13 June, 2024

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Sri Lanka – Nation Building, Devolution and the 13th Amendment – Part II

By Lionel Bopage

Dr. Lionel Bopage

A historical perspective

Devolution in Sri Lanka is a story of missed opportunities. The armed conflict ended in 2009, but the political conflict has not. A settlement to the political conflict can be achieved only by offering a share of state power to all communities within a framework of democratic governance. Many Sri Lankans in the country and overseas are yet to be convinced of this requirement.

Sri Lanka is an overwhelmingly stagnating unitary state. In 2018, one of the former Auditor Generals  stated that Sri Lanka was ranked the topmost country in terms of public sector misappropriation and corruption. The country’s parliamentary system has neglected its primary responsibilities of formulating policies, enacting laws and implementing transparent public financial systems. And the general public, ignorant of facts due to misinformation and deception, has repeatedly elected a set of crooks who have used ‘rule by law’, instead of ‘rule of law’ to maintain their autocratic rule.

All of these led to catastrophic consequences for the people in recent times. In 2022, the ‘ARAGALAYA’ protests ousted the last elected Sri Lankan President. With the severe shortage of essentials and defaulted debt payments, the country has encountered a poly-crisis. Despite the assurances made by the installed President Ranil Wickremasinghe, many people continue to suffer terribly. Those who can leave the country are leaving in droves, looking for greener pastures.

From schools and hospitals to the justice system and utility services, much of the country’s administrative functions have come to a grinding halt. Corruption, mismanagement, wastage, political patronage, and a lack of transparency and accountability that have prevailed for the last four decades contributed to a combined economic and political firestorm. The Rajapaksas, who are responsible for aggravating the crisis to its epic proportions are waiting in the wings to regain power by tacitly supporting the president they installed. They are rebuilding their chauvinist fundamentalist bases, utilizing whatever opportunities and resources they can get their hands on to divide the society and capture power.

District Development Councils – a history

In 1977, the JR Jayewardene regime introduced an open economy and provided commercial interests the opportunity to invigorate the private sector. However, this intensified social contradictions due to the general public not given opportunities to enjoy the positive outcomes offered by the expanding economy. Many, particularly among the Sinhala majority population, felt left behind. The Tamil people in the Northeast also felt frustrated as the economy opened up almost overnight to international competition. The importation of chilies, onions, staple foods, etc from India destroyed their major means of living – agriculture. They have been demanding better opportunities for upward social mobility and a greater share of national productivity growth.

This demand has a history running back to the days of the Legislative Council in 1926, where the possibility of a second tier of government was discussed. The issue was again discussed at the Donoughmore Commission of 1928. It had recognized the need for decentralization of powers so that much of the administrative work carried out at the centre could be performed more directly at the local level, leaving the government to concentrate on the macro affairs of running the country. The Commission also pronounced its proposals for Provincial Councils. Those proposals also suggested that “the special views of the different races predominant in the different parts of the island” might have an effect “in the administration of these parts.” Unfortunately, the recommendations regarding Provincial Councils were not implemented. This was possibly due to the opposition of  politicians and bureaucrats, who were not willing to share their authority with those in the provinces or districts.

A large segment of the Tamil community increasingly felt the only effective solution to address their right to self-determination was to form their own autonomous state – Tamil Eelam. For this they gave an overwhelming mandate to their political leadership, the Tamil United Liberation Front(TULF), at the August 1977 General Elections. Socially, economically and politically the country was facing a chaotic and disintegrating situation. And the Jayawardene regime resorted to more authoritarian ways of enforcing its dictates. In 1981, the Jayawardene regime established District Development Councils (DDCs) for each administrative district as a supposed instrument of devolution.

However, the DDCs were politically toothless. They could not independently attend to matters under their jurisdiction as there was no separate administrative mechanism established to allow them to function. So, the DDCs had to depend on the bureaucracies of the local and central government agencies and resources to do their work[1]. In practice, this system helped the Sinhalese political elite to garner more influence in district administration, creating another state tier to muster and sustain political party patronage[3]. In addition, the Ministers of the then government overpowered the DDCs, impeding the activities that fell under their jurisdiction. If the JVP (Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna) experience is anything to go by, the DDCs did not have any powers of financial management. Frustrated with its incapability, the Chairman of the Jaffna DDC thew it away in July 1983[3].

The first remedy that allowed for devolution, since the unilateral abrogation of the Bandaranaike-Chelvanayakam (B-C) pact and the Dudley-Chelvanayakam (D-C) pact, was imposed under the auspices of the Indian Government in 1987. Since then, the Thirteenth Amendment has been in the Constitution for nearly three and a half decades without being fully implemented. Starting with the Jayawardene regime, all regimes have resolutely held absolute control over land and police powers. They even seriously restricted financial powers of Provincial Councils. This is despite many complaints made by the Provincial Councils that they do not have any real administrative control over their regions and do not have enough money even to buy the essential necessities of those councils.

History of constitutional amendments

Currently the executive, the legislature, provincial councils and the local governments of the country have about 10,000 elected and nominated representatives. They are supposed to address the socio-economic, political and multicultural issues of the entire country. However, the governance system has become a complete failure. Moving from crisis to crisis, the authoritarian, centralised, non-accountable  governance system has plunged the country into the current poly-crisis. This system is accompanied by corruption, wastage, mismanagement, and impunity for those who commit terror and violence to protect the ruling elite. This debasement and mortification continue to prevail in every nook and cranny of the country.

Let us examine the last four amendments made to the Constitution of Sri Lanka. The good governance regime elected in 2015 enacted the 19th Amendment but was not fully committed to implementing it with sufficient responsibility and speed. Despite the election pledges made in 2015 to abolish the authoritarian powers acquired by the previous Rajapaksa regime, President Maithripala Sirisena and Prime Minister Ranil Wickremasinghe did not have the political will to bring it to fruition in any meaningful way.

This situation paved the way for the 20th Amendment enacted in 2020. It allegedly crippled the whole audit process that was there to ensure accountability and transparency to public financial transactions. A Parliamentary Council was to be introduced that could make observations regarding appointments to independent commissions. However, the president wielded total discretion in making those appointments. Later, the 21st Amendment was enacted to restore the executive presidency’s powers and perks taken away by the 19th Amendment.

Then the 22nd Amendment was brought intending to reduce certain powers granted to the president under the 20th Amendment by re-establishing a Constitutional Council. It, too, allowed the president to hold defence and any other portfolio he wished to hold. However, it did not significantly impact the powers vested in the President, as was evident from the now-President Ranil Wickremesinghe’s unpresidential behaviour during the last two years. Failure to curtail the excessive power in the executive presidency has proven to be disastrous for the country’s economy and the rule of law.

To be continued..

[1] De Alwis, R. K. 2009, History of and Prospects for Public Sector Reforms in Sri Lanka. 209, Unpublished PhD thesis, Victoria University of Wellington, Cited in Jayasundera S 2022, An uneasy hegemony: Politics of State Building and Struggles for Justice in Sri Lanka, 173, Cambridge University Press.

[2] Ibid, 175

[3] Sivathasan S 2013, Jaffna Development Council Election 1981, available at: https://www.colombotelegraph.com/index.php/jaffna-development-council-election-1981/

Part 1 – Sri Lanka – Nation Building, Devolution & The 13th Amendment

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Latest comments

  • 5
    0

    ‘Devolution in Sri Lanka is a story of missed opportunities. The armed conflict ended in 2009, but the political conflict has not’.
    You don’t miss something that is not in your mind!
    Had there been a Leader with devolution in mind, there would have been no conflict of any shape.
    Even today, in the absence of anyone advocating for devolution, I’d say that the conflict was only halted; not ended.
    .

  • 0
    8

    Hon. Lional Bopage has unsympathetically unloaded the second instalment.
    .
    Will someone please list down the advantages of devolution/federalism over the existing unitary setup in the context of Sri Lanka and explain in which way the +50% minorities living among the Sinhalese are benefited.
    .
    Let us hold a referendum among the minority Tamil speaking people over this issue.

    Soma

    • 0
      7

      When the Tamils in the estate sector were asked to move back to their ancestral land so that they can live as equals within their own environment of language, culture and religion they didn’t want to budge.
      Their forced repratiation against their wish was one of the sad episodes of our post independence history.
      Hence my proposal for a referendum.

      Soma

      • 10
        0

        Soma,
        You are comparing apples with oranges. At that time, India was a starving backwater, and the SL rupee was worth twice the INR. Don’t forget that they came here in the first place because of famine.
        The real test would be to ask those who went whether they want to come back. I doubt whether any would exchange their current 45000 (LKR) wages and lower living costs for penury here.

        • 3
          2

          Thanks OC, I understand.
          .
          What is YOUR opinion about my proposal for a referendum?

          Soma

          • 6
            0

            Soma,
            “Will someone please list down the advantages of devolution/federalism over the existing unitary setup in the context of Sri Lanka and explain in which way the +50% minorities living among the Sinhalese are benefited.”
            Not only the Tamils, but even the Sinhalese and Muslims live in the WP because it is the most developed province. Just as our women prefer to work in Dubai.
            If, say Mannar was developed to the same extent as Colombo, probably the Tamils (and Sinhalese) would move there. If the Mannar Tamils were allowed to build a bridge to India under a Federal system, (instead of useless airports in the South), do you not think they would prosper? Or is that the problem?

            • 0
              6

              Dear OC
              I appreciate your opinion.
              .
              Then why are you against asking the opinion of +50% Tamil speaking people in a referendum?

              Soma

              • 3
                0

                Soma,
                I didn’t say I am against a referendum. But it will be needed only if the Tamils feel that they don’t get fair treatment. The key is to develop places like Mullaitivu to the level of Colombo. When people can move to places other than the WP for employment, there will be no ethnic ghettoes. Isn’t that what you want?

                • 0
                  3

                  OC
                  //But it will be needed only if the Tamils feel that they don’t get fair treatment.//
                  .
                  Now that the cry for devolution/federalism has become louder
                  let us ask Tamil speaking people living among the Sinhalese themselves whether they are getting fair treatment or not.
                  What do you think?
                  You must be reading the opinion of pro devolution readers on this column. Why do you think they are reluctant to giving Tamil speaking people the choice as I propose?

                  Soma

                  • 4
                    0

                    Soma,
                    “let us ask Tamil speaking people living among the Sinhalese themselves whether they are getting fair treatment or not”
                    Even Tamils living among Tamils aren’t getting fair treatment.
                    https://www.newswire.lk/2023/10/06/tna-mps-stage-protest-in-parliament-over-batticaloa-pasture-land/
                    Be that as it may, the Tamils in Sinhala areas are there for economic reasons. But there is a glass ceiling. In many areas, including where I live, Tamils or Muslims may not openly operate businesses except through a Sinhala proxy.
                    This doesn’t apply in Colombo City, which is free of thinly-disguised “welanda sangamayas”.
                    If you ask a minority member, of course he will opt to stay even under those conditions. But that doesn’t make it fair.

              • 5
                0

                Soma,
                Question of 50% (accuracy be ascertained) is irrelevant, as the people would have the right to DWELL IN ANY PART OF THE ISLAND without ANY LET OR HINDRANCE!!!???
                if that is the case, then they live there or prefer to obvious reason favourable to them and cannot be questioned!!! Unless you want to cage every community in separate locations, pre-emptively decided and they cannot change their views and move to any place of their choice!!!!
                How will a referendum of thee 50% now, will envision any literate person, how they will prefer to domicile in 10. 15, 25 years from now!! May be 1000′ from Hambantota would prefer to live in Jaffna or Mannar/Vavuniya in 10years time!!???
                DEMOGRAPHY IS DETERMINED BY PROSPERITY AS THE HUMAN CIVILISATION HISTORICALLY REVEAL IN ABUNDANCE!!!
                That is to say the least a Ludicrous idea, FOR REVEALING NOTHING OR FORE-TELLING NOTHING EVENTFUL HAPPENSTANCE IN THE FUTURE!!!???
                Wasteful Delaying tactics of Sinhala Buddhists from time immemorial!!!??? Why again and NOW???
                Instead get actioned and start without further delays!!!
                Suggest we have a referendum in 10 years after devolving power and fully operational system, which is preferred as the results would be revealing and not mere assumptions!!!???

                • 0
                  4

                  No let us have the referendum now and another one in 10 years..
                  So it is not the Sinhalese you are worried about, Tamil speaking people themselves
                  Come on Mahila you and I both know that Tamil speaking majority will vote for existing set up.

                  Soma

      • 5
        0

        Dear SOMA and all that continously stand against minorities,

        Referendum with a nation whose political knowledge is lower to that of a primitive tribe, especially when it goes about crucial issues ???????? is thinkable outcome not clear long before go for it ? when would our people become serious ?
        .
        I would like to hear more of your thoughts, SOMA, having forcused on your comments recently on our federal thoughts. There are sentiments in any society, that stand against any kind of regional adminstrations, for unknown reasons. Not all sinhalayas would agree with sinhala buddhist racists. Likewise, all tamils and muslims would nod their heads to any racial and selfish agendas.
        .
        Do you not seem to come out of your thoughts that you should be vehemently opposed to any kind of federal system?
        That you should be clear before asking us why we dont want to continue with the existing systems. You clearly know that nobody is satisfied with the way PC adminstrations worked sofar with alarming issues remained further untouched.

        Even if such regional elections were held for RAJAPAKSHE selfish gains, and candidates were appointed, the provincial council administrations has no teeth as it should. It needs to be reformed and fixed sooner than later, if not now then when?

        • 5
          0

          cont.
          . It should not necessarily be called “federal”, but a similar administration should be essential for a permanent and sustainable solution to the long-standing ethnic problem of our motherland., period.
          A new constitution is essential to allow strict enforcement of law and order irrespective of our race, colour, religion or other parameters.

          As is the case in some European countries, those who appear with racist behavior should be given maximum prison sentences. Some taboo words remain strong in Europe even after 75 when the barbarian wars destroyed their lives.

          However, what comes to my mind when you ask the plantation Tamils to leave for their original countries, then you should also be ready to ask Canada, Norway and other Scandinavian countries, the United States, all other European countries to send all the Sinhalese, Tamils, Muslims living there for such a long time ?
          Why do you have a double standard regarding migrant worker Tamils on plantations?
          Because people like you are promoting the Sinhala land mentality (only racists are forced to do so), our Sinhalese racists are harming the minorities even more.

          The minorities or the majority do not choose where they should be born when they are born in a country. Therefore, equal rights should be preserved for all without any further arguments.

        • 0
          3

          leelagemalli
          //Dear SOMA and all that continously stand against minorities//
          .
          Kindly read my comments again. I am speaking FOR 50% of Tamil speaking minority.
          .
          //Referendum with a nation whose political knowledge is lower to that of a primitive tribe, especially when it goes about crucial issues ???????? is thinkable outcome not clear long before go for it ? when would our people become serious ?//
          PLEASE DO NOT INSULT OUR TAMIL BROTHERN THIS WAY.
          They are are quite capable of expressing what is best for them , unitary or federal in a democratic exercise like a referendum.
          What I am ‘vehemently’ against is doing something against the wish of the majority Tamil speaking people.

          Soma

          • 5
            0

            Soma,
            “What I am ‘vehemently’ against is doing something against the wish of the majority Tamil speaking people.”
            You have done one good deed, identify Majority Tamil speaking people??
            Pray let us know what the parameters were for this determination, if you have them handy!!???
            these are the Tamil speaking people living amongst the south???

          • 3
            0

            SOMA,
            Thanks for ur comments 🙂 but
            Please let this be serious. May I ask u to read it again?Many of us here would nt insult tamil brethren. Especially, I m not raised to do so. I dont live in sl either. What I meant is majority of our people are evidently not politically literate [ the best evidence provided: the outcome of the PE 2019 and GE 2020]
            They don’t want to know that they don’t have the least knowledge about even trivial issues let alone them to answer ” yes” or ” no” questions by holding a referendum? [ My reference is Prof. Pathegama Ghanissara Thero].

            • 0
              3

              leelagemalli
              This is most insulting to Tamil speaking people in Sri Lanka.
              Everybody should protest.

              Soma

    • 6
      0

      Soma,
      Age is catching up with you.
      You were holding on to your thoughts securely.
      Since of late, you only parrot. That is a clear sign of senility.

      • 0
        5

        Anyway Mr Nathan
        Why are you opposed to holding a referendum among the Tamil speaking minority?
        Because Soma is senile?

        Soma

        • 4
          0

          What kind of a referendum it should be 🤔?.
          Islandwide ?

          • 1
            3

            leelagemalli
            Among the Tamil speaking people in Sinhala majority provinces or Tamil speaking people islandwide if TNA insist.

            Soma

        • 2
          0

          Soma,
          You say that I am opposed to a Referendum.
          Where have I said that.
          OC has clearly stated why Colombo attracts everyone.
          I have been saying this all along.
          Repeating the same is a sign of senility.
          Address me, ‘Nathan’.
          Thank you.

    • 1
      8

      Exactly! devolution/federalism is not going to do anything but perenially stir up ethnic tensions given that what is being espoused by those who support/fund such ideas within Lanka are ACTUALLY asking for racial/linguistic segregation (e.g. Wigneswaran, Sumanthiran etc). else just have federated ruhunu, maya and raja rata no?

      As i have also mentioned before, absent chola-invasions, Lanka has always seen her peoples integrate and assimilate.

      it is only within the unitary state (now free of ltte ethno-terrorism) that all Lankans can freely move around and work/live together and prosper. the key of course, is for the ruling class and their administrators to keep things flowing despite ltte/diaspora destablization-efforts, as well as maintaining strong bonds with the great powers i.e. Bharat, USA+EU/NATO, China+Russia.

      • 7
        0

        Liger,
        “it is only within the unitary state (now free of ltte ethno-terrorism”
        How is this ethno terrorism worse than JVP terrorism, or state terrorism?
        “Lanka has always seen her peoples integrate and assimilate.” How come there were at least 3 kingdoms when the Portuguese arrived? Were there Chola invasions when some Sinhala Buddhists were refused ordination by the Malwatta crowd?

        • 8
          0

          Dear OC,
          .
          Until the Sri Lankan people agree on this grave issue in the line of resolving long held ethnic issue, nothing will work for the progress of our country and nation.
          . Vietnam, India, Indonesia, and several other emerging countries in Africa have ample options for the investors, so no investor is even picking up our country as one of the investing location.. We will remain always marginalized. If the ethnic problem is not resolved, not many will come and invest in this country. THAT WILL BE THE REALITY.

          Like it or not, the majority of us in this country have to learn to see the bigger picture.if not today when would it be ?
          Narrow mindedness gets us nowhere. The other day I listened to a lecture by Dr. Harsha de Silva, an economic expert and veteran SJB MP, who always said that if we as a nation are not open to the world, we cannot allow our youth to fill their future dreams. Many have to agree with him, regardless of being belonged to any parties or groups.

          Many people would not want to leave the country for other destinations if things turn out to be a progressive state in their homeland. Whether it is called federal or not, it should be a system that treats everyone the same, because people born on this soil, regardless of race, religion, or any obstacles.

          • 2
            0

            leelagemalli
            //it should be a system that treats everyone the same, because people born on this soil, regardless of race, religion, or any obstacles.//
            Let us work towards that.

            Soma

            • 3
              0

              (Part I)
              Soma,
              “it should be A SYSTEM THAT TREATS EVERYONE THE SAME, because people born on this soil, regardless of race, religion, or any obstacles.”
              Fully agree, with you on that, – ‘TREATS EVERYONE THE SAME’ – because that doesn’t exist now, since Independence and especially 1956!!! That is a MUST DO GAME PLAN!!!???
              Not only, Race, Religion, but other cultural differences and Castes, Rich, Poor!!!??? They cannot discriminate between people using Brylcream. “Thala Thel’ (Gingelly Oil) or POL THEL (coconut oil)!?
              FORGOT one significant element!!!??? No discrimination based on ‘BORED EAR LOBES’ OF ANY COMMUNITY!!??? One of my good old friends from Moratuwa university (Katubedda) friends, a Trinity College Alumni, Sinhalese Kandyan flaunting one of the famous family names was interrogated on his way home in a train to Kandy at Polgahawela, by the goons of well-known MP of that era for Mawathagama, to prove his lineage, before he could be let go on his way homeward – luckily without any bodily harm being caused to him, because one or two regular passengers recognised as Trinity Lion!! What a Dilemma!!!???
              (TBC)

            • 3
              0

              (Part II)
              Rule of law equally applied to One and all from President to Rural Villager/farmer!!! If president takes decision as CIC he is exempt from punitive measures, if the supreme court holds him innocent, on a case by case basis – NO BLANKET IMMUNITY!!!???
              100% marks and fully agree with you!!!???
              What for the TELLING!!!???? Operative word is equality is sprayed everywhere and at random!!!???
              NEVER IMPLEMENTED FOR 75 YEARS SNICE INDEPENDENCE!!!??? Why???

            • 5
              0

              Gone are the days baby boomers lived up their propensities several times for various reasons.
              Now it is up to other genzers [ X, millennials and Z ] to do the job without cause innocient victims extend their anxieties further. Enough
              is enough. Settling the ethnic issue should be treated with wholeheartedness. I don’t care sinhalavracists calling me sinhala Kotiya. I WOULD LOVE EVERYONE BE TREATED EQUALLY AS SRILANKENS.
              .
              NPP should take it serious without paying blind eye anymore, this and other crucial questions for which they constantly dodge [ please read my recent comments repeated to Sinhala Man].

            • 6
              0

              soma

              “Let us work towards that.”

              How?
              You mean “do as I say, not as I do”.
              Whatever ideal you want to achieve you need structures, systems, rules, laws, by the way a secular constitution, and impartial enforcement agencies. …. Above all people should be freed from their idea of race(?), religion, region, gender, sexual preferences, ……

              Aragalaya demanded only a system change. While welcoming it’s demand we need go further, we need mindset change.

              The system is messed up for 75 years (please ignore SJ)

              “Oh, what a tangled web we weave, when first we practice to deceive!” – Sir Walter Scott

              • 0
                5

                NV

                //“Oh, what a tangled web we weave, when first we practice to deceive!” – Sir Walter Scott//
                .
                You can see for yourself the tangled web the pro devolution/federal chaps here have found themselves in when I proposed ok let us ask Tamil speaking people themselves!-

                Soma

          • 7
            0

            LM,
            As long as Sri Lankans think SL is UTOPIA, they will not change??? The illiterate fools would elect Inept presidents, prime ministers MPS and think they are the best in the world; therefore, the position will continue to deteriorate, NOT Improve at all!!!
            The Buddhists are happy, and there is no impelling force to change!!!??? Saffron’s are happy too with Dayakas dishing out whatever to keep them well FED and they will never get fed-up!!??
            So the Charade goes on until the common man suffers to the point of unbearably, which may trigger a revolution, which may turn-out to be Bloody and unseen ever before!!!
            Thence, will salvation become a reality to this thrice blessed nation!!??

        • 1
          6

          Lankas efforts to eliminate ethno-terrorists and jvp-insurrectionists benefitted all of Lanka. It’s you and your precious ltte/diaspora that are STILL trying to revive terrorism on the island. But you knew this already.

          The annexation of Jaffna by the orissans-followed-by-tamil-nadu was another example of chola invasion – what about that is not clear to you? Don’t tell me you’re getting senile now besides native matta…

          The affairs of the kotte kingdom didn’t keep Lankans from integrating and assimilating.

          Indigenous Lankans always looked to strengthen numbers from within as well enhance those numbers by way of inviting lineages from outside the island. This is well-known/documented. Lankan heritage that comes from outside the island has had its ups and down (be they our Bengali, Odian, Gujarati, Maratha or Tamilian ancestors), but the important thing is that we always kept integrating and assimilating in preparation for the next – usually chola – invasion.

          Next.

          • 5
            0

            Liger,
            “important thing is that we always KEPT INTEGRATING AND ASSIMILATING in preparation for the next – usually Chola – invasion. Next.”
            What we had encountered for the Past75 years, since independence is DISINTEGRATION DISSIMILATION!!!?? That was the tragedy, made us to arrive at this point!!!???
            Chola Invasion!!??? Where when and how???
            Chola Dynasty is extinct, long time gone now!!!??? Get your history updated??? Furthermore, we had Chera, Pandiya, Wijeyanagar empire and Kalinga Maga (Andra/Odisha) invasions too!!! All gone!
            Importantly, political motivations and signs of disintegration is profusely seen than the converse!!!??
            Power hungry and aggrandisement, which must be ESCHEWED TOTALLY!!!???

          • 6
            0

            Liger,
            “The annexation of Jaffna by the orissans-followed-by-tamil-nadu was another example of chola invasion “.
            Really? Did Tamilnadu exist before 1956? How come there are no Oriya speakers in Jaffna? As to Chola “invasions “, how would you describe 700 “Bengalis” landing 200 years earlier? Does your version of integration mean only everyone becoming Sinhala Buddhist? What’s wrong with everyone becoming Tamil Hindu? What ” indigenous Lankans” are you talking about?

            • 6
              0

              OC,
              .
              Don’t worry, Liger should be completely different from any other creature.

              His thoughts are just empty. …. The majority of our hell is FILLED with the kind of poisonous reptiles.
              Liger, go and get your anatomy checked by the nearest experts. You are unique and we can only match yours with late Eagle eye (ultra sinhala racists).

          • 5
            0

            Liar

            What are the differences or similarities between ethno-terrorists and jvp-insurrectionists?

        • 6
          0

          Load of BS

      • 5
        0

        Liger,
        all the great powers you mentioned are of Federal form of governance with devolution of some form or the other and not Unitary!!??? incidentally, NATO is not a state/Nation, but only a Military Western Alliance to check Russian aggression beyond ‘iron Curtain’!!!???

        • 6
          0

          Let s send Liger and Champa back to kindergarten? .
          .
          This kind of stupid citizens are the majority of our population
          .
          MaRa et al knew that long before than any other politicians 🙄 that is why he became popular among them..
          .
          They are forced to assume unitary state would be destroyed if federal systems would be introduced. Liger or the kind of Pingonas compare it with ethno federal systems????
          .
          40% of lankens are said to be using Internet as of today but no tangible signs 😢 yet about improving their awareness???????.
          .
          Misinterpretations lead yet today whatever being in the air. Former hunger nations [Ethiopian s, Indonesian s, Ghanisns] catch up speedly and overtaking us everyday.
          .
          People are not trained to ask why ???? 🙄 Neighbour Piyadasa would go on eating Thanakola, Dolalanga Leelawathie would nt have brains to REQUESTION WHY but she TOO starts emulate and eat them at one go. Liger or the like beasts 🤔 keep fooling them.forever /OHOMA YANG

    • 6
      0

      soma

      “Will someone please list down the advantages of devolution/federalism over the existing unitary setup in the context of Sri Lanka and explain in which way the +50% minorities living among the Sinhalese are benefited.”

      Forget your percentages, tell us or list all those disadvantages of devolution/federalism.
      We will continue the percentage discussions once the 2021 census is out.

      • 0
        5

        Native
        //tell us or list all those disadvantages of devolution/federalism.//
        .
        There is a limit to being silly or displaying it publicly.
        Who is asking for devolution/federalism?
        .
        Oh, what a tangled web we weave, when first we practice to deceive!” – Sir Walter Scott

        Soma

  • 0
    4

    I AM NOT GOING TO GO WITH THIS PROPOSITION THAT TAMIL SPEAKING PEOPLE ARE TOO IGNORANT TO DECIDE FOR THEMSELVES AND THEREFORE UPPER CASTE POLITICAL CLASS IN JAFFNA SHOULD DECIDE.

    Soma

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