28 November, 2020

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A Victor’s Peace

By Jayadeva Uyangoda –

Prof.Jayadeva Uyangoda

The total defeat of the LTTE has allowed the Sri Lankan government to ignore the political rights of the country’s ethnic minorities.

Three years after the Sri Lankan government successfully concluded its military campaign against the secessionist insurgency led by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), the country has done little to address the root causes of the ethnic conflict.

Many in Sri Lanka and beyond believed that the end of the war would create new opportunities to devolve Colombo’s power and increase regional autonomy. However, political developments since May 2009 do not indicate any breakthrough in political reforms towards power-sharing with ethnic minorities. The debate on how to resolve the ethnic conflict has been reopened not to promote a constructive solution, but only to reproduce the conflict in new forms.

Earlier, the war and the LTTE threat were two important factors in the political balance of forces between the state and ethnic minorities. Those same factors also gave Sri Lanka’s ethnic minorities some bargaining power with the two main political parties – the United National Party (UNP) and the United People’s Freedom Alliance (UPFA). The end of the war has altered the equilibrium in the UPFA-led government’s favour. Leaders of most minority parties are aware of the new situation, and their new politics of pragmatism prioritises what they see as ‘developmental rights’ over political rights.

The Sri Lankan government now insists that there is no ethnic conflict in the country, and that the bloodshed of the past three decades was solely a ‘terrorist’ problem. Since it recognises no political dimension to the ethnic conflict, the government sees no need for a political solution, and instead focuses on rehabilitation, resettlement and economic development. By ascribing Tamil grievances to economic inequalities, the government’s nation-building project now focuses on the economic integration of the North and East with the rest of the country.
The current Rajapaksa government has a very particular understanding of how that integration should be implemented. The post-war discourse on state reform looks to consolidate the unitary state and further centralise power as part of the state’s peace-building economic program.

The current administration has ideological objections to solving the Sinhala-Tamil ethnic conflict by decentralising power. President Rajapaksa has clearly stated his preference for “home grown solutions to [Sri Lanka’s] domestic problems,” implying that the devolution of power – which Western countries continue to advocate and which India more or less forced upon the Jayewardene government in 1987 through the 13th Amendment to the Sri Lankan Constitution – is not a valid option.

Rajapaksa knows that he and UPFA government were elected by an essentially Sinhalese electorate which has little interest in devolution. Political gossip in Colombo has it that Rajapaksa openly expresses his displeasure with the voting behaviour of Tamils and Muslims. At the last presidential, parliamentary and local government elections, most Tamil and Muslim votes went to ethnic parties and the opposition UNP. This makes resolving Sri Lanka’s ethnic problem even more difficult, as any solution must be acceptable to the Sinhalese majority, yet their entrenched scepticism about sharing power with the Tamils is only reinforced at each election campaign by political parties that continue to exploit ethnic distrust for their own political ends.

Still, in response to international pressure – primarily from the US, EU, India and Canada – the government has held discussions with the Tamil National Alliance (TNA) about a political solution. That dialogue began in 2010 but, hampered by a lack of clarity on the government’s position and the UPFA’s deep distrust of the TNA, has produced no result so far. The government has also indicated that it will not devolve control over land and forests, which has been a key TNA demand. The 13th Amendment officially gives provincial governments police powers and limited powers over land, yet the government has not implemented those provisions, arguing that doing so would encourage secession and threaten the sovereignty of the state. Rajapaksa has disparaged the TNA’s claims to land and police powers as demands which “the LTTE has been asking for”. Many in the government think that the TNA is trying to obtain through peaceful means – and with the backing of India and the West – what the LTTE failed to secure by military means over three decades.

Buying agreement

The on-going debate on devolution highlights the Sri Lankan ethnic elite’s continuing inability to compromise in what they see as a zero-sum game. While the TNA asks for ‘Thirteenth Amendment Plus’ – implying even more regional autonomy than is guaranteed by the 13th Amendment – the government stands by ‘Thirteenth Amendment Minus’, which would mean devolving some power to provincial councils, but retaining control over land and policing.

The TNA’s stance is rooted in its ideological and political inheritance. The party represents the political aspirations of the Tamil ‘nation’, which it believes deserves regional autonomy within a federal framework. Even during war, the TNA and its predecessor, the Tamil United Liberation Front (TULF), advocated a federalist alternative both to the state’s demands for a unitary Sri Lankan state and to LTTE demands for a separate Tamil state. But the complete defeat of the LTTE has changed the government’s view of the 13th Amendment. During the brutal LTTE insurgency, granting any regional autonomy to the Tamils was seen as dangerous and foolish. With the LTTE crushed, regional autonomy for the Tamils is seen as unnecessary and irrelevant.

The UPFA’s approach to ethnic conflict has had broad implications for the government’s relations with all of Sri Lanka’s ethnic minorities – Tamils, Muslims and Up-country Tamils. The government’s policy of involving minority political parties in economic and infrastructure development of the Northern and Eastern provinces requires minority political parties to join the government coalition, accept Cabinet positions and offer their support to the UPFA. With the exception of the TNA, all Tamil and Muslim political parties have accepted these terms. The Sri Lanka Muslim Congress, earlier aligned with the opposition UNP, also joined the UPFA coalition in August 2010, accepting the government’s wilful ignorance of the political rights of the minorities.

Pragmatically, most of the minority parties now see collaborating with the ruling coalition as the best way to secure development for their communities. It is clear that whatever devolution might come about, the provincial council system will continue to operate under the tight grip of the Centre. Minority parties need access to public office and resources to maintain their clientalist politics, and this largely explains their current allegiances and their capitulation on demands for political rights and greater devolution. Paradoxically, though the UPFA government completely rejects a consociational programme of ethnic conflict management, the present administration has the appearance of a proto-consociational coalition since it includes representatives from most of the Sinhalese, Tamil and Muslim parties.

Even the defiant TNA appears to be quite aware of the weakened bargaining position of minority parties, since it has had to mobilise foreign support for a political solution in order to exert any pressure on the Sri Lankan government. The TNA has also repeatedly criticised the Sri Lankan government’s lack of accountability over alleged violations of human rights and humanitarian law during the last stages of the war, again prompting some critics to accuse the party of promoting a ‘Western’ agenda at the expense of the actual needs of the Tamil people on the ground. In its reliance on external actors, the TNA could well be leading itself into a political trap from which there is no easy escape. Meanwhile, despite a number of meetings between the two sides in 2011, the chasm of distrust separating the UPFA and the TNA continues to widen.

The current political impasse suggests that Sri Lanka’s ethnic conflict is far from over; the conflict endures due to major structural faults of the state, and is re-emerging in a new form. So far as economic development continues to overshadow political reforms and the debate on devolution, Sri Lanka will get no closer to becoming a pluralistic state. The current government would do best to set up political structures that can deal with the ethnic conflict through accommodation and compromise rather than through state violence and internal war. Yet even after three decades of war the UPFA has still not learned the crucial lesson that a reformed state is the best guarantee against demands for secession.

*Jayadeva Uyangoda is a Professor of Political Science at the University of Colombo, Sri Lanka, and co-editor of Polity, published in Colombo.
Himal

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    Had MR been successful in unseating RW from the leadership of the UNP,with all the coercing of many UNPers to join him, then it would not have been an issue for MR to grant devolution, as there would have been none to challenge him, remaining in the UNP. The UNP would have further disintigrated with inner squabbles for leadership if RW factor was removed. The single faliure of MR to have succeeded, is causing him nightmares now.

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      Singing the same old song,

      Part of this comment was removed by a moderator because it didn’t abide by our Comment policy.For more detail see our Comment policy
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      • 0
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        The fact of the matter is that Uyangoda ..

        Part of this comment was removed by a moderator because it didn’t abide by our Comment policy.For more detail see our Comment policy
        http://colombotelegraph.com/comments-policy/
        In short:
        • If you act with maturity and consideration for other users, you should have no problems.
        • Don’t be unpleasant. Demonstrate and share the intelligence, wisdom and humour we know you possess.
        • Take some responsibility for the quality of the conversations in which you’re participating. Help make this an intelligent place for discussion and it will be.

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    This article makes some good points. Given that a strong majority of Sinhalese still fear that TNA retains the same goal of the LTTE, to wit, succession of Northern & eastern provinces and creation of a new state (the doctrine is that “Ealam” cannot be part of a “foreign” country) there is no way the IC can force the hand of GOSL which is answerable to the SL electorate, not the UN or Hilary Clinton.

    Until a new Tamil leader like Kadirgamar emerges, someone the Sinhalese wont fear as a terrorist/separatist in diplomat’s clothing (eg Bala), the status quo will prevail and any power sharing is unthinkable.

    IF such a pragmatic moderate were to emerge despite the prevalent Tamil nationalism that drives the powerful diaspora and their brilliantly effective propaganda campaign, the question is whether the Tamil extremists will eliminate him/her like they did Kadirgamar and other moderates who dared deviate from the separtist orthodoxy.

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      There was a period before LTTE and were the Sinhalese willing to share power at that time? All reasonable requests by any peaceful means were dealt with state sponsored violence. LTTE was only a reaction to such violence.

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      Beleive me only about 10 out of 3million Tamils supported Luxman’s politics ( may be I am one of them). The entire Sinhalese to the last person held him in high esteem but yet he was so vulnerable to a sniper. Had the security not been shamelessly slack he may even have been the PM now. He would have valiantly fought the US in Geneva and New York.

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        Yes during CBK’s time when it was speculated that LK was to be made the PM, there were busloads of people from the South descended on Colombo to protest the appointment and instead proposed MR’s name. The protests were organised by none other that MR.

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          This is a blatant lie. People never protested against LK’s potential appointment. MR became the Leader of the Opposition following the PA’s defeat in 2001. He pretty much led the party from thereon with Anura B threatening to step in. There was a call for Kadir to be made the PM from time to time, and specifically towards the time of his assasination but it was too late.

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          Rubert Banderkoon, the news was reported then in the media as well. How can you deny now? The relevant paper will be posted very soon on this blog.

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          YOu get news from tabloids man. You need to talk to people who are in touch with reality.

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    Below is a poartial list of Tamil moderates executed by the LTTE for deviating from VP’s dogma of total war:

    A T Duraiyappah SLFP Mayor for Jaffna
    A Thiagarajah Ex ACTC MP for Vadokoddai who later joined the UNP
    K T Pulendran UNP Organiser for Vavunia
    A J Rajasooriar UNP Organiser in Jaffna
    Mala Ramachandran UNP MMC for Baticaloa
    Gnanachandiram Ex District Judge, Point Pedro and Government Agent, Mullativu
    C E anandarajah Principal, St Jones College, Jaffna
    B K Thambipillai President, Citizens Cimmittee
    V Dharmalingam Ex TULF MP for Manipay and Father of D Siddharthan, Leader of PLOTE
    Alakasunderam Ex TULF MP for Kopay
    P Kirubakaran Primary Court Judge
    Kathiramalai Sarvodaya Leader
    Vignarajah Assistant Government Agent, Samanturai
    Anthonimuttu Government Agent, Baticaloa
    S S Jeganathan Assistant Government Agent, Baticaloa
    Sinnadurai Assistant Government Agent, Trincomalee
    M E Kandasamy Principal, Palugamam Maha Vidyalaya
    S Siththamparanathan Principal, Vigneswara Vidyalaya, Trincomalee
    S Wijayanadan Distric Secretary, Ceylon Communist Party
    Velmurugu Master TULF Organiser and Citizens Committee Member, Kalmunai
    Rev. Father Chandra Fernando President, Citizens Committee, Batticaloa
    Rajjshankar President, Citizens Committee, Tennamarachchi
    S Sambandamoorthy Ex TULF Chairman, District Development Council, Batticaloa
    V M Panchalingam Government Agent, Jaffna
    K Pulendran Assistant Government Agent, Kopay
    A Amirthalingam TULF Leader and National List MP
    V Yogeshwaran Ex TULF MP for Jaffna
    Dr (Mrs) Rajini Thiranagama Lecturer in Anatomy at the Jaffna University and co-author of the ‘Broken Palmyrah’ (21 Sptember 1989)
    Ganeshalingam Ex EPRLF Provincial Minister for North and East
    Sam Thambimuttu EPRLF MP
    Mrs Thambimuttu Wife of EPRLF MP
    V Yogasangari EPRLF MP in Madras
    A Thangadurai TULF MP for Trincomalee
    Mrs Sarojini Yogeshwaran TULF Mayoress for Jaffna
    Pon Sivapalan TULF Mayor of Jaffna
    Canagasabai Rajathurai EPDF Member for Jaffna
    Veerahaththy Gunaratnam PLOTE member of the Pachchilaipalli Pradheshiya Sabha (PS) in Jaffna (5 May 1999)
    Razick, Supremo of the EPRLF s armed wing (30 May 1999)
    Dr Neelan Thiruchelvam Leader of TULF (29 July 1999)
    N. Manickathasan Vice President of PLOTE (Tamil Political party working with the Sri Lankan Government)
    Kumar Ponnambalam President of All Ceylon Tamil Congress (5 Jan 2000) Refer to SPUR Media Release
    Vadivelu Vijeyaratnam Point Pedro Urban Council Chairman (14 Jan 2000)
    Anton Sivalingam EPDP’s Municipal Council members in Jaffna (1 March 2000)
    Kanapathipillai Navaratnarajah TELO member of Arayampathi, Batticaloa – on 7 June 2000
    Rajan Sathiyamoorthy Tamil National Alliance parliamentary candidate Rajan Sathiyamoorthy was killed by LTTE Tamil Tiger Terrorists on 30 March 2004.
    Hon. Lakshman Kadirgamar (Foreign Minister in Sri Lanka) 12 August 2005 – Read full details in Special Web Edition
    Kethishwaran Loganathan (54) Deputy Secretary General of Sri Lanka Peace Secratariat, SCOOP (12 August 2006)
    T Maheshwaran Former Minister shot dead on 01 January 2008 (New Years day)
    SivanesanTNA MP Killed in March08 By Ltte by claymore mine on route to meet VP
    o4/04/08 Suicide Bomber
    Jeyaraj Fernanopulli Roads Minister Killed

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      Of the List given above attributing the blame on the LTTE, there are a few in question whether it was really the LTTE that killed them or other vested interest.

      1.Jeyraj Fernandopulle former Minister a strong contender to succeed MR on seniority
      2.Similar to Jeyraj Fernandopulle the next in line to MR after the demise of JF is Maithripala Sirisena who managed to escape an LTTE suicide bomber.
      3.Maheswaran an outspoken Tamil leader at a Kovil in the high security zone in Colombo.
      4.Lakshman Kadiragamar again in Colombo and a long lapse for security to cover the area where the killers escaped.
      5.Kumar Ponnambalam where evidence was directly pointing toawards the Establishment

      Not mentioned in the list

      1. Nadaraja Perumal the affable who was gunned down again in the high security zone in Colombo and the Establishment drawing a blank as the murder of Lasantha Wickrematunge in finding the culprits.

      The apologits may stand on their heads and deny, but facts remain otherwise.

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        “..1.Jeyraj Fernandopulle former Minister a strong contender to succeed MR on seniority..” hahaha when di you start writing comedy?

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          I started writing comedy to comedians as yourself and your ilk, from the day Karuna Amman an LTTE murderer, was made the Deputy Leader of the SLFP, by the blunderbus MR who have shut the rest like Maithripala Sirisena(aka kanu kata), Nimal Simenthipala, D. Moo Jayaratne etc.

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          Hey Gamini,
          You are funny.
          Send us your CV, we are short of a guy to play a toilet cleaner in the new movie I am making, The Lunatic Assylum. I have a few guys like you for other roles. You don’t have to act, just be yourself. But don’t send your photo just yet, we’ll use Prabha’s bottom for that. Just the CV.

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      American Lanka Lover

      Some of those murders were committed by LTTE before 1987, yet Premadasa and the security establishment were more than happy to provide funds and weapons to LTTE.

      MR was more than happy to make a financial deal with LTTE which brought him and his family to the centre of power while LTTE was hunting down its imaginary or perceived enemies throughout the island.

      Sorry I am bit thick I am unable to reconcile your murder list with the behaviour of your leaders.

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    Good to see you back Uyan.

    The last few lines says it all. Btw, JRJ too had this line of thinking that economic development of the N and the East will negate the demand for political reform.

    History indicates that economic development leads to demand for political reforms. The state has finished the war, yet it seems it’s passing on political reform to generations to come. In between, Srilanka cannot reach it’s full potential cycling between violence and peace, as seen since our independence.

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    Professor Uyangoda has correctly analysed the developments since May 2009 and the mindset of President Mahinda Rajapakse. Muslim Congress and Pillaiyan’s Party may fall in line with the government, but not the TNA. Whatever the elections, be it Parliamentary or local government elections, TNA will easily emerge as the dominant Tamil party in the Northern and Eastern provinces. Neither Karuna nor Pillaiyan or for that matter any other Tamil politician will be able to dent the support of TNA. That is the reason why people like Anandasangari,Sitharthan and Sritharan are eager to join the TNA bandwagon. That is the reality in Sri Lankan Tamil politics. The Sri Lankan President by his refusal to address the ethnic question is only playing into the hands of the diaspora tigers. The anti-Sinhala and anti-Sri Lankan sentiments expressed by powerful politicians in Tamil Nadu including Congress Party central government Minister Vasan and the sight of visiting Sri Lankan Ministers and Sri Lankan Armed Forces personnel being hurriedly removed from that South Indian state is a clear indication that neighbouring Tamil Nadu is becoming very very hostile to Sri Lanka. Given this atmosphere, sooner or later the diaspora tigers will use Tamil Nadu as their staging post for their next insurrection. Do not under-estimate the well organised LTTE overseas network.Under the cover of championing the cause of human rights of the Tamils, they can easily raise millions of dollars to re-arm the LTTE. This time LTTE recruits will come from the emotional Tamils from neighbouring Tamil Nadu. Diaspora Tigers are already getting a sympathetic hearing from the US Administration, UK and various European governments. These governments may well turn a blind eye to the activities of diaspora tigers. President Rajapakse may be a victor now but his victors’justice may not be acceptable to those western governments given Sri Lankan President’s hostility to the western world and Sri Lanka’s closeness to China and Iran. Moderate Tamils like me would like to see a change in the attitude of President Rajapakse. It is not too late for him to find a reasonable settlement of the ethnic problem in Sri Lanka. The ball is in Sri Lankan President’s courts.

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    Govt. seems keen to assimilate the Tamils with the majority. It does not accept sevreal cultures coexisting as different identities. Motto seems to be assimilate or annihilate.

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      Anu say:

      ” It does not accept sevreal cultures coexisting as different identities. Motto seems to be assimilate or annihilate.”

      I hate to agree with you however your comment seems hypocritical.

      What was the motto when stupid Tamils joined the stupid Sinhalese (vis-à-vis) in hurting my people and looting our ancestral land? Did your people think by doing so you were saving my people?

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        I totally agree that Yakkas and nagas and veddas were assimilated by the Sinhalese and Tamils. That was a long time ago. Do we want to go by the same rules or live in modern times by present rules and standards.

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          That is what is happening in the world today. See how the church and mosque are working. Christianity wants to convert the whole to theirs and so does the Islam.

          See, how capitalism was hostile to communist – socialism. Native people in the two american continents and in Australia, how many languages have been disappeared. In some cases, the whole “Nation” with a distinct language had been disappeared from earth.

          In case, of tamils, Tamil Language is thriving in South India. How ever, during the Vanni – eelam period, Tamils have left Tamilnadu in hundreds of thousands and had settled in Sri Lanka. So, what does Sri Lanka, at the expense of Sinhala culture let the Tamil language thrive in sri lanka ?

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          Anu says:

          “That was a long time ago. Do we want to go by the same rules or live in modern times by present rules and standards.”

          It would not matter if it was yesterday, last year, or 2,500 years ago, the hurt is still felt by my people. The process is actively pursued.

          Now according to your previous comment you fear the process of assimilation. In 200 years from now, once your people have been sadly assimilated into Sinhalese population your people can look back happily and say it was a long time ago. So why worry now?

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    dr Uyangoda,….Sri Lankan been terrorist-anachist paradise since day of JVP came into being 1965 May,be foundation day of PND Wijeweera anarchist-terrorist out-fit.Majority of anachist of 1971 and 1988/89 terrorsit turn into ongoing democratic setup by rehabiliation process or education or political position or power grid or under the term of punishment of law and order of country and as well as become member of UNP or SLFP politics join mainstream of society.
    They betray originial cause of “Socilaism”and penetrated into civial society,and become well known Human right and politiacl decomtraic masters. Yes every human being subject make mistaks, at the same time have recficite own errors by themselves.But having no right undermine future life people Sri Lankan and not permitted undermine decocratic order of island.What was happen in victory of PEACE IN OUR ISLAND.
    No-body responsiblie for war,but many claim for peace.
    This is fine logic of elevation of of WAR AND PEACE of tiny island of Sri lanka.Thousnads of youth of south lost their life, in 1971 and 1988/89 and same the time thounands Tamils and Securitie forces lost life cause of myth of homeland since 1977 until 2009 may.No bady take responsibility of this crimes? No accountability and human rights investigaton by any UNO agencies.45 yeras of paradise anarchisism of was dominiated by gunpoint politcs and vested interset of foreign masters.our nationl and people soverginity had been surreander to foreign powers.Colonialism came into being NEW FORM for indepandence of Sri Lanka.
    Defeated of gun politics are path for peace.

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    Dear Prof.Uyangoda,
    You have stated that:
    “The Sri Lankan government now insists that there is no ethnic conflict in the country, and that the bloodshed of the past three decades was solely a ‘terrorist’ problem.”
    However, the LLRC appointed by the President MR in its Report (Para. 8.150) says that:
    “The Commission takes the view that the Root Cause of the ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka lies in the failure of successive Governments to address the genuine grievances of the Tamil people. The country may not have been confronted with a violent separatist agenda, if the political consensus at the time of independence had been sustained and if policies had been implemented to build up and strengthen the confidence of the minorities around the system which had gained a reasonable measure of acceptance.”
    Para 8.163 emphasizes that:
    “The decisive rift in the inter-ethnic relationship came first with the riots of 1958, then in1977, and culminating in what is known as ‘Black July’ of 1983, and the heinous failure of the then Government to provide adequate protection to Tamil citizens. The problems pertaining to the Tamil Community and their grievances cannot be fully addressed without a fuller understanding of this culture of violence that marred the relationship between the Sinhala and Tamil communities.”
    Dear Prof.
    Do you think that the President and the Govt. of Sri Lanka will accept the Report of the LLRC and implement its Recommendations?
    Almost all the “Political Analysts” avoid even just mentioning these two paragraphs of the LLRC Report in their articles! WHY?
    If you go through the articles written on LLRC Report by a number of “Intellectuals” and “political Analysts” none of them has mentioned these two paragraphs of the Report and analysed them scientifically and explained to the citizens of Lanka.
    Are they actually writing something as ” Political analysis” to fool the readers?
    Will you please answer my question?

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    Jayadeva’s speciality is politics. When they were young, they, at least, destroyed some thousands of youth and now have abandoned that cult and he is preaching something else. that is how their RIGHT THINKING was.

    As a political science man, he talks only about one variable. But, a country has to consider so many variables. Because of that, what jayadeva Uyangoda talks is simply impractical and garbage.

    They are not practical people. Some academics become obsessed with their ideology and they preach it without considering the other implications of it. This kind of SHANTY-STATEs concept in the world would work with PATRIOTIC- DICTATORS who really loves the country such as some of the Kings who lived in the past.

    With the present “DEMOCRACY” concept it will be a disaster and ONLY lead to be PREYs of the bigger nations.

    Besides, Tamils have never showed that they are genuine people as political people. During their entire history in Sri Lanka they had wanted ONLY to subjugate Sinhala people.

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    Nice to see an intelligent, civilized, discussion of facts (instead of the more common name calling and the ad hominems that too often result).

    Absolutely true that there were Sinhalese provocations prior to the LTTE beginning the massacres, the burning of the Jaffna library by Policeman in particular, but then the disproportionant reprisals began ON BOTH SIDES. LTTE slaughters the SLA patrol near Jaffna, then the disgraceful overreaction in Colombo of July 1983 when the rampaging mobs were egged on by Sinhalese politicians.

    At that juncture the Tamils had great empathy from the IC and were clearly the oppressed party. But rather than follow the path of Gandhi or , VP chose the path of Osama bin Laden (long before anybody had heard of OBL). For his evil and misguided choices, the Tamil people have paid a very heavy price. And they continue to suffer because of this militancy of the majority of the Tamils. Too many would be Shivas, not enough would be Vishnus.

    This is not to excuse excesses or corruption by GOSL, but just like the Palestinians, the Tamils are often their own worst enemy because of this inherent militancy which vitiates much of the empathy the IC would otherwise have for them.

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      Facts?? Not quite though. Just another piece from another NGO man in Colombo. Quite likely Pakyasothi proof read the article as well.

      Before any Sinhala provocation, before the burning of Jaffna library by Gamini Dissanayake, there always was enough build up for an all out war. Despite his age, he has been naive to say so.

      It was in 1960s, the concept of Tamil Eelam’ was born. They carried out several hit-and-run operations against Tamil politicians, Police , banks and civil administration. Prabhakaran, together with other known criminals formed the Tamil New Tigers in 1972.EROS was formed in London, which became the backbone of the Eelamist movement in the diaspora, in about 1975. The Vaddukkodei resolution was adopted in 1976, which called for the creation of a secular, socialist state of Tamil Eelam, based on the right of self-determination. The TULF clandestinely supported the armed actions of the young militants. Many part-educated, unemployed Tamil youth fell for revolutionary solutions to their problems. In about 1976, the EROS established links with the Abu Jihad ( Palestine Liberation Organization) and set up camps to train LTTE in guerrilla warfare. The war was already being drawn up the LTTE in mid seventies as you can see, which erupted with the killing of Duraiappah , the Mayor for Jaffna 9in 1976.

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        Rubert Vanderkoon says:

        “It was in 1960s, the concept of Tamil Eelam’ was born.”

        Could you let us have the background to your above comment. In 1960 VP was about 6 years old.

        You have conveniently omitted India’s role in the destabilisation of the country and Dayan’s long association/relationship with EPRLF.

        Since you have wealth of information on LTTE and EROS could you also shed light on Praba/Premadasa relationship and their deal. Any information on Military LTTE liaison and the names of personnel who handled supply of arms and their types, finances, diplomatic cover issuing passports, ……etc would be much appreciated.

        Please let me know the background and details of deal between VP and MR.

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    Who is he to talk about violence? Jayadeva was a prime suspect of the JVP terrorist programme in 1970s. He was wrong then to terrorise innocent people and he is wrong now but he doesn’t understand. It is not a bad idea to delay the devolution while developing infrastructure in the war torn area, creating opportunities. A new wave of genuine educated and young leaders should emerge from within the area. TNA is the proxy-LTTE and the party that was born out of LTTE ashes. negotiating anythingw ith them will not help anybody. Dividing a country is easy but rushing to a solution is dangerous, yet a fake communist won’t understand.

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    Thalaivar – July 7, 2012
    5:45 pm

    What was your point. I am sorry I am bit thick therefore you may have to explain to me bit by bit.

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