21 November, 2019

Blog

Losing The Sense Of Right & Wrong

By Basil Fernando

Basil Fernando

Basil Fernando

What would happen in a society where there is no sense that murder is a grave wrong to be prevented by the state and the people? The same thing could be asked about rape, sexual abuse of women, children or anyone else, about robbery and theft, extortion and drug trafficking. Many more wrongs against individuals can thus be listed.

Then there are wrongs relating to public life. What if those who wield authority do not recognise the stealing of public resources as a grave wrong? What if such persons think that the abuse of power is permissible? Or if there was a common acceptance that politicians and statesmen could lie to people about important matters concerning them? Again, the list of such wrongs against the public could be very long.

From ancient times, all civilisations have accepted that such wrongs must be recognised and prevented. A sense of what is morally acceptable and what is not is imbedded in every civilised society. In fact, being ‘civilised’ is largely related to the development and enforcement of ideas of right and wrong, and the building of ethical codes in order to preserve these ideas as fundamental to society. Humanity has long struggled to develop and preserve these ideas, and to inculcate them in all individuals. Unfortunately, societies have also seen moments in their histories when there are grave breakdowns of the sense of right and wrong, resulting in great catastrophes. Some of the well-known courts relating to morality developed during such times, due largely to the efforts of great leaders, whether of philosophical or religious movements, or political leaders using state power.

The Ten Commandments in the Judaism tradition is one such example. Whatever the truth of the emergence of the Ten Commandments as in the Bible, what is important is that such an ethical code was developed, embodying certain matters that were of utmost importance to that society. Laid down as commandments, every person and generation was to obey these rules.

The noble eighth fold path in the Buddhist tradition is again another example of a code of morality and ethics spread among the people. While the Buddha and his followers preached this code, Dharmasoka, a great historical ruler, made it into state policy and became a great advocate in the spread of this moral code in his kingdom. King Dharmasoka used state power to implement a moral code as a foundation of society, and did everything possible to educate people on this. Impulse for him to do so came from movements prior to his times, and continued during his time, such as the Jain and Buddhist movements. These have become universal principles spreading into all neighbouring countries around India. That was also how his own son was sent to Sri Lanka, and the rest of the story is well known and recorded.

As civilisation progressed, it was realised that mere declaration of rights and wrongs was not adequate to prevent these wrongs. On this basis criminal courts were developed, defining criminal offences. The key difference between a moral declaration and a declaration of a crime, is that the state takes primary responsibility to punish those who commit any acts considered as crimes. Thus, murder becomes a serious crime to be seriously punished by either death or life imprisonment. Similarly, the wrongs of sexual abuse, drug trafficking, corruption and so forth have all been transformed into crimes with definite punishments attached.

State obligation did not end by mere declaration of certain things as crimes. The state developed machinery for investigation into crimes: criminal investigation departments, or the modern policing system. A primary obligation of such a system is to ensure public confidence that crimes will be immediately investigated, the people committing them will be arrested and subjected to interrogation, and after proper inquiries trials will be held in public, and if they are found guilty a judge will sentence them to punishment as laid down in the law.

Civilisation in recent centuries has developed around such criminal codes and their enforcements. This is the way that right and wrong is not only recognised by society, but also enforced. There have been times however, when the enforcement of these codes was impossible; times of social breakdown. The best known example of this is Germany after the First World War. The development of Fascism in Germany, Italy and several other countries was a catastrophic time for those societies. Things considered wrong in normal times lost their impermissibility. Being relativized, murder, rape and all other serious crimes were seen as permissible when done to society’s ‘undesirable persons’. For a Fascist, a Communist is undesirable. For those preparing for war, anyone who espouses peace or does not join in the war effort is undesirable. The killing of such persons is not a matter of much concern.

In such times, society’s sense of right and wrong is seriously undermined

Has Sri Lanka reached this stage today, due to a long period of crises, particularly since the JVP uprising, its suppression, and the continuous violence in the following decades? The sense of right and wrong is not only undermined by violence, but also authoritarian political changes. An authoritarian ruler may develop intelligence and other services to suppress his enemies. Whatever is done to these enemies becomes a matter of no concern. Normal ways of dealing with crime investigation are displaced to the extent that those committing crimes can even be considered heroes. These are catastrophic times for any society.

An examination of various incidents reported over the last 40 years makes it clear that Sri Lanka today has reached the point where many grave wrongs are treated as matters of little concern. It now takes a huge public uproar—which only happens at times—to get the most scandalous of crime investigated. Even then, what happens after the initial stages of inquiry is unpredictable.

Sri Lanka’s lawlessness has been discussed and documented in detail, so there is no need to go into it at present. The question now, is whether there is a fundamental disturbance of Sri Lankan society’s ideas of right and wrong. Unless we face up to this problem, our society will be moving from peril to greater peril.

It is the duty of every person, particularly those committed to be opinion makers in their countries, to take up the issue of crimes as an issue of right and wrong in their societies. The times in which the ideas of right and wrong are challenged, are also the times in which great movements arise. In both western and eastern societies, the greatest morality movements have arisen in the midst of such crises, leading to great philosophical developments.

Sri Lanka today is facing a moment when either it will transform itself to a much more stable society, by again committing to define and enforce rights and wrongs, or it will fall into its greatest peril after a period of great disaster.

Print Friendly, PDF & Email

Latest comments

  • 1
    2

    This fernando now does not speak of murders that take place in his country & is not critical of police actions.
    Is fernando another Good governance patriarch?

    Big John removed the walking path in his home town but remained silent.
    That underworld character podi sagara when police went to arrest yesterday had committed suicide by shoorting himself.
    The numerous rapes under yahapalanaya watch seem to dissappear from fernando’s radar…
    Fernando appear very reluctant to shoot at the Yahapalanaya regime and speaks in tongue in cheek.

    What if those who wield authority do not recognise the stealing of public resources as a grave wrong? Is fernando blinkered or suffering from dimentia?
    Is he experiencing a memory loss as the current regime commenced with a Bond Scam when he relates to “who weilded authority”.

    HERE IS ANOTHER LAME NGO CROW WHO USE THE CASSOACK VARIETY SINGING FOR HIS SUPPER.

    • 1
      1

      It is unfortunate that CT has published this as the first comment here. Such a comment does have the propensity to stifle or hijack discussion. The guy doesn’t have the intellect to grasp what is being dealt with in the Article. So please CT readers, Basil, please ignore this donkey’s excrement.

      The Article deals with the important subject that the State’s indifference to crime should be of the greatest concern to Society.

      As far as I am concerned, Yahapalanayos haves reneged on their pre election promise to punish those of the previous regime who have indulged in financial and other heinous crimes including murder.

      My own comment is as follows:

      The Ra-Siri duo DO NOT ACT with sufficient conviction to haul in the mega fraudsters headed by Mahinda Rajapakse. When they claim that a hundred or more mega million frauds are being investigated for the last fifteen months, and there is not a single conviction, even a trial, up to now, people are justified and have the right to doubt their sincerity.

      The test is simple: why cannot the Ra-Siri duo find a simple financial crime, where Mahinda Rajapakse or any one of the family swindled the Government for even a paltry sum, which can be proved beyond reasonable doubt? Why cannot they file a criminal misappropriation case, concerning that particular crime, get a conviction and jail the convict? Sirisena and Ranil must know if Rajapakse or a sibling is jailed for a couple of years, that will bring forth a deluge of evidence to facilitate the successful conviction of the thieves for the more serious and heinous crimes.

  • 2
    0

    Sri Lanka is a lawless state run by corrupt politicians,Police, Lawyers who are hell bent on undermining the rule of law.Poor citizens are pushed from pillar to post and from one court to the other. God save Sri Lanka

  • 1
    2

    Thondamany has a case in point. Basil Fdo is linked with an NGO which has a very partial and selective agenda. The human-rights violations that he notices are very limited. Also, he seems nothing of what happens just north of Hong Kong, in mainland china. he seems nothing of what goes on among the Church fathers that he is linked with

  • 2
    2

    Mr basil Fernando used to hob nob with LTTE types in Canada and Australia,
    and was a mouth piece of them when the LTTE was powerful. The muslims were harassed,
    ejected from the North, massacred etc., by the LTTE, and even today the TNA leaders who were also the LTTE mouth pieces have done nothing to re-settle the Muslims who are languishing under pathetic codnitions.

    • 2
      0

      “Mr basil Fernando used to hob nob with LTTE types in Canada and Australia, and was a mouth piece of them when the LTTE was powerful.”

      Was he?

      If true, his behaviour is in line with the previous presidents and armed forces, making deals with the terrorists.

  • 2
    0

    Basil, what would happen in a NGO where the directors had no sense of right and wrong?

  • 3
    0

    What is being forgotten is that the leaders and rulers are suffering from a condition known as ‘sociopath’. If one spend some time to understand the dangers of this ‘communicable’ disease, which incidentally is recognized as a dangerous disease in English Law, one will understand the reasons for the behavior as mentioned in the writing. Those who suffer with the above disease will not realize that they are suffering from this disease. They support each other or sympathize with the wrongdoers. This is a dog in a manger situation.

Leave A Comment

Comments should not exceed 300 words. Embedding external links and writing in capital letters are discouraged. Commenting is automatically shut off on articles after 10 days and approval may take up to 24 hours. Please read our Comments Policy for further details. Your email address will not be published.