2 December, 2020

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The Evolution Of The Sinhala Language: An Important Reference

By Rajasingham Narendran

Dr. Rajasingham Narendran

Dr. Rajasingham Narendran

At this moment in our history, we are engaged once again in discussions and debates on the antiquity of the different communities in Sri Lanka and the languages that identify them, namely Sinhala and Tamil; and the nationhood in terms of exclusivity of each. While searching for information of the evolution of the Sinhala script and spoken language, a language which is claimed to be uniquely Lankan, I came across the following extensively referenced document, which makes interesting reading. I am sure those who have an open mind will benefit from this publication.

In the introduction to this document it is stated:

“Sri Lanka being an island in such close proximity to the sub continent of India, it is to India that we must look for origins of Sri Lanka’s culture, religion, language and scripts. The ethnic origins of the peoples of Sri Lanka must be traced to the peoples of India. An exception must be made for those minorities who can trace their ancestry to Sri Lanka’s colonial rulers, the Portuguese, Dutch and British, and also for a small number of Muslims who trace their ancestry to either Arab traders or to Indonesia.

A perusal of the maps of Sri Lanka and South India reveals that at some point in time in the very remote past the island must have been connected to India by a land bridge. Anyone who travels by air to India from Sri Lanka, cannot have failed to perceive the remnants of this umbilical cord of islets and shoals forming what is known as the Adam’s Bridge just north of Mannar peninsula. The Rameshwaram island, the Mannar peninsula, Adam’s Bridge and the large square rocks forming the ruins of an ancient causeway on the side of the railway bridge just north of the Mannar Peninsula. The Rameshwaram island, the Mannar peninsula and the large square rocks forming the ruins of an ancient causeway on the side of the railway bridge across the narrow straits of Mandapam connecting Rameshwaram with the mainland India, all go to prove that in prehistoric times there was easy access to Sri Lanka for the peoples of South India. Sri Lanka’s birth as an island must have taken place when it was severed from Mother India either during the great flood which wiped out many cities of the Indus Valley civilization or through a very gradual separation throuhout the ages in accordance with the continental  drift theory. Final severence of the umbilical cord in many places would have been caused by the constant erosion of its coasts by the seas during the South West and North East monsoons.

Any prehistoric inhabitants of South India would therefore be ethnically and culturally very little different from those in Sri Lanka.  As stated in the Ceylon University History of Ceylon, “ The close geological link with the island’s early history has meant that the island’s early human history has been closely bound up with that of the sub-continent.  The early settlers came from there bringing with them arts, crafts and culture to their new home.”

The origins and evolution of various groups of scripts used around the world are shown in table 1 and the differences between Sinhala script and those of other languages used in India are depicted in Tables 5,6 & 9.  Table 10, depicts the signatures of the Dissawes and Adigars who were a party to the March’ 1815 Kandyan convention. The mixture of Tamil and yet evolving Sinhala alphabets used by many may depict a period in our history (especially in the Kandyan Kingdom) when a combination of Sinhala and Tamil alphbets were used.  The fact that the Sinhala and Tamil languages share in common 4000+ words also may point to a time where both languages were less divergent. (Please note that the table numbers are as denoted in the original document.)

DrRN

 

DrRN1DrRN2Table 10, depicts the signatures of the Dissawes and Adigars who were a party to the March’ 1815 Kandyan convention. The mixture of Tamil and yet evolving Sinhala alphabets used by many may depict a period in our history (especially in the Kandyan Kingdom) when a combination of Sinhala and Tamil alphbets were used.  The fact that the Sinhala and Tamil languages share in common 4000+ words also may point to a time where both languages were less divergent. (Please note that the table numbers are as denoted in the original document.)

DrRN4

It is time we rewrite our history based on the most  likely and logical information available  to depict our essential unity than to construct a non-existent uniquenes and unbrigeable communal divides  for any one of the communities that inhabit this island nation. Foreseeably never ending arguments based on contrived facts and patent myths have been brought into play to derail possible solutions to the so-called national question, time and again at crucial moments in our post-independence history. Those who have time and again resorted to such perverse tactics are the real traiters to this country.

 

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Latest comments

  • 14
    2

    Dr RN,
    Thank you.

    • 9
      1

      Dr. Narendran,

      Thank you. Providing reason and good support.

      “Sri Lanka being an island in such close proximity to the sub continent of India, it is to India that we must look for origins of Sri Lanka’s culture, religion, language and scripts. The ethnic origins of the peoples of Sri Lanka must be traced to the peoples of India. An exception must be made for those minorities who can trace their ancestry to Sri Lanka’s colonial rulers, the Portuguese, Dutch and British, and also for a small number of Muslims who trace their ancestry to either Arab traders or to Indonesia.”

      Yes. The Historical and DNA Evidence shows the facts.

      This is what the True Natives, Native Veddas have to say about the Para- Sinhala and other Paras-, the Paradeshis or foreigners. 1. All the above descriptions support the Sinhala and Tamil as Para-Sinhala and Para-Tamil, like Para-deshi, Foreigners, as far a the Native Veddah are concerned, who walked at least 16,000 years ago when Lanka and India were connected by a land bridge as the sea levels were low. So, the Sinhala and Tamil Nationalism need to be identified as, Racism, Para-Sinhala Nationalism and Para-Tamil Nationalism. Monk Mahanama imaginations of Mahawansa need to be exposed and discarded.
      Why?

      Non- Confirmation bias of Mahawansa. Did Dr. Para-nawithana, the noted Sri Lankan Archaeologist believe the Imaginations of monk Mahanama of 5th Century such as:

      a) Grandfather of Para-Vijaya was a lion? Any DNA data in support of this imagination?

      b) Buddha visited Lanka three-times in 500 BC? any support for the Imagination.

      c) During one visit, Buddha left his giant footprint on top of Mount Samanala Kanda, “Adams Peak”. Did he fly by the Dandu Monera Yanthraya, Giant Bird, and parachute?

      d) The Veddah are the offspring of Para-Vijaya and Kuveni. Is there any DNA data to support this? No. Another Monk Mahanama Imagination.

      Sri Lanka’s indigenous inhabitants, the Veddas — or Wanniya-laeto (‘forest-dwellers’) as they call themselves — preserve a direct line of descent from the island’s original Neolithic community dating from at least 16,000 BC and probably far earlier according to current scientific opinion.1 Even today, the surviving Wanniya-laeto community retains much of its own distinctive cyclic worldview, prehistoric cultural memory, and time-tested knowledge of their semi-evergreen dry monsoon forest habitat that has enabled their ancestor-revering culture to meet the diverse challenges to their collective identity and survival. Further reference: Here some credible data and reference of the genetic Admixture. The Native Veddah were the original inhabitants of the land, well before the foreigners, the parades-his, came from South India.

      http://www.lankanewspapers.com/news/2007/6/15923_space.html

      The Genetic affinities of Sri Lankan populations – [Reproduced here on a special request made by our LNP friend MURU, this article (web site) was first found by our friend MAGHA.] Friday, 15 June 2007 – 11:25 AM SL Time Genetic affinities of Sri Lankan populations Human Biology, by Kshatriya, Gautam Kumar Genetic Admixture. Table 9 presents the estimated values of admixture for the two hybrid populations (the Sinhalese and the Tamils) based on 13 polymorphic loci, fitting a trihybrid model using the ancestral frequencies shown in Table 10. (Tables 9 and 10 omitted).

      • 1
        5

        Hi Amarasiri

        what language did the indigenous Vedas speak…perhaps I should ask what noise do they make to communicate with each other

        ho ho ho —but that sounds like father christmas
        brrrrra brrrrrra brrrrra
        can you enlighten us

        • 5
          0

          Rajash

          Take it easy.

          Let me know how much you have learned about our contribution to Sinhala language.

          • 1
            2

            Enlighten me

            • 1
              2

              You are kindling a nappy, but cannot rouse the fire, Rajneesh.

        • 1
          0

          The Vaddha language is now in a corrupt form mixed with the languages of the northern and southern Indian origin, namely Sanskrit, Pali, Sinhala..
          Coast Vaddhas now speak Tamil and rarely retain any of the original language.
          Vaddha language has ‘ja’ (sound), used often to end a word, like Sinhala has ‘a’ and Tamil ‘m’ and ‘n’.
          Sinhala and Tamil names differ mainly in this aspect of having or not having the m/n.
          The sound ‘chi’ to end a word is common to both Sinhala and Tamil (perhaps even some other related languages).

      • 2
        4

        Jihadi Amaraya is going on with his same blab.

        • 3
          0

          Hey mechanic and Avatars,

          Native Veddah in a post Says: “Those Sinhala speaking Demelas, D Navin, Ravi Perera, Sarojini, sach, chuti, Banda, Nuisance,Thondamannar, Abhaya, Hela, noel-jones, JimSofty, Goraka, Thrishu, mechanic, Ram, ………….. should go back to their motherland, South India. ”

          Amarasiri is confused. Mechanic and Avtars, are you looking for rose colored glasses to look at ideas and things? Just use ordinary light. It has all the colors.

          What version of Avtar are you using?

          Amarasiri was born, a boy!

          Sorry, Amarasiri won’t be a monk, especially a monk running amok and chasing Samaneras, especially a lying monk with imaginations.

          There were no dreams. There were no Four Guardians to be taken to Himalayas, to be bathed in the Anotatta Lake and be rested on a heavenly couch within a golden mansion on Silver Hill.

          There was no beautiful white elephant bearing in the trunk a white lotus flower. The Earth was not covered with lotus flowers and lotus flowers did not fall from the sky.

          Was not received on a golden net by four Brahmi Angels.

          Did not stand up and take seven strides and talk, after birth.

          Amarasiri was just an ordinary baby boy, like the others.

  • 10
    8

    Judging by the above examples, the closest scripts to Sinhala would be Malayalam, Telugu and Kannadi, not Tamil.

    There is no mention of a script used by the original inhabitants of Lanka, the Veddahs.

    • 9
      2

      “Of the four literary languages in the Dravidian family, Tamil is the oldest” http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/171083/Dravidian-languages

      • 0
        3

        So what, Sinhala script is closer to Telegu and Malayali.

        Telegu was the Royal language used in the courts before the British conquest as well as (along with Kannada) the language of Carnatic music.. and Brahmi is older than Tamil.

        https://lists.hcs.harvard.edu/mailman/listinfo/proto-dravidian

        Considering recent findings of Telegu Brahmi dating from 400 BC, it is also doubtfull that Tamil Brahmi (dating from 200BC) is older.

        http://www.hindu.com/2007/12/20/stories/2007122054820600.htm

        Nevertheless, swollen-headed concepts are irrelavant and a distraction to your liberation.

        • 4
          0

          Dear Chinappa,
          If you read my comment again you will see I was simply quoting from Britanica.

          “Of the four literary languages in the Dravidian family, Tamil is the oldest” http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/171083/Dravidian-languages

          Thanks for the information and the link.

          “Nevertheless, swollen-headed concepts are irrelavant and a distraction to your liberation.”

          You are the one with some kind of problems not me.

        • 0
          3

          Author Author! Baharath has final; say

          Chino_ap_pa hor oru,

          Sanskrit and Tamil are the only “stand alone” classical languages.

          The other southern and northern languages have been awarded classical status too but not the stand alone because they are servers in a NETWORK OF SANSKRIT.

          Greek is a “stand alone” classical language and latin is a copy of it.

          Pali has been blown away because it is being used as a weapon by insane buddhist.

          Go hit: Category:Classical languages of India

      • 0
        0

        Tamil is technically the oldest language that is still in use, older than Hebrew n Sanskrit..

    • 2
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      The natives used Arabic, as they communicated with the first Sinhalese, the Arabs (Arap). Most of the traces of the oldest pre-Buddhism Sinhala words contains Arabic, no doubt.

      • 4
        2

        Thats the reason both have camel sense.

    • 2
      3

      Malayalam was not a separate language but a dialect of a region within the Tamil land. The Malayalee Buddhist Thero Thotagamuwe Rahula adopted the new scripts into the Malayalam and Sinhala dialects, while the portuguese mistook him to be a Saint and bhaptised him within a mausoleum in Goa in the name of Saint Francis Xavier.

      • 2
        5

        How is thotagamuwe rahula a malayalee monk? He is a sinhala monk

        • 3
          0

          Nice work DR Narendran.
          Very informative.

          Cambyses – Thotagamuwe Rahula, a Malayali?
          Can you elaborate further on this please.

          • 2
            0

            His parentage was uncertain (not a native), he had been adopted by King Parakramabahu VI.

            He was considered a prodigy who surprised the king with his knowledge in literature and later entered the Order of Buddhist monks and gained knowledge in the literature of six oriental languages which prevailed in the subcontinent and was known as “Shad Bhasha Parameshwara ‘Master of six languages’. He later received the title of “Sangharaja” from the king.

        • 2
          0

          Rahula was not a name among the “Knakgnapora” names commonly assumed among the Sinhala Monks. Malayalam & Sinhala script revival on the basis of the Tamil ‘wattelutthu’ occurred within the same period, very probably by the same person, thus the Portuguese anointed Thotagmuwe Rahula to the higher order of the Saint class, took his body from a Kerala locality not Kelaniya.

          • 1
            2

            Rahula name comes from Buddha charitha and not some clan name like you find in Tamils. Unlike tamils sinhala ppl tend to be very liberal when it comes to naming their children.

            And is thotagamuwe a village in Kerala?

    • 2
      0

      Dr. Narendran,

      Thank you. Providing reason and good support.

      “Sri Lanka being an island in such close proximity to the sub continent of India, it is to India that we must look for origins of Sri Lanka’s culture, religion, language and scripts. The ethnic origins of the peoples of Sri Lanka must be traced to the peoples of India. An exception must be made for those minorities who can trace their ancestry to Sri Lanka’s colonial rulers, the Portuguese, Dutch and British, and also for a small number of Muslims who trace their ancestry to either Arab traders or to Indonesia.”

      Yes. The Historical and DNA Evidence shows the facts.

      This is what the True Natives, Native Veddas have to say about the Para- Sinhala and other Paras-, the Paradeshis or foreigners. 1. All the above descriptions support the Sinhala and Tamil as Para-Sinhala and Para-Tamil, like Para-deshi, Foreigners, as far a the Native Veddah are concerned, who walked at least 16,000 years ago when Lanka and India were connected by a land bridge as the sea levels were low. So, the Sinhala and Tamil Nationalism need to be identified as, Racism, Para-Sinhala Nationalism and Para-Tamil Nationalism. Monk Mahanama imaginations of Mahawansa need to be exposed and discarded.
      Why?

      Non- Confirmation bias of Mahawansa. Did Dr. Para-nawithana, the noted Sri Lankan Archaeologist believe the Imaginations of monk Mahanama of 5th Century such as:

      a) Grandfather of Para-Vijaya was a lion? Any DNA data in support of this imagination?

      b) Buddha visited Lanka three-times in 500 BC? any support for the Imagination.

      c) During one visit, Buddha left his giant footprint on top of Mount Samanala Kanda, “Adams Peak”. Did he fly by the Dandu Monera Yanthraya, Giant Bird, and parachute?

      d) The Veddah are the offspring of Para-Vijaya and Kuveni. Is there any DNA data to support this? No. Another Monk Mahanama Imagination.

      Sri Lanka’s indigenous inhabitants, the Veddas — or Wanniya-laeto (‘forest-dwellers’) as they call themselves — preserve a direct line of descent from the island’s original Neolithic community dating from at least 16,000 BC and probably far earlier according to current scientific opinion.1 Even today, the surviving Wanniya-laeto community retains much of its own distinctive cyclic worldview, prehistoric cultural memory, and time-tested knowledge of their semi-evergreen dry monsoon forest habitat that has enabled their ancestor-revering culture to meet the diverse challenges to their collective identity and survival. Further reference: Here some credible data and reference of the genetic Admixture. The Native Veddah were the original inhabitants of the land, well before the foreigners, the parades-his, came from South India.

      http://www.lankanewspapers.com/news/2007/6/15923_space.html

      The Genetic affinities of Sri Lankan populations – [Reproduced here on a special request made by our LNP friend MURU, this article (web site) was first found by our friend MAGHA.] Friday, 15 June 2007 – 11:25 AM SL Time Genetic affinities of Sri Lankan populations Human Biology, by Kshatriya, Gautam Kumar Genetic Admixture. Table 9 presents the estimated values of admixture for the two hybrid populations (the Sinhalese and the Tamils) based on 13 polymorphic loci, fitting a trihybrid model using the ancestral frequencies shown in Table 10. (Tables 9 and 10 omitted).

  • 6
    5

    Quote: The Evolution Of The Sinhala Language: An Important Reference

    But what you failed to see was the evolution and the euphoria of the entire Nation when SL Cricketers won the World Cup 20/20.

    We were unable to differentiate communities a Tamil from a Sinhalease to a Muslim.
    The celebrations did not elude Jaffna either.

    • 13
      1

      Thondamannar

      “We were unable to differentiate communities a Tamil from a Sinhalease to a Muslim.”

      You do know how to differentiate/discriminate communities. How do the Sinhala/Buddhist thugs know how to attack minorities when they want to attack them? Why all riots were always organised against minorities since 1915? How does the saffron clad mob know where the churches, mosques, temples are when they chose to attack them?

      Noel Nadesan measures development in terms of KFCs.

      You foolishly measure national unity by euphoria of the cricket fans.

      Now you have introduced another loyalty test in the nationality debate.
      If minorities don’t euphorically join in the cricket mad fans in their celebrations then those who don’t express their competitive happiness would be branded as traitors. On the other hand those who don’t join in the national competitive mourning when the team loses matches also will be branded as traitors.

      This is what the Brits call Norman Tebbit cricket loyalty test.

      You are determined to create a North Korean society in this land.

      I wish you well.

      • 1
        0

        Pyongyangly correct. Hail Native Caesar!

  • 3
    0

    Thanks to Dr.RN

  • 4
    0

    Study of south indian(including sinhala) scripts
    I searched in google scholar for recent comparative linguistic literature in south indian scripts. I could not find interestng articles on this subject. Most recent studies comparing sinhala and tamil were done by Prof Gair of Connell university USA in the 80s.

    I came to know that the study of linguistics has grown considerably and understanding it is nearly impossible bacause of heavy use of technical terms. It would be interesting to set up a faculty in comparative linguistics in Srilanka.

    I believe it is easy for trilingual (english, sinhala, tamil) student to see the similarities and differences between these scripts.
    I thank Dr Narendran for the reference.

    • 0
      1

      ditto.

    • 3
      0

      ken Robert

      A research paper published in 1966 by Rev Dhammaratna Thero is useful for the comparative study of Sinhala and Tamil languages.

      The Influence of The Tamil Language on Sinhala Letters
      By Rev Dhammaratna Thero

      published in

      Proceedings of the First International Conference Seminar of Tamil Studies

      Kuala Lumpur Malaysia
      April 1966

      Volume Two

  • 3
    3

    The Human race is one and what separates us are the good from the evil.

    O mankind! Lo! We have created you from male and female, and have made you nations and tribes that ye may know one another. Lo! the noblest of you, in the sight of Allah, is the best in conduct. Lo! Allah is Knower, Aware. (The Noble Quran 49:13)

    • 0
      4

      When was Allah created his first man, Maghribi? Surely, Angel Gabriel must have told that date to pbuh Muhammad. What about hundreds of thousands of all the species that came later than man? Were they created after man?

  • 6
    7

    Hello there Dr. RN,

    If a group of people in Sri Lanka sign a convention today, some will sign in Sinhala and some in English. Some people will sign in English becuase English is omnipresent and considered the “Link Language”.

    However before the British arrived the Link Language would have been South Indian/Malabar language. Sinhala used to call it “Underra Demala”, possibly indicating its Andra Pradesh origin. Malabar was the lanugage of commerce given the size of the market. This is why Moor traders adopted it for trade.

    The 1815 Kandyan convention was signed when the link language was a Malabar language. The influence of Malabar in the central hills was undoudbtely due to its links with the Royalty. Although English replaced Malabar as the link lanugage after 1815.

    • 4
      0

      “The fact that the Sinhala and Tamil languages share in common 4000+ words also may point to a time where both languages were less divergent. “

      How do you explain this? You cannot escape easily; your endeavour to show that Tamil is foreign to Sri Lanka will not wash!

      • 1
        8

        because Sinhala people were in contact with the tamils for thousand years. No one today say Tamil is foreign to SL because it is accepted as a official language in SL.

        But you dont see tamil literature in SL or a tamil culture unique to SL while almost everything of Sinhala lanuague and its products were developed here.

        Sinhala language share many words with English and Dutch as well

        • 3
          0

          Being unique to the island doesn’t confer it some indegenous status above Tamil. Hindi is unique to the Indian SubContinent but it is not a native language of the SubContient as it is an Indo-European language . Sinhala like Hindi is not native to the Indian SubContinent because its roots lie in Eurassia .

          • 1
            5

            The aryan dravidian concept is considered a myth in india. Sinhala language contains so called aryan features because the people who developed Sinhala in Sri Lanka were in direct contacts with sanskrit and specially Pali language.That is how it got aryan features otherwise sinhala didnt come from anywhere else.

            The sinhala letters were developed in Sri lanka as it is shown in stone inscriptions through out the island. All the sinhala literature were writen in SL. All the sinhala intellectuals came from SL and all the sinhala people come from SL. There is everything to call Sinhala the indegenous language of Sri Lanka.

            Not only tamil, sinhala language share similarities with Vaddha language as well. We share some words. The first sinhala stone inscription, ola leave writings were written in SL.

            I understand the fact that Sinhala is indegenous and unique to SL is something unbearable for some here. We cant change these things to make some happy. We cant help it if you cant find anything uniquely Sri Lankan tamil.

            This reviews of sinhala language and what sinhala ppl wear come from tamils as a strategy of belittling the sinhala component in SL. Many here think that is for reconciliation saying ‘see how similar we are!’, but in reality that is for a different thing.

            • 4
              0

              sach

              “Not only tamil, sinhala language share similarities with Vaddha language as well. We share some words.”

              Could you site a few examples?

              “The first sinhala stone inscription, ola leave writings were written in SL.”

              Could you site any evidence to support your wildly exaggerated claims?

              • 0
                3

                You wont know because you are not a real vaddha.

                And what ola leaves and stone inscriptions for ones loitering in loin clothes

        • 1
          0

          “Sinhala language share many words with English and Dutch as well”

          This should be right the other way around because there are countless numbers of words that we use in sinhala are coming from Portuguse,English, Dutch and spanish.
          —–
          almirah (portuguese)- almariya in sinhala
          Donkey (English), Buruwa in sinhala; Burro in Spanish
          Bus (English), Baseka in Sinhala
          Car (English), careka in Sinhala etc.

          • 3
            0

            Sinchuappu

            “Donkey (English), Buruwa in sinhala; Burro in Spanish”

            Hope you didn’t mean any of the forum sharers.

        • 1
          0

          Sach and Avtars,

          “Sinhala language share many words with English and Dutch as well”

          So, Para-Sinhala must have borrowed many words and customs from the various Paras- that came to the land of the Native Vedda. Most of the words in Sinhala are of South Indian origin, including the DNA in the Para-Sinhala and Para -Tamil.

          They must have borrowed some native Words as well beside those from India and South India.

          I have heard that there are 1,600 Portuguese words in Sinhala. That do not include the para-Portuguese names like Silva , Perera etc. I also heard that there are 8,000 Arabic words in Portuguese and Spanish.

          • 0
            4

            So are you saying sinhalese are Portugese people? That is the idea the writer wants to convey if you swap portugese with tamil.

            Borowing from other languages and amount of loan words show how mush of an exposure that particular language speakers got from other cultures. That is the normal evolution of languages. Not surprising an idiot like you cannot understand that.

            Filling comment space with words like para sinhala and para tamil doesnt make you look impartial, instead it is a waste of space. if you and vaddha think you are adding something useful u are mistaken. normally people skip whatever the bullsh1t u write

      • 2
        3

        Well, I really cannot comment because I don’t know.

        • 3
          0

          enrol again for your free education at the embassy down under.

  • 4
    2

    There is no need to rewrite our history.
    Jackson An’kalla’thony, Goo A.MaRasekara, Darshani Irathinakalli so on had aready done it.
    Few monuments left such as Sigiriya, Daladawa, Ruvanveli maha Seya, Kirivehera, Gadaladeniya etc are waiting to rename with medamulana extraordinary mania sickness.

    Rajasingham Narendran, Thank you. Pretty good work.

    BTW, Since the Rajapaksas related to Suddhodhana, now Buddhism is related to catholics thru Shiranthi and related to Tamils thru Nirupama. As a result we have great harmony in the Island. This muddle probably prompted Gnanasara to promote a new Buddhism, sponsored by MaRa-GoRa and other ‘Horu’ Champaka, Gammanpila, Medanamda, Rathana so on.

    • 2
      0

      I still remember how this Janthony held his public speech making all exagerations about the incumbent highly abused president, though his term stoped the civil war.

      • 3
        1

        I remember that too.
        this oppotunist duffer Jackass screamed so much ‘Gotabaya…Gotabaya’ The muscles in your throat tighten in order to please that other duffer GoRa and get more perks. Those inferiority complex sick brothers were thoroughly enjoying the lies of that jackass without realising that they degrading the Great king Dutugamunu and the Great father of Siddhartha, Suddhodana.
        Jackass must be put behind bars one day for this blatant unpardonable lies.
        I will make sure that jockya for making mockery would be severely dealth with.

        • 5
          1

          That kind of speeches unequivocally proved that some of our prominent figures in the country are born donkeys. It is like becoming intoxicated – where has that Anthony been ? I did not hear anything about him for such a long time. Like that Rawaya editor, Victor Iwan´s long silence, some stay dead silent for unexplainable reasons. Beeshanaya I knew in late eighties were somewhat mild. Now I would say.

  • 5
    2

    Thanks a lot to Dr. R. N. When we have so much in common, why should we quarrel? It is quite easy to see that over several centuries or rather millenniums we have had a common lineage though over such a long period we have evolved into two different nations with two different languages and two different cultures. There is absolutely no need to argue as to which is older or which is superior. In fact doing so would be nothing but idiotic!

    So, what is the next step in living together while at the same time preserving the two distinct identities? Let us rake our heads hard.

    Sengodan. M

    • 1
      0

      The next step in living together is sitting together, eating together, boozing together, sleeping together, fighting together, dying together and so on.

      Be happy Sangotta.

  • 5
    0

    Dr. RN
    Thank you, its really a cool article.
    Amazing to see how these languages are inter connected.
    Learning another language is always an advantage.

  • 6
    11

    According to tamil moderates what Sinhalese should do to bring reconciliation.

    1. Accept that Sinhala is actually tamil and there is no language called Sinhala. Saying Sinhala is a unique language is a racist and a murderous act even if Sinhala speakers are found only in Sri Lanka.
    2. Sinhala people are tamils and the ones who signed in Kandyan convention are tamil.
    3. There is no Sinhala culture and an identity but it is nothing but tamil and everything is brought from India. That is even if evolution of Sinhala alphabet is evident in the stone inscriptions around the island while there is none in india.
    4. The Sinhala civilizations in Anuradhapura, polonnaruwa to kandy are actually tamil.
    5. Sinhala people should accept that finishing the war and killing prabha is a war crime.
    6. The reason tamils suffered and Sri Lankan people as a whole suffered is because SL govern defended this country from terrorism and not because of terrorism of LTTE funded by tamils outside SL. And that Sinhalese are the guilty party
    7. Sinhalese should devolve more and more power to Wiggie who has been calling prabha a hero.
    Sinhalese need to do these things in order to achieve reconciliation and for unity.

    • 3
      2

      Such,

      As usual you utterance is emotionally charged!

      The Sinhala Buddhists are the majority and ruling Sri Lanka since 1948. The Sinhala Buddhists used the democracy as cover and bastardised the Constitution projecting the Sinhala language and Buddhism while unilaterally rendering the minorities as foreign. We the minorities have no way to change anything in Sri Lanka. You the Sinhala Buddhists enjoy absolute power and this is why the moderate Tamils asking the Sinhala Buddhists to accommodate the minorities as equal and fostering reconciliation. This means you need to respect diversity in terms of language and religion. Are you prepared to do this unconditionally? The Tamil speaking people need to do their civil activities in Tamil; want to sing the national anthem in Tamil; want to govern themselves within one Sri Lanka without any undue interferences from the centre.

      Is this too much to ask? Are you a democrat? What have you to say for this?

      • 2
        6

        No one here say Tamil is foriegn as it is an official language of SL. But interestingly there is no tamil literature or any uniqely sri lankan tamil culture. Everything is imported from SI. That doesnt matter.

        There is no question tamil should be allowed to be used as a medium of governance in north and east and it is now.

        Arent my points in the previous comment correct after all?

        • 6
          0

          sach

          “No one here say Tamil is foriegn as it is an official language of SL.”

          When was Tamil made an Official language?

          ” But interestingly there is no tamil literature or any uniqely sri lankan tamil culture.”

          There were plenty of Tamil literature. All of the ola manuscripts went up in flames and reduced to ashes, thanks to Sinhala/Buddhists thugs, ministers and policeman for setting fire to magnificent Jaffna library.

          Is burning of books and library part of Sinhala/Buddhist culture?

          Temples were custodians of records, thanks to your Europeans colonizers Portuguese for destroying those temples along with it most records.

      • 2
        5

        Rajendra Chola 1 ruled both Sri Lanka and Malaysia. So you can claim you have roots in Malaysia. Do Tamils have what you’re asking here in Malaysia today?

        If you want to be realistic, gain the confidence of the majority and ask for what they can give. Going by what you fellows write and comment here, I see we shall continue to argue forever.

    • 8
      3

      sach

      Dr Rajasingham Narendran is teaching first year students.

      He may consider teaching children who attend nursery as well. Now go to bed and come back later with your all too familiar childish questions.

      He has all the patients in this world and will attend you later.

      If you don’t behave I will let your mum know how naughty you’ve been.

  • 5
    1

    Very interesting. Thank you.

  • 2
    5

    Here we go again – what is this tamil obsession with Sinhala? – its just another language just like tamil – get over it. get on with ur lives. not worth fighting over Sinhala pls…

    • 3
      1

      “what is this tamil obsession with Sinhala? “

      One is stand alone the other is a vagabond`|

      In the late 60’s there was no Sihala dictionary for the sihala only courts to function and uni in sihala was unthinkable.

      Therefor Dr laksiri Fernando’s friend wrote in Kannada not Marathi of the Deccan which is his.

  • 3
    3

    Just to clarify, Sinhala and Tamil scripts are both evolved from the Southern Brahmi charcter set. But the languages have different roots altogether one being Indo European and the other Dravidian. However this is just an academic point.

    If we can accept that each other is equal in all ways and should therefore have equal intitlement to to the resources and territory of this land we need not argue about history and even falsify and distort well established facts.

    It however becomes necessary only we try to claim a bit of the other man’s cake. If the Sinhalese can accept that Tamils should have every right they enjoy and even the right to full self determination withing a framework of equality there should not be a problem.

    If the Tamils can accept that the Sinhalese have an equal right to Lankan territory and not an inferior one where they get only 1/4 the land per capita according to their self defined map of Tamil Eeelam, the Tamils would not need to falsify and distort the history of Sri Lanka like they have in claiming that the Vanni and the Eastern province was all part of Arya Chakravarti’s Jaffna kingdom. (As Justice Wigneswaran has just claimed)

    • 3
      0

      dingiri,

      “But the languages have different roots altogether one being Indo European and the other Dravidian. However this is just an academic point.”

      It is not as simple as that as far as the Sinhala language is concerned. Though the Sinhala language has Indo-Aryan at its base, but it has considerable influences of various Dravidian languages especially Tamil both in terms of vocabulary and scripts.

      “If the Tamils can accept that the Sinhalese have an equal right to Lankan territory and not an inferior one….”

      Again you have made it look very simplistic! Just imagine for a minute; if there was no Sinhala Only; if Buddhism has not been give special place; if Tamil language has been given parity status nation-wide; do you this the Tamils would feel insecure and segregate themselves within the areas they are predominantly inhabit? It is not a question of Tamils accepting the Sinhala as equal; it is a question of survival as the Sinhala are endeavouring to assimilate the Tamils rather than accommodating them equally.

      • 1
        4

        yes sinhala language has tamil features because we are not so lucky when it comes to the neighbourhood and sinhala and tamils have been in contact for thousands of years.

        yes and usual rants of the cry babies, Sinhala gover long long back did this and that so we have all the right to kill every sinhalese that we see in streets. The wrongs done by language policies are corrected long before and in the process of correcting.

        Buddhism doesnt have any special places in this constitution. It is just a name sake much like the Anglican religion gets in Britian. SL is more secular in its constitution and policy making than US.

        • 3
          0

          Such,

          “Buddhism doesnt have any special places in this constitution. It is just a name sake much like the Anglican religion gets in Britian. SL is more secular in its constitution and policy making than US.”

          Have you heard the saying “it is like trying to bury a pumpkin in a plate of rice”? Who are you trying to kid? If you really believe that “Buddhism does not have special place in this constitution”, you are one hell of a moron! According to the constitution the Sri Lankan state is duty bound to protect and foster Buddhism. This is why BBS is getting away scott free. Buddha statues are being erected all over the Island with state aided funds. You cannot have equality and freedom when you have lopsided governance.

          The British and American systems are absolutely secular and they have statutes to back it up.

          • 0
            5

            The clause in the constitution that gover would give foremost place to buddhisma and foster it doesnt have any practicality. It is just a sentence to please the buddhist monks by cunning politicians. Why the sentence is useless, is because there is no any scope of action. That means it doesnt say how gover should protect and foster buddhism.
            That is just an impracticle statement.

            But the reason it was added is because SL is a historically a buddhist kingdom. I dont want to engage in another what came first argument with you (whether it is buddhist or Hindu). But the reality is Hindu component in SL is very much less and SL has been accpeted as a center of buddhism even in the past. It is considering this aspect that we have a sentence giving buddhism foremost place. But in real life it doesnt impede any other religion.

            That is much like in Britian which has a cross in its flag and the coronation of queen is done in the church. That is just giving value to the traditions and the historical nature of the country.

            The reason BBS go scot free is not because of some sentence in constitution but because law and order is brocken down. The idiot in MR doesnt realise the brocken law and order is infact bad for him and rather give ammunitions for the enemies of the country. If the rule of law was working in the country BBS fellows would have been punished long time back. No sentence in constitution protects them.

            US has ‘In god we trust’ printed in all their notes and the evangelical catholic block is a strong lobby group in US powers. Anyone who knows international affairs would know that. Why do US helps Israel so much to have Jerusalem under its nose? Because of the religious component. Both evangelicals and even normal catholics in US and Jews in Israel believe a messiah would come to israel. That is a religious angle in mid east wars. secular US! puh!
            Atleast in SL you can lead a pretty irreligous life without having religious nut jobs checking on you whether you go to church on Sunday like in US.

            • 2
              0

              Such,

              Your reply does not warrant an erudite response because it is just utter rubbish. You have no idea about the clause that upholds Buddhism in the constitution. The implications of such a clause is omnipresent; the Trinco illegal Buddha Statue and subsequent legal drama stands testament to this disastrous clause.

              I do not even want to write anything else as you are completely devoid of common sense and intellectually dishonest!

              • 0
                0

                Burning issue
                your comment summarises the behaviour of sach. Dishonesty is ingrained in our genes!.
                Your example to illustrate this point was perfect.

              • 0
                0

                So what is this clause in constitution?
                what is the scope of action suggested by the clause?
                Is it prohibited for buddhists to convert to another religion?
                Is it prohibited for non buddhists to spread their religion?
                is it prohibited for non buddhists to do evangelical work?

                The reason you cant answer is because you have no answer. And your ignorance on US and UK is quite aparent.

                And what trinco illegal buddha statue?

        • 3
          1

          You are outright lying by saying Buddhism does not have a speaical place, because GOSL most definitely favors and advances Buddhist hegemony.

          Buddhist monks and organizations were are the forefront of the Sinahala Chauvinist policies.

          The GOSL is building Buddhist temples in the North and East. So don’t come here saying Buddhism does not have a special place.

        • 8
          1

          sach, Trishu, Dawn Dale, Nuisance, Ram, Hela, Banda, Noel Johns, Navin, ……………….

          “Buddhism doesnt have any special places in this constitution.”

          THE CONSTITUTION OF THE DEMOCRATIC SOCIALIST REPUBLIC OF SRI LANKA

          CHAPTER II – BUDDHISM

          Buddhism.

          9. The Republic of Sri Lanka shall give to Buddhism the foremost place and accordingly it shall be the duty of the State to protect and foster the Buddha Sasana, while assuring to all religions the rights granted by Articles 10 and 14(1)(e).

          http://www.priu.gov.lk/Cons/1978Constitution/Chapter_02_Amd.html

          sach

          Would you mind translating this chapter into Sinhala and let us know what chapter II of the constitution say about Buddhism.

          Probably Chanel 4 purposely inserted this one into Constitution.

          • 1
            6

            Our constitution doesn’t state a state religion. The only favoring you can claim is the sentence that the government should protect Buddhism. While I don’t agree with this sentence the notion that the leaders should protect and foster Buddhism is part of our history. You can’t use a single statement in the constitution to claim that we have a Buddhist constitution or justify separatism.

            Even the so called secular first world countries still have remainings of religiosity in their governance and constitutions.
            ex: In UK the head of state is still required to take oath to preserve the church of England. England has an upper house in parliament, house of lords that is for unelected members of the church.

            While I agree that the said statement should be removed and our constitution made fully secular you can’t justify separatism using such minor imperfections.

            • 5
              0

              Liberal One

              “While I agree that the said statement should be removed and our constitution made fully secular you can’t justify separatism using such minor imperfections.”

              Could you advise your separatist Tamil brethren what can justify separatism.

              The wording is not a minor imperfection, it gives Sinhala/Buddhist the exclusive right to the land. Nation building has been based on the idea that this was a Sinhala/Buddhist country therefore minority should keep their mouth shut. Sinhala only language policy gave the stupid Sinhala/Buddhist a perverted sense of belonging.

              In 1972 & 78 the constitutions added “The Republic of Sri Lanka shall give to Buddhism the foremost place and accordingly it shall be the duty of the State to protect and foster the Buddha Sasana,” to give the stupid Sinhala/Buddhist something cosmetic to celebrate instead of securing tangible improvement in their quality of life.

              If it is only a minor imperfections what are you doing to change it.

              Now that you have conceded it was a mistake, I can give you millions of such minor imperfections, when added together nation building process can be seen as a major disaster.

              • 2
                6

                No Sri Lankan constitution does not give exclusive rights to Sinhalese. Nor does is cite a state religion. If you can’t remember JHU proposed a constitutional change to cite Buddhism as the state religion which was rejected by the government and supreme court. Why was JHU proposing such a change if our constitution already had a state religion?

                • 7
                  1

                  Stupid One

                  THE CONSTITUTION OF THE DEMOCRATIC SOCIALIST REPUBLIC OF SRI LANKA CHAPTER II –

                  BUDDHISM Buddhism.

                  9. The Republic of Sri Lanka shall give to Buddhism the foremost place and accordingly it shall be the duty of the State to protect and foster the Buddha Sasana, while assuring to all religions the rights granted by Articles 10 and 14(1)(e).

                  http://www.priu.gov.lk/Cons/1978Constitution/Chapter_02_Amd.html

                  Would you mind translating this chapter into Sinhala and let us know what chapter II of the constitution say about Buddhism.

                  • 1
                    4

                    @self-loathing-sinhalaya-hiding-behind-a-native-name
                    Constitution says that it is the responsibility of the government to protect and foster Buddhism. It doesn’t state a state religion.

            • 2
              0

              Illiberal,

              “In UK the head of state is still required to take oath to preserve the church of England. England has an upper house in parliament, house of lords that is for unelected members of the church.”

              Can you proof this?

              Hereditary peers in House Lords is history now though they never had executive powers as the parliament has always been supreme, which is directly elected by the people! I would like you to show to this forum that the head of state of UK is the Queen and she is in control of the Church Of England. You need to show that the Queen has executive powers over the church.

              • 1
                5

                @Burning_issue of not having a tamil state
                Have a look at the The Coronation Oath.

                What are you mumbling about executive powers? UK has a house for unelected members of church in their parliament which should be a discrimination against other religions according to your standards. I’m clueless why you who are supposed to be a champion of equality are not against the house of lords or UK parliament been opened with christian prayers.

                • 3
                  2

                  Illiberal,

                  Please grow up for goodness sake. You are completely ignorant about the British Monarchy and the associated pageantry!

                  UK does not have house for unelected church members. Please, please educate yourself objectively rather then devouring the Sinhala Buddhist chauvinistic materials. What a pathetic moron you are indeed!

            • 0
              2

              This Native Vedda is a kallathoni from the East. And kallathonis have their own egalitarianism. You cannot show them the relative sense.

              • 0
                0

                Ai Aiyo yoyo,white lice.

                from planting leeks to insanity by hora oru of voc. (^O^)

      • 1
        0

        What you mention Sinhala Only, 1972 constitution etc. are all follies of our people in earlier generations. I hope they can be rectified but doubt it. Whatever is done to redress these will not be enough today. I dont think the fault is entirely on the Sinhalese side either. Successive leaders like Bandaranaike pandered to Sinhala Nationalists making Sinhalese the state language. But at the same time he made sure that the Tamil Language was not repressed. Tamil kids could study all the way to University exclusively in Tamil without even being made to learn Sinhala as a second language. Govt. publications, documents, street signs, signs on public transport like busses and trains were printed in Tamil as well as Sinhala. Take a passport, a currency note, a coin for instance you will find the denominations in all three languages. So I dont believe there was suppression of Tamil as such. In fact Tamil has much more prominence in Sri Lanka than say the Scottish and Welsh languages do in the UK. Tamils also did not lose the influence and position they had in society after 1948. Both Army and Navy chiefs were Tamils when Sinhala Only was passed. Although, the Sinhalese were envious of the disproportionate position and influence Tamils commanded, and complained that Tamil nepotism was keeping them out of jobs. I agree though that Sinhala only was the watershed event in Tamil-Sinhala relations.

        Giving all 3 languages equal status and booting religion out of the constitution are the easiest and cheapest steps the govt could and should take to foster some ethnic cohesion. But we live in an age where Nationalism rules. Not only for the Sinhalese but the Scottish, Irish, Tamils, the Indians the Ukranians, Germans, Greeks, Chinese, Japanese etc. So I dont hold out much hope. If there is one party to blame for our troubles I would say they are the Nationalists (Both Sinhala and Tamil).

    • 2
      4

      If the Sinhalese can accept that Tamils should have every right they enjoy and even the right to full self determination
      —————————–

      Where do sinhalese reject equal rights to everyone? where in the constituition states tamils should be treated seperately?

      How does self determination is an equal right?

      • 3
        1

        Question: where in the constitution states tamils should be treated separately?

        THE CONSTITUTION OF THE DEMOCRATIC SOCIALIST REPUBLIC OF SRI LANKA

        CHAPTER IV – LANGUAGE

        Official Language.

        18. 3[(1)] The Official Language of Sri Lanka shall be Sinhala.

        4[(2) Tamil shall also be an official language.

        (3) English shall be the link language.

        (4) Parliament shall by law provide for the implementation of the provisions of this Chapter

      • 3
        3

        Sach,

        “…Where do sinhalese reject equal rights to everyone? where in the constituition states tamils should be treated seperately?…”

        Do the Tamils have a right to decide which bit of land is used for which purpose in Jaffna and Batticaloa? Do they for instance have the right to decide that an acre of land in a certain area will be designated as a war grave to remember their dead children who died in battle rather then be made into an army outpost?

        Do Tamils have the right to investigate and punish murders, thefts, assaults that take place in Jaffna and Batticaloa?

        Do Tamils even have the right to sing Sri Lanka’s national anthem in their own language?

        The sad answer to these questions is NO THEY DO NOT. Can you now understand their desire for self determination?

    • 4
      3

      It is the Sinhalese who won’t accept anything less than the entire island. Tamils are perfectly fine with self determination in the North and East but Sinhalese want the whole island for themselves only.

  • 6
    1

    Dear Dr. Rajasingham,

    Thank you so much for your timely intervention in otherwise a polarized atmosphere of divisive debates and acrimonious comments. The document that you have brought to the attention of the readers commendably throws some fresh air to the spoiled atmosphere.

    One way to look at history rationally is to place it in the framework of the ‘world time’ or human history. There are no racial differences between the Sinhalese, the Tamils or the Muslims in Sri Lanka while the so-called racial differences even otherwise are scientifically tenuous as permanent features. We need to recognize and respect the cultural differences of all communities including the historical achievements of each and build on the commonalities than the differences in reaching out a solution to the vexed problem/s of the conflict/s.

    • 1
      0

      how is this helping to build racial harmony ? baffled!

      • 4
        1

        Dawn Dale

        “how is this helping to build racial harmony ? baffled!”

        Don’t bother.

      • 3
        1

        Dawn Dale
        how is this helping to build racial harmony ? baffled!
        Please see what other countries are doing in promoting equality
        http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2010/15/contents

        I remember a core concept taught children in social/environmental studies in School called ‘unity among diversity’

        Let me make it easy for you. For a example if we imagine 100 kukulas are indigenous to sri lanka, it wise to protect all kukulas. In case of an outbreak like bird flu, diversity is very useful to prevent eradication of a species.
        This was the message, minister of Singapore was trying to tell us. Unfortunately you know, our brain size is comparable to bird’s brain, hence we are still confused

    • 2
      0

      Prof. Laksir,

      I am glad you had a quick recovery.

      Years back I remember reading your account of your family history. It may be an eye opener for many on Sri Lanka, who are peddling a concepts that are contrary to the facts. I am quite apalled to read comments referring to the lack of authentic Tamil literature of old in Sri Lanka . They forget that an ancient ibrary on Jaffna, the Saraswathy Mahal, was burnt down by the Portuguese and in more recent tes , the biggest library in South Asia, in Jaffna, was burnt down by the government of Sri Lanka.

      Further , the absence of evidence , is not evidence of absence of realities, when we have to grope in the dark . The evidence available in India, cited by commentators here , is proof enough that Lankan Tamils contributed to ancient T
      literature, significantly.

      Tamil scholars like the late Kiripananthavariyar, considered the Tamil spoken on the north and east , the purest. Given this reality and the fact that the Tamils here in the past built defences against Onfosn Tamil influence , I have often wondered whether. Tamil as a language originated or evolved on a landmass that was
      around the present Sri Lanka -Kumari Kandam ( Lost Lemuria). This was probably the much bigger Ravana ‘s Lanka. This not preclude a parallel genesis and evolution
      of Sinhala.

      Dr .RN

  • 6
    1

    This is anecdotal about the possible Indian or Karnataka origins of the Sinhala script.

    I was at the University of New Brunswick, Canada, during 1974/76 and many of my friends were Indian. During the vacation time we had to prepare our own meals and we had more time to socially interact. One of my friends was Gururaj Deshpande from Karnataka and one day he asked me to write my name ‘Laksiri’ in Sinhala script. He wrote the same in Kannada and when we compared the two there were close similarities. We were amused to see how close we are.

    Of course one can argue that the Kannada script originated in Sri Lanka!

    • 3
      1

      Dr Laksiri Fernando ,

      Good to see your comments appearing again , hope every is O.K with you now.

      Kind Regards

      • 3
        2

        Srilal@,
        me too thought the same, very pleased to read his again on this platform. I consider his views (regardless of the topics) more than anything coming from Mr. Selfproclaimed (DJ).

        Dr. LF -kind regards :)

        • 1
          1

          Sirimal ,

          Thanks for that audio clip (neth FM).

          • 1
            1

            Srilal@,

            anyway, I dont hail Nethfm today knowing that they too work for the govt, as I heard (cant know every bits being just reliant to online news)- latter I cant believe yet though.

            • 1
              1

              Sirimal ,

              yes agreed , none of SL media institutions is free , all are under the jack boot of Junta !

      • 1
        1

        correction ,

        it should read as

        hope every THING is O.K with you now.

    • 3
      1

      Good to see you back, Prof. You look well.

      Of course some Sinhalese will argue that the Kannada script originated in Sri Lanka and some other sinhalese will argue that the Tamil script also originated in Sri Lanka. I am waiting for Champika Ranawaka, Udaya Gammanpilla, bulldog Gnanasara and the rest of the racist rabble rousers to comment.

    • 2
      3

      It may be that the similarity of the Singhalese script to Kannada and Malayalam is due to the medium on which the writing was done – Talipot palm leaves rather than Palymyrah leaves for Tamil. This resulted, I have read, in the more curved letters of Singhala, Kannada and Malayalam scripts.

      There seems to be consensus that Tamil is the oldest of the Dravidian scripts; but I wonder about the influence of the Naga and Yaksha cultures on Singhalese (which are also discussed in the interesting book Dr Rajasingham Narendran has drawn our attention to). Having read the book more carefully I am doubtful about some of the author’s claims about the Indus Valley sharing a script with Easter Island and Minoan Crete. The author, Paul Jayarajan, also claims that coins with Indus Valley insignia have been found in Sri Lanka. It wouldn’t surprise me but I haven’t read this anywhere else.

  • 4
    2

    This kind of writing is probably anathema to the likes of off the cuff (eusense) …well done RN, keep going.

    • 2
      4

      I dont think that Eusense is off the cuff.
      Eusense is mostly very immatured by his inputs. Always making every effort to paint a racial picture.

      • 1
        1

        LOL thanks for that “clarification “

  • 2
    2

    The trouble with the Sinhalese is that they never own their faults!! They pretend to forget that they opened the can of worms by introducing the “SINHALA ONLY”. They started the first pogrom against the Tamils and killed and maimed thousands of innocent Tamils. They chased them to Jaffna and the East rather than safeguarding them where ever they were living, by stopping the pogrom then and there. The atrocities are still continuing up to this second. Arrests of the “fictitious Gopi” and the the mother and daughter and the two NGOs are the harbingers of nasty things which is going to follow!! Just by having the PC elections in the North and East just to show in Geneva that SL is a democratic country does not help anyone!! The chief minister without any power is not going to fool anyone. Tamils are not fools to believe this government!

  • 4
    1

    The Tamil and the Sinhala New year is just round the corner. I have deliberately placed Tamil first because many here now denote it as Sinhala and Tamil New Year. The reason for me to do so is because the New year celebrations have everything to do with auspicious timings directly linked to Astrology. Astrology has it’s foundations in India and not in Sri Lanka. So I strongly believe that not only the Sinhalese have adopted Astrology today, but the New Year too that would have been a Tamil event in the past.

    • 3
      1

      What will the New Year bring??

      Pakistan has just commenced naval exercises with Iran.

      UK has had 5 joint defence meetings with China for joint defence drills.

      US Hagel: It’s of a bit of surprise that China is allowing the US delegation aboard its first aircraft carrier. What is China’s thinking behind this unusual openness?

      Today, Russia has been threatened with more sanctions and Putin has cautioned that he would not hesitate to nuke if cornered.

      Are the SL forces being trained against Russia and India??

    • 6
      1

      gamini

      Some years ago in the early 1990s, there was a concerted effort to rename Tamil Sinhala New Year as Hindu Sinhala New year. Even Chandrika’s presidential new year message contained references to Hindu Sinhala New year. The media too followed suit and continued to publish what could have been a genuine mistake.

      Or was it?

    • 1
      0

      You may be right.
      Not just astrology but very many things we think that belong to us today are taken from others. Our people by nature have no shame,no power to protect their own tradition, language, religion and almost everything. Just talk to today´s generation- they are almost like fallen from the sky, known nothing than perhaps SMS, email, Face book or the like only. If my grand mother lived, she would have called them “munta kisima charayak nethi jathiyak”.

  • 4
    4

    GG Ponnambalam not just degraded Mahawamsa but claimed that Tamils have always ruled the Sinhalese, and the Sinhalese were ‘a race of hybrids’ and an offshoot of the Tamils. By suggesting to rewrite history, Dr.NR adopts somewhat semilar posture in a different style.

    First, let’s look at how long Tamils have been interacting with Sinhalas to influence their language. Only between 1739–1815, four Tamils from India ruled the Sinhala kingdom in agreement with the Sinhala people. And that was for 76 years. I agree that some of the Sinhala chiefs placed their signature in Tamil or Tamil and Sinhala at the 1815 convention. The fact that working language at the royal court for 76 years may well have been Tamil and that may have have started to push Tamil influence into Sinhalas for few chiefs to sign as afore said. But that simple act is no proof to prove Tamil influence on Sinhala language. I agree however, had the trend continued for at least another one hundred years or so, position of Sinhala language would have been different today.

    Now lets look at whether invader Tamil kings could have made a marked influence on Sinhala language: According to Chulawamsa, first Tamil King was Eelara. He had ruled for 43 years from 205BC. Thereafter five Tamils ruled from 103BC for just 13 years. And after that six Tamils ruled from 436AD for 27 years. From 1017AD, Rajendra Chola and five others ruled Anuradhapura for 53 years. Parakrama Pandaya ruled from for 3 years from 1212AD. Last of the invader from India was the most cruel Kalinge Magha who ransacked Polonnaruwa and ruled it for 21 years from 1215AD. He tried to subdue the entire island. When failed, he moved to the north and established a kingdom in Jaffna. And that lasted for about four hundred years until Portuguese killed Sankili in 1624.

    So, to think Tamil invaders who ruled a small part of the island for just over hundred years could have influenced the Sinhala language (vocabulary and writing) which has been influenced by Buddhism Pali and Sanskrit for so long is absurd. I left out 400 years of Jaffna kingdom out because it hadn’t affected the language of majority Sinhalas. You can see that from the followings.

    But before that let me say that the Sinhala language came to Sri Lanka mainly from Bengal, Magadha and Kâlinga and not from south India. The languages in all these areas were variants of Indo-Aryan. Hence, it can be speculated that early Sinhala is an amalgam of the said languages. Thereafter Sinhala must have been influenced by Pali, the language of the Buddhist canonical writings.

    Referring to Sinhala writing, its earliest examples can be seen in the inscriptions. Geiger put language of the 2nd Century BCE up to the 5th Century CE as the Prakrit age.

    Even so inscription known to have been made by Queen Uttiya (207 – 197 BCE) reads as follows: “damarakita terasa agata anagata catudisa sagasa anikata sona pitaha bariya upasita tisaya lene”. Meaning: Cave of Tissâ Anikata Sona’s father’s wife (gifted) to Thera Dhammarakkhita (and) to Sangha who have come or will come from the four quarters. Now, anyone can see the similarity of that writing even to a bit of the modern day Sinhala.

    The Siyabaslakara, one of the earliest poem is a work of Salamevan who is identified as Sena IV, who ruled Lanka in 848 CE. It is known to be preserved to this day.
    “nâ vana vi vana vana,
    navavinâ vana nä vana,
    vanano nivi nûnû vana,
    nâna nâ nava nivû ne vana.”
    This is fine Sinhala poetic translations of classical Sanskrit poetry.

    An unusual form of literature stemming from the Anuradhapura period is the graffiti scrawled on the wall in the gallery leading to the top of the Sigiriya fortress, the work of King Kasyapa (477 – 495 CE). More than 700 verses scribbled by visitors who admired the paintings which adorned the side of the Sigiriya fortress have been identified. This literature consists of verses by visitors. A typical verse runs as follows:
    ” as mî dun hasun – hasun seyin vil duta,
    mulâlama sänahî – pul puyuman seyi bamara duta.”
    [Like swans who have seen a lake, I listened to the message given (by her) like a bee who has seen full-blown lotuses, the bewildered heart of mine was consoled.] Anyone can see the similarity to even the modern day Sinhala.

    After the capital was shifted to Polonnaruwa from Anuradhapura between the 11th and 13th century, ‘Kavsilumina’ ranks as the greatest Sinhala poem which is based on the Kusa Jataka. Then there are many prose works. ‘Amavatura’ is the greatest of the Sinhala prose work. Another work of great merit is ‘Butsarana’ written in the 12th century. There is no mixture of Tamil in any of these work.

    In page 131 of ‘Communal Politics under the Donoughmore Constitution’ by Jane Russell says; “The Ceylon Tamils had no written document on the lines of the Mahavamsa to authenticate their singular and separate historical authority in Sri Lanka, a fact which Ceylon Tamil communalists found very irksome”. Is that why you’re making this futile effort Dr.NR?

    Sanskrit literature of India always refers to Sri Lanka as the island of Sinhalas and never as it belongs to Tamils.

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      Banda
      Excellent copy and paste work!
      http://www.lankalibrary.com/phpBB/viewtopic.php?f=13&t=172

      well done, You would have received a Srilankan degree with flying colours!

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        ken Robert

        “well done, You would have received a Srilankan degree with flying colours!”

        MR should consider honouring Banda for his services to this country (clan).

        I have no hesitation in recommending him for the maximum number of titles which he deserves thoroughly:

        Sri Lankabhimanya
        Deshamanya
        Deshabandu
        Sri Lanka Sikhamani
        Sri Lanka Thilaka
        Veera Chudamani
        Veera Prathapa
        Vidya Jyothi
        Vidya Nidhi
        Kala Keerthi
        Kala Suri

        For non-nationals

        Sri Lanka Mitra Vibhushana
        Sri Lanka Rathna
        Sri Lanka Ranajana
        Sri Lanka Ramya

        Next year he should be nominated for Nobel prize.

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        Since I am no scholar of Sinhala or its literature, I have taken parts of some writing from books on the subject to add standing and meaning to my comment. When this is only a simple comment and not even an essay, only stupid and kallathonis who never even heard of prose or poem but ‘vadi bana’ would look for some means to condemn it. I am not surprised.

        I couldn’t care less about your degrees. But facts are facts. And what this article try to prove is a fallacy. Be a man, if you have no material to deny what I wrote then accept it or just ignore it. Check whether your name is on that terrorist list.

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          ” I have taken parts of some writing from books on the subject to add standing and meaning to my comment. “

          Hora Oru, sihala speaking Demala buddhist Bando the vagabond.

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          Dear Banda

          “Since I am no scholar of Sinhala or its literature, I have taken parts of some writing from books on the subject to add standing and meaning to my comment”

          Please continue educate me and the commentators on the antiquity of sinhala literature. However, please quote your sources and avoid blatant copying.

          I feel really sad to be in the terrorist list for pointing out your plagiarism.
          PS: I am planning to read on Visuddhimagga (Pali literature) hopefully I should be able to quote a sentence or two in the future.

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            Reading ‘Visuddhimagga’ is one thing but understanding in right perspective is another thing altogether. Leave that out, I am no plagiarist for I never pretended I have originated everything that I wrote above. Except a fool all others can see that.

            Getting back to the subject, I do not deny that there aren’t any Tamil inputs to Sinhala language but I believe it is no more or no less than Portuguese, Dutch and English words in the Sinhala language. Now that idea is not necessarily my original thinking. Is that a plagiarize?

            Ask any scholar of oriental languages; he will tell you that Sinhalese language is ‘not’ developed from Tamil language. Most words in Sinhala is from Hela, Sanskrit and Pali. The modern script used in writing Sinhala is unique to it. Just see the shape of Sinhala writing; they are circular to a great extent. There is no resemblance of Tamil letter shapes in Sinhala letters. Having said that, I admit there are many Tamil, Portuguese, Dutch, English words in our language; just like all other languages of today. Do you see that that’s a mixture of ideas – mine and others.

            I am not a language scholar. But, I can tell you this much; the Sinhala alphabet consists of 61 symbols: 18 vowel symbols, 41 consonant symbols and 2 semi-consonant symbols; whereas the Tamil alphabet consists of 48 symbols: 14 vowel sounds and 26 consonant sounds. Now a part of that is taken from some scholarly writing.

            Sinhala is a member of the Indo-Aryan family of languages; whereas Tamil is genetically unrelated to the North Indian languages such as Hindi, Bengali, and Gujarati. ‘ba’ and ‘ga’ letters are there in Sinhala alphabet but ‘not’ in Tamil alphabet. That is why ordinary Tamils are shy to pronounce ‘baa’ or ‘gaa’ sounds. They sound them as ‘waa’ and ‘ka’. Now that writing is partly mine and partly from others.

            Now let me put a question in a different perspective. If Tamils were living in this Island for thousands of years as many of you insist and adjacent Tamil Nadu were full of Tamils for much longer and both had the same language and culture, how come Tamils couldn’t overwhelm or assimilate Wijaya and his five hundred men?

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              Bandy,
              “Most words in Sinhala is from Hela, Sanskrit and Pali.”

              Sanskrit is the language of Hindu Brahmin while you have neither DNA and you are SC/ST like your pseudo name vadakaraya. So don’t tell us about our language- apne baap ka chus.

              “Tamil, Portuguese, Dutch, English words in our language;”

              Yakko hora oru, the is direct spanish (like sihala ulu/spanish tile)
              the portugese were the worst of the slave traders who learnt navigation from the arabs so they were sent for pepper (20 May 1498 when Vasco da Gama reached Calicut on Malabar Coast. the portugese were working for the roman emperor – spanish.
              There was no Dutch government as such during the VOC encounter but but high country and low country with Spanish Netherlands- do you see any dutch activity anywhere except trade??
              The virgin queen Elizabeth 1 put the portugese to sleep for good and they have not woken up plus defeated the spanish armada to be world power then the french and Islamist attacked the rag tag dutch republic to get their fast ships and trade (nutmeg mace meant for aristocrats)They beat the english once at China but later realising that they would die negotiated with the christian/protestant English- thats how power is shared even today Dutch/English.The VOC bought the kerala pepper to kandy dist and indonesian nutmeg. The dutch came from the east after covering the eastern cost of india from, kanyakumari to patna first 19 post(businessmen plan better than idiot rulers)The portugese and brits came from the western cost.

              Plain English grew from Greek and Latin (less latin than french or Spanish therefore the usage of french and spanish phrases in english [shakespeare criteria])

              Yakko you dont have a language to talk of just vagabond hora oru.

              Standard from the cowboys and Microsoft English from Bill Gates.

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                Javi, What has slave traders, navigation from the arabs, Elizabeth 1 etc got to do with RN’s write up or my comment which you chose to contest? To me, all that you wrote here is nothing but gibberish.

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                  Vadakaraya,

                  You try 4 and 6’s in book `crock`et not a EU or world order game.

                  Your stuff is codswallop in a borrowed ambude- either a runaway slave or hora oru.

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              Bandy you cant bend it like Beckham. imagine if you had no imagination what would things be like??

              “Most words in Sinhala is from Hela, Sanskrit and Pali.”

              Sanskrit is the language of Hindu Brahmin while you have neither DNA and you are SC/ST like your pseudo name vadakaraya. So don’t tell us about our language- apne baap ka chus.

              “Tamil, Portuguese, Dutch, English words in our language;”

              Yakko hora oru, the is direct spanish (like sihala ulu/spanish tile)
              the portugese were the worst of the slave traders who learnt navigation from the arabs so they were sent for pepper (20 May 1498 when Vasco da Gama reached Calicut on Malabar Coast. the portugese were working for the roman emperor – spanish.
              There was no Dutch government as such during the VOC encounter but but high country and low country with Spanish Netherlands- do you see any dutch activity anywhere except trade??
              The virgin queen Elizabeth 1 put the portugese to sleep for good and they have not woken up plus defeated the spanish armada to be world power then the french and Islamist attacked the rag tag dutch republic to get their fast ships and trade (nutmeg mace meant for aristocrats)They beat the english once at China but later realising that they would die negotiated with the christian/protestant English- thats how power is shared even today Dutch/English.The VOC bought the kerala pepper to kandy dist and indonesian nutmeg. The dutch came from the east after covering the eastern cost of india from, kanyakumari to patna first 19 post(businessmen plan better than idiot rulers)The portugese and brits came from the western cost.

              Plain English grew from Greek and Latin (less latin than french or Spanish therefore the usage of french and spanish phrases in english [shakespeare criteria])

              Yakko you dont have a language to talk of just vagabond hora oru.

              Standard from the cowboys and Microsoft English from Bill Gates.

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      Banda,

      With the mixture of Tamil, Pali and Sanskrit languages, evolved the Sinhala language during 8 A.D. It was not Pali or Sanskrit, but the Tamil language that helped in the formation of the Sinhala alphabets. The alphabets of the Sinhala language are round in shape like the alphabets of the other Dravidian languages. Telugu, Malayalam, Kannada and proto-Tamil. In the 10th century, Tamils changed the shape of their alphabets to the square shape and also introduced the ‘pulli (dot) system’ thereby words/names ending with ‘a’ ends up with ‘n’ and ‘m’. (As per the early historic inscriptions in Tamil Nadu and Sri Lanka, the Tamil names did not end with a ‘n’ or a ‘m’ or an ‘i’, but were very similar to those Prakrit or Pali names ending with ‘a’.)
      The Nagas who occupied both South India and Sri Lanka (Nagapuram, Nagarkovil, Nagarcot, Nargapattinum, Nagakulam, Nagadivpa, etc) were considered as the native Ila/Eela/Hela, the ancient inhabitants of the region. Some Tamil Sangam poets were Nagas from Jaffna. Among the Sangam poets mentioned is Illattup Putantevanar, who composed some verses in Kuruntokai, Akananuru and Narrinai. The Mahavamsa states that in the 6th century B.C. there existed Naga strongholds at Nagadipa under Mahodarai, the Naga King. Among the Sangam works, a few personalities who were referred to as ‘chieftains’ appear to have come from Jaffna. For example Elini and Pittankorran about whom verses appear in the Purananuru, appear to have come from Kudiraimalai, now identified with Kantherodai in Jaffna.

      According to Dr. C.E. Godakmubara, the Sinhala Grammar Sidathsangarawa was based on the Tamil Grammar Virasolium in the 11th A.D.

      Sinhala scholar Mudliyar W. F. Gunawardena at a lecture delivered at Ananda College on 28.09.1918 had stated, the science of exmination of the structure of a sentence is called its grammar. The grammar of the Sinhala language is Dravidian. He further said, the Sinhala language is primarily a Dravidian language. The structural foundation of Sinhala is Dravidian while the super-structure is Indo-Aryan.

      Prof. J. B. Dissanayake in his book ‘Understanding the Sinhalese’ states, Sinhala occupies a unique position among the languages of South Asia because of its close affinity, with two of the major linguistic families of the Indian sub-continent, Indo-Aryan and Dravidian..

      H. A. J. Hulugalle, in his booklet, Information for Tourists, 1947? says in the first paragraph on page one:
      The Sinhalese are a mixed race, their language has been vastly enriched with words from the Tamil vocabulary.

      The term `Sihala (Lion in Pali) is seen for the first time in Sri Lankan sources in the Dipa Vamsa (4-5 A.D.) and in that chronicle, that term occurs only once, and in that cryptic verse it is stated that the Island was known as `Sinhala` on account of the Lion – `Lanka Dipo Ayam ahu sihena sihalaitu`. In the maha Vamsa the term `Sihala` – occurs only twice. In the epic Ramayana 420 B.C., this island was known as Lanka much earlier.

      [Rev. S. Gnanapiragasam- a well known linguist – `There are more than 4,000 Tamil words in the Sinhala vocabulary. If the Sinhala vocabulary is stripped of all the Tamil words there will be no Sinhala language.`]

      There were no Sinhalese in Lanka or in any part of the world until the Dipa Vamsa for the first time, referred to the descendants of Tamil (Hindus) who embraced Buddhism in 246 B.C. as Sihala on account of the Lion (no relevance). There is no culture called Sinhala culture. It is the Tamil culture that is projected as Sinhala culture. The 14th day of April is observed as New Year, day by the Tamils and Sinhala people throughout the world. This fact is strong evidence that the Sinhala people inherited this practice from their Tamil ancestors who embraced Buddhism in 246 B.C.

      It is stupid to deny that fact. When there was no Sinhala language in Lanka or in any part of the world before 8th A.D., it is thuggery to claim that there were Sinhala people in Lanka prior to the 8th century A.D. Just as the descendants of Tamils who embraced Buddhism in 246 B.C. claim they are Arya Sinhalese Tamils of the Western Coast, from Ragama to Kalpitiya, after adopting Sinhala as their mothers tongue (after the introduction of free education) claim they are Arya Sinhalese. In Sri Lanka any person who adopts Sinhala as mother tongue ipso facto is an Aryan.

      That is Sri Lankan logic, Yes, in Sri Lanka a leopard can change its spots. Wilhelm Geiger – `not what is said, what is left unsaid, is the besetting difference of Sinhala history`.

      Tamil loanwords in Sinhala can appear in the same form as the original word (e.g. akkā ), but this is quite rare. Usually, a word has undergone some kind of modification to fit into the Sinhala phonological (e.g. paḻ i becomes paḷ i(ya) because the sound of /ḻ /, IPA: [ɻ ], does not exist in the Sinhala phoneme inventory) or morphological system (e.g. ilakkam becomes ilakkama because Sinhala inanimate nouns (see grammatical gender) need to end with /a/, IPA: [ə ], in order to be declineable).

      These are the main ways Tamil words are incorporated into the Sinhala lexicon with different endings:

      [Sinhala – Tamil Words and Meaning in English ] – Just a few examples, there are thousands of Tamil words in Sinhala language. :) LOL

      ā dā yama – Income – ā tā yam- Profit
      akkā – Elder sister – akkā Elder sister Kinship
      ambalama – Way-side rest- ampalam Public
      ämbäṭ ṭ ayā – Barber ampaṭ ṭ aṉ – Barber Trade
      ā ṃ gā ṇ iya – Stall (in a market) aṅ kā ṭ i – Market Trade
      ā ṇ ḍ uva – Government ā ṇ ṭ ā ṉ – Ruler,Admin,Rich man with many slaves
      appā – Father (regional/colloquial) – appā – Father Kinship
      ā ppa Hoppers – Appā ppam Hoppers Food
      araliya -Oleander – arali- Oleander
      ayyā – Elder brother – aiyā (see also Ayya) Sir, father
      caṇ ḍ iyā – Bandit, rowdy- caṇ ṭ iyar Bandit
      cī ttaya – Chintz – cī ttai Chintz
      ediriya- Opposition, hostility- etiri Opponent, enemy Military
      galkaṇ ḍ uva- Sugar-candy – kaṟ kaṇ ṭ u Sugar-candy Food
      iccā va- Flattery- iccakam Flattery
      iḍ ama- Site, land – iṭ am Place, site Construction
      ī ḷ a ? Asthma- ī ḷ ai Asthma Daily
      ilakkaya ? Target- ilakku Target Military
      ilakkama- Number- ilakkam Number
      iḷ andā riyā – Young man- iḷ antā ri Young man
      iḷ avuva – Death, funeral – iḻ avu Death
      iranavā – To saw, to tear- iṟ u- To break, to destroy
      iraṭ ṭ a – Double, even number – iraṭ ṭ ai Double, even number
      jā ḍ iya- Jar – cā ṭ i – Jar
      jō ḍ uva- Pair- jō ṭ i/cō ṭ i Pair
      kaḍ adā siya – Paper – kaṭ utā si Letter, paper
      kaḍ alē – Chickpea – kaṭ alai (paruppu) Chickpea Food
      kaḍ asarakkuva- Spice, curry stuffs- kaṭ ai + sarakku Shop + Goods
      kaḍ aya ? Shop- kaṭ ai – Shop
      kaḍ inama – Haste – kaṭ iṉ am Difficulty
      kaḍ iyā ḷ ama Bridle- kaṭ ivā ḷ am Bridle Military
      kaṃ kā ṇ iyā – Overseer- kaṅ kā ṇ i- Foreman Administration
      kalanda- A small measure of weight- kaḻ añcu Weight of 1.77 grams
      kalavama- Mixture, blend – kalavai Mixture
      kā laya- Quarter – kā l- Quarter Tr
      kaḷ udäävā – Donkey- kaḻ utai – Donkey
      kambiya – Wire – kampi – Wire
      kā ndama- Magnet – kā ntam – Magnet
      kaṇ isama- Size – kaṇ isam- Size, amount
      kaṇ ṇ ā ḍ iya – Mirror, spectacles- kaṇ ṇ ā ṭ i – Mirror, spectacles
      kappama – Tribute – kappam- Tribute
      kappara – Small ship- kappal- Ship
      kappi – Grit, bruised grain- kappi – Coarse grits in flour
      kā ppuva ? Bracelet- kā ppu – Bangle
      kärapottā ? Cockroach- karappottā ṉ – Cockroach (
      karavaḷ a – Dried fish- karuvā ṭ u- Dried fish Food
      kā siya- Coin kā cu – Small change, coin
      kasippu- Illicit liquor kacippu- Illicit liquor
      kaṭ ṭ umarama – Catamaran kaṭ ṭ umaram- Catamaran
      kayiyeliya- Cloth with coloured border kayili – Multicoloured cloth worn by Muslims
      keṇ ḍ a – Calf – keṇ ṭ ai(kkā l)- Calf
      keṇ ḍ iya Pitcher- keṇ ṭ i Pitcher Daily
      kiṭ ṭ u Close, near – kiṭ ṭ a Close, near Daily
      koḍ iya – Flag koṭ i- Flag
      kollaya – Plunder, pillage koḷ ḷ ai – Plunder Military
      kombuva- Name of the sign- kompu (lakaram) – Name of the sign
      kō n- Part of a name – kō ṉ (ar) Name pertaining to members of the Iṭ aiyar caste (`shepherd, king`)
      kō ṇ ama- A loin cloth for men- kō vaṇ am – A loin cloth for men
      koṇ ḍ aya – Plait/bun of hair- koṇ ṭ ai Bun/plait of hair
      koṭ ṭ amalli – Coriander – koṭ ṭ amalli- Coriander Botany
      koṭ ṭ aya- Pillow koṭ ṭ ai- Nut, round shape, pillow
      kō vila- Hindu temple – kō yil – Temple Daily
      kuḍ ē – Umbrella – kuṭ ai – Umbrella
      kū ḍ ē ? Basket- kū ṭ ai – Basket Daily
      kū ḍ uva- Nest, cage – kū ṭ u- Nest, small box Daily
      kulala/kuḷ ala- Pipe – kuḻ al – Tube, musical pipe Daily
      kulappuva ? Confusion- kuḻ appu- to confuse Military
      kurumbā – Young coconut- kurumpai – Young coconut Food
      kuliya ? Rent- kū li – Rent, pay Administration
      Malaya- Hill country malai- Hill Place name
      Mā mā – Maternal uncle mā mā – Maternal uncle Kinship
      Marakkalaya- Boat, Ethnic Moor, Sampan marakkalam- (Sailing) Boat Fishing massain-Brother-in-law- massinan- machan-Brother-in-law
      mudala – Money -mutal- Capital
      mudalali – Merchant, owner of a shop- mutalali- Merchant
      mudali- Part of a name -mutaliyar – Name of a caste
      murunga -‘Drumsticks’, murunkai -Drumsticks’,
      nadagama- Stage-play -nadaakam -Drama, stage-play
      nangi – Younger sister- nankai- Young girl
      Ona,OnE – Necessary, must- veNum- Necessary, must
      oppuva -Proof- oppu- Proof, same
      ottrai – Odd number- otrai- Odd number
      ottuva- Espionage- ottru -Espionage
      padakkama – Medal – patakkam- Medal
      padaama – Lesson -padam -Lesson
      padiya -Wage- padi – Extra pay
      palama- Bridge- palam – Bridge
      paliya -Revenge- pali – Guilt, revenge
      pandalama – Bower, shady place -pandal- Bower, shady place
      pandama -Torch -pantam -Torch Religious
      parippu – Lentils- parippu- Lentils Food
      Pattu karanava- To light – patru- To catch fire
      peru vättenava To fall to someone by chance-pEru- Luck
      pittu – A rice dish- pittu -A rice dis
      poraya – Fight – pOr -Fight
      poronduva – Agreement, promise-poruntu-To fit, to agree
      porottuva – Delay, waiting- poruttu -Having waited
      pullE – Part of a name- Pillai Part of a name (originally a Hindu title)
      salli – Money- salli -Coin
      saNDuva – Fight sandai Fight
      sereppuva – Sandals – seruppu -Sandals
      sotti – Crippled, deformed – Sotti- crippled, defect
      suruttuva – Cigar – curuttu – Cigar-
      takkali – Tomato – takkali –Tomato

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        Prasad:-
        Some of the words you have listed above, like ‘sereppu’ and ‘suruttu’ are borrowed from other languages,.

        So before you make a list like the above, you have to question ‘Which came first, the Chicken or the Egg’?

        Even the English language has borrowed words from other European languages, and the languages of countries that formed their Empire!

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          Irationalist

          Are you alright?

          Borrowed from where?

          Did you drink sereppu soup and smoke ganja suruttu?

          Which came first, the Chicken or the Egg’? Rationalist came before Chicken.

          English language has borrowed words??? Let them borrow words, SL borrows everything.

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        Read a bit of Chandra Gupta Mauyra the Great (Hindu turned Jain) and how Greek came into the scene(and also the pillars with their tops etc and more importantly Khajuraho) of The largest empire ever- then you know the yetti foot print(adams peak) and why even the european favoured farsis are now saying they came by boat not to Surat but where the big foot lies at Karanataka and the muslim dynasty there was vanquished leaving muslim mercenaries for the asking- then you know the hora oru like dr mathir and passa.

        It was the naked fakir and nehru / ambedker politics that they looked towards ashoka because of the Muslim (converts)and the impending wars after partition created by the winners US to tame russia.

        Language alone does not make sense but 3 D objects that can be touched.
        Maratha the only accepted martial race by both the muslim and european invaders- rajputs, punjabis, UP Bihar then changed their names to Singh- brave warrior- the south indians have nothing to do with it except they are below the maratha deccan- the TriMurthi is designed and constructed like the chola gopuram by maratha kings- respect but with a tilt by imposter kings playing sanskrit pali. Asoka is not direct royal blood of Chandra Gupta Maurya but a Goonda like Robert Raul’s in law.

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          Well Done Javi!
          You have created a new History of the World!

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            “Well Done Javi!””History of the World!”

            I_ration_a_list, kooovoorrrr calle (@_@)

            Guinness book/beer doesn’t consider rice kassipu or your kudu.

            Doctor I’d Like to Forn*cat*

            o-o

            Colamba Choppe

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        Prasad

        Leave out your babble to undermine the language, history, culture and the likes of the Sinhala, I wish to take up your starting comment; “With the mixture of Tamil, Pali and Sanskrit languages, evolved the Sinhala language during 8 A.D.” You have then affirmed it towards the end by saying; “when there was no Sinhala language in Lanka or in any part of the world before 8th A.D.”

        Great Monastery (GM) of Anuradhapura was founded by Emperor Asoka’s son Mahinda. Writers of Mahawamsa and all other Sri Lanka chronicles were written by its lineal descendants. Abhayagiri appeared in the first century and posed as a rival on schism. By then, Tripitaka wasn’t available in writing but Sinhala learning and commentaries.

        Buddhism in Sanskrit became the fashion and Abhayagiri started to study it with the blessings of the king. Feeling a threat from Abhayagiri, GM had decided to put the Tripitaka in to writing during the first century for the first time but away from the Royal capital. It has to be in Sinhala because that was the language they knew.

        Bhadantacariya Buddhagosha came to Sri Lanka in the fifth century. Oxford educated English translator of Visuddhimagga named Ven. Nanamoli, lay name Osborn Moor wrote in his translation that Buddhaghosa had come to Anuradhapura to translate Tripitaka from Sinhala to Pali. And Visuddhimagga was a writing to prove his erudition to Maha Vihara chiefs.

        In page xxx Oxford scholar, Ven Nanmoli lay name Osbert Moore wrote; on coming to Ceylon, he (Buddhagosha) went to Anuradhapura, the royal capital, and set himself to study. To render his (Buddhagosha) own word: “I learned three Sinhalese commentaries – the Maha Attha- (katha), Maha Paccari, Kurundhi – from the famed elder known by the name of Buddhamitta, who has expert knowledge of Vinnaya. ….”

        In page xxxi, Ven Nanmoli wrote; in the prologue to each of the four Nikaya commentaries it is conveniently summarized by Bhadantacariya Buddhagosha himself as follows: ‘[I shall now take] the commentary, whose object is to clarify the meaning of the subtle and the most excellent Long Collection … and was brought to the Sinhala Island by the Arahath Mahinda the great and rendered into the Sinhala tongue for the benefit of the islanders, ….’

        Now those are not extracts from Mahawamsa but writing of Bhadantacariya Buddhagosha of the fifth century. And that means Sinhala was advanced enough for Tripitake to be available in Sinhala in the fifth century CE.

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        You say in the beginning Tamil, Pali and Sanskrit gave birth to Sinhala in 8th century and that it is thuggery to claim Sinhala was there from early times.

        This is where your logic is poor.

        Tamil and Sinhala were offshoots of the same branch.I will call this common language Samil. Samil gave birth to both Tamil and Sinhala. While Tamil evolved in a different way Sinhala evolved in a different way.

        So Sinhala evolved from this Samil, Sankskrit and Pali. Tamil also evolved frm Samil but in South India. The speakers of Samil in SL at that time are the ancestors of Sinhala people today. So claiming sinhala people were not there in the ancient time is not only wrong and ignorant but criminal as well.

        “There were no Sinhalese in Lanka or in any part of the world until the Dipa Vamsa for the first time, referred to the descendants of Tamil (Hindus) who embraced Buddhism in 246 B.C. as Sihala on account of the Lion (no relevance). There is no culture called Sinhala culture. It is the Tamil culture that is projected as Sinhala culture. The 14th day of April is observed as New Year, day by the Tamils and Sinhala people throughout the world. This fact is strong evidence that the Sinhala people inherited this practice from their Tamil ancestors who embraced Buddhism in 246 B.C.”

        Let me make it simple to you. Lets take Tamil Nadu for example. people in Tamil nadu after like 2000 years their language becomes different and call themselves as ‘Lolita’. Does that mean Lolita people didnt live in TN 2000 years back.

        Between tamils and sinhalese arent the only ones who celebrate 14th April as new year. In Thailand, Cambodia they too celebrate newyear in April 13-14 calling it Sankranti. Learn about other cultures that will help you to get out of egocentric and maniacal tamil is superior mentality.

        And learn to put a comment without pasting stuff from websites.

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      Re:”Now lets look at whether invader Tamil kings could have made a marked influence on Sinhala language: According to Chulawamsa, first Tamil King was Eelara. He had ruled for 43 years from 205BC. Thereafter five Tamils ruled from 103BC for just 13 years. And after that six Tamils ruled from 436……….”

      Why do you think it is not possible to make a change in the language? If 60 years of SINHALA BUDHIST” rule can ruin a country to the abyss, and 10 years of the most corrupt, murderous govt. can further bring shame to the country, is it possible a couple of hundred years of Tamil influence could have made the changes? Can’t you realise that both Tamils and sinhalese cannot talk in their own languages without mixing a lot of English. So much so sometimes people forget the appropriate word in the native tongue. This is an accepted trend.

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    Thanks Dr. NR

    The script a language uses can be easily changed (eg. Dhivehi used to use brahmi script which was almost exactly the sinhala script of the time before the forced conversion of Maldivians to Islam by the king. After which they developed a script that looks arabic, but functions vert similar to the sinhala script).

    The reality is Sinhalese, Tamils, Muslims, Burghers, Malays have all lived in the island of Lanka for many generations. And that fact is what makes them ALL equal. It should not matter when their ancestors landed on our shores, if they all participate in our economy and benefit each other, they are all Lankans which enough in common to unite us.

    No one owns the land, we are all temporary residents on this land. So why don’t we find a way to live peacably without depriving each other of econmoic well being by waging war?

    Buddists and Hindus both believe in karma. So let’s generate some good karma by looking for and appreciating what we have in common. Let’s talk to each other rather than talk at each other.

    Tamil people in the north should go and live among the Sinhalese in the South and vice versa to learn about each other’s life experiences including trauma, hopes and fears. That is the only way forward, if we want lasting peace.

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    “you can wake up a sleeping man but not a fake”

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      Like the Pharaoh’s in fake gear and camel sense.

      “woff-tam”

      (SIO) – Sleeping It Off

      ¡Ciao
      ◕‿◕

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    Does it matter after all.I have studied Tamil as a subject for few years and I know the similarities and differences between the two languages.It is a good move if all our national schools teach all three languages to each and every student.Limited resources will make it unrealistic. How ever, there should be more program mes about each other’s cultures and values.I am interested to see the last agreement which depicts letters from both languages and there would not have been a conflict those days as the common enemy was always some one else(British/Dutch/Portugese).The world is getting opened up at a faster rate.People are more keen about their well being and future rather than historic roots.We have no choice other than merging with the world and move on.WE need a modern country where every citizen can express freedom and any one with interest to these historic details can extrapolate them without causing any conflict or disharmony therefore.At the moment we cannot be proud about the things happening around us.

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    Dr.Narendran

    Here is a piece of evidence as an extension to your Article to show the close link between Tamils and Sinhalese and the destruction of that close link is man made by Successive Sinhalese Governments.

    ***Sinhalese people
    The Sinhalese (Sinhala:සිංහල ජාතිය Sinhala Jathiya) are an ethnic group native to the island of Sri Lanka.[12] They constitute 74.9% of the Sri Lankan population and number greater than 15 million.[1] The Sinhalese identity is based on language, historical heritage and religion. The Sinhalese speak Sinhala, an Indo-Aryan language, and are predominantly Theravada Buddhists,[13] although a small percentage of Sinhalese follow branches of Christianity.. According to legend Mahavamsa they are the descendants of the exiled Prince Vijaya who arrived from East India to Sri Lanka in 543 BCE. But the popular Sinhalese folklore and some references in Mahavamsa to times before Vijaya, indicate the Sinhalese are actually descendants of earlier inhabitants of Sri Lanka; (Raksha, Yaksha, Deva and Naga) who intermixed with Vijaya and the other Aryan invaders from India.[14]
    Ancient history[edit]
    The genesis myth and early recorded history of the Sinhalese is chronicled in two documents, the Mahavamsa, written in Pāli around the 4th century CE, and the much later Chulavamsa (probably penned in the 13th century CE by the Buddhist monk Dhammakitti). These are ancient sources which cover the histories of the powerful ancient Sinhalese kingdoms of Anuradhapura and Polonnaruwa which lasted for 1500 years. The Mahavansa describes the existence of fields of rice and reservoirs, indicating a well-developed agrarian society. The folklore of the Sinhalese people also speaks of many royal dynasties prior to the Sinha royal dynasty: Manu, Tharaka, Mahabali, Raavana, etc.as per the oldest Indian epic poemRamayan and consists many places in relation to this story such as Adam’s Bridge (Rama Setu),Sita eliya and falls(where Princes Sita stayed and bathed)Ravana Falls (where King Ravana Bathed and enjoyed),[citation needed]
    According to the Mahavamsa, the Sinhalese are descended from the exiled Prince Vijaya and his party of seven hundred followers who arrived on the island in 543 BCE. Vijaya and his followers were said to have arrived in Sri Lanka after being exiled from the city of Sinhapura in West Bengal, East India.[16] Buddhism is then said to have been introduced to the Sinhalese from India by Mahinda, son of the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka the Great, during the 3rd century BCE.
    Language]
    The Sinhalese speak Sinhala, also known as “Helabasa”; this language has two varieties, spoken and written. Sinhala is an Indo-Aryan language[13] brought to Sri Lanka by northeast Indians who settled on the island in the 6th century BCE.[20][21] Sinhala developed in a way different from the other Indo-Aryan languages because of the geographic separation from its Indo-Aryan sister languages. Sinhala was influenced by many languages, prominently Pali, the sacred language of Southern Buddhism, and Sanskrit. Many early Sinhala texts such as the Hela Atuwa were lost after their translation into Pali. Other significant Sinhala texts include Amāvatura, Kavu Silumina, Jathaka Potha and Sala Liheeniya. Sinhala has also borrowed words from other Indian languages and the colonial languages Portuguese, Dutch, and English.[22]
    The form of Buddhism in Sri Lanka is known as Theravada (school of elders). The Pali chronicles claim (e.g., The Mahavansa) that the Sinhalese as an ethnic group are destined to preserve and protect Buddhism. In 1988 almost 93% of the Sinhalese speaking population in Sri Lanka were Buddhist..
    Religion is considered very important among the Sinhalese. According to a 2008 Gallup poll, 99% of Sri Lankans considered religion an important aspect of their daily lives.

    Genetic distance of Sinhalese to other ethnic groups in the Indian Subcontinent according to an Alu Polymorphism analysis.
    Studies looking at the origin of the Sinhalese have been contradictory. Older studies suggest a predominantly Sri Lankan Tamil contribution followed by a significant Bengali contribution with no North Western Indian contribution, while more modern studies point towards a predominantly Bengali contribution and a minor Tamil and North Western Indian (Gujarati & Punjabi) contribution. Multiple studies have found no significant genetic difference between the Sinhalese and the three other major ethnic groups in Sri Lanka (Sri Lankan Tamil, Indian Tamil and Sri Lankan Moor). It is debatable whether the Sri Lankan population have genetic links to Far East Asian populations however due to their close links to North East India, there is a likelihood of some traces of East Asian genes.

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      There is a new stone that was transported to east of kailash new delhi somewhere between 1980-1990 and fenced the stone carries an inscription “I sent my son to Lanka signed Asoka. But there is nothing in Greek, that is the grandfather the greatest of them wife.- Hora Oru vs Gopuram

      I think its the Sirima Sahstri Pact in operation – Dalit and yellow saree free wheeling out of ambude land.

      ☻it was worth it,
      ▌==={—
      / \

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    Dr.

    Tamil vatteluttu form also may be of interest here for comparison. There is a whole booklet on the subject from an MA by a Sri Lankan in English thesis which gives more details.

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    Dr.

    Tamil vatteluttu form also may be of interest here for comparison. There is a whole booklet on the subject from an MA thesis by a Sri Lankan in English which gives more details.

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    Can anybody translate this into Sinhala please? And the book mentioned in this letter?

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    The father of the author of the document cited, was Dr. S.C Paul, a surgeon. Among his many accomplishments, he was also a member of the first committee for the preparation of the Sinhala dictionary. He was also a Tami

    This story illustrates how far we as a country have regressed from his times.

    Dr. Rajasingham Narendran
    .

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      So did S.C Paul say there was no sinhala people and sinhala is actually tamil?
      That there was no sinhala culture and that what we have today as sinhala culture is actually tamil?

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    Thamilnadu had the famous Manimekalai – a Buddhist book in Tamil written by a Brother of a Tamil King – Elango. Later with rest of India Buddhism slowly fading out. Sri Lanka was just like India many Sri Lankans spoke Tamil and were Buddhists. The Buddhist Clergy who were confined to religious research by King Gemunu ventured to first vent their anger on that king by naming him DUTU GEMUNU and then formulate a fresh language to preserve the Buddhist religion. Thus we had Sinhala and the religion was preserved in Sri Lanka . That explains the continuous rise of the Buddhist clergy to preserve the status qua.

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      The name “Gamini/Gamunu” itself is a corupt form from the meaning “Kaimman” [i.e. Kai+Man _ A handful of Soil]

      And the word “Dutta’ is probably a corrupt form of the word “Datta'(meaning “scholarly,versed”), and similarly from Datta>Doot (meaning “messenger, goodwill etc.)

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