By Laksiri Fernando –
Criticisms on this government from most (not all) of those who supported or spearheaded a political change in January 2015 could not be taken as any effort to bring back the Rajapaksa rule again. Sri Lanka should move forward and not backwards.
Political or social changes in many countries are evolutionary, not revolutionary. Even if there are apparent ‘revolutions,’ those also should be taken within a long spectrum of evolutionary political/social development and not as absolute or abrupt discontinuities. Even in revolutions, there can be major setbacks.
After the French Revolution, the reactionary fall back was popularly called the ‘Thermidorian Effect.’ A similar setback occurred even after the Russian Revolution in 1917, a hundred years ago. These setbacks therefore are more understandable in a parliamentary context.
Understanding January Change
The January 2015 change came about through many contradictions. What can be most appreciated is the people’s resolve to oust the old regime. When we take the ‘people’ as the whole lot of men and women, young and old; they moved decisively at the polling day. Most admirable was the way the minority communities voted for the opposition candidate, Maithripala Sirisena, even with some reluctance. Therefore, the people were determined irrespective of their ethnicity or religion to change the regime.
Although there was some attachment to the old regime, among the majority community, because of its role in defeating terrorism, this became largely changed by August parliamentary elections. They learned through January experience that change is desirable and achievable. The country had to move forward. The 19th Amendment was a decisive progress. If there were no controversial bond scams during the period, the people’s support for a major parliamentary change could have been more decisive. The bond fraudsters gave a life line to the old regime, and still do so.
People’s role in the change was not solely spontaneous. There were politicians, activists, critical media, intellectuals and civil society organizations that brought a new alliance and influenced the people. Civil society organizations were/are not that popular unfortunately in the country because of some NGOs. This is still a liability to move forward. There must be some rethinking. However, some organizations were different, particularly the National Movement for Just Society (NMJS) led by late Ven. Maduluwawe Sobitha Thero and Puravasi Balaya (People’s Power) etc. There was an agreement between the presidential candidate and 52 organizations for good governance, yet to be fulfilled.
Shyamon Jayasinghe has made an important distinction between the Yahapalana movement and the Yahapalana government (Colombo Telegraph, 26 July 2017). This can always be the case. The political alliance that could be worked out at the last moment in November 2014 was immature and mixed with many contradictions. This was far weaker by the time the country went for the general elections in August 2015. The old parties, the power brokers and the funders emerged and took over many of the Yahapalana reins. Even within the Yahapalana movement itself, there were contradictions and immaturities. There were idealists without much realism or practical knowledge. A major weakness was/is the lack of a proper social justice program, based on economic reforms, particularly after the unfortunate demise of Ven. Sobitha.
‘National Unity’ Government
The major liability was the unreformed nature of the two main parties, the UNP and the SLFP, that came to form the so-called national unity government. The JVP was aloof working in its own ivory tower. ‘National unity’ by name, the government did not have common or necessary consensus on national reconciliation. There were no much efforts to rebuild them even from the national reconciliation secretariat. Understandably this is not an easy task. However, this is the main reason for the deadlock in bringing a new constitution. In the whole constitutional reform process, the Prime Minister’s lackadaisical ‘liberalism’ prevailed without leadership, creating opposition within and outside.
The TNA also was not very helpful. Although the leadership has considerably moderated their policies and political positions, they made a major blunder by appointing a maverick leader, C. V. Wigneswaran, to the Northern Provincial Council. The constituent parties of the alliance are also disparate, dominated largely by former militants. This was another reason why building consensus on a new constitution has become so difficult. After nearly thirty years of terrorism, it must be understood that extremely radical changes are not possible.
If the radicals or the idealists, on both sides, tried to depend on the international actors to bring about a ‘defused new constitution,’ it was morally wrong and the international situation also has changed dramatically. Therefore, the prospects for a new constitution are now bleak before the 2020 elections.
The major failure of the national unity government however is in the economic sphere, whether it is in the south or the north. This is something even the Yahapalana civil society movement has not realized. Most important matter for the ordinary people is their day to day living. When the people brought down the old regime, or the family rule, they were not expecting their economic conditions to go backwards or corruption to re-emerge. The bond scam or the Penthouse issue is only the tip of an iceberg. The emergence of criminality and lawlessness in the north are also related to the stagnant economic conditions.
The unreformed constituent parties of the national unity government, mainly the UNP and also the SLFP, are major reasons for recent and ongoing corruption, reinforced by the electoral system. Although Maithripala Sirisena has manged to take over the party apparatus of the SLFP, most of the personnel and the practices are the same. Otherwise, there was no need for a jumbo Cabinet and several ministries, which make the governing inefficient and expensive. It has been the practice of the leaders, the funders and the organizers of these parties to enrich themselves and their organizations through shady business and other deals after coming to political power. As the UNP has come to power after a very long spell, the urge for these corrupt practices could be even higher. Therefore, they are also reluctant in investigating the past corruption.
Can a system of good governance (yahapalanya) be built on extreme neo-liberalism? My answer is no, based on both theory and practice of many countries. The principles of good governance also should apply to the private sector. But neo-liberalism does not allow that. However, a complete opposition to global trends or economics could also bring a type of a government like Donald Trump! That would be the other extreme. It would be a colossal disaster in a developing country like Sri Lanka.
The present government and particularly the UNP leaders are following an extreme form of neo-liberalism without taking any responsibility to build the national economy and the public sector. It is a myth to consider the ‘national economy’ outdated. According to them, the only engine of growth is the private sector. They ask the masses to wait for the trickledown effect, like waiting for Godot. This is in a context where neo-liberalism is failing worldwide. The first round of this failure was the global financial crisis, ten years back. Now, the political opposition has started, however distorted, with Donald Trump and Brexit.
In the Prime Minister’s website as the Minister of National Policies and Economic Affairs, there is an important statement titled ‘Economic Policy of the Government.’ This is a statement that he has made before Parliament, but now the date does not appear. Previously, I criticised the preface to it which said, among other things “Today our economy need no governance, yet a regulation. Hon. Prime Minister Ranil Wickremasinghe says that the aspiration for a prosperous country could be realized merely through more and more liberalization of the economy.”
Now it is taken out! However, the speech is still there, which might become the basis of the next Budget and the intended Three Year Economic Plan. This requires full review later, but for critiquing the extreme neo-liberal policies of the government or the UNP in this article, the following excerpts would suffice. The PM was talking about a third stage of economic reforms after 1977. Here he goes.
“Future economic potential does not rely on labour alone. What is relevant for the development process is innovation and productive growth. In addition to such challenges, we are forced to face welfare and health measures of an aging population in Sri Lanka.”
Now the first proposition is acceptable, emphasizing the importance of innovation and productive growth. Then he attacks ‘welfare and health measures’ as challenges. Then he goes on to say,
“We cannot sustain the belief that the Government must provide all services and solutions. Accordingly, we must be able to pay attention to the spirit of competitiveness and enhancing productivity, while providing a systematic network that affords a strong sense of social protection.”
No one is asking him or his government to ‘provide all services and solutions.’ But at least the existing ‘welfare measures and health services’ must prevail and improved. Otherwise, what is a Government for? Is it only for the crony capitalist class like Perpetual Treasuries or Ravi Karunanayake’s? As far as I know, the legitimate and decent business people are different. Immediately thereafter, the following is what he says, that the people should be beware of by the next Budget.
“Now these may not be popular and may offer a bitter pill to swallow. But we need to take bitter medicine to cure our sick systems and ourselves.”
How to Move Forward?
It is too early to envisage what would be necessary to prevent the old regime, particularly the Rajapaksa family, coming to power again at the next elections, and what kind of a political alliance is necessary to take democracy, social justice and development forward. The JVP could play a major role with other Left parties, if the JVP does not deviate from the democratic path. What is clear at this stage is the necessity to oppose the regressive, lethargic and corrupt policies of the present government, while appreciating the progresses made particularly in creating a relatively free and open political environment.
Rajapaksas are not an alternative, particularly considering corruption, democracy and repression. Take the example of Ravi Karunanayake’s Penthouse issue. Mahinda Rajapaksa was reluctant even to sign the no-confidence motion and only now he says that he would vote against RK. What a leader?
Many civil society organizations who spearheaded the January 2015 change are organizing a Satyagraha on 15 August to demand the government for further reforms. Setting up of a Special Court to investigate Corruption is one admirable demand. However, a major weakness of this civil society movement, in my opinion, is not taking up the economic struggle/s of the ordinary masses.
In conclusion, I wish to focus on several broad elements that might be necessary to take the democratic, economic, human rights and social-justice struggle forward:
1. Critical and independent media (social media included), journalists and intellectuals who would not take a direct governmental or a political party line.
2. Vibrant civil society organizations without solely depending on external sources for funding or policy directions.
3. Public education in Sinhala and Tamil, while promoting English knowledge even among the ordinary masses to independently understand the world outside.
4. Absolute non-violence and peaceful protests and activities, without resorting to major work stoppages inconveniencing the public.
5. Taking up the struggle against Corruption and Torture as two major ailments in the present-day Sri Lankan society.
6. Taking up not only the struggle for political reforms, a new constitution or political matters, but also the most important day to day economic grievances of the poor and ordinary masses.
Silva / August 9, 2017
“they made a major blunder by appointing a maverick leader, C. V. Wigneswaran, to the Northern Provincial Council.”
When the government and the TNA are working for a permanent solution to the age old problem that has ruined and still ruining the country for several decades, this maverick leader, the Northern Province Chief Minister C. V. Wigneswaran whom Mahinda Rajapakshe referred to as a non-racist always comes in and utter some racist rubbish to spoil everything. He being the in-law of the Joint Opposition MP Vasudeva Nanayakara, are they playing a joint game with a hidden agenda? After letting him utter some racist rubbish, the so called ‘smart patriot’ Dayan Jayathelike, the Joint Opposition’s lap dog who is desperately waiting for a bone (a post in the foreign ministry) is made to come out and say, do not devolve anything other than what is already there in the constitution. Both Sinhalese and Tamils get carried away by these stupid utterances and responses making matters worse. Now the question is, who is fooling whom?
Dr. Gnana Sankaralingam / August 11, 2017
Dear Prof Laksiri, stop blaming Tamils for everything, It is more than two years since his government came to power. They promised Tamil voters as well as international community that they will settle the Tamil demand for autonomy by the end of 2015. Now the goal post is being shifted continuously. Tamil demand for sharing of power and territory can easily be granted without dividing the country. Unfortunately other than a handful of Sinhalese, the rest are not willing for it. The agreement to consider devolution without calling the state unitary or federal, has been jettisoned due to the strong opposition from Sinhalese including the mahanayakes. Under a unitary state, powers are vested in the parliament controlled by Sinhalese and any power can only be delegated to subsidiary bodies. If devolution is proper, the devolved bodies will have sole power on the devolved subjects, and the centre cannot interfere. In UK devolution to Scotland is working well because power was devolved voluntarily and there is no interference from UK parliament. In Srilanka where devolution is talked about due to international pressure, whatever power that is devolved will not be allowed to work by interference by the centre like what is happening now. Why should Northern provincial council be asked to put a Sinhala name for the food venture that they have started. Also government has completely refused to discuss ways and means of effecting a north-east merger which is paramount for Tamils who have been subjected to ethnic cleansing in eastern province. I have on several occasions stated in these columns how to effect the north-east merger which will be a win-win situation for all. If north and east cannot be merged due to prevailing ethnic diversity, how can you justify merger of Tamil northern province with rest of Srilanka. What comes finally will be much less than what is in 13th amendment of the present constitution. Government is faltering in their promise to international community and is trying to find an escape route putting the blame on Tamils. Your article seems to achieve the same object. The current arrest of over 250 people in Jaffna under PTA, most of whom have no hand in it, for a crime that does not fall within its ambit, knowing well that these trouble makers are working in tandem with military intelligence, is a move to put the blame on Tamils, for not being able to reach an amicable settlement. If you are honest, please impress upon the Sinhalese to move forward by giving up their entrenched position based on racial bigotry.
Jimsofty / August 9, 2017
Ask a bunch of incompetant – crooks to move forward. It is just talk. Ask INGOs to involve. Millinium corporation is one such and both the religion and CIA are involved. There are many more both individuals and groups. They all get foreign money, Those days those countries did assassinations like that of Lumumba, Chavez. Now, NGOs are there to promote democracy aka anarchy. human rights in the nme of anti-govt elements. It says, they stole money in order to spend to Ranil to become the president and GALLEON Ravi to become the prime minister. Probably, who want it, want Ranil to do it with the country’s own money. so, they stole poor peoples’ money such National Savings Bank, EPF. What a way to do Lichchavi style Yahapalanaya and Dasa Raja dharma.
Sri-krish / August 9, 2017
Dr Laksiri Fernando,
You called UNP as practicing neo-liberalism that leads to corruption.
On the contrary UNP ware initiators of Social Market Economy since 1947.They introduced free education and free health services and anything free is under UNP… This includes free school uniform and free text books. .Even Samudthi was introduced by President Premadasa while he was the President, but of course under a different name.
The closed economy was liberalized in 1977 again under a UNP administration. Could you differentiate between Neo- liberalism and Social Market Economy? or do you still prefer a closed economy?.
The left after abandoning planned socialist economy criticizes the right as following neo- liberalism without clearly defining neo -liberalism.. One may call it socialist market economy as in china, but corruption is rampant in China .
The left use Neo-liberalism as a dirty word!
Social Market Economy originated in the then West Germany soon after the Second World War and Germany is supposed to be the father of Social Market Economy.
Even present German and Swiss governments claim to follow social market economic model
It is midway between capitalism and Socialism/communism.
The market from capitalist system was stolen and matched with social welfare model to form a respectable social market economy.
Dr Laksiri, Let me be brief,What is the economic model you propose for the new yahapalanya movement?
Sri-krish / August 9, 2017
Dr Laksiri Fernando,
Yes, Good Governance should be made applicable to Private Sector as well as civil society.
Good Governance is not merely good government. Good governance should be made legally binding on Private sector institutions as well as Civil Society including NGOs and INGOs and RTI Act also should be made applicable to all three sectors.
K.Pillai / August 9, 2017
Every Lankan will by now agree with Laksiri’s suggestions in last paragraph particularly “5. Taking up the struggle against Corruption and Torture as two major ailments in the present-day Sri Lankan society”
Laksiri castigates TNA for nominating K.Wigneswaran as CM NPC. Yes there are Wiggy skeptics and supporters. History is waiting to record as to the choice. But corruption obtaining in Lanka has nothing to do with Wiggy..
Non PhD / August 9, 2017
The obvious fact that was established by Colvin R de Silva in 1956 which is recorded in the Hansard. Therefore the national minorities or the parties they elect can not contribute much for brining a lasting national solutions to all the problems faced by the citizens.
It has to come from the majority and their elected leaders and the Maha Sangha.
The other possible option is a collaboratin among youth parties of south and north, youth from the Maha Sangha collaboration.
But this will never happen because of greedy businessmen, media owners and extremists in the armed forces.
The majority are going to bring back MaRa regime again sooner or later.
Food for thought to you doctor
Ranjith Gunawaradana / August 10, 2017
On going Democracy of system lay on political Parties and their classes roots of social, economy and political ideologies .No system can run by abstract sense of political ideas by and large parties that must committed to Intuitional Democracy. What we have inherited after 425 years of from Colonial Rule of Governances of British Empire managed by House of Windsor of “Westminster Democracy” after Independent 1948 was more vital for an operation of Democracy is decisive .
The Two party system of governances by UNP and SLFP democracy of Parliamentary reperstataive mode of governances has Misruled step by step been corrupted system since 1948?
The Order of Democracy of System has been gradually declining basic norms and values of management and administration of politics of Neo-Liberalism and Rural Petty bourgeois was discarded by UNP line of anti -national policies.
By enrich and ensure of democracy by UNP, that it has undermined whole working order out of Rule and Moral values since 1977 to 1994 by JRJ -UNP R.Premapala and Ranil Wicks up to now.
Current UNP policies of MS and Ranil Wicks has gone further to abandons 2015 January 8th mandate want an indefinitely closed-down Right to Vote.
That is challenge the Sovereignty of Right of democracy.
This move and new wave of political crisis of has emerge in Democracy in new form–Sri lanka.
The current leadership of Rulers are Blind on Power and Money not that the Rights of and survival of safeguard of democracy
soma / August 10, 2017
“How to fool the masses again” would have been a more appropriate title.
THEN he could move on to detailing how to sustain the hatred they very successfully managed to create within minorities towards the majority, how to find money for the project, how to steal money without getting caught, how to keep on postponing local elections, how to go federal without telling it federal, how to sell state assets without arousing public anger etc.etc..——-
Dr Laksiri Fernando, Thisaranee Gunasekara, Vishvamitra, Shyman Jayasinghe, Sarath Alwis( the guy seems a bit dispirited ) and the whole NGO cabal will have to work overtime.
Thappu / August 10, 2017
I picked just two of the opinions proffered by Laksiri Fernando.
1) The minority communities voted for the opposition candidate even with some reluctance.
2) … because of its role in defeating terrorism.
Dear Dr. Laksiri Fernando, The minority communities always vote with a lot of hesitation? Why do they hesitate? You need to elaborate on that to give strength to your opinion.
The Rajapaksa government brought LTTE to an end. Granted. How do you call that ‘defeating terrorism’. Terrorism cannot be defeated by war. Unless you present arguments to the contrary, you cannot opine that somebody had defeated terrorism!
Peace is a state of mind. So is revulsion. It is revulsion that needs to be ‘defeated’, not ‘terrorism’.
The country has no political maturity. We are governed by the same bunch of politicians who have not the least understanding of Governance. Elections produces changes of parties governing us, but seldom do the elected display a change of attitude.
Unless attitudes change we cannot Move Forward.