              Even today Lanka does not have industry because its so very engineering minded buruvas. weaving cloth and garments- material comes from elsewhere and the robot type does the thermal stitches for underwear.
              Even Victoria Secret is by Gujarati not sinhalaya.

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                Lots of rubbish here. No point responding.

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                  “”Lots of rubbish here. No point responding. “”
                  you are afraid. i don’t care if you are demala or sinhala speaking demala or muslim as i am non of it. But will accept your point if you are right.
                  There is much i learnt from Native about SL – things i never knew so i respect him for the truth though politically no because i need solution not hanging on with idiots who are fit for nothing. the day you are right and truthful on CT you would find me saying well done.

                  you can never because you are a liar like eusense, jim soft, et al.
                  a stranded bigot who has never traveled the world during campus days but stole from lankan tax payer and never returned the promised sum back.
                  Right now you are not in the UK but asia most proberbly you have sneaked into lanka.

                  get flushed. for several years you concentrated only islam bashing for your few pennies which I could not help laughing. so i commented the first time to find out if you have any respect- you have non like DJ, Fernando the PhD’` Pakistan heeling Dance and you have first Bsc Bull shit now MSc. More shit.

                  oi 1968 (i was still 8th grade) my dad introduced me to ANS kulasinghe the best engg lanka produced (because i was interested in industrial engg. he told me he was so poor that he could not afford a pair of shorts to school and the church funded him all the way to New york to become authority prestressed concrete. then to maitland cresant to meet the GDR ambassador and he told me the saddest story of WW2 where his 4 year old died because he could not digest the grass any more and he 6 survived for 3 months until help arrived. this made me strong.
                  You fing academic of 3rd rated office.

                  if you think you can brain wash me you are mistaken.

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                    In one of your posts, you called Hitler a “very brilliant man.” So, it is clear that you are not right in the head. You are also a Muslim, that is why you follow me around on this website like a rabid dog, after I exposed your religion. Anyway, I can’t understand most of your English. The grammar is not correct.

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                      Hi Lester,
                      aren’t we making headway??
                      “In one of your posts, you called Hitler a “very brilliant man.” So, it is clear that you are not right in the head.”

                      he was undoubtedly brilliant but used his brains in the wrong direction like most Lanka con men.
                      He was manufacturing the bomb but was getting hell from russia and meanwhile the jew working for him stole the process and handed over to the giant with resources that could complete the bomb faster so Roosvelt (in wheel chair) accepted it and woke up to fight (just after pearl harbour) english in the allied forces (married to German women) stationed still at Germany also know about it.
                      You are sitting on your head on your head and only associating with Asians. i usually go out for tea with a couple of UCL profs who are natives from the north of england- we talk of many things.

                      “You are also a Muslim, that is why you follow me around on this website like a rabid dog, after I exposed your religion. “

                      I don’t need to lie on this. but you always amused me because you were just one man attacking Muslims on behalf of Jewish folk- and it was very hardcut. there are many Muslims who come on CT but just for muslim articles and non debated with you for some reason. Remember i informed you to try desert storm because he is muslim who writes long comments and if one tries him he throws garbage after garbage. i just wanted to see that fight because i am here for fun. If I do not know an answer now i will find it soon but i will not enter into a quarrel in a subject i do not know or dislike. I learnt much about SL from Vedda and his stuff is right on target and the best.But i know India too well North south east west and its people plus the languages to get by. most of indias story is said in hindi with english captions and that is for a reason.

                      “”You are also a Muslim, that is why you follow me around on this website like a rabid dog, after I exposed your religion. “”

                      i have no religion and do not practice like the 50% english whites.
                      Happily Pagan. I have never visited a mosque in my life (but seen interactive mosques) and don’t like the call from the minaret.

                      If you are competant at english and academic you can understand what is meant. Remember this is not grammar school and I do hold a distinction for english. When one is educated at Delhi in the english medium one prefers to have an interview in hindi so the chances are better. Same with SL where I speak and write sinhala like a local. English language reports are for money not for comments.
                      Pity the nation whose people are sheep,and whose shepherds mislead them.
                      Pity the nation whose leaders are liars, whose sages are silenced,
                      and whose bigots haunt the airwaves.

                      “why you follow me around on this website like a rabid dog,”

                      you insult me i always return the compliment. so by definition all are dogs and lanka is full or stray rabid dogs.

                    • 0
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                      “he was undoubtedly brilliant”

                      No, Hitler was not brilliant in any sense. He was a good orator. Goebbels was a master propagandist and Speer was very effective at organizing things, especially the armaments industry. You do not have any conception of how the “Third Reich” was run. I am not going to waste time educating a government-school prodigy by giving basic history lessons. I will just tell you that Hitler interfered with the Generals’ planning, invaded the East (biggest mistake of WWII), did not pull out of Stalingrad when the generals wanted (cost = 425K dead Wehrmacht), and he (Hitler) did not understand the future of weaponry. He thought he was a battlefield genius because he survived a gas attack in WW1.

            • 6
              1

              Lester

              “The techniques were not introduced from India. “

              Prof R A L H Gunawardana wrote in his research the initial Irrigation engineering/technology/technique were imported from South India. He published at least 7 papers on irrigation. Primitive sluice technology had its origin in South India.

              Those techniques were further developed in this island and reexported to various parts of India.

              ” There is no relevance to Indians coming to Sri Lanka today and building things. Germans export BMW’s to China, does that mean the Chinese are incapable of building their own car?”

              The first car was not manufactured in China. The first aircraft was not manufactured by Chinese. The first telephone was not invented by China. The first computer was not manufactured by China. Railways were not introduced by China. Electricity was not discovered by China.

              Zero was not invented by China, but by a Sinhala/Buddhist according to Champika Ranawake.

              • 5
                1

                2005- China are unable to manufacture the MG Rover it purchased wholesale and took away.
                2011- The MG6 fastback, which was designed and engineered in Britain but built mainly in China, is the first all-new MG to be launched in 16 years.
                The automotive offspring of an Anglo-Chinese collaboration will roll off the production line in Birmingham on Wednesday to show the world its sporty snout, aggressive grille and a familiar octagonal badge into which two famous letters have been squeezed.

                the same story with the range rover.
                Chinese mechanics are trying crude electric cars. while in the west we have posh electric cars.

                Patent right copy rights.

                Did your pop have a new car when you were a kid?? in the 60’s we had sealed beams replacing the bulb.- patent right.

              • 2
                6

                Zero was NOT invented by Sinhala Buddhists. But the mathematical zero that the whole world of science and commerce now uses was however a Buddhist concept/insight/invention call it what you will. In fact it was an alternative term for the Primary Buddhist Insight. [NV,Don’t even bother you wont get it.!At least a full sentence is need for the latter]. Its about 2600 year old.

                The original Buddhist term was “Sunya” or sometimes “Shunyata”.
                When Buddhism travelled very peacefully along the ancient Silk Road the Arabs picked it up and called it “Shifr”
                And it was introduced to Europe/Italy/Venice by Leonardo Fibonacci, the Italian mathematician, sometime around 1200 AD, no one knows the exact date. He saw Arabs using it in commerce and saw its usefulness along with the decimal system.
                In Latin the “Shifr” became “cypher” and the cypher eventually became the famous “zero”.

                The Roman number system was clumsy and inefficient compared to the Indian decimal system which included the sweet little Zero.

                You Native Vedda: we Buddhist don’t engage in misleading propaganda like you Tamils, fake genocides etc. We mind our own business, get on with our deep philosophy, build lovely reservoirs, engaged in agriculture, build hospitals for humans and animals to alleviate suffering, engaged in fine arts, build the then lovely city of Anuradhapura.
                And your ancient Tamils ancestors could not stand it and attacked Anuradhapura for about 1200 years and finally wiped it out/commited genocide on the Sinhalese about 1000 AD. That’s the origin/root cause of the Tamils/Sinhalese conflict we find today. Your ancestors started it. Not us.

                We are stupid, demure Buddhists. Not only do we not engage in propaganda we don’t even crow about our achievements, including the sweet little “zero”

                Re cap:So tonight, NV you have learnt two lessons; one about the origin of zero and two the origin of Sinhala/Tamil conflict. I hope you will get a chance to read this and educate yourself rather engage in your usual ill informed ranting and raving.

                • 2
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                  Good Student,

                  That is correct. The Greeks were concerned with form as opposed to function. That is why they were perplexed by the discovery of irrational numbers (Pythagoras). Whereas for the Hindus, the number “zero” made a lot of sense. What is interesting, though, is that both cultures had some sense of the idea of a “limit”, which is the central theme of calculus. Both Vedic and Greek mathematicians used crude methods to approximate the value of pi.

                  • 4
                    1

                    Once again 2 stupid bigots are unable to reason.both religious fanatics

                    but the first recorded use of a zero-like symbol dates to sometime around the third century B.C. in ancient Babylon.
                    A full grasp of zero’s importance would not arrive until the seventh century A.D. in India. There, the mathematician Brahmagupta and others used small dots under numbers to show a zero placeholder, but they also viewed the zero as having a null value, called “sunya.” Brahmagupta was also the first to show that subtracting a number from itself results in zero. From India, the zero made its way to China and back to the Middle East, where it was taken up by the mathematician Mohammed ibn-Musa al-Khowarizmi around 773. It was al-Khowarizmi who first synthesized Indian arithmetic and showed how the zero could function in algebraic equations, and by the ninth century the zero had entered the Arabic numeral system in a form resembling the oval shape we use today.

                    The zero continued to migrate for another few centuries before finally reaching Europe sometime around the 1100s. Thinkers like the Italian mathematician Fibonacci helped introduce zero to the mainstream, and it later figured prominently in the work of Rene Descartes along with Sir Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibniz’s invention of calculus. Since then, the concept of “nothing” has continued to play a role in the development of everything from physics and economics to engineering and computing.

                    http://www.history.com/news/ask-history/who-invented-the-zero

                • 3
                  1

                  Good Student (infact Brilliant!) ,
                  Stupid sloth stay on the tree now that you have lost the borrowed ambude.
                  You don’t know the meaning of brilliant because there are no diamonds there.
                  Who is Gautama mother?/ did she fall from Sky is a UNESCO question at Lumbini – only tree worshipers.

                  Now you just Stay a brilliant student in the begging bowl island where the sinhala monks do your bum when a kid so you become one. Sri lanka is in the Guinness book of records for producing con men of the world.
                  The pawn broker will wipe you folk out of the island like Diego Garcia. When trump wins he intends pulling out all bases then you have no protection even from Russia or china but India would take it back as it belongs to India- thats the news in Indian grapevine- no trust!
                  Ranil is trying the shape shape but he never would never win when Desi Americans hold sway.
                  The nuclear subs was your death sinhalaya modaya kauvn kanna yodaya.
                  Each Ambani order to China is valued at $10 billion and he won’t adopt you because you are 1/2 muslim from Bangladesh.

                  You have exposed that only 2 legged Cheaters and 4 legged Cheetahs live in the island.

                  I am sure you counted your fingers when you were child like the Egyptian mullas only upto 9. The Nadu Tamils win the spelling bee and maths test at USA in series but there are no sinhalayas for they are enjoying cleaning with the comprehendo Mexican illegals. don’t they get the z score for maths at lanka??
                  Pissu malasaniya, the Hindu Om starts from zero. you will never understand for it does not run in your genes.

                  Gautama was not a Brahmani to know Sanskrit neither are you but from portugese slave trade because you are trying to teach folk who learn from Sages.
                  Have you won a gold medal at Olympics??

                  In the world especially Europe they say Buddha God men are asslickers because there are
                  487,540,000 Buddhists (7% of world population), of which half live in China and Chinese see it as a philosophy- no dana bana dansal pansal
                  that is for pirates and slaves.
                  Only Dali Lama Mahayana carries the respect of the world. 500AD the world of buddhist philosophy changed to mahayana and those Caves off Bombay by HariSena (hindu) means that transition. Hinayana is dead. Thailand can afford because they were never conquered by any foreign force in the history of the world. However modern Thais know its all about their king and culture so say it only privately.
                  you have no monarch you were carted in chains by the Portuguese to lanka and when you arrived your ancestor borrowed ambude from Native Veddha.

                  Try writing short stories of sex fantasy and sell it to arabs so they could perform better on the hot sinhala buddhist women you export. Then instead of sending $1 billion they may send more since your debt as of today is $60 billion.

              • 0
                3

                Native Vedda:

                Just because I tell you how something works does not mean you can build it. When you build it, has to conform to certain specifications. In this case, the landscape (terrain), availability of materials, weather conditions, etc. Unless South India and Northern Sri Lanka have the exact same topography, weather conditions, soil conditions, etc. irrigation methods used in South India will not necessarily work in Sri Lanka.

                As I have said, the Sinhalese were familiar with the various methods and MATERIALS required to construct various machines, such as pulleys and levers. So, if the Sinhalese possessed this knowledge, they did not need the assistance of South Indians to build various structures.

                “They (Sinhalese engineers) had an ‘amazing’ grasp of hydro-dynamics. They knew the relationship between head and pressure of water and the behaviour of liquids in closed conduits. They were evidently aware that as the water passed along the culverts the friction of the sides retarded its velocity. The Maduru oya sluice enlarged the sectional areas of the inlet and outlet culverts from their entrances to their outlets. They also had knowledge of materials. For earthen embankments, impervious clay was used within the core with semi-pervious material providing the necessary bulk, as in modem designs. Sand filter and rock toe filters had also been used. On the water face of the reservoir embankments, stone pitching called relapana had always been used as wave breakers.”

                The origin of the techniques is actually irrelevant. You have to invent new techniques to make the old techniques work for a particular set of parameters. So, Alan Turing invented the Turing machine, which one could call a primitive computer. Some of the same logic used in the Turing machine is used by the computer. Can one claim that Turing invented the computer?

                Chinese invented paper and fireworks; from fireworks came gunpowder. The Arabs, who were too stupid to invent anything by themselves, took the paper idea and passed it on to Europeans. Later on, some European invented a printing press to streamline the process of paper production. That is how technology works; one idea builds upon the other. That is how science also works. Einstein simply modified Newton’s Laws to include the case where objects travel at the speed of light.

                • 4
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                  Lester SC/ST calling himself academic and challenging professionals who are into manufacturing for the past 3 generations.
                  Lankawe paccha Bahu Lester De Silva.
                  “”Just because I tell you how something works does not mean you can build it. When you build it, has to conform to certain specifications. In this case, the landscape (terrain), availability of materials, weather conditions, etc. Unless South India and Northern Sri Lanka have the exact same topography, weather conditions, soil conditions, etc. irrigation methods used in South India will not necessarily work in Sri Lanka.””

                  you are a mutt like Hoole and nalin your gods who are trying to climb the ladder.
                  the theory and practice is the same and the spec.s would be international not your copied standards.
                  what have you invented moron??

                  “”Chinese invented paper and fireworks; from fireworks came gunpowder. The Arabs, who were too stupid to invent anything by themselves, took the paper idea and passed it on to Europeans. Later on, some European invented a printing press to streamline the process of paper production. That is how technology works; one idea builds upon the other.””

                  not necessary! When the Americans built Apollo (with nazi brains) they never thought they would be buying bulky replacement engines from russia.
                  2017 the next engin is to be 3D printed – cheaper than russian and carries 10 times load.

                  you are con master write some books on sex they may sell your fantasy idea.

                  • 1
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                    More rubbish from the Government school prodigy who thinks Hitler was a “very brilliant man.” Hoole went to Oxford, you go to the toilet and do a halal job, what a difference! Hoole is teaching people how to reason logically, you are still reading that rubbish book written by a pedophile and bending to the Moon God.

            • 3
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              Lester,

              Please look up Ajantha and Elora cave paintings through a Google search. They were also have Buddhist linkages. Look How topless maidens they resemble their Sigiriya counterparts.

              Dr.RN

  • 1
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    The first immigrants who carried the Indo-Aryan speech to Ceylon

    If what is written here the direct quotation of what is in the book.some parts are just bull4hit.

    He is discussing the written histor from Bangali books and not from every book found in the world.

    Anyway, this is good edcuation for “intelletucal for one day” type journalists who write Sinhale History in CT. they find how legends came to history.

    • 11
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      “”The first immigrants who carried the Indo-Aryan speech to Ceylon “

      The first immigrants came in chains and borrowed an ambude from native veddha.

      It’s a news copy from Indian Express. Shows how exited you are.

      White man is not the only historian.As much as the Chinese traveler is not.

      Carbon dating and archaeology puts all bigots like jim softy under the rock.

      So how is your tourist attraction sigiriya 5000 years old from space??

  • 4
    4

    Firstly lets look at this from a logical point of view.

    Vijaya arrived with just 1500 people. As a result the genetic impact of 1500 people could not have been that great.

    Also what about the other tribes that were already living in Sri Lanka such as the Yakshas and the Nagas what about their genetic impact to the Sinhalese gene pool.

    Then there are South Indians. Given the close proximity to South India they has been mass migration from places such as Kerala and Tamilnadu by people of various occupations such as farmers, soldiers etc… Given the close proximity to South India they would have outnumbered any amount of Bengalis that were already living in the Island.

    Finally contrary to common misconception according to early records most Bengalis were categorised as Mongoloid Dravidians not as Indo-Aryans. This makes sense given that the average Bengali is Short and dark to medium in appearnace. On average they do not physically resemble Aryan races such as Pathans, Afghanis etc… It is only the upper castes amongst Bengalis that look Aryan.

    • 7
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      ABCD

      ” This makes sense given that the average Bengali is Short and dark to medium in appearnace”

      The Bengalis just look like Tamils and Sinhalese.

      “On average they do not physically resemble Aryan races such as Pathans, Afghanis etc… It is only the upper castes amongst Bengalis that look Aryan.”

      Could you define Aryan Race and their genetic makeup.

      How does an Aryan look like?

  • 2
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    i’am quite happy to know that i have my origins in this planet.

  • 1
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    I have met all types of Indians, and also Bengalis. Bengalis seem inclined towards the arts, e.g. music and literature. Bengal was once an important center of Buddhism and Mauryan learning. At the end of the Pala period, some Buddhist colleges and universities were created. Maybe this openness to ideas, that came from Buddhism, is what allowed the arts to flourish in the Bengal society.

    • 13
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      “”Bengalis seem inclined towards the arts, e.g. music and literature.””

      At almost every Indian campus they say Bengali women are hot.
      Does not surprise why Sinhalese Buddhist and Bangladeshi women are sent to the sex maniac Medieval middle east while Pakistan and India have banned them from going.

      “Maybe this openness to ideas, that came from Buddhism, is what allowed the arts to flourish in the Bengal society. “”

      Never did Indian art flourish gloriously until cupid from Greece stuck Chandragupta Maurya. Pala art was a copy of the north east which was never captured by Muslims.

      Genghis Khan had the biggest empire ruling almost 1/2 the world.

    • 1
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      Even Ceylon/Sri Lanka imported the national anthem from Bengal!

  • 2
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    The Mahavamsa clearly states that Vijaya and his followers were from Bengal
    read below:

    06: The Coming of Vijaya
    IN the country of the Vangas[1] in the Vanga capital there lived once a king of the Vangas. The daughter of the king of the Kalingas was that king’s consort. By his spouse the king had a daughter, the soothsayers prophesied her union with the king of beasts. Very fair was she and very amorous and for shame the king and queen could not suffer her.
    Alone she went forth from the house, desiring the joy of independent life; unrecognized she joined a caravan travelling to the Magadha country. In the Lala country a lion attacked the caravan in the forest, the other folk fled this way and that, but she fled along the way by which the lion had come.
    When the lion had taken his prey and was leaving the spot he beheld her from afar, love (for her) laid hold on him, and he came towards her with waving tail and ears laid back. Seeing him she bethought her of that prophecy of the soothsayers which she bad heard, and without fear she caressed him stroking his limbs.
    The lion, roused to fiercest passion by her touch, took her upon his back and bore her with all speed to his cave, and there he was united with her, and from this union with him the princess in time bore twin-children, a son and a daughter.
    The son’s hands and feet were formed like a lion’s and therefore she named him Sihabahu (sinhabahu), but the daughter (she named) Sihasivali (sinhasivali). When he was sixteen years old the son questioned his mother on the doubt (that had arisen in him): ‘Wherefore are you and our father so different, dear mother?’ She told him all. Then he asked: ‘Why do we not go forth (from here)?’ And she answered: ‘Thy father has closed the cave up with a rock.’ Then he took that barrier before the great cave upon his shoulder and went (a distance of) fifty yojanas going andcoming in one day.
    Then (once), when the lion had gone forth in search of prey, (Sihabahu) took his mother on his right shoulder and his young sister on his left, and went away with speed. They clothed themselves with branches of trees, and so came to a border-village and there, even at that time, was a son of the princess’s uncle, a commander in the army of the Yanga king, to whom was given the rule over the border-country; and he was just then sitting under a banyan-tree overseeing the work that was done.
    When he saw them he asked them (who they were) and they said; `We are forest-folk’; the commander bade (his people) give them clothing; and this turned into splendid (garments). He had food offered to them on leaves and by reason of their merit these were turned into dishes of gold. Then, amazed, the commander asked them, `Who are you?’ The princess told him her family and clan. Then the commander took his uncle’s daughter with him and went to the capital of the Vangas and married her.
    When the lion, returning in haste to his cave, missed those three (persons), he was sorrowful, and grieving after his son he neither ate nor drank. Seeking for his children he went to the border-village, and every village where he came was deserted by the dwellers therein.
    And the border-folk came to the king and told him this:`A lion ravages thy country; ward off (this danger) 0 king!’ Since he found none who could ward off (this danger) he had a thousand (pieces of money) led about the city on an elephant’s back and this proclamation made: `Let him who brings the lion receive these!’ And in like manner the monarch (offered) two thousand and three thousand. Twice did Sihabahu’s[2] mother restrain him. The third time without asking his mother’s leave, Sihabähu took the three thousand gold-pieces (as reward) for slaying his own father.
    They presented the youth to the king, and the king spoke thus to him: `If thou shalt take the lion I will give thee at once the kingdom.’ And he went to the opening of the cave, and as soon as he saw from afar the lion who came forward, for love toward his son, he shot an arrow to slay him.
    The arrow struck the lion’s forehead but because of his tenderness (toward his son) it rebounded and fell on the earth at the youth’s feet. And so it fell out three times, then did the king of beasts grow wrathful and the arrow sent at him struck him and pierced his body.
    (Sihabahu) took the head of the lion with the mane and returned to his city. And just seven days had passed then since the death of the king of the Vangas. Since the king had no son the ministers, who rejoiced over his deed on hearing that he was the king’s grandson and on recognizing his mother, met all together and said of one accord to the prince Sihabahu `Be thou (our) king’.
    And he accepted the kingship but handed it over then to his mother’s husband and he himself went with Sihasivali to the land of his birth. There he built a city, and they called it Sihapura, and in the forest stretching a hundred yojanas around he founded villages. In the kingdom of Lala, in that city did Sihabähu, ruler of men, hold sway when he had made Sihasivali his queen. As time passed on his consort bore twin sons sixteen times, the eldest was named Vijaya, the second Sumitta; together there were thirty-two sons. In time the king consecrated Vijaya as prince-regent.
    Vijaya was of evil conduct and his followers were even (like himself), and many intolerable deeds of violence were done by them. Angered by this the people told the matter to the king; the king, speaking persuasively to them, severely blamed his son. But all fell out again as before, the second and yet the third time; and the angered people said to the king: `Kill thy son.’
    Then did the king cause Vijaya and his followers, seven hundred men, to be shaven over half the head[3] and put them on a ship and sent them forth upon the sea, and their wives and children also. The men, women, and children sent forth separately landed separately, each (company) upon an island, and they dwelt even there. The island where the children landed was called Naggadipa[4] and the island where the women landed Mahiladipaka[5]. But Vijaya landed at the haven called Suppäraka[6], but being there in danger by reason of the violence of his followers be embarked again.
    The prince named VIJAYA, the valiant, landed in Lanka, in the region called Tambapanni on the day that the Tathagata lay down between the two twinlike sala-trees to pass into nibbana.
    Here ends the sixth chapter, called `The Coming of Vijaya’, in the Mahavamsa, compiled for the serene joy and emotion of the pious.

    The footnote of the Mahavamsa says Vangas is Bengal

  • 0
    4

    We all came from Africa, period. Along the way so many of us got side tracked to different part of the world and some how we ended up in SL.

    Sinhalese Buddhist have a mix of Indian and also linked to highly civilised veda clans that originated from Mid East.

    Issue is we are at 2016 and still behaving like snakes and trying to cheat, murder and get preferential treatment using all kind of BS.
    Slaves were brought in to SL by western slave owners, then slaves in 2016 still looking upwards to their masters and creating all kind of BS to steal national wealth and also pandering to foreign slave owners.. Well they are called tamils in SL. So grow up and assimilate with the majority and get rid of your slavish mentality to your old masters.

    “The Sinhalese of Ceylon pose an interesting genetic problem. They speak a fundamentally Aryan language, and trace their descent from ancestors from the central latitudes of India who came to the island about 500 B.C. […] Culturally there is considerable affinity between Sinhalese and other groups of Middle India, from whom they are apparently separated by the great Dravidian language block of southern India. From the limited genetical information available, in the gene frequencies for some characters the Sinhalese are very similar to other populations throughout India, e.g. the isoenzyme systems (Roberts et al. 1972). In others, however, they appear to be at the limit of a cline across India from north to south, for example of diminishing frequencies of blood group gene B and increasing O (Mourant et al. 1958; Mourant 1962). The problem then is how to reconcile the occurrence of a regular gradient in frequency with the cultural and traditional evidence”

    • 4
      1

      watcher

      “So grow up and assimilate with the majority and get rid of your slavish mentality to your old masters.”

      Hurrah, this must be your eureka moment. Its a jolly good idea too.

      If assimilation with majority is the only available means to get rid of slavish mentality, I suggest you think about assimilating into South Indian population. Being a slave to abstract ideas of majoritarianism, Sinhala/Buddhism, Sinha Le …. are outdated and an existential burden on people.

      Little that you realise these stupid bigoted ideas also have made you a slave.

      There is an alternative, “unity in diversity” which hopefully will free you from slavery, as Rousseau writes in his The Social Contract “Man is born free and everywhere he is in chains.”

      You are the slave owner of your own enslaved mind. Try living a mentally free man/woman/other and you will eventually feel good about yourself.

      We did have slavery in this island well before your colonial masters bought and sold them on this soil.

      Please check Chandima S.M. Wickramasinghe’s articles and books on Monastic Slavery in this island. This can only be done if you are willing to pull your head where it is now.

      By the way slavery was abolished in 1844.

      Abolition of Slavery – an ordinance to provide for the total abolition of slavery – 20th December 1844.

      Would you believe this ordinance was passed by Suddha.?

    • 1
      9

      “They speak a fundamentally Aryan language”

      Every group that speaks an Indo-Aryan language has some Aryan lineage. Whether it is Punjabis, Iranians, Germans, Sinhalese, or Afghans. There is no group that speaks a non Indo-Aryan language and yet has no Aryan lineage. Chinese, Malays, Japanese, Arabs, etc. Out of all the groups that speak an Indo-Aryan language, people try to claim only the Sinhalese lack an Aryan lineage. Most of these people are Eelamists, who are desperate to “prove” Tamils came to the island first, using the proximity of India to Northern Sri Lanka as their primary justification. Among Indian Tamils, there is a subsection that tries to claim Sanskrit came from Tamil and the “true Hinduism” – as opposed to Vedic Hinduism – originates in South India. I am not sure why these people possess an inferiority complex & try to re-write someone else’s history. We Sinhalese accept Tamils for who they are – Dravidians. We do not claim that Aryans built the great Dravidian civilization of Mahenjo-Daro or that the Tamil language is stolen from Sanskrit. There is yet another group of Sri Lankans with an altogether different type of complex.These are the Tamil-speaking Muslims who believe they are descended from Arabs.

      • 4
        1

        Lots of blacks in the Caribbean USA UK and elsewhere speak English French Spanish Portuguese. Are they also of Aryan lineage? In many Arab countries Arabised descendants of African slaves are now considered Arabs and now speak Arabic. So they are of Semites of Arab descent? Half the Sinhalese population in the island are of recent Tamil origin. Even take me. My Brahmin Indo Aryan ancestors started migrated to the Tamil country from around 2000 years ago to a few centuries ago and now call themselves Tamils and speak Tamil. Ever heard of language replacement. You don’t have to be Aryan to speak an Aryan language. Just like all of are using English in this forum. So are we English?

        • 0
          3

          “Lots of blacks in the Caribbean USA UK and elsewhere speak English French Spanish Portuguese. Are they also of Aryan lineage?”

          Are you that stupid? The blacks in the Caribbean, USA, and UK are the descendants of slaves. The Sinhalese have been in Sri Lanka for more than 2000 years. I am not talking about immigrants, but people who have lived in a given area for more than 1000 years. Stupid mutt.

      • 4
        1

        Lester the stupid bigot. from Portuguese slave trade.

        “”Every group that speaks an Indo-Aryan language has some Aryan lineage. Whether it is Punjabis, Iranians, Germans, Sinhalese, or Afghans.”

        Ethnographic division into races from Meyers Konversationslexikon of 1885-90 is listing:
        •Caucasian races (Aryans, Hamites, Semites)
        •Mongolian races (northern Mongolian, Chinese and Indo-Chinese, Japanese and Korean, Tibetan, Malayan, Polynesian, Maori, Micronesian, Eskimo, American Indian),
        •Negroid races (African, Hottentots, Melanesians/Papua, “Negrito”, Australian Aborigine, Dravidians, Sinhalese)

        Caucasian:
        Skull: Dolicephalic(Long-Head),High forehead,Little supraobital development.
        Face: Mainly Leptoproscopic( Narrow)Sometimes Meso- or even Euryproscopic, Neither Facial nor alveolar prognathism occurs except among some archaic peoples.
        Nose:Long,narrow,high in both root and bridge.

        Negroid:
        Skull: usually Dolicephalic, a small minority are Brachycephalic.
        Forehead most often high, little supraobital development.
        Face: Leproscopic (to a much lesser degree than the Caucasion), Prognathism common in most Negro populations.
        Nose: Low & broad in root and bridge with characteristic depression at root.

        Lester is typically negroid and like the Persians do not resemble
        : Blue eyes Blond Hair Aryan of Hitler which was concocted and the German finally admitted. as much as the anti-clockwise swastika of the hindu- sanskrit.
        The rejection of race in science is now almost complete. In the end, we should embrace historian Barbara Fields’s succinct conclusion with respect to the plausibility of biological races: “Anyone who continues to believe in race as a physical attribute of individuals, despite the now commonplace disclaimers of biologists and geneticists, might as well also believe that Santa Claus, the Easter Bunny and the tooth fairy are real, and that the earth stands still while the sun moves.”

        Unfortunately, few in this society seem prepared to fully relinquish their subscription to notions of biological race.. . .[including the] Congress and the Supreme Court. Congress’ anachronistic understanding of race is exemplified by a 1988 statute that explains that “the term ‘racial group’ means a set of individuals whose identity as such is distinctive in terms of physical characteristics or biological descent.” The Supreme Court, although purporting to sever race from biology, also seems incapable of doing so. In Saint Francis College v. Al-Khazraji, the Court determined that an Arab could recover damages for racial discrimination under 42 U.S.C. § 1981. . . Despite a seeming rejection of biological race, Justice White [stated]: “The Court of Appeals was thus quite right in holding that § 1981, ‘at a minimum,’ reaches discrimination against an individual ‘because he or she is genetically part of an ethnically and physiognomically distinctive subgrouping of homo sapiens.”‘. . . By adopting the lower court’s language of genetics and distinctive subgroupings, Justice White demonstrates the Court’s continued reliance on blood as a metonym for race. . . .In Metrobroadcasting v. FCC, Justice Scalia again reveals the Court’s understanding of race as a matter of blood. During oral argument, Scalia attacked the argument that granting minorities broadcasting licenses would enhance diversity by blasting “the policy as a matter of ‘blood,’ at one point charging that the policy reduced to a question of ‘blood . . . blood, not background and environment.”‘

        Referents of terms like Black, White, Asian, and Latino are social groups, not genetically distinct branches of humankind.

        Only when you read and write Hindi like us then open your stupid trap- angreji ka putra.

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          Always a good laugh when the government school prodigy calls others a “bigot.” According to this prodigy, Hitler was a ” very brilliant man.” But we know why you are happy that Hitler killed 6 million Jews, because your Prophet killed 600 at Banu Qurazya.

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        Pretty much every ethnic group that originated in India is a mixed breed. Aryan migration theory is true both linguistically and genetically but Indian nationalists hate it. There’s no such a thing as pure ‘race’ in India. Indians are the product of Indo-Aryan west asian settlers mixing with the earliest settlers of India (who are dark skinned people). In genetics studies, these founding populations are termed Ancestral North Indians (ANI) and Ancestral South Indians (ASI). South Indians are stereotyped as the pure dark Indians but they are not. The higher your caste is, no matter which part of India, the more likely you have Indo-Aryan DNA. Tamil Brahmins for example have more Indo-Aryan DNA than lower caste Tamils. http://www.harappadna.org/2011/06/caste-is-not-ancestrally-arbitrary/

        ////Results of studies based upon autosomal DNA variation have also been varied. In a major study (2009) using over 500,000 biallelic autosomal markers, Reich hypothesized that the modern Indian population was the result of admixture between two genetically divergent ancestral populations dating from the post-Holocene era. These two “reconstructed” ancient populations he termed “Ancestral South Indians” (ASI) and “Ancestral North Indians” (ANI). According to Reich: “ANI ancestry is significantly higher in Indo-European than Dravidian speakers, suggesting that the ancestral ASI may have spoken a Dravidian language before mixing with the ANI.”[51]

        Further building on Reich et al.’s characterization of the South Asian population as historically based on admixture of ANI (Ancestral North Indian) and ASI (Ancestral South Indian) populations, a 2011 session paper by Moorjani et al. states that a “major ANI-ASI mixture occurred in the ancestors of both northern and southern Indians 1,200-3,500 years ago, overlapping the time when Indo-European languages first began to be spoken in the subcontinent.”[52]

        Basu et al. (2003) suggests concludes that “Dravidian tribals were possibly widespread throughout India before the arrival of the Indo-European-speaking nomads” and that “formation of populations by fission that resulted in founder and drift effects have left their imprints on the genetic structures of contemporary populations”.[20] The geneticist PP Majumder (2010) has recently argued that the findings of Reich et al. (2009) are in remarkable concordance with previous research using mtDNA and Y-DNA:[53]

        Central Asian populations are supposed to have been major contributors to the Indian gene pool, particularly to the northern Indian gene pool, and the migrants had supposedly moved into India through what is now Afghanistan and Pakistan. Using mitochondrial DNA variation data collated from various studies, we have shown that populations of Central Asia and Pakistan show the lowest coefficient of genetic differentiation with the north Indian populations, a higher differentiation with the south Indian populations, and the highest with the northeast Indian populations. Northern Indian populations are genetically closer to Central Asians than populations of other geographical regions of India… . Consistent with the above findings, a recent study using over 500,000 biallelic autosomal markers has found a north to south gradient of genetic proximity of Indian populations to western Eurasians. This feature is likely related to the proportions of ancestry derived from the western Eurasian gene pool, which, as this study has shown, is greater in populations inhabiting northern India than those inhabiting southern India.///
        https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genetics_and_archaeogenetics_of_South_Asia#Autosomal_DNA_variation

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          SinhalaPropaganda

          “There’s no such a thing as pure ‘race’ in India.”

          Maybe not in India, however we have substantial number of pure Aryans living among us.

          First of the Aryan was Anagarika (Homeless one) Dharmapala.

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        Some Sinhalese have a little Aryan lineage but the majority are unlikely to or have very very little of it. People without any Aryan ancestry can speak Aryan languages because of cultural imperialism.

        Look at Turkey: the original Turkic genes is like 8% of the Turkish genome but most of the people speak a Turkic language.

        Look at all the places that speak Arabic , even though there is no evidence Arab invaders mixed with all the people in these regions.

        The Indian government has been trying for decades to exterminate the Dravidian languages and replace it with Hindi. Now suppose they had succeeded , do you think that means Hindi speaking South Indians would have Aryan ancestry.

        A lot of African Americans have White ancestry but they don’t claim to be white. Most Native Americans in the US have white ancestry , but they are proudly Native American and do not claim to be white . Ashkenazi Jews have European ancestry but they still identify as Jews

        It is the Aryan supremacists/Brahmins and North-Indians who try to hijack Indus/Dravidian/Munda culture and claim it as Aryan. The Hindutva movement was created by Brahmins and 1 of its central pillars is to hijack the indigenous culture and claim it for Aryans. The Hindutva / Brahmin propagandists are the ones claiming there is no Dravidian languages , that there is only Aryan languages and the so called Dravidian languages were invented by Europeans to divide and conquer Hindus. These Hindutvavadis and their racist White supporters like David Frawley try to claim Tamil is related to Sanskrit and not a distinct language.

        The whole Indian SubContinent has been afflicted with an inferiority complex for millennia. Muslims in India and Pakistan think they are Persians or Arab, despite all evidence pointing to the vast majority of Indian/Pakistani Muslims just being the same as the Hindus. Muslims in Sri Lanka think they are Arab even though the Arab input is tiny. Syriac Christian in South India think they are Brahmin converts despite the evidence not supporting this. Some Burgers in India/Ceylon emphasize their small European ancestry thinking that makes them better.

        We Tamils/Dravidians don’t have an inferiority complex and try to attach ourselves to Aryans or others. The proof is that we resisted for millennia attempts by Brahmins to wipe out Tamil and replace it with Sanskrit and we resisted Indian government attempts to impose Hindi on Indian Dravidians and we resisted Sinhala government attempts to impose Sinhalese on us. If we had an inferiority complex we would have given up our Dravidian identity and adopted Sinhala or Hindi or Sanskrit. We also never replaced our mostly Dravidian surnames with European names. True our names do have some Sanskrit in it but that is because of Brahminical religious brainwashing . Most Tamils are still brainwashed with Hinduism. Yet despite the millennia of brainwashing and infiltration by Brahmins, they never managed to wipe out our language .

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    Nissanka Malla was completely Kalinga (modern Orissa)

    made by Nissanka Malla at Dambulla mentions that he is of the Kalinga dynasty and a descendant from the race of Prince Vijaya. Another inscription at Ruwanwelisaya describes him as being a member of a royal family of Kalinga, born at Sinhapura.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nissanka_Malla_of_Polonnaruwa

    King Parakramabahu was also part Kalinga. Thats why Nissanka Malla inherited
    the throne.

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    Lankan art has been influenced by Greeks.
    Impressive the connections between different distant parts of the world.

    Greco-Buddhist art is the artistic manifestation of Greco-Buddhism, a cultural syncretism between the Classical Greek culture and Buddhism, which developed over a period of close to 1000 years in Central Asia, between the conquests of Alexander the Great in the 4th century BC, and the Islamic conquests of the 7th century AD.

    The origins of Greco-Buddhist art are to be found in the Hellenistic Greco-Bactrian kingdom (250 BC- 130 BC), located in today’s Afghanistan, from which Hellenistic culture radiated into the Indian subcontinent with the establishment of the Indo-Greek kingdom (180 BC-10 BC)

    In Gandharan art, the Buddha is often shown under the protection of the Greek god Herakles, standing with his club (and later a diamond rod) resting over his arm.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greco-Buddhist_art

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      Wiki God!
      Sculpture Reached its climax
      Buddha is never represented in human form in Buddhist art before the Christian era.
      The adherents of the Buddhist faith followed the Hinayana path as a means of attaining salvation.
      Buddha’s presence in early Indian art is, therefore, suggested by symbols like the Bodhi tree under which he attained enlightenment, the wheel of law, his foot prints, the royal umbrella, the stupa and an empty throne, etc.
      This change came about as a result of the new changes that had crept into the religious outlook of Buddhism due to the influence of the Devotional School of Hindu Philosophy, requiring the worship of personal gods.

      Beginning of human representation of Buddha After Alexander’s invasion of India in 326 B.C., the Indo-Greek, Indo Scythian and Kushan kings ruled over its north-western territories under their patronage emerged a distinct style of sculpture, popularly known as the Greco-Roman, Buddhist or Gandhara art.

      It was a product of the combination of Hellenistic, West Asiatic and native elements. Greek and Roman techniques, modified according to Indian requirements, were employed in fashioning the Gandhara sculpture.

      His person was given some of the 32 suspicious bodily signs associated with the Mahapurushalakshana, such as the protuberance of the skull, the hair- knot, bindi between the eyebrows and elongated ears
      In each case, it was produced by the local artist craftsmen working in the local tradition. At Mathura it clearly emerges from the Yaksha tradition.
      The Gandhara image might seem to resemble Apollo in some extraneous forms and does look characteristically Greco-Roman in drapery, but even there most of the images represent Buddha as seated in the typically Indian Yogic posture, a feature completely unknown to the Hellenistic tradition of art.

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        timbuttu

        Thank you for the information.

        You have done a good copy paste job from Buddhist Sculpture, Centre for Cultural Resources and Training, India

        http://ccrtindia.gov.in/
        buddhistsculp.php

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          N.V.
          sorry you are wrong. it is not from them but studies conducted by Maharashtraian Panday and another software engineer for IIT students who like to sit for CSE. Its a questions and answers game.
          anyway it just refreshed my mind from studies in the 70’s reading percy brown on Indian Architecture from indus valley to buddhist, jain, islamic, hindu etc. all periods.
          They are snippets not copy and paste.
          Don’t think robert and you are experts on india when you hate Hindi.
          cheers.

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          NV,
          you should know by now.
          I do this for fun and get addicted very often.
          while you do the thing to gain something.
          most 99% are uninformed and lie through their teeth.
          If lanka is bombed tomorrow i would not shed a tear as I don’t have any left baggage but was born there only and am neither tamil nor sinhalese.
          i am a very attached detached person from childhood.
          if you want to study it i can give you the link. but i did not because its long winding and slideshows not for newsroom comments from illiterate buffons.
          But remember I am not in full agreement with pandey (she is brahmin too) since she has not mentioned Chandragupta Maurya at all (its political) then she is going to praise Gandhi again a traversity.
          the day India tames pakistan with american approval will be the day of reckoning- the truth about india.

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    “”Responses to Yes, The Sinhalese Have Their Origins In Bengal, Odisha””

    Yes and most were subsequently transported from south west India from 1505 to 1970 by Portuguese slave masters.

    therefore the gas in their new found glory after 48 Harry Truman effect.

    Kerala women are as hot as bengali women – campus story.
    both communist states that slaughter the cow.

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    What!!! India would have jacked it up to 75% if we built that land-bridge. Guess Tamilians also have that same 25.41% (Bengalis went roaming all over the place). But people! Sri Lanka has to concentrate on the fragile and exclusive Hela gene that do not show up in current genetic analyses.

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    It’s time to deport these mongrel refugees back to wherever they came from. According to Sinhala origin myths, the founder of Sinhala race (Vijaya) was exiled from his native place in India for being a troublemaker. He and his followers then found refuge in Lanka and his progeny have been making everyone else in the island the refugees. Yes the Vedda people came earlier but from where? They must have been the earliest wave of human migration to have left southern India. DNA evidence shows certain villages in Tamil Nadu have the genetics of the earliest settlers of India who migrated out of Africa.
    The Veddas were followed by later migrations of Dravidian people. If Dravidian people (Giraavaru people) were the earliest settlers to reach Maldives, which is farther away from southern India than Lanka is, it’s reasonable to assume these seafaring people must have been aware of and began settling in Lanka way before Sinhalese from farther up north even existed as a distinct race.

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    The Sinhalese are related to the Rohingya people who are being genocided by a Buddhist race led by the Buddhist monk dubbed the Burmese Bin Laden. The Burmese learned it from their Theravada brethren in Lanka.

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    We like it or not, we have to accept that we human are member of monkey or apes family with some percentage of genetic contribution of other animals as well including ancient predators like dynasource. human evolution started in Africa around twenty million ago.at that period conditions of the world was not like present day. sea levels were lower all the small Islands and atolls were interconnected with mainlands with sand bunt.All the animals lived on earth at that period could roam anywhere they wanted through beaches and sand bunts.Accessibility of any places was just a matter of your will.that is why we still recover fossils evidences of early hominids far away places from African continent where early hominids were believed to be evolved. Homo sapience were last of that kind of hominids. primates of modern day human.All OTHERS WERE EXTINCT from earth millions years ago. as such we can not judge early hominids migration pattern with present day world situation in mind. we are talking on events taken place in and around two to twenty millions years ago.

    If we observe behavior patterns of modern day monkeys and apes live in Africa,you can get fair idea of early hominids behavior pattern. with those information in mind we have to discus origins of each and every races or ethnic groups.early hominids migrated to present day Australian continent through sandy beaches starting from present day Somali beaches then around Arabian peninsula, somewhere in IRAN then Pakistan, Gujarat ,then along west Indian beaches then to our Island.south Indian beaches, Adra predesh BEACHES,ODESSA, BENGALI BEACHES,MYANMAR. MALAYSIAN PENINSULA so on upto Australia.on the way some wave of hominids might have settled down some places as per their liking according to availability of foods and water.second third and fourth so on waves interbreeding made civilization.as such if somebody try to relate our origin to Indians it is a foolishness. we should have genetic affinities with people live in that roots as our primates were same origin.

    latter due to usage of languages some categories were surfaced. other than that we are not fa-car north Hindian or south Hindian decent.

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