24 September, 2017

The Long Term Solution To Sri Lanka’s Ethnic Problem

By Aravinth Kumar

Aravinth Kumar

Aravinth Kumar

Switzerland (officially known as the Swiss Confederation) is a country made up of four native ethnic groups; Swiss Germans (making up 2/3rd of the population; live mainly in the north, centre and east), Swiss French (largest minority group at 20%; live mainly in the west, which is known non-officially as Romandie), Swiss Italians (around 7%; live mainly in the south-east) and the Romansh (0.5%). What is striking is that each of the three big ethnic groups live next door to their respective country of language origin i.e. the Swiss Germans live next to Germany, the Swiss French next to France and the Swiss Italians next to Italy. Switzerland as a nation should not really exist! Yet, it does. Switzerland has somehow been able to maintain all these different ethnic groups in one united country. So how come, even though Switzerland has a “large majority, large minority” situation like Sri Lanka, it has not been confounded by the same ethnic problem that Sri Lanka has had to deal with? How come the Swiss French have never fought to separate and form a new country called “Romandie” (or even merge with France)?

Sprachen CH 2000 EN

 *Swiss Federal Statistical Office; census of 2000 – Source – Wikipedia, Marco Zanoli.

It all comes down to the way in which the country is governed. Switzerland is a federal parliamentary republic consisting of 26 cantons. The unity of the country is upheld by the Federal Council (executive level) and a two-tier parliament (legislative level). Collectively, they are in charge of managing the country’s foreign affairs, defence and security policies, financial matters and enacting legislation that applies throughout the whole country (the federal laws always takes precedence). The cantons are equivalent in size to a district in Sri Lanka. Just like the districts, each canton is mainly inhibited by one ethnic group; 17 cantons are German-speaking, 4 cantons are French-speaking, 1 canton is Italian-speaking, 3 cantons are bilingual (German and French) and 1 canton is trilingual (German, Italian and Romansh). However, unlike the districts, each canton is provided a large degree of autonomy; they have their own constitution, legislature, government and courts. The cantons are responsible for their own healthcare, welfare, law enforcement, education and taxation. 

The reason behind why each canton is provided a large degree of autonomy is due to Switzerland’s recognition that the population needs in each canton differ due to the political, social and economic problems peculiar to that particular canton itself (this is even the case between two linguistically similar cantons). They have understood that a cantonal government compared to a central government, which may be situated on the other side of the country, has a greater ability at formulating policies which meet the local needs. This is because, not only do the cantonal government representatives live in proximity to the people, they are usually from the same community. As a result, they are in a better position to understand the problems in their canton and offer unique solutions which take into account the distinct culture, history, language and religious practise.

Furthermore, with each canton having the means to develop their respective region, it has allowed for a greater spread of development countrywide. This has prevented just the capital city and its surrounding area to develop like we find in Sri Lanka. For example, the German speaking Zürich, the bilingual speaking Federal Capital Bern and French speaking Geneva (found in the north-central, centre and extreme south-west respectively) are all ranked in the top ten most liveable cities in the world by Mercer. More so, Zürich and Geneva are both ranked in the top ten leading global cities.

In my opinion, this is the defining reason why Switzerland has not been challenged with ethnic problems. I believe that the root cause of the ethnic problem comes down to accessibility. The reason the Swiss Germans, French and Italians are able to co-exist peacefully is due to each group having the ability to access the most coveted jobs due to their respective cantons having the power to bring job creating investments. This has stopped a situation of unequal distribution and thus prevented a situation where one ethnic group perceives (which may be reality or not) that they are being discriminated against. This has unfortunately not been the case in Sri Lanka were accessibility has always been unequally distributed. This inability to access the best education or jobs has been what led the Sinhalese and Tamils turning to extremist elements. For example, if we look at Sri Lanka pre 1956 and post 1956 we can see that in each era one ethnic group was cut off from the best jobs. Pre 1956, the most sought after jobs where mainly accessible by the Tamils. This was due to the need to be fluent in English and the disproportionate number of English medium schools being located in the Tamil north. This meant the majority of Sinhalese were cut off from the best paid jobs, leading to a large income disparity with the Tamils. Stuck in poorly paid jobs, the Sinhalese where easily swayed by the newly formed Sinhalese nationalist party, the SLFP, who were campaigning for Sinhala to replace English. Consequently, with the SLFP easily winning the 1956 election and making Sinhala the official language, the best jobs became inaccessible to most Tamils. This in turn created a large aggravated group who became easily influenced by extreme Tamil nationalists.

However, the Swiss model also has the advantage of bringing benefits to the most deprived individuals in one ethnic group. The Sinhalese have had their fair share of protests and riots aimed at a government dominated by “their” people e.g. the JVP uprising. Numerous governments in Sri Lanka have failed to bring quality jobs to the youth in the rural districts, such as in the Monaragala district, where poverty is rampant. This is completely different to Switzerland, where irrespective if a Swiss German lives in the north or the south, they both equally have access to the same (high) standard of living.

Sri Lankan’s parliamentary and/or presidential elections are synonymous with majority and minority political parties scapegoating the opposing ethnic groups for political gain. More so, it is common to see the largest parties (SLFP and UNP) appealing purely to the Sinhalese community, since gaining the majority of Sinhalese vote generally ensures a win. This “divide and rule” tactic used by politicians has only ever had the effect of arousing communal conflicts. Yet, even though Switzerland’s political parties can also appeal purely to the German majority, this is not seen.

The reason is, firstly, the German politicians are in no position to be able to scapegoat the problems the German community faces on the minorities. This is because, each of the German cantons has power, and hence the faults lie with the German representatives of that respective canton. Secondly, all political parties run on a pan Swiss identity i.e. there are no parties which run on a communal line like in Sri Lanka with the likes of the TNA, SLMC and JHU. Lastly, the structure of the federal level is created in such a way that no ethnic group holds excessive power. The federal level is split between two levels; bicameral parliament (legislative) and the Federal Council (executive). Parliament is formed of two houses; the Council of States (46 representatives where each canton are represented by two members and each half canton are represented by one member) and the National Council (200 members who are elected under a system of proportional representation based on the population of the cantons). Due to this structure, the voice of each ethnic canton is represented; hence no ethnic group can push for legislation which favours one ethnic group over another. Additionally, the Federal Council of Switzerland is also representative of both the majority and minority. This is because the executive powers are not centred with one individual, rather it’s collectively shared between seven members (known as councillors; the seven councillors each hold one of the seven cabinet positions) who are chosen from different ethnic cantons. As things currently stand, the Federal Council is made up of 5 German and 2 French councillors.

Way forward

For too long, we have looked at the USA, UK and India as a model of governance to bring lasting peace. These have been tried and failed models. Most agree, Tamil and Sinhalese alike, that the Indian pushed “13th Amendment” will not bring long lasting peace. Therefore, I firmly believe it is time for us to instead tailor a new governance system based on the Swiss federal model. After all, it is a system which has shown to be workable in a similar sized country which has a small but diverse multi-linguistic population. It has created a country where one can be proud to be a German, French or Italian whilst also being proud to be Swiss. Funnily enough, this federal structure came about a few years after Switzerland’s own civil war 200 years ago. Since then, Switzerland has not faced an internal (or external) armed conflict which is testament to how well the federal structure has worked.

Below is a brief outline of how Sri Lanka would operate under a Swiss style model of governance.

  • Three official languages; Sinhala, Tamil and English
  • All citizens of Sri Lanka will be treated equally irrespective of ethnicity, religion, gender or sex
  • Federally Sri Lanka will be secular
  • Introduction of direct democracy; Switzerland is the only country in the world that offers this. It provides the citizens with an ability to challenge a law passed by the Federal/Canton Parliament
  • Sri Lanka will follow a line of firm neutrality; this is very important to prevent Sri Lanka being affected by any fallout between our regional friends such as India, Pakistan, and China. It helped save Switzerland from being dragged into the World Wars and also prevented ethnic discomfort between the Swiss Germans and the Swiss French during the war periods when France and Germany where enemies.
  • Sri Lanka will be split into three political levels; Federal, District and Divisional Secretariats.

Federal

The federal responsibilities will be the same as in Switzerland i.e. foreign, defence and security policy, financial matters and enacting legislation that applies throughout the whole country.

The executive powers will be exercised by the “Federal Council of Sri Lanka”, which will act as both the head of government and head of state. The legislative power is allocated to the two chambers of the “Federal Assembly of Sri Lanka”. The judiciary will remain independent of the executive and the legislature, with power being exercised by the “Federal Supreme Court of Sri Lanka” (similar to the current Supreme Court). Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte will be the seat of all federal authorities.

Federal Council of Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka’s government will consist of nine members with each member coming from the nine ceremonial provinces (the provinces won’t have any power). The member to “represent” a province will come from the districts which form a province. For example, the Western Province is formed of three districts; Colombo District, Gampaha District, Kalutara District. Every four years the leader of these three districts will rotate around as the representative of the Western Province.

Each of the nine members will have equal rights. They will each act as a head of department (cabinet) in the federal administration, but like in Switzerland, all government decisions will be taken in a weekly conference either by consensus or by majority voting of the nine members. The following is a table of the departments which are fixed at nine (Note: the federal functions are not set in stone for each province i.e. the Central Province is not stuck forever with the “Department of Environment and Energy”).

AALike in Switzerland, there will be no full time head of state. Rather the federal council will act collectively as the head of state. However, like in Switzerland, due to the national and international need for a specific individual to represent the country, the representational functions of a president will be taken by one of the members via a yearly rotation system e.g. the Central Province member will be president with the Eastern Province member as Vice President. The following year, the Eastern member will become president and the North Central member becoming Vice President etc.

The ‘president’ will be in charge of setting the agenda of the weekly conferences but will have no powers going above and beyond other members. They will also be in charge of addressing the people at national and international functions. However, like in Switzerland, during any foreign state visit, the foreign leader will be met by the government ‘in corpore’ i.e. by all the members.

Federal Assembly

Sri Lanka will have two tier assembly made up of the;
Council of districts (Upper house):

  • Council to represent the 25 districts with elections every 4 years.
  • Each district will send 2 members leading to a total of 50 members.

National council (Lower House):

  • 200 members elected under a proportional election system. Elections occur every 4 years happening simultaneously with the elections for the Council of Districts.
  • This will act similar to the current Sri Lankan parliament.

District and Divisional Secretariats

  • Like the cantons, the districts will have far reaching powers and will decide themselves how to be run. However, all district laws must conform to the Federal Law.
  • The districts will be further sub divided into the pre-existing divisional secretariats. These will have the same powers that their equivalent in Switzerland, the communes, has.
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Latest comments

  • 15
    9

    I am happy that a Young second Generation Diaspora Tamil, correct me if i am wrong, is able to clearly Analyse the Sri Lankan ethnic Problem and suggests the swiss model of a federal govt.
    when I was a Student in Jaffna in the 50s, I have heard often Senator S. Nadesan and others of the Federal Party led by Mr.SJV.Chelvanayagam,bring in this example of the Swiss Federal Govt. as a solution for the Sri Lankan Situation.
    as rightly pointed out by Aravinthan, we Sinhalese and Tamils were glued to the British System of centralised-governance and that in my view, is the biggest political blunder we made.
    Besides, due to many reasons,lack of communication of the federal System to the south, Absence of an english newsmedia of the FP,the Tamil Translation of FP as Thamil Arsu Kadchi and the inbuilt fear of the sinhalese,the majority and the govt. saw the federal demand as a Separatist demand
    I hope that this new Regime and ist supporters from all sides, calling for a new constitution and a radical Reform of the governing structure, will favourably consider Aravintas thinking.

    • 14
      15

      ‘I am happy that a Young second Generation Diaspora Tamil’

      Yes, one of the fortunate ones who evaded the clutches of your hero VP.

      • 15
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        Taraki

        “Yes, one of the fortunate ones who evaded the clutches of your hero VP.”

        Also from white vans, war criminals, corrupt cops, Gota’s boys, ……… saffron clad thugs, ……… and racist like Dayan and yourself.

    • 4
      5

      Thank you Aravinth for educating us and Father Emanual for your comments. I noticed that Indonesia has 6~7 ethnic groups and Javanese is the largest with 40%. But Indonesians are not killing each other like us. Perhaps knowledgeable guy like Aravinth could analyse Indonesian system as well and educate us. I feel ashamed of comments by Taraki and Vibushana below but we need to understand that any changes should be shared with Taraki type thinking too.

      • 11
        7

        Don’t be ashamed Alahakoon, find out the facts first. Fr SJE compared VP with Jesus. He has always followed the LTTE line.

        Fr Rayappu Joseph and Fr SJ Emmanuel have something in common with the BBS thugs. The Fathers are Tamil racists first and Catholic priests second; just as the BBS are Sinhala racists first and Buddhist monks second. In both cases religion is used as a mask.

        The fathers have an advantage over the BBS because their HQ is Rome. This fact gives them the ability to con Western journalists into thinking that they are honest and impartial when they are not.

        • 7
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          Taraki

          “just as the BBS are Sinhala racists first and Buddhist monks second.”

          No. No. No.

          They are the neo-smart ass patriots and guardians of Sinhala/Buddhism.

          Please stop insulting Gota the godfather, Dayan the war monger, Champika whose ancestors invented zero, Weerawansa of pistol gang, Anagarika (homeless one)Dharmapala the Aryan, Gamini Dissanayake the arsonist, …..

          • 0
            0

            “” They are the neo-smart ass patriots and guardians of Sinhala/Buddhism. “”

            Very true!! `don’t say big brother scooped` Asian Mandala, its was a very sluggish political lie to play but the `Boasters Miracle of Asia` by the people for the people appe andu fiefdom.Media oversimplified and distorted the historical realities it was intended to capture.

            Master Slave in concept of their masters the outliners of the feudal policy vassal.

    • 8
      3

      Majority of Tamils live in peace among the Sinhalese in provinces outside the North East. That is the current demography in the South. There is no violence among the general public. Only the political leaders and their supporters such as priests in BBS and Fathers and Pasters try to incite violence. When someone wants to disturb peace, especially NOW, they have vested interests, personal and financial.
      One long term solution is to teach each other the language of the other. Which is actively prevented by chauvinists of both sides. And allowing mixing of the common people, which was actively and purposefully prevented by the LTTE and its supporters, in order to exert control by maintaining artificial ideological milieu.
      SWRD did a major harm by making Sinhala only Policy. Current Tamil and Singala Politicos repeat it covertly by not allowing the common people learn that the ‘other’ is an equally oppressed person who speaks a different language, to realise that the forces control them are more to do with economics than petty politics in provinces. That is why there is no political solution to kidney disease or poverty. That is why the TN fishermen catch our fish in thousands-of-tons while our Northern fishermen stare in utter helplessness.

  • 11
    15

    The ethnic regions of Switzerland is similar to that of India. Each individual state or Canton are individual “Nations of People” when considering their antiquity and stature.

    Tamils in Ceylon, on the other hand are not. I am tired of showing this again and again.

    http://jaffnahistory.com/Northern_Province/Sinhala_Villages_of_Jaffna_1695.html
    http://jaffnahistory.com/Eastern_Province/Sinhala_Villages_of_Eastern_Lanka_1695.html

    Tamils are a minority in Ceylon. If we take England as an example, Tamils are like the Pakisitanis in Bradford area.

    • 5
      5

      Vibhushana,

      Did you receive the Sri Lanka Mitra Vibhushana?

  • 14
    8

    A very good article.

    At the hike of war and after, I keep on insisting and writing to follow Swiss model of government which will perfectly suites Sri Lanka.
    But it will NEVER happen. Singhelse are not matured enough to treat Tamils and Muslims equal and they are living in a myth of half lion, half human; so to say – a beast!!

    Men like Anagarika Darmapla, D.S. Senayanake, S.W.R.D. Bandarnayake, J.R. Jayawardena, Gamini Dissanayake, Gnanasara Thero and Vithanage did not/will not unite Sri Lanka for the people of Sri Lanka for their own very selfish reason.
    Let Federalism save Sri Lanka :)

  • 5
    17

    issue is the tamil and muslim terrorism….crush it militarily…

  • 17
    4

    An exercise of educational value to the CT readers.Thanks.

    However, will our politicians, political monks, communal extremists and biased political analysts, let us learn? We are a country that has lost its objectivity and is mired in expediency and opportunism, due to the type of politics and governance practiced for decades. WE talk with a forked tongue and make deception a very skilled virtue and a fine art. I am sure someone will say we are a unique, thrice blessed country, quite unlike Switzerland and have to find a home grown solution, even if it will take another millennium.

    Anyway, to know is an important first step. Some day, we will learn. Some other day, we may act. All these days however,are far far away. In the mean time we have to plod on in small steps to achieve the minimum possible to live in peace, without any further blood shed, social and economic disruption and their consequences.

    Dr.Rajasingham Narendran

  • 7
    5

    Good Article.
    We have a long way to go before Sri Lankan Government accepts the Swiss model.
    Remember Switzerland is a small country( population of 5 million?) surrounded by the big giants ( Germany, France and Italy) who are part of the European Union. They have free border crossings.
    Imagine Sri Lanka accepting free crossings between Jaffna and Chennai??

    • 4
      3

      Thamilan,

      Do not let any good things go into your short brain. It cant accommodate.

  • 11
    3

    Brave Aravinth; so young, and full of ideas.

    Permit me a few observations on what you have penned.

    “”…that the Indian pushed “13th Amendment” will not bring long lasting peace…”” How observant. Truthfully, the ‘13th’ died a long time ago; it’s just the burial has been so long delayed that the stench is unbearable.

    Then you write “”…we have looked at the USA, UK and India as a model of governance to bring lasting peace. These have been tried and failed models”” The thing is that we are so divided amongst ourselves (ever since we were given our ‘independence’) that none of us can trust each other enough to cooperate and devise our own fair and equitable model. So much for much lauded erudition!

    We have had nearly six years of an uneasy peace. It has taken time for the people to realise that the war really is over. The tiger-slayer has been put in his cage, and only now are we finally getting down to the altogether more difficult task of reconciliation, building trusting amongst all, respecting the aspirations of each other, and treating each other as equally stakeholders in the destiny of this country. There is much to be done, least of all converting the disbelievers to the idea that there is nothing to be feared from inclusiveness (and much from the converse).

    Aravinth, come and join the push.

  • 5
    1

    “Pre 1956, the most sought after jobs where mainly accessible by the Tamils. This was due to the need to be fluent in English and the disproportionate number of English medium schools being located in the Tamil north. This meant the majority of Sinhalese were cut off from the best paid jobs, leading to a large income disparity with the Tamils. Stuck in poorly paid jobs, the Sinhalese where easily swayed by the newly formed Sinhalese nationalist party, the SLFP, who were campaigning for Sinhala to replace English.”

    Aravinth Kumar you have hit the Nail on the Head, in the above paragraph.

    This Situation arose because the Hindu Tamils were willing to accept another God, Jesus Christ, into their Pantheon of Deities.

    This was the aim of the English Christian Missionaries, who established English schools in the Hindu areas, and the Tamils therefore had access to a better Education, leading to better Government Jobs.

  • 5
    2

    the federal system governance is the best way adopted in most western countries and India has its own semi federal model. But the question is whether the Sinhalese majority will understand this model of government , as they are very allergic to the word of Federal itself. Who is going to take up with the majority , say MS, RW or CBK? After all, the well educated SWRD had ruined the coexistence of all community in Srilanka by his narrow political mindset. Therefore it always better to educate political parties of all community to bring a solution on Srilankan model of Governance to suit their own will. Who is going to bell the cat? Thanks a lot for Mr.Aravinth to take much pain to elaborate the Swiss model of federalism when SJV, GG, and CRS was failed to familiarise their versions of federal model to our people specially the majority.

  • 4
    2

    Thank you for your article.

    Not only must be arrive at a peaceful and amicable solution, but we must arrive at a solution peacefully and amicably. If it is the Federal solution so be it, but there must be no violence.

    Another important fact is that the income per full time employee in Switzerland is USD 84,000 per year which amounts to almost Rs 1,000,000 per MONTH. All but the bottom 3% get the equivalent of more than Rs 40,000 per month.

    At those income levels I don’t think ethnicity is at the front of their minds. In fact it is inequality and the competition for resources that sparks conflict .

  • 5
    7

    [Edited out] Aravinth kumar,
    U live in different civilization….we Tamils of live in most ruthless corrupt sinhala Buddhist rule….u can say stone age mongrels…they still live in thug dutugemunu period, long way 2 go 4 civilization….

  • 7
    4

    FEDERAL .is an allergic…for Modayas who live in the deep well…..

    Should they have implemented BANDA-SELVA pact which emphasised about Federal rule today SL WOULD BE LIKE SINGAPORE….

    he he he we are late…

    Once the country is divided one part will be like Switzerland sure ..and you know which side is ….

    Cheers

  • 10
    5

    Huge difference between Sri Lanka and Switzerland.

    Switzerland is surrounded by the respective mother countries for each ethnic group : Germany, France and Italy.

    Sinhalese, on the other hand do not have a mother country of their own to keep things in check and balance.

    Tamils, on the other hand have a super-colossal mother county for Tamils : Tamil Nadu and the whole of South India.

    17:1

    • 0
      0

      This comment was removed by a moderator because it didn’t abide by our Comment policy.For more detail see our Comment policy https://www.colombotelegraph.com/index.php/comments-policy-2/

      • 5
        3

        And imagine if the world decided to become good, and the Swiss Bank accounts were no more. How will the French and Italian sides cope with the more prosperous German side for money creation? I see Nazis springing up, and ethinc cleansing of the other 3 sides in an attempt of the German side to hug onto their money. No, in Sri Lanka creation of money can only come from minorities working concentiously with and for the majority, rather than from an amalgamation of foreign mafia accounts where no sweat is involved.

        • 2
          2

          ramona therese fernando

          “No, in Sri Lanka creation of money can only come from minorities working concentiously with and for the majority,”

          Its a very good idea.

          Lets legalise slavery, forced labor by prisoners, labor camps, unfree labor, indentured labour, revive monastic slavery, Devadasi system, child labour, ……….. dis-enfranchise minorities, ………….

          • 1
            1

            Never in slavery like castes in South India,, but in egalatarian comradeship where minorities work with the majority as one, and also FOR the majority for country peace and prosperity as they are, and have always been more disadvantaged set.

            • 3
              2

              ramona therese fernando

              “and also FOR the majority for country peace and prosperity as they are, and have always been more disadvantaged set.”

              You still want the minority to work FOR the majority. Whey not the majority work for minority for the betterment of the country?

              “Master Race” finds itself in a Gordian knot, unable to accept equality among people.

              What has castes in South India got to do with this country.

              • 1
                1

                You mentioned slavery NV, and that’s caste system (slavery in religious form).

                The majority is already working for the minorities, and getting pittance at that. In interests of country prosperity and progress, the tables need to be readdressed and rebalanced.

      • 0
        0

        [Edited out]

    • 3
      3

      ramona therese fernando

      “Sinhalese, on the other hand do not have a mother country of their own to keep things in check and balance.”

      Of course Sinhalese do have their own mother country in South India, Tamil Nadu (check DNA), Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Kannada, Orrissa, …..

      Sinhala/Buddhists on the other hand do not have a mother country hence the attempt to build a Sinhala/Buddhist ghetto in this island.

      The Aryan master race has its own fatherland in North Europe.

      • 1
        3

        Sinhala/Buddhist Arya is quite different from the Caucasian Aryan, with the South Asian Arya coming from the steps of the Himalayas – the base of all South Asian ancestry (South Indian included).

        However, Sinhalese and SB’s have their language and heritage different from Tamils and any other place in India (both north and south).

        Therefore, as Britain is different from France (although their DNA is of common stock with minor tweaks), so is Sri Lanka different from India.

        Even USA with al the races of the world have English as the main language, and the English derative culture called American.

        • 0
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          @ corrections : all ; derivative

          • 3
            1

            ramona therese fernando

            Please read the following article before start your next session of typing:

            Indus script early form of Dravidian
            CHENNAI, November 15, 2014

            Iravatham Mahadevan proves the point with the help of ideograms

            Iravatham Mahadevan, a well-known expert in Indian epigraphy, especially the Indus and Tamil Brahmi scripts, on Friday unveiled what he termed as his long years of studies on the Indus Valley script, demonstrably showing that the language of that once great civilisation “was an early form of the Dravidian.”

            Making a presentation of his latest paper, “Dravidian Proof of the Indus Script via The Rig Veda: A Case Study” at the Roja Muthiah Research Library here, he explained with the help of ‘ideograms- a picture or a symbol that represents an idea or a concept-,’ that the “Indus language has been correctly identified” as an early form of the Dravidian script.

            He said the methodology followed “is to identify the ideograms, find the Dravidian roots with the nearest literal meanings and interpret them through the rebus technique to get at the intended meanings.” (A ‘rebus’ is an allusional device that uses pictures to represent words or parts of words.)

            This technique has helped in arriving at this conclusion, he said.

            Explaining the frequent phrase of four signs (ABCD), as in the above picture, Mr. Mahadevan, who was earlier this year awarded the prestigious ‘Campbell Medal -2014’ by the Mumbai Asiatic Society, formerly Royal Asiatic Society, said that in short, the signs stood for ‘Merchant of the City’.

            Referring to two divergent streams arising from the Indus Valley civilisation, he said, ‘’the Earliest Old Tamil, which has retained the Dravidian roots of the Indus phrase still, is firmly interlinked, but with modified meanings.”

            String of names

            The results reveal “a string of names and titles associated with the Pantian dynasty’’ whose remote ancestors were probably traders in the Indus civilisation, he said.

            After the collapse of the Indus civilisation, he said in his paper that a section of the Indus Valley population had migrated to south India and the “the Indus Dravidian influenced the South Dravidian languages”. The earliest traces of such migratory influence are found in the ‘Old Tamil’.

            The other stream that the epigraphist spoke of is the “Earliest Indo-Aryan (Rig Veda), which has inherited the Indus phrase through loan translations”. ‘Pusan,’ an early Vedic God, for instance, is identified as a deity of the trading community (Vaisya). The origin of the myths associated with ‘Pusan’ becomes clear “when their source is traced to the Indus phrase,” Mr. Mahadevan contended.

            The results also show that “the descendants of the Indus civilisation adopted the Indo-Aryan speech and that there was a long gap of time between the Indus civilisation and the early Vedic culture,” said Mr. Mahadevan. The ‘Vedic Age’ succeeded the Indus civilisation and the Rig Veda “itself is a product of the composite culture”, said the scholar, who began studying the Indus script way back in 1968.

            Mr. Mahadevan further explained that the results of the discovery, using the above technique, “are summarised in a Grid of correspondences’, adding, “the Grid constitutes the proof of the discovery”.

            “I have not claimed to have deciphered the Indus script. But the present paper appears to me the most productive I have so far written”, he claimed in his written paper, adding that from the “level of mere evidence”, it has now “attained the level of proof.”

            http://www.thehindu.com/news/
            national/tamil-nadu/
            indus-script-early-form-of-dravidian-iravatham-mahadevan/article6600394.ece

            Dravidian Proof of the Indus Script via The Rig Veda: A Case Study” at the Roja Muthiah Research Library

            Iravatham Mahadevan

            http://a.harappa.com/sites/g/
            files/g65461/f/201411/dravidian-indus.pdf

            • 1
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              Native Vedda,
              So what has this got to do with modern democratic form?

              • 2
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                ramona therese fernando

                “So what has this got to do with modern democratic form?”

                It has everything to do with your “Master Race Aryan & Slavery of Minorities compelling them working for majority” induced hallucination.

                Democracy does not mean one section of people is being subordinated to another section of the people.

                Aryan is not a race.

                This is what you wrote:

                “Sinhala/Buddhist Arya is quite different from the Caucasian Aryan, with the South Asian Arya coming from the steps of the Himalayas – the base of all South Asian ancestry (South Indian included).”

                Iravatham Mahadevan, A. Parpolla and other Harrapan scholars have traced the origin of Tamil Language to Harrapa. Your new theory that South Asian Aryan is ludicrous to say the least.

                There have been two sets of Aryans and yet they were different is mind boggling. Please publish your theories in one of those reputed journals, let see what those scholars have to say about your new theory, which you hope suits the new political conditions in this island.

                If you are still hallucinating with Master Race Aryan pride and would like to propagate more of them please visit Ladakh where you can buy sperms from last of the Aryans, the Brogpas. German women have bought the services of these men.

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                  Native Vedda,
                  What BS are you propagating!?

                  I merely said it is best that minorities, who are the far more privileged in Sri Lanka, tune their operations so all can benefit, especially the majority race, the Sinhalese. That is the only way for peace and prosperity in Sri Lanka. and this is similar to the way English behave in England, and French behave in France.

                  In another forum, I mentioned that SB are indeed the master race in numbers. Therefore, it is their culture and heritage that should be upheld first and foremost so peace, stability and prosperity can be undertaken in Sri Lanka.

                  I have said that the Arya (who is mentioned in Mahavamsa and other texts), went all over south Asia, is a large part of the base, and is part of the Dravidian base too. Sinhalese too have their Aryan base (as do Tamils, Telungues, Keralites and Hindis).

                  Nazis, while acknowledging Aryans came from a single source (Iran, Pakistan, steps of Himalayas, and that general region), took Aryanism to a different level – one their considered more evolved – into the white Aryan (blue eyed and blond haired) strains. Indeed, it is found that a large part of the coast of Africa, African looking people have a large percentage of Viking genes, because Vikings sailed all over the region.

                  I can imagine some small fraction of German woman (with mindsets like you who have gone mad on all things Aryan), buying such sperms from the “last of the Aryans” of e.g. Iran, and begetting children like breeds of dogs. Thank Allah(SAW), that the people in those regions are Muslims, and have a more evolved view on human dignity.

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                    ramona therese fernando

                    “I merely said it is best that minorities, who are the far more privileged in Sri Lanka,”

                    Could we have some comparative statistics to support your above nonsense.

                    “That is the only way for peace and prosperity in Sri Lanka.”

                    Make sure you and your racist supremacists tune their head just enough to accept everyone as fellow human being, receptive to new ideas away from their Mahawamsa mindset, fear perception, paranoia, ……………… above all leave history writing to the honest scholars, anthropology to Professors Gananath Obeysekere and H L Seneviratne, …..

                    Sri Lanka is not England nor France. Even those former colonial powers have adjusted themselves to new reality. With enough perseverance minorities have achieved progress in many fields, even they have been elected to Parliaments and been appointed to key ministries and committees.

                    I am told some 25 years ago A Sinhalese was elected to British parliament and another Sinhalese has been successful in yesterday’s election. These are facts. You should join rest of the people in celebrating their success. No point keeping your head in your own racist pit.

                    “In another forum, I mentioned that SB are indeed the master race in numbers.”

                    I too commented on your stupidity. You never scientifically explained as to why Sinhala/Buddhists were master race.

                    “Therefore, it is their culture and heritage that should be upheld first and foremost so peace, stability and prosperity can be undertaken in Sri Lanka.”

                    What is Sinhala/Buddhists heritage that you want to uphold. I have asked you this question once or twice and many other many times. Sinhala/Buddhists never care to respond, probably they too do not what they propagate. Please give it a try, you might end up in Gordian knot.

                    “I have said that the Arya (who is mentioned in Mahavamsa and other texts)”

                    Could you let me have the chapter and verse.

                    ” went all over south Asia, is a large part of the base, and is part of the Dravidian base too. Sinhalese too have their Aryan base (as do Tamils, Telungues, Keralites and Hindis).”

                    Could you cite DNA studies of Aryans and their dispersal.

                    Please avoid getting your knickers in a twist.

                    • 4
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                      Native Vedda,

                      Some Statics of Sinhala poverty:

                      In 2008, it was reported that tens of thousands of men from impoverished villages were joining the Sri Lanka Armed Forces and Sri Lanka Police Service to escape rural poverty, as the wages offered by the security services significantly raise the standard of living for soldiers and their families.[7]
                      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poverty_in_Sri_Lanka

                      More than 40 per cent of rural poor people are small farmers. Apart from poor people in areas affected by conflict, most of the rural poor are concentrated in the Central, Uva, Sabaragamuwa and Southern provinces http://www.ruralpovertyportal.org/country/home/tags/sri_lanka

                      Sinhalese accept all as human beings, but it is sad that out of all the races in Sri Lanka, the Sinhalese majority is the one that lives in most poverty. Now in USA, it is the minorities that live in poverty- the Blacks and Native Americans. The White majority is on top of everybody else, as are the majorities of most other countries.

                      We ALL know that there are SO many Tamil and Muslims in parliament, and on the Supreme Court and other grand places in Sri Lanka.

                      I did explain scientifically explain why Sinhala Buddhists are the master race in Sri Lanka. I did it through their numbers and historical chronology. I also used logic by saying that in Tamil Nadu, Tamils were master race.

                      Ohhhh, do cut out the Gordian Knot rhetoric. Sinhala Buddhist heritage is a self-evident, like Tamil Hindu heritage is all too self-evident in Tamil Nadu.

                      The Mahavamsa has only one reference to the word Ariya (Mahavamsa; Chapter 5 verse 112-113). Something like : ” By khinasava in v. 112 (see note on 3. 9) are understood the
                      arahants; by ariya in v. 113, all the Buddha’s hearers (Vibhanga D 2 3 6 Mahdvamsa v. 1 1 3) among whom was the thera Dasaka, did the thera Upali teach 113 the whole tipitaka. Past reckoning is the number of the other Ariyas, and of those who yet stood outside (the religion),by whom the pitakas were learned from the thera.”

                      It seems that these Aryas went all over south India as well, besides being in the Lankan Mahavamsa : http://www.sundaytimes.lk/080810/FunDay/fundaytimes_1.html

                      I wrote this in the comments in the comments below, as it seems one of my previous comments are down below too: I do agree with you totally about most of South Asia (Sinhalese included) being Dravidian-Aryan hybrids. These links show Baloch (I presume that this is the Aryan gene they are talking about) being about 30% in most South Asians; Onge being about 30%; South Indian being 60% in Sinhalese. This sounds about right, given the physical looks of the people.

                      http://www.harappadna.org/page/5/
                      http://www.harappadna.org/tag/ancestry/

                      But Native Vedda, you won’t feel too left out will you, for being so racially pure?

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                      ramona therese fernando

                      “Some Statics of Sinhala poverty”

                      You typed:

                      “I merely said it is best that minorities, who are the far more privileged in Sri Lanka,”

                      I asked you:

                      “Could we have some comparative statistics to support your above nonsense.”

                      You typed:

                      “Sinhalese accept all as human beings”

                      I agree, however the Sinhala/Buddhists don’t, for example you still believe in master race and want them to slave drive the minorities. One cannot have the cake and eat it.

                      “but it is sad that out of all the races in Sri Lanka, the Sinhalese majority is the one that lives in most poverty.”

                      Let us have some comparative statistics.

                      Sinhala/Buddhist heritage is not evident to many. You are yet to define and explain what the so called Sinhala/Buddhist heritage means to you, Sinhalese and Buddhists.

                      “Mahavamsa; Chapter 5 verse 112-113”

                      Verse 112

                      Then to the thousand (disciples) who had overcome the asavas, among whom was the thera Dasaka, did the thera Upali teach the whole tipitaka.

                      Verse 113

                      Past reckoning is the number of the other Arias, and of those who yet stood outside (the religion), by whom the pitakas were learned from the thera.

                      You have not explained the context in which Arias was used in MV.

                      Read this information:

                      Aryan

                      Aryan, name originally given to a people who were said to speak an archaic Indo-European language and who were thought to have settled in prehistoric times in ancient Iran and the northern Indian subcontinent. The theory of an “Aryan race” appeared in the mid-19th century and remained prevalent until the mid-20th century. According to the hypothesis, those probably light-skinned Aryans were the group who invaded and conquered ancient India from the north and whose literature, religion, and modes of social organization subsequently shaped the course of Indian culture, particularly the Vedic religion that informed and was eventually superseded by Hinduism.

                      However, since the late 20th century, a growing number of scholars have rejected both the Aryan invasion hypothesis and the use of the term Aryan as a racial designation, suggesting that the Sanskrit term arya (“noble” or “distinguished”), the linguistic root of the word, was actually a social rather than an ethnic epithet. Rather, the term is used strictly in a linguistic sense, in recognition of the influence that the language of the ancient northern migrants had on the development of the Indo-European languages of South Asia. In the 19th century “Aryan” was used as a synonym for “Indo-European” and also, more restrictively, to refer to the Indo-Iranian languages. It is now used in linguistics only in the sense of the term Indo-Aryan languages, a branch of the larger Indo-European language family.

                      In Europe the notion of white racial superiority emerged in the 1850s, propagated most assiduously by the comte de Gobineau and later by his disciple Houston Stewart Chamberlain, who first used the term “Aryan” to mean the “white race.” Members of that so-called race spoke Indo-European languages, were credited with all the progress that benefited humanity, and were purported to be superior to “Semites,” “yellows,” and “blacks.” Believers in Aryanism came to regard the Nordic and Germanic peoples as the purest members of the “race.” That notion, which had been repudiated by anthropologists by the second quarter of the 20th century, was seized upon by Adolf Hitler and the Nazis and was made the basis of the German government policy of exterminating Jews, Roma (Gypsies), and other “non-Aryans.”

                      In the late 20th and early 21st centuries, many white supremacist groups used the word Aryan in their name as an identifier of their racist ideology. Those groups include the Aryan Circle (a large group that had its roots in the Texas prison system), the Aryan Nations (a Christian Identity-based hate group prominent in the late 20th century), and the Aryan Brotherhood (a group originating in San Quentin [California] prison). That association with racism, crime, hate crimes, and Nazism has given the word a powerful new negative sense.

                      http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/37468/Aryan

                      Now it seems we have white supremacists among the Sinhala/Buddhists. Geneticists have so far not discovered an Aryan gene which does not exist.

                      Stop deceiving yourself and other fellow Sinhala/Buddhists.

  • 7
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    What is painful to note is that some Tamils, young and old, are still refusing to understand, that after 66 years of history of suppression and subjugation, and after the massacre of the Mullaivaikkal war, and the continuing structural genocide taking place under the jack boot of the army,, the racist majoritarian parliamentary Singhalese system will never ever give any justice or equality to the Tamils to live in peace with dignity.

    The only peaceful permanent political solution is separation, similar to that of South Sudan, through an UN conducted referendum for the Tamils to decide their future destiny.

    I am searching for a Tamil Mandela, to bring all groups together, to discuss and collaborate and lead a united collective voice and demand to the International Community our right to self determination, as per the UN Charter.

    We want to resolve the problem, not prolong the pain and suffering of our people and

    • 1
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      Hi Manickavasagar, 66 years of your quotation & subjugations; I agree with you for an extent only, the rest Tamils also should share the responsibility for divide themselves for power & selfish benefits within the 66 years. Do not forgot that Tamils consists only +24% of the population in this tiny Island.
      You simply quote separation is the only solution; while among the Tamils you are divided into more than 6 or 7 groups. Some of them are pretending the savior of Tamils and serving for the last regime. Among those groups what did they achieve for Tamils subjugation? Please learn the lessons from divided Tamil community. You cannot forget how the Tamils were decimated in 2009 that also because of Divided Tamils; I am not quoting but refreshing about the divided community’s results.
      Coming to South Sudan Pattern of separation, do not suggest an improbable equation to solve the Sri Lanka Tamils resolve. South Sudan is an absolute example for divide & kill; the new born country cannot walk on its own being divided and continue to kill each other after the Independence. South Sudan is a unique example to other warring communities as a warning, that UNITY MUST PREVAIL AMONG MINORITIES AND THE UNITY MUST BE PRESERVED TO FUTURE.
      UNITY is the only way forward to gain stability, peace & prosperity in Sri Lanka. If this could be achieved then all those Nationalist & religious Chauvinism & the bogus patriots would dissolved itself.
      Regretfully, much of the population were diverted by the extreme groups from the majority, those needs reeducation in respect to each other & living together to enjoy the harmony in this little Island. No separation!!!!

  • 2
    2

    Are we going to study world history or seek freedom for the Sri Lankan Tamils. The Tamils have no leaders at present to shoulder that responsibility. The past Tamil leaders failed the Tamil people miserably. We cannot compare Switzerland to Sri Lanka. The history of how Switzerland was created was complex. But in the case of Sri Lanka, the foreigners who occupied Sri Lanka failed the Tamils when they left Sri Lanka and the Tamil leaders helped the Sinhalese for the present crisis.
    I wonder why Mr.Sumanthiran did not attend the meeting between Rajapaksa and Sirisena lately or did he?

  • 6
    11

    Federations are for separate nations that existed on its own for thousands of years. In Sri Lanka it is totally different. All the historical works identify SL as the sinhala nation, even the Mahabharata a revered Hindu religious scripture.

    The only tamil kingdom existed just 200 years totally destroyed by Portugese. Then the tamils were brought to SL by Dutch and English into wanni and upcountry. Most of the tamils in SL do not have a history more than 200 years.

    Converting Sinhala nation which existed as such for 2000+ years into a federation is a theft of nation.

    • 3
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      sach

      Great contribution to islands history.

      “Federations are for separate nations that existed on its own for thousands of years.”

      The idea of nations came into being only in mid 16th century.

      Stupid is as stupid does/says.

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        so the idea of nation came in 16th century, so no nation existed before 16 AD……is that what you say?

        No wonder this coming from an idiot like u

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      there are federated States and Confederated States!

      Dr.RN

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        Not in SL…….have it somewhere else…
        Majority of tamils in SL dont have a history of 150 years in this country

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          sach

          There was no Sri Lanka before 1972.

  • 2
    1

    We can not understand all this talk about a separate state when 75% of the tamils from Jaffna are living in Colombo among the Sinhalese. In this separate state do you expect all the Jaffna tamils living in the south to go back there? What are the problems that tamils have while living in Colombo with the Sinhalese. How about Arjuna Mahendran, and all the tamils in politics like the guy who is the ministier of rehabilitation going back and living in Jaffna for a start!! before we go any further on this matter of a separate state or tamil homeland. How about all the high class tamils ladies appearing in the social pages of the colombo newspapers going back to Jaffna to show us that you are serious about all this talk.

  • 1
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    The Swiss federation came about with political transition and coupled with the attitude
    of the larger surrounding States. Sri Lanka is far out for such a change even now.
    Federalism in lines with India is more suited and the Sinhalese will benefit in the long
    term, if the new Constitiuion is cast on Principles of good governance & 21st century
    democracy.

    Sri Lanka compared to Switzrland falls short completely in the Education sector and
    any correction will yield results only over 5-6 decades?.

    A comment was made about the high earning in Swiss. Compare a 500gm. loaf of bread
    which costs in the rnage of LKR 154/- to 392/-! Minimum basic Rent LKR 105,000/-p.m.!!

  • 0
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    Good Prescription to a wrong patient. For God sake forget and let the patient have a natural end.

  • 1
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    Never in slavery like castes in South India,, but in egalatarian comradeship where minorities work with the majority as one, and also FOR the majority for country peace and prosperity as they are, and have always been more disadvantaged set.

    • 2
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      ramona therese fernando

      “Never in slavery like castes in South India,”

      Read KMD Silva page 40, A History of Sri Lanka

      Excerpt:

      Some of the temple lands however were cultivated by serfs or slaves belonging to the monasteries and there were no tenuruial contract between such serfs and slaves and the monastery.

      ramona therese fernando

      from the moda master race, read this concluding para from a research paper:

      From “Nation to “Race”: The Origin of Racial Classification in Eighteenth-Century Thought
      Nicholas Hudson

      Eighteenth-Century Studies
      Vol. 29, No. 3 (Spring, 1996), pp. 247-264

      An inherently inexact and ambiguous term, “race” would continue to evolve and to accommodate a wide range of ideologies and political objectives. A major development in the midnineteenth century was the formidable and grotesquely fruitful remarriage of “race” and “nation.” As Boyd C. Shafer wrote in his history of nationalism, “from the midnineteenth century, racial interpretations of all aspects of human behaviour multiplied and became a standard explanation for the establishment of nations and for the kind of nation racialists thought ought to be established.”84 Pseudoscientific studies of “race,” similarly, focused on racial differences between ever smaller groups. British, Irish, Saxons, Aryans, Jews, even “Americans” (that is, citizens of the United States) were all, at one time or another, vaunted or condemned as “races.”8s The reunion of “race” and “nation” had such important consequences because of the way these terms had been redefined during the Enlightenment. “Race” now meant more than just a “lineage” or even a variation of the human species induced by climate or custom. It meant an innate and fixed disparity in the physical and intellectual makeup of different peoples. “Nation,” in turn, was more than a group of people living under the same government. It was the very “soul” of personal identity, the very lifeblood churning through an individual speaking a particular dialect in one of Europe’s
      innumerable regions. From the often violent coupling of “race” and “nation,” refashioned in these new forms, were spawned the most virulent forms of nineteenthcentury racism, and finally the political barbarities of our own century. The last World War and subsequent calamities brought these dangers brutally to our attention. Yet we have still not freed ourselves completely from the disruptive and deluding legacy of Enlightenment racial science. The question remains, indeed, whether Buffon’s recoinage of “race” should be finally relegated to the
      dustbin of dangerous and useless terms. According to an increasing number of scholars,the subdivision of humankind into discrete racial types is nothing more than a “whited sepulchre,” and is based on a merely arbitrary selection of inherited traits and the roughest forms of statistically averaging.86 We could perhaps better speak of
      the “racialising” of peoples-the subjection of populations to scientifically invalid forms of classification based on an arbitrary selection of phenotypical or genetic differences.87 In considering the history of such “racialising,” we should, at least, see that it is by no means a permanent or unavoidable way of understanding humankind.
      Late Renaissance perceptions of the Other, while certainly distorted by religious prejudice and a contempt for “savagery,” lacked a real foundation in racial classification. The racial Weltanschauung that slowly emerged in the eighteenth century took shape under the social and intellectual forces of that time-an expanding imperial order, a
      new science, and the creation of a new, secular myth of human origin and human nature. Having found in our time that “race” was in fact humanity’s “most dangerous myth,”88 we can finally recover, in a new form, an appreciation for the vast and dynamic complexity of human difference.

      • 0
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        Native Vedda,
        My comment has come down there too?……hmmm must have pressed the “post comment” button twice.

        So, you must read all of the above to the British race, French race, Chinese race, and especially to yourself, as a prideful Native Vedda, so proud of your pre-historic lifestyle.

        Having said that, I have to admit the Sinhalese (Buddhists also), are one devious and annoying race to deal with, with their misplaced racial pride, and trying to keep up with the racial -pride standard in the midst of being a bit Modaya-ish.

        However,….However, , it’s not how bad they are, or how silly they are, but however bad or silly they might be, they still have the inalienable right to live within their own Island, and the inalienable right to secure it.

        • 3
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          ramona therese fernando

          Sinhalese and Buddhists have inalienable right to live in this island whereas those Sinhala/Buddhists bigots like you have already forfeited your rights (that you never had in the first place)to destroy this land, people and future generations.

          • 1
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            Now you’re calling me names Native Vedda, and with no real backing to prove it.

  • 1
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    @ramona therese fernando

    YOu mentioned the Aryans. The Aryans were supposed to have entered the subcontinent during 1500 bc and became the ruling class of the subcontinent. However very few Indians or Sri Lankans are fully aryan. Only about 10% of the Indian population are full blooded aryans. The majority are dravidians or dravidian aryan hybrids. The biggest mistake is the assumption that all north indians are aryans and all south indians are dravidians. There are a lot of north indians who look dravidian and some south indians who look aryan. To be honest i dont know why anyone in the subcontinent esp the sinhalese want claim aryan origin. The Aryans were nothing but a bunch of barbarians and rapists who brought the caste system to subjugate the dravidians. It was the dravidians who built the civilisation of india. The aryans just learnt from them.

    Also it is funny how you pick on south india for the caste system when it is practised all throughout india. Did you also know that the majority of sinhalese today came from south india??

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      ABCD

      “The Aryans were supposed to have entered the subcontinent during 1500 bc”

      There is no conclusive evidence to confirm Aryan Invasion Theory.

    • 1
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      If you go further up in the comments, you would find that it was Native Vedda who spoke about this Aryan thing first.

      I do agree with you totally about most of South Asia (Sinhalese indluded) being Dravidian-Aryan hybrids. DNA readings show this of all South Asians. In another article, I commented giving a link to the Harrapa ancestry project, showing Baloch (I presume that this is the Aryan gene they are talking about, being about 30% most South Asians; Onge being about 30%; South Indian being 60% in Sinhalese). This sounds about right, given the physical looks of the people.

      http://www.harappadna.org/page/5/
      http://www.harappadna.org/tag/ancestry/

      Oh, I picked on South India for caste, because being the nearest place for culture reference for Sri Lanka, Tamil Nadu caste system has been disturbing the psyche of the egalitarian Buddhists too often.

      • 3
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        ramona therese fernando

        “If you go further up in the comments, you would find that it was Native Vedda who spoke about this Aryan thing first.”

        It was you who first in your hallucinatory state of mind brought Aryan Master Race into your typing, elsewhere and many moons ago.

        Here is something you chose not to know:

        Genetics and the Aryan Debate
        By Michel Danino

        Excerpt from concluding para:

        Genetics is a fast-evolving discipline, and the studies quoted above are certainly not the last word; but they have laid the basis for a wholly different perspective of Indian populations, and it is most unlikely that we will have to abandon it to return to the crude racial nineteenth-century fallacies of Aryan invaders and Dravidian autochthons. Neither have any reality in genetic terms, just as they have no reality in archaeological or cultural terms. In this sense, genetics is joining other disciplines in helping to clean the cobwebs of colonial historiography. If some have a vested interest in patching together the said cobwebs so they may keep cluttering our history textbooks, they are only delaying the inevitable.

        http://archaeologyonline.net/artifacts/genetics-aryan-debate

        New research debunks Aryan invasion theory

        Saturday, 10 December 2011

        Kumar Chellappan

        In what could be a major setback to Dravidian parties in Tamil Nadu, an inter-continental research in cellular molecular biology has debunked the Aryan invasion theory.

        “We have conclusively proved that there never existed any Aryans or Dravidians in the Indian sub continent. The Aryan-Dravidian classification was nothing but a misinformation campaign carried out by people with vested interests,” Prof Lalji Singh, vice-chancellor, Banaras Hindu University, told DNA.

        The findings of a three-year research by a team of scientists, including Prof Singh and others from various countries, has been published by American Journal of Human Genetics in its issue dated December 9.

        “The study effectively puts to rest the argument that south Indians are Dravidians and were driven to the peninsula by Aryans who invaded North India,” said Prof Singh, a molecular biologist and former chief of Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Hyderabad.

        According to Dr Gyaneshwer Chaubey, Estonian Biocentre, Tartu, Estonia, who was another Indian member of the team, the leaders of Dravidian political parties may have to find another answer for their raison d’être. “We have proved that people all over India have common genetic traits and origin. All Indians have the same DNA structure. No foreign genes or DNA has entered the Indian mainstream in the last 60,000 years,” Dr Chaubey said.

        Dr Chaubey had proved in 2009 itself that the Aryan invasion theory is bunkum. “That was based on low resolution genetic markers. This time we have used autosomes, which means all major 23 chromosomes, for our studies. The decoding of human genome and other advances in this area help us in unraveling the ancestry in 60,000 years,” he explained.

        However, Gnani Shankaran, noted Dravidian thinker, said the time for writing the last word on Dravidian philosophy has not yet come.

        “We have to find out the credentials of the authors of this research paper and their hidden agenda. In Tamil Nadu, the Dravidian and Aryan ties are inter-related. The Dalits in our land are the descendents of the Dravidian Brahmins who were pushed to the lowest strata of society by the Aryans,” Shankaran said.

        According to Prof Singh, Dr Chaubey, and Dr Kumarasamy Thangaraj, another member of the team, the findings disprove the caste theory prevailing in India. Interestingly, the team found that instead of Aryan invasion, it was Indians who moved from the subcontinent to Europe. “That’s the reason behind the findings of the same genetic traits in Eurasiain regions,” said Dr Thangaraj, senior scientist, CCMB.

        “Africans came to India through Central Asia during 80,000 to 60,000 BCE and they moved to Europe sometime around 30,000 BCE. The Indian Vedic literature and the epics are all silent about the Aryan-Dravidian conflict,” said Dr S Kalyanaraman, a proponent of the Saraswathi civilization which developed along the banks of the now defunct River Saraswathi.

        http://www.dnaindia.com/
        india/report-new-research-debunks-
        aryan-invasion-theory-1623744

        Aryan-Dravidian divide a myth: Study
        TNN | Sep 25, 2009, 01.16AM IST

        HYDERABAD: The great Indian divide along north-south lines now stands blurred. A pathbreaking study by Harvard and indigenous researchers on ancestral Indian populations says there is a genetic relationship between all Indians and more importantly, the hitherto believed “fact” that Aryans and Dravidians signify the ancestry of north and south Indians might after all, be a myth.

        “This paper rewrites history… there is no north-south divide,” Lalji Singh, former director of the Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB) and a co-author of the study, said at a press conference here on Thursday.

        Senior CCMB scientist Kumarasamy Thangarajan said there was no truth to the Aryan-Dravidian theory as they came hundreds or thousands of years after the ancestral north and south Indians had settled in India.

        The study analysed 500,000 genetic markers across the genomes of 132 individuals from 25 diverse groups from 13 states. All the individuals were from six-language families and traditionally “upper” and “lower” castes and tribal groups. “The genetics proves that castes grew directly out of tribe-like organizations during the formation of the Indian society,” the study said. Thangarajan noted that it was impossible to distinguish between castes and tribes since their genetics proved they were not systematically different.

        The study was conducted by CCMB scientists in collaboration with researchers at Harvard Medical School,
        Harvard School of Public Health and the Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT. It reveals that the present-day Indian population is a mix of ancient north and south bearing the genomic contributions from two distinct ancestral populations – the Ancestral North Indian (ANI) and the Ancestral South Indian (ASI).

        “The initial settlement took place 65,000 years ago in the Andamans and in ancient south India around the same time, which led to population growth in this part,” said Thangarajan. He added, “At a later stage, 40,000 years ago, the ancient north Indians emerged which in turn led to rise in numbers here. But at some point of time, the ancient north and the ancient south mixed, giving birth to a different set of population. And that is the population which exists now and there is a genetic relationship between the population within India.”

        The study also helps understand why the incidence of genetic diseases among Indians is different from the rest of the world. Singh said that 70% of Indians were burdened with genetic disorders and the study could help answer why certain conditions restricted themselves to one population. For instance, breast cancer among Parsi women, motor neuron diseases among residents of Tirupati and Chittoor, or sickle cell anaemia among certain tribes in central India and the North-East can now be understood better, said researchers.

        The researchers, who are now keen on exploring whether Eurasians descended from ANI, find in their study that ANIs are related to western Eurasians, while the ASIs do not share any similarity with any other population across the world. However, researchers said there was no scientific proof of whether Indians went to Europe first or the other way round.

        Migratory route of Africans

        Between 135,000 and 75,000 years ago, the East-African droughts shrunk the water volume of the lake Malawi by at least 95%, causing migration out of Africa. Which route did they take? Researchers say their study of the tribes of Andaman and Nicobar islands using complete mitochondrial DNA sequences and its comparison those of world populations has led to the theory of a “southern coastal route” of migration from East Africa through India.

        This finding is against the prevailing view of a northern route of migration via Middle East, Europe, south-east Asia, Australia and then to India.

        http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/
        india/Aryan-Dravidian-divide-a-myth-Study/
        articleshow/5053274.cms

        ramona therese fernando

        Hope you have enough information to stop you from Aryan/Dravidian Hallucination.

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          Native Vedda,
          I never mentioned Aryan/Dravidian till you got all ruffled up when I said Sinhalese are master-race in Sri Lanka, as Tamils are master-race in Tamil Nadu. English are master-race in Britain, and French are master-race in France. Chinese are master-race in China and Arabs are master-race in Saudi. So what part of the word master-race ails you so much?
          I have mentioned countless times (see in comments above for this article above also), that even if there were Aryans and Dravidians, there has been a lot of mixing throughout history, and most south Asians have almost the same DNA structure, and have the same look and stature.

          Toot-a-loo

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            ramona therese fernando

            “I never mentioned Aryan/Dravidian till you got all ruffled up”

            You might have conveniently forgotton what you typed some months ago.

            “I said Sinhalese are master-race in Sri Lanka”

            Why? What are the attributes of Master race and what does it entails being a master race? If you have no idea please just ignore me.

            “even if there were Aryans and Dravidians, there has been a lot of mixing throughout history, and most south Asians have almost the same DNA structure, and have the same look and stature.”

            There hadn’t been such race called Aryan nor Dravidian. Full stop.

            “Toot-a-loo”

            Tickety-boo

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              Hey Native Vedda,
              I also said many months ago, that Sinhalese are master-race in numbers, culture and heritage in Sri Lanka, even as Tamils are master-race in Tamil Nadu, Chinese are master-race in China, Malays are master-race in Malaysia, Arabs are master-race in Saudi.

              “There hadn’t been such race called Aryan nor Dravidian. Full-stop.” Good! Now we can become one race sans DNA mania.

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                ramona therese fernando

                “that Sinhalese are master-race in numbers, culture and heritage in Sri Lanka,”

                Numbers does not produce a master race, in fact there is no such think as master race to begin with. What is Sinhalese culture or Sinhalese heritage? Please define and explain. I have been asking the Sinhala/Buddhist the same question over many moons and have never received a response. Your Tamil brethren also shy away when I ask them to define Tamil culture and their heritage.

                Something wrong with both stupid people.

                “Good! Now we can become one race sans DNA mania.”

                Minus master race.

                Tickety-boo

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    ABCD,

    If you go further up in the comments, you would find that it was Native Vedda who spoke about this Aryan thing first.

    I do agree with you totally about most of South Asia (Sinhalese indluded) being Dravidian-Aryan hybrids. DNA readings show this of all South Asians. In another article, I commented giving a link to the Harrapa ancestry project, showing Baloch (I presume that this is the Aryan gene they are talking about) being about 30% in most South Asians; Onge being about 30%; South Indian being 60% in Sinhalese. This sounds about right, given the physical looks of the people.

    http://www.harappadna.org/page/5/ http://www.harappadna.org/tag/ancestry/

    Oh, I picked on South India for caste, because being the nearest place for culture reference for Sri Lanka, Tamil Nadu caste system has been disturbing the psyche of the egalitarian Buddhists for too long.

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    It’s quite natural for some Tamils and their kith and kin who were hoodwinked, let down and robbed for over 30 years by the Tamil Terrorist Diaspora, the TTD, to feel sad in the glorious month of May, and write BS similar to this.

    Up to May 2009, when the Tamil terrorism was militarily crushed by the valiant Sri Lankan roops, the TTD was successful in getting deep into the pockets of Tamils, who were made refugees deliberately by the TTD, in order sent to western countries to raise money to kill Sri Lankans, while promising an all-Tamil, mythical fairy land the north of Sri Lanka. A well-oiled propaganda machine to distort facts, figures and history of Sri Lanka was also launched.

    Alas, the reality was dawned to the whole world in May 2009 when the Tamil terrorists took over 300,000 of their own civilian brothers and sisters as a human shield in a desperate attempt to fight off advancing troops, who ultimately had to rescue the civilians at high cost to the themselves.

    Having lost their plot, the TTD, living comfortably overseas, are now trying again to spread racial hatred, divisions and violence, targeting the innocent Tamil civilians to walk into the trap one more time.

    It’s the duty and responsibility of the leaders of the new government in Sri Lanka to recognize this inherent threat from the Tamil Terrorist Diaspora and make sure the TTD stands lost.

    All Sri Lankans are indebted to the valiant Sri Lankan troops who fought virtually hand to hand with deadly Tamil terrorists and brought peace and harmony to all Sri Lankans in the glorious month of May 2009. Without them crushing the Tamil terrorism, tens of thousands more would have been killed. I could have been one. So, I am thankful.

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    fair enough @ramona therese fernando

    you have a good point

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      ABCD

      “fair enough @ramona therese fernando you have a good point”

      What is the good point?

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        Anna!…..See!…Veddas have been pitting the main races, Sinhalese/SB’s and Tamils against each other for millennia!

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          ramona therese fernando

          “Anna!…..See!…Veddas have been pitting the main races, Sinhalese/SB’s and Tamils against each other for millennia!”

          It is only a modest attempt to point out their banality, stupidity, vanity, arrogance, outdated ideas about people, faith in unlimited violence, majoritarianism, constant raging,…….. intellectual dishonesty, sense of perverted history,……. . where possible regularly insult both people because they both deserve it.

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            Native
            “that Sinhalese are master-race in numbers, culture and heritage in Sri Lanka,

            This surmises RTF’s understanding on Srilankan history, ethnic composition and archaeogenetics.

            I would not waste time arguing with RTF.
            Ken

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              Shenali Waduge’s post on FB.
              10:26.
              What kind of joke is Multiculturalism & Securalists trying to play on the Sinhalese?

              Sinhalese make up more than 74% of the Population of Sri Lanka.
              It was the Sinhalese who built this nation to what it is today.
              Ancient sites and artefacts are evidence of the rich heritage and history.
              Why should Sinhalese be reduced to 25% in representation on par with minorities when the leaders that represent the minorities are out to divide and declare exclusive areas only for their people. It is ONLY THE SINHALESE who say the country belongs to all and everyone has a right to live in any part of the country.

              Sinhalese must refuse to be reduced to 25% representation when we are over 74%

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                ramona therese fernando

                Shenali Waduge is another public racist, a southern female redneck and a fantasist.

                “What kind of joke is Multiculturalism & Securalists trying to play on the Sinhalese?”

                It is an attempt to bring back Sinhala/Buddhists into modernity.

                “Sinhalese make up more than 74% of the Population of Sri Lanka.”

                Therefore they produce more stupid than all other minorities put together.

                “It was the Sinhalese who built this nation to what it is today.”

                This island was occupied by foreigners for 450 years and for better or worse they transformed this land. What the hell is she talking about? For nearly 100 years the upcountry Tamils build the plantation sector with all the difficulties that they had to patiently endure. Even today they are the backbone of the economy.

                Most South Indians who came here and settled down in the Western and Southern parts of this island now been converted to Sinhala/Buddhism in the past 700 years had immensely contributed to this land.

                “Ancient sites and artefacts are evidence of the rich heritage and history.”

                Dig deep into the soil you will see secular evidence. Most aftereffects you mention are either imported from Amaravati or Kanchi, Madurai, Kerala. Artisans were brought here to build Viharas. Vellaikkara Padei was brought to defend kingdoms, Viharas and traders. Merchant guild from South India was active in this island.

                What the hell is she talking about?

                “Sinhalese must refuse to be reduced to 25% representation when we are over 74%”

                Minorities must refuse to be reduced to Zero % representation when they are 26%.

                Sex starved men and women always crave for adverse publicity hoping to have some human physical contact.

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                  Not at all. She speaks like the average Sinhalese person, and I, even though not a Sinhalese, speak like her. Surprise! See how much Sinhalese are appreciated.

                  Multiculturalists and secularists are trying to create a westernized lifestyle so the western dollar is not at threat to the Chinese one. But we can always work around that and keep that US dollar high whilst still retaining our majority master-race heritage(of numbers, as Tamils are master-race in TN).

                  Tea accounts for 13% of GDP. Compare that to the number of Sinhalese who were driven from their lands so the estates could be built in the 1800’s. See it from the other angle that if tea estates were not there, the poor Sinhalese who now live in slums in major cities would have happily continued on their ancestral lands and been self-sufficient, without having suffer in the ME to gain what they lost in the 1800’s. Sri Lanka would have not needed a 13% GDP, as inflation and other monetary things would have not been a issue.

                  Ah, now calling any race stupid is shameful resentment and condescension. You have to see others from a more refined viewpoint.

                  Yes, South Indians who came to Sri Lanka over the last 700 years mixed with Sinhalese. Actually both North and South Indians have been coming to Sri Lanka for millennia. Sinhalese have always been progressive race. Their heritage always gave enlightment to others, and becoming Sinhala-Buddhist was autonomous.

                  Native Vedda, you must remove carnal ideas if you are to write with clarity.

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    All tamils must remember that you wanted a war with the Sinhalese and we had a war where so many innocent people died apart from all the innocents murdered by the LTTE. Now you remember that you wanted a war and there was a war and we the Sinhalese won the war. Now the whole country belongs to us and if you dont like it please go somewhere else. All tamils living in Sri Lanka are happy living among the Sinhalese so we dont need any tamils living outside the country to come and upset our lives.

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    Native Vedda,
    I couldn’t reply below your last comment (Native Vedda May 9, 2015 at 6:39 pm), because there was no “reply” tab for it. Guess CT has exhausted all “reply” tabs at that point of discussion.

    Equivocating, ad hominem and bluffing by you cannot hold truth. What I have said is only too evident, and so, making attempts to extricate my discussion from your tangled web of anger and resentment is quite unnecessary for me.

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      Ha ha ha ha ha ha:))))))
      Disenchanted ra ra ra cist islanders coconut heads, bud shity cheetas.

      Rap rap … Conservative Europeans especially white British are above racism when into governing of a nation of immigrants.

      Proof of the pudding is Chancellor George Osborne is his buddy for advise.
      The economy is doing fine and predictable.
      Leadership Awards event on 5 November 2014, David Cameron described Javid as “the brilliant Asian man who I asked to join the Cabinet” and stated that “I want to hear that title ‘Prime Minister’ followed by a British Asian name.”[24]
      Forbes magazine compared Sajid Javid to Barack Obama and suggested that Javid could become the next Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.[26]

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        That’s because Javid became English and spoke English. He married an English wife.

        “He has previously said that his family’s heritage is Muslim, but that he does not practise any religion, although he believes that “we should recognise that Christianity is the religion of our country”.(Wikepedia on Sajid Javid).

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    ramona therese fernando

    ” I couldn’t reply below your last comment (Native Vedda May 9, 2015 at 6:39 pm), because there was no “reply” tab for it. Guess CT has exhausted all “reply” tabs at that point of discussion.”

    Locate the last tab above the one you want to respond to,click open the comment box and type as usual. Your comment will sit nicely below the one you want to respond.

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    “”How come the Swiss French have never fought to separate and form a new country called “Romandie” (or even merge with France)?”It all comes down to the way in which the country is governed.”

    Nope!!!

    Both the psyche of German speaking Swiss and French speaking are the triple faces of Carl Jung and not Freudian British.

    Politics only follows Psyche… men of the mountain Taoist in thought.

    If you think less money should be spent on crushing our enemies and
    more on making them our friends… you might be a Taoist.
    If your definition of creationism is that man created gods… you might be a Taoist.
    If you like Benjamin Hoff’s “The Tao Of Pooh”… you might be a Taoist.
    ________

    “”However, the Swiss model also has the advantage of bringing benefits to the most deprived individuals in one ethnic group.””

    The Swiss model has it bearing to Catholicism and Charity in the mountains where it is cold and warm people is the need.

    while the Sinhalese do not even climb the tea hills at 4 am even with shoes and padded for their main export item even today.

    Lankian Buddies are Magnificent Idle Begging Bowl servers.

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