25 September, 2018

Blog

The National Question After The Ukraine

By Kumar David

Dr. Kumar David

Dr. Kumar David

Not merely in the Twenty-First Century, but from the third quarter of the Twentieth, new states have surfaced in different ways from that foreseen in the old Right to Self-Determination and Secession (SD&S) theory which emphasised Nationality. While use of SD&S in current discourse should recall its origins in Leninist discourse, more crucial is that the concepts be adapted, by lateral thinking, for today’s global context. However, most current discourse lags far behind actuality, as is always the case with static concepts. The purpose of this essay is to bring political theory up to date with events which are moving faster than men’s ability to construct theories thereof. It is a little repetitious of one of my previous essays in CT but some repetition is warranted when exploring new concepts.  Lanka is not mentioned today to discourage CT’s entrenched hoard of bigots and racists from engaging in their usual, pointless, slanging match.

Though this is not a polemical piece, allow me to first dispense with a peripheral matter. Dr Dayan Jayatilleka responded to a polemical piece where I criticised him (and Chief Minister CV Wigneswaran) as theoretically and ideologically out of date. His response appeared in CT (Minority Report: Sri Lanka’s Tamil Question a Response to Profs. Kumar David and Laksiri Fernando). I do not intend to reply because Jayatilleka’s rather disjointed ramble is not of a theoretical genre, or to use his words: “To me, ideology . . . has little to do with my practice . . .” I agree with his assessment of his own efforts; therefore there is no reason to debate him. I now return to my substantive topic.

New states in the modern world

The inherited Leninist theoretical framework is illustrated by Wigneswaran’s remarks at the Bernard Soysa memorial lecture earlier this month.

Ukrainian income map and Moldova-Transnistria map ; Monthly salary; note the pro-Russian east is the richest part. (The currency, funny-Z, is about eight to the dollar)

Ukrainian income map and Moldova-Transnistria map ; Monthly salary; note the pro-Russian east is the richest part. (The currency, funny-Z, is about eight to the dollar)

“A State with a capital ‘S’ may mean a self-governing political entity recognized by the international community as a distinct state or a division of a federal entity. In the first sense it can be used interchangeably with ‘Country’.  But a Nation is a tightly knit group of people who share a common culture and perceive themselves as such. A Nation State is a Nation, which is coterminous with the borders of a State. Nations are groups of people having relatively greater cultural homogeneity, and perceive themselves to be distinctive.  They are generally larger than a single tribe or community, and share a common language, institutions or religion or religions, and historical experiences”.

This is classic Lenin; an example is Tsarist absolutism versus the Georgian people’s struggle against oppression, feudal remnants and primitive social structures. Notwithstanding their bourgeois leadership Lenin stood with the Georgians; they represented historical progress and were potential allies of the revolutionary proletariat. Morally for the former reason, strategically for the later, he supported their right to SD&S. Wigneswaran is silent on secession for obvious reasons. Knowing the insanity of Gota’s defence establishment – arresting, harassing and abducting – it is wise.

Jayatilleka says that Lenin’s formulations were relevant only in the age of imperialism and not any longer. Balderdash! He must reckon they cannot be stretched, mutatis mutandis, to modern times and dozens of states that have emerged in the last 25 years. Lenin’s way of thinking is relevant today though Jayatilleka prefers Gramsci, a staging post for many on the journey from Lenin to Hayek?

Secession in modern times

A century has passed since the Lenin-Luxemburg debates and the emergence of new states no longer depends only on nationality and cultural homogeneity. Putative states need to be cohesive, not homogeneous in culture or nationality, but cohesive in that a majority, albeit a non-homogeneous one, wishes to secede. In modern times this is the measure of identity since the viability of a new state depends on modern imperatives such as global supply-chains, collapsing trade barriers, universal digital connectedness and international support, especially in the near-abroad. All this has erased ‘economies of scale’ in state size; there is no optimum size. Nearly 20 states emerged from the demise of the USSR, seven from Yugoslavia; or think EU and Africa.

Small (half Lanka’s size) Moldova, and tiny Transnistria (population half million, size one-tenth of Lanka) which has proclaimed itself an independent state!

Small (half Lanka’s size) Moldova, and tiny Transnistria (population half million,
size one-tenth of Lanka) which has proclaimed itself an independent state!

Taiwan is a thriving Asian example consisting of four groups with little common history prior to the fall of the KMT in China. There is not all that much cultural homogeneity except that created by modern capitalism (which is exactly my point). But they share one cohesive marker of identity – they wish to remain a separate state. Ok, whatever the facts, grant this hypothetically. Then eureka, you have it! These peoples (note plural) Hoklo, Hakka, Mainlanders who came with the KMT, and the Originals, are entitled to their state. The PRC should bow to their right to Self-Determination.

Size is irrelevant. Take Singapore; it was kicked out of Malaysia in 1965 and has prospered gloriously since. This is not a case of secession by self-determination but by expulsion (Lee Kwan Yue described it as “The only instance in modern history where a country was formed because it was kicked out”). But it would not have made any difference to the prosperity of non-homogeneous Singapore and Malaysia if it had been the other way round. Size and homogeneity do not matter. More examples of small, independent and economically viable states are Latvia and Lithuania, each the size of Lanka with populations of 2.2 million and 3.2 million, respectively, while Estonia is 70% of our size and has a population of 1.7 million. Rwanda and Burundi are each 40% of Lanka’s size and have populations which are each half ours. There are many examples of viable new states when the global economic nexus and the near-abroad were supportive.

Latvia and Estonia contradict the thesis of cultural homogeneity as a necessary condition to secede and form a stable state. The former is ethnically mixed, 60% Latvians, 27% Russians and 13% others, the latter Estonia 69% Estonians, 26% Russians and 5% others.  To put it bluntly, any cohesive group that desires to constitute itself into a state so as to benefit in modern times from a globalised ethos, is a candidate provided it is viable on practical grounds like democracy, population, political stability, land/territory (preferably contiguous), and international connections. In a nutshell this is my case. This is where Leninism brings us in the century of globalisation. In modern times, linguistic, cultural or faith-homogeneous new states are the exception.

The Ukraine as proof

Ukraine is about nine times larger than Lanka and its population of 45 million is 79% Ukrainian and 20% Russian (mainly in the east and Crimea); it’s per capita of GDP $7400 is 2.3 times Lanka’s per capita GDP at nominal exchange rates. It is one of the world’s bread baskets and largest grain exporters. Its history has been a chequered one; overrun by classical Greece, Rome and the Byzantine Empire and later occupied by the Goths who were subdued by the Huns. The country reached its zenith, embracing Ukrainian and Russian people, in the 10th to 13th Centuries, but eroded and fragmented after the ruinous 30-year war in Europe (1657-86). In the 18th Century the Ukraine passed under Tsarist suzerainty. In the wars following the Bolshevik Revolution a large chunk of western Ukraine was lost to Poland, a small region in the south-west became independent Moldova, and the remainder became a founding republic of the USSR.

It will come as no surprise when the eventual outcome of the present conflict in the Ukraine will be only partly influenced by nationalism and the country’s chequered history. Great Power politics, Russian security concerns, NATO, and global economics – gas pipelines from Russia to Europe, grain exports and advanced industry in eastern (Russian) Ukraine – will call the shots. Crimea is gone to Russia; there will be no return. A form of federalism guaranteeing the eastern provinces substantial autonomy is the only fix, short of secession or a merger of some provinces with Russia.

Face it! This is not an exception but the visage of the “national question’ in the Twenty-First Century. It is time to discard inherited categories and the pride of our glorious ancestors. In modern times that is all irretrievably sliding down the slopes. What fits best with global interconnectedness, pluralism, autonomy, the power of democracy and with international relations, will survive.

Print Friendly, PDF & Email

Latest comments

  • 3
    1

    Brilliant analysis! It is high time that the Mahinda regime takes note of changes in the neighbourhood and loses no time to resolve the National Question in Sri Lanka at least in a limited manner for the present. On the other hand if he pushes the path of BBS, RB et al, it may not take long for a part of Sri Lanka to become a Crimea!

    Sengodan. M

    • 1
      0

      Sengodan,

      Don’t be fooled by what the writer Dr Dravid refers to as ‘National Question’. At best, it is a ‘Regional Question’ created by a few attention seeking Tamils for other Tamils. The rest of the population have many pressing concerns – high cost of living, environmental issues, diminishing education and health services. Surely, the learned doctor is capable of seeing where the priorities lie in the minds of Sri Lankans.

  • 1
    0

    Commis are crazy

  • 3
    1

    Kumar uncle! can you please go to India and with the support of Tamil Nadu start a debate on self detemination for tamils in India so that you can fullfill your dream of having a seperate nation in India leaving Sri Lanka alone.

    • 3
      1

      piyal silva (Sinhala speaking Demela)

      “Kumar uncle! can you please go to India and with the support of Tamil Nadu start a debate on self detemination for tamils in India so that you can fullfill your dream of having a seperate nation in India leaving Sri Lanka alone.”

      Can you also go with Kumar David to Tamilnadu and build your own Sinhala/Buddhist one nation whence your ancestors came by Kallathonies leaving this island to the rightful owners, my people.

      Uncle and niece/nephew can continue to have their domestic disputes in their ancestral land, North/South India.

      When you go take all your Tamil and Sinhala/Buddhist uncles and aunts with you.

      We want our island back.

      • 1
        0

        Didn’t realise karapoththas are veddahs too!

        They will soon have to leave to Belgium, Holland and other ports where they came from, leaving Sri lanka for the Sinhalese, Tamils and Moors.

        • 1
          0

          Selvam

          “They will soon have to leave to Belgium, Holland and other ports where they came from, leaving Sri lanka for the Sinhalese, Tamils and Moors.”

          When are you planning to leave? Sooner the better.

          • 1
            0

            I wanted to check kallathoni vedda’s dna.

    • 1
      1

      Piyal Silva,

      The people of Tamilnadu are reasonably satisfied with the autonomy they enjoy with which they are confident that they can preserve their language,culture and traditions for all time. They are not threatened with enforced settlements of other communities amongst their midst, land grab by the army or any other force and so on. They also believe that the degree of autonomy will improve over time. So, they are quite happy to be part of India, an emerging super-power.

      Can you now see the difference between the Tamils of India and the Tamils of Sri Lanka?

      Sengodan. M

  • 2
    0

    Hey there,

    The nation affords a higher level of independence and autonomy over large tracts of land. Therein lies the attraction over being just a minority.

    Although I suspect with other Lenin theories this one probably fails when it comes to the economy. Have you properly costed the Tamils nation? Are Tamils in a position to afford even basic health and education on their own?

    The Tamil nation will inevitably encroach on the east. Although neither the Moslem nor the Sinhala population will want anything to do with the Tamil nation. In addition, Tamil Monotheism and Moslem Monotheism will ensure clashes to continue.

    Thats only the beginning of Tamil national problems.

  • 2
    1

    No amount of historic proof and preaching will reach the Lankan Bull heads and its apologist like Dayan.

    Only strong arm tactics works ie:Air droping of food,show of force by LTTE and International inquiry mandated by UNHCR.

    Although I am not a proponent of anarchy and violence. Just for records I am mentioning LTTE’S show of force.

    As I have always felt LTTE was the sole obstacle for Tamils to obtain rightful devolution of powers and dignity.Current regime of brothers is the obstacle genuine peace and reconciliation in Lanka .
    Both LTTE and the brothers are two sides of the same coin.

  • 1
    1

    A…..gh. David says, “Lanka is not mentioned today to discourage CT’s entrenched hoard of bigots and racists from engaging in their usual, pointless, slanging match.”

    He is blaming everyone who sees through the irrelevant bullshit he keeps pouring out at any media that is prepared to give it the time of day.

    And then he blames astute comments like this one!

    A failed Marxist is a failed Marxist always, no matter how much he tries. Eduation does nothing to change it.

  • 0
    0

    Dr David,

    All your discourse is wasted. Talk about intercourse man. That is the only thing Sri Lankans are interested in.

    • 1
      1

      BBS Rep

      “Talk about intercourse man. That is the only thing Sri Lankans are interested in.”

      Are you sure? I thought they are not interested in making love instead they love rapping the tourists and their own under aged daughters.

      Professional army is being professional for one thing and one thing only, rapping the war victims.

      Making love is an art but they are interested only in the physical exercise. If you want to change them buy them Kamasutra not UN Hman Right Charter.

  • 1
    1

    Dr KD you are spot on on the out-datedness of the modern nation state and majoritarian nationalism in a highly globalized and NETWORKED world.

    It is clear today that countries where the majority do not share power with minority communities will inevitably dissolve and fall apart, however strong the military apparatus and military dictatorship, in the absence of DEMOCRATIC INSTITUTIONS and structures to BALANCE COMPETING CLAIMS among groups.. Check out the ruin that is Syria today – this is where Lanka is headed as promised by the Mahinda Rajapaksa’s CHAOS SPECIALIST – Laltih Weeratunga. The BBS Balu Sena is the vanguard of the Chaos to come and unless its leaders are put behind bars soon Gota the Goon will be slaughtered by his own Frankenstein monster the Balu Sena which he created and unleashed to sow CHAOS and Hate in Lanka..
    India which is one of the most CULTURALLY diverse countries in the world survives because there is a federal system and institutional structure – increasingly under siege from corruption. Once Modi comes to power there he will certainly put the screws on Jarapassa and threaten to annex northern Lanka, just as Putin has done in Crimea..

  • 1
    1

    There will soon be 3 states in Sri Lanka or perhaps 4 if the people of Colombo succeed in chasing out the Hambantota boothaya from Colombo and send them back to Medamualana.
    I suggest that Colombo give Hambantota independence to be ruled by Jarapassa.
    Colombo people have had enough city “beautification” and PutriFICATION of institutions that are CORRUPT and full of UNEDUCATED Jarapassa cronies and Gota’s military.
    We want a CIVIL ADMINISTRATION in the city of Colombo

    1. the Northern State annexed to Tamil Nadu
    2. The Eastern Muslim State of Smanthurai-Pottuvil and Kalmunai
    3. The Southern state sans Hambantota.
    4. Hambantota for all the corrupt political criminals to gather and rule them selves as a separate state with MR and GOTA as their kings!

  • 0
    0

    ” Wigneswaran called upon Tamil girls to get over the issue of taking up nursing because of the social stigma attached to the profession+ “

    I was surprised to read this elsewhere. If this were true, why is there such a stigma attached to this noble profession among the Tamils, because I do not believe that such exists among the Sinhala. Explanations please.

Leave A Comment

Comments should not exceed 300 words. Embedding external links and writing in capital letters are discouraged. Commenting is automatically shut off on articles after 10 days and approval may take up to 24 hours. Please read our Comments Policy for further details. Your email address will not be published.