27 May, 2022


Thirteenth Amendment In Driblets Or Plus Or Beyond

By S. Sivathasan

S. Sivathasan

S. Sivathasan

Minds in Turmoil

“The genius and the mortal instruments

Are then in council, and the state of man,

Like to a little kingdom, suffers then

The nature of an insurrection”. – Shakespeare in Julius Caesar

There cannot be a more apt depiction of the state of mind of Sri Lankans, of the two major ethnicities. A change of government in India taking the form of a resounding victory for BJP and a devastating rout of Congress was known for certain for some months up to May 16. The prospect had inspired hope among Indians and Tamils of Sri Lanka. Anxieties had gripped a major section of the Sri Lankan population ahead of May and more so since the results. Brave talk notwithstanding, whistling in the dark continues. The media mirror explicitly how much their minds are assailed.

Anything does for Tamils

“But there’s never a question

About my digestion

Anything does for me”. The Plaint of the Camel

Tamils have developed an appetite for equality and dignity. Give them something or if you can’t make it worthwhile, give them anything. They are so inured, anything does for them. This is the tenor in which the attitude of the South is couched in its approach to the North. When anything does, why think of something more. While 13A is in place, why talk about 13A+. One particular political analyst continuously advances the thesis that implementation of 13A will serve as a panacea for what Tamils consider are their ills. Why discuss 13A and beyond when they are not necessary. That analyst spreads the dread that if perchance some content is put into the shell, that would spell disaster for the Southern polity. Yes, the relevance of talk of Plus and Beyond  is to pull wool over the eyes of all Tamils and of India. When we have succeeded for past five years what prevents success in the next five or more? This tactic was packaged and taken to Delhi where it was dissected for specifics.

Sickle came across a Stone

So went the thinking of SL President till May 26, the day Narendra Modi was sworn in as Prime Minister. The same night Secretary Foreign Affairs, India met the SL President and informed him of the issues to be deliberated the following morning.  On the 27th Modi commenced his discussion with the words “expedite the process of national reconciliation in a manner that meets the aspirations of the Tamil community for a life of equality, justice, peace and dignity in a united Sri Lanka”. He also alluded to the pledge of 13+ and going beyond. To the President’s quip that “the war ended only now” made more in levity than as response; Modi’s retort was that war ended five years back.  How disquieting  it was to President Rajapaksa may be gleaned from his disoriented reaction back home,“I will have to learn Hindi because he (Modi) does not know English”. Is this a statement for a Head of State and of Government to make about Head of Government of the world’s largest democracy?

The days of hallucination that Sri Lanka entertained have ceased. India’s Premier was found to be of a different mint. He is a no-nonsense leader. When a Lilliputian can’t measure up, he must cut Gulliver down to his size. In the process the six incher has diminished himself further.

What is 13th Amendment

Article 154 of the Sri Lankan Constitution from November 1987. It purports to devolve power to the 9 Provinces of the country. Of them all, 7 are Sinhalese dominated population wise, representatively, in their bureaucratic profile and in the language of administration. The interests of the centre and the provinces are very much allied politically and economically. The 7 elected Provincial Councils have functioned always with Sinhalese Chief Ministers, with mostly Sinhalese Governors and with periodic elections for 28 years from June 1988; a total of 196 Council years.

In contrast the elected North East Provincial Council functioned for 1 year and 2 months. The Governor was a former Army Commander. The elected Eastern Provincial Council has existed for a few years. The Governor was a Service Commander. The elected Northern Provincial Council is existing for once, for 8 months. The Governor is a former army officer.

When the minorities of the North and the East think of their predicament, they are rudely reminded of the Plaint of the Camel.

“Canary-Birds feed on sugar and seed,

Parrots have crackers to crunch:

And, as for the poodles, they tell me the noodles

Have chickens and cream for their lunch”.

To them, what they experience is mis-governance, an agonising sufferance needing the surgeon’s knife. Their prayer is from whomsoever who can wield it to remove the absis.

First Driblet

It took 26 years (1987 – 2013) for the 1st reluctant drop to reach the parched up North. What a long period of time! In a quarter century Singapore had graduated from Third World to First. In what form did that drop come? As a shell. Were the Tamils exercising their intelligence in demanding it? Absolutely yes. A receptacle is indispensable to hold any content. Now 27 years are over and not even a vestige of power or authority is seen. To whom can the deprived and the cheated turn but to the architect of the Agreement and the Legal Enactment. At a point of time when a paralytic is replaced by a dynamic, they are stretching their arms fervently.

Second Driblet

Has there been a second driblet? No. As an altogether new second drop, Sri Lankan President, the government and the Southern polity seek to portray that the second one will be extracted with a strong throttle. What is it? Land powers. For this act of munificence Tamils have to remain ever grateful. Tamils know it for a certainty that an important provision of the constitution has been brazenly violated without extending to it the sanctity that was its due. Needless to say the government has no alternative but to implement it.

Third Driblet

What is the third one? Police powers. Never will it even ooze out of the nozzle. Let not any Tamil dream of it, is the warning. Perhaps another 27 years are needed to grant them. Some Ministers say it as the best of their discovery and parliamentarians mutter it as a display of fearlessness against a big neighbour. All these are uttered at the instance of the President or to win his pleasure. Little do they realize that the constitution provides it and withholding it is in contravention of it. They seem to think that a single Minister can veto and disregard the collective action embodied in the supreme law made by the whole legislature. Another great discovery is now made and advanced before the Indian government that extending police powers to multi ethnic, multi religious Provinces in Sri Lanka is disastrous. Do they argue that Indian states are not multi and therefore can have them? It is such ignoramuses that run Sri Lanka.

What Does Thirteen Plus Mean?

When Thirteen is minused and then restored to original form, it becomes Thirteen Plus seems the weird Presidential mathematics in Sri Lanka. Was it pledged to a gullible former Prime Minister of India or was it said in levity? Was it a felicitous statement or a facetious lover’s promise? Let the declarant expound it. So he made the bed so let him lie on it. He is obliged to do so since he made the pledge to the PM of another country.

What can Plus mean? Certain fundamentals or essentials consciously left out from 13A or overlooked in 1987 require to be brought in. Certain administrative decisions or judicial rulings seen in the light of 25 years of hindsight as impeding the process of devolution, need to be rectified. A critical reappraisal is called for about the legislative inadequacies, administrative shortcomings and financial constraints that stand against the restoration of confidence and goodwill among the minorities. If there was honest intent that 13 Plus was needed, why wasn’t a single measure attempted in the last 5 years?

What Connotes Thirteen and Beyond?

This is welcome by the Tamils who know it all too well that Thirteen A is inadequate and inconclusive. The term BEYOND needs precise and explicit definition from the government and an authentic imprimatur through the President. There is scope for a spurt of response positive, rational and sensible that will be forth coming from the Tamils and the other minorities languishing in continued marginalization.

As Tamils see it, ‘Beyond’ should encompass a few components. As examples two may be cited: Finances and Administrative Structures.

Finances for the Northern Provincial Council

Finances account for everything in governance and development as much in the provinces as at the centre. However, Sri Lanka being unitary the centre takes virtually all. Tax revenue for all 9 Councils put together is less than 4% of the nation’s. A comparison places the picture among Provinces in perspective. Tax revenue in 2012 for Western Province was Rs. 24,500 million and for Northern Province was Rs.81 million. The 30 year war in the North and the destruction of the economy explain. They have devastated the investing classes, wiped out the middle strata and knocked off the tax base. That is reason for special arrangements in the North to revamp the economy.

Administrative Structures

There is a vast array from Ministry Secretaries to several other grades that are needed in the Province. What was built over time is now seriously affected. Fresh recruitment has been poor. To compound it all there is hardly a catchment in the country to draw from, where Tamils count now for less than 1%. New cadres need to be recruited, trained and deployed. The Provincial Council has to be adequately empowered to discharge this indispensable function.

Uninhibited Architecture

To build a new house where my family can live happily with freedom of movement, I will seek the services of an architect. If on the first occasion he says that he can do a good design but the overriding consideration is that my house cannot be different from his or that better features will not be incorporated, then I will not meet him again. The misfortune that befell the Tamils in the period 1983 to 1987 was that the architect was not disengaged and his unacceptable condition was taken kindly to. The tragedy that followed afflicts the community to this day. How?

India came in purportedly to rescue the Tamils from oppression. To place them on a secure foundation, the strategy that was thought of was a constitutional arrangement. It took the form of the 13th Amendment to the Constitution of Sri Lanka. In formulating it, domestic political compulsions plagued India. If a viable formula is worked out and applied to the Tamils of Sri Lanka, what happens when the same demand is articulated by the states of India? An overarching steel frame, inflexible and constricting was the result and deliberations were confined within it.

It was laid down thus: The North East of Sri Lanka shall have no power in excess of the powers exercised by the states of India. With such an inhibition, there was no difficulty in incorporating the quasi federal restrictions of the Indian constitution into the 13th Amendment. It was a cut and paste job. The Northern Province most affected by a deficit in political power stands as the least assisted. Denied power and devoid of finance, the Provincial Council remains stymied.

Altogether New Constitutional Amendment

Let there be the clearest understanding on the part of the Sri Lankan Government that 13 A is besides tinkering and beyond redemption. This cracked bottle simply cannot hold new wine. It can only go to pieces. Talk of Amendment to the Amendment and repetition of Plus and Beyond are just an exercise in rigmarole and obfuscation as has been seen in every sphere.

With over 6 decades of constitutional reform discussions, over 150,000 Tamils dead and unaccounted for and over 900,000 Tamils in exile, we are yet treated to unending diddling. With a million and 50,000 (1,050,000) not in the country since 1971, Sri Lanka Tamils are:

1971 Census…11.2% of SL population

2011 Census…11.2% of SL population

Source: Department of Census and Statistics.

Can they ever be like this?

What do the governmental statistics bespeak?

Fecundity of the Tamils?

Veracity of SL government statistics?

Quality of governance in Sri Lanka?

India and the world should be able to appreciate why Tamils seek India’s involvement and international intervention to resolve their problems. Let a new enactment place them in a secure setting.

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Latest comments

  • 4

    Well said, Sivathasan. Please keep it up!

    Sengodan. M

    • 0


  • 4

    Mr. Sivathasan

    Excellant explanations. Unfortunately, learned from the other side pretending to sleep.

  • 5

    This is a poignant and beautiful piece; thank you Mr Sivathasan. It tells of hope, aspiration and stoicism on the one side; and constitutional changes made under duress, then promises and betrayal on the other side. Singapore (albeit not a true democracy) was transformed from third world to first by granting equal rights to all its citizens and We the People have no doubt that with the awesome diversity that defines Lanka’s gene pool, Sri Lanka can easily do likewise and in a shorter time frame. To achieve this though, our politicians will have to shed their ethno-religious baggage and think NATION first, second and last.

    Despite what the writer hopes for, I’m afraid that the threat of Modi alone isn’t going to hack it, for our heroes who wield power today will somehow turn the tables and deny the Lankan Tamil community their legitimate aspirations of and revert back to their highly successful but cunning and devious ways.

    What to do………?

  • 4

    Thank You Mr.Sivathasan ,For a poignant timely article.
    Unfortunately this will also fall on deaf Ears.

    The majority community doesn’t want to acknowledge that Tamils do have grievances and their intentions are to improve their own life and dignity along with it the whole island would benefit.

    LTTE adventure started only when the grievances were not addressed. They remain the same and in worst form since the Minorities have lost their foundation in Education and wealth creation.

  • 5

    Mr.Sivathasan ,

    Thank You For a poignant timely article.

    Unfortunately this will also fall on deaf Ears.

    The majority community doesn’t want to acknowledge that Tamils do have grievances and their intentions are to improve their own life and dignity along with it the whole island would benefit.

    LTTE adventure started only when the grievances were not addressed. They remain the same even after the demise of LTTE, in worst form since the Minorities have lost their foundation in Education and wealth creation.

    Majority community lack a statesman who would win elections on a platform of Equality,Dignity and Devolution of powers.

    The statesman who value this platform cann’t win elections in the Sinhala heart land.

    Under these circumstances a viable unitary state solution in the island is a pipe dream.Only a police state in the North/East is possible.

    Minorities have only one option,

    A time limited grace period of Less than 12 months for GoSL to come up with a viable proposal, unilaterally, which will be acceptable to Minorities and implement it.
    (They can consult who ever they like but it should be acceptable to TNA,Muslim Congress ,Mano etc.)

    Failing this, a referendum among minorities to decide their own fate.

    Enough of dilly dallying and playing games.The island has lost 64 years of life.

    Live and let others live.

    • 1

      Tamils talk about DIGNITY.

      What bull $hit.

      In Yapapatuna, a former Sinhala town – now infested with Tami speaking tobacco farmers, imported from Kerala, who think that they are the highest caste, the dignity exists only for them. All others are low caste and are discriminated.

      That is the fundamental Tamil social structure.

      The day caste discrimination is destroyed, Tamil society is also destroyed.

      LTTE was a result of their social status and economic struggle. that is why LTTE started it with the killing of high caste mayors.

      • 3

        Jim Sooty:

        Get your facts right mate. It was you lot who started the killing since Independance and ours was a strggle for Freedom from Sinhalse Tyrrany.It is all over now with the victory of BJP. You talk of DIGNITY and that is not in your Gene.
        That is why MR was given 20 minutes slot to read out the Charge sheet and was humiliated.
        He went for a Kashmiri Chicken Briyani but Modi dumped left over hot Madras Chicken Vindaloo on his face.He will never go back to Delhi again untill ordered.

      • 4


        “What bull $hit.”

        Hence you don’t know much about dignity. Dignity is not “bull $hit”.

        Dignity – Synonyms


      • 4


        “In Yapapatuna, a former Sinhala town – now infested with Tami speaking tobacco farmers, imported from Kerala, who think that they are the highest caste, the dignity exists only for them.”

        Do you have any reliable evidence to prove any of the above. It is actually the Sinhalese whose ancesters were imported from Kerala by the Portugese to grow Cinnamon and Coconuts and there is enough evidence to prove it. Check your great great grand father’s ancestry, I am sure he must be from Kerala.

        CT readers are very well aware of your mental status and your inventions from thin air.

  • 2

    Poetic prose exposing the sorry state of the revolutionary exercise. Would the opposition leader of the NPC, Thavaraja respond in defence of the status quo?

    Dr. Rajasingham Narendran

  • 3

    Well written. However a major flaw in your arument that The 7 elected Provincial Councils have functioned with periodic elections for 28 years. Well in the NE we had LTTE running the local government collecting taxes, LTTE police and Traffic police etc, another parallel Provincil Council would have been impossible and ineffecitve

  • 3

    Sivathasan, the Sri Lankan Tamil percentage in 1971 and 2011 remained the same because a lot of Sinhalese and Muslims have also ‘immigrated’, largely as labour to the Persian Gulf. There are 2 million non-Tamil Sri Lankans employed overseas. Further, the Tamil diaspora may not be as high as you indicate. Has there been a census thereof?

    • 1

      Sri Lankan Tamil

      If the Tamil Diaspora is not as high as I present, is it as low as 106,000 as is derivable from the statistics of the census of 2011of DCS? Pl. see an excerpt from my population analysis in article of June 5, 2013 “Numbers Game” in CT. You can elucidate your position which may lie between 1 million and 1 lakh. Since you challenged my figure, you owe this responsibility.

      “One may also ask whether the Department Of Census and Statistics cannot do a good job of it. Another may respond why not? I seek a clarification from the Department regarding the total strength of the diaspora population. My computation is as follows:

      Total Sri Lankan Tamil Population in 2011 as per census 2,270,924
      Total Sri Lankan Tamil Population in 2011 1,886,900
      Total increase in 30 years for SL Tamils 384,000
      Total increase in 30 years for SL 5,431,000=36.5%
      National increase of SL Tamils as per SL growth 2,576,000
      Difference between National and Census 306,000
      War dead estimated for Tamils for 30 years 100,000
      Estimate of SL Tamil refugees in South India 100,000
      Therefore total SL Tamil Diaspora population is 106,000

      Does it appear rational to place the total diaspora population in Europe, Canada, US and Australia at 100,000? Is there trust in a product of indigenous effort when there is such a variance between popular perception and a governmental source? DCS can clarify if my computation is wrong. The insistent demand for impartial international investigation may be better appreciated in this background”

      • 0

        3 corrections

        In the para giving statistics, the second line should be 1981 and not 2011.

        The fifth line is Notional and not National

        The sixth line is Notional and not National

        The typographical errors are regretted pl.

      • 0

        Takes the Statistics that Tamils were killed in thousands. thousands of Tamils migrated overseas. Still the increase is 384,000.

        If this is the truth, Tamils have reproduced like rats.

      • 3

        Sivathasan, the Tamil diaspora population, including those residing in India, likely approximates between 500,000 and 600,000. I can provide you the country-wise breakdown and hard data using international documentation. But that’s an article in itself.

        There is a lot of independent analysis on the breakdown in the United States, France, Britain, the Scandinavian countries, India etc which discounts the ‘one million Sri Lankan Tamils living abroad’ scenario.

        The Tigers exaggerated the numbers of Tamils living overseas. Many in the Tamil diaspora blindly repeat those statistics.

        The numbers in Toronto is what needs investigation. The Tamil diaspora routinely claims 250,000 Tamils in Toronto. I dispute that.

        I repeat what I said earlier – at least 2 million Sinhalese and Muslims traveled overseas for employment purposes. These are statistics of the Sri Lanka Bureau of Foreign Employment which classifies them as Sri Lankans. That said, we know that the vast majority of the unskilled construction workers, drivers, hotel minor staff and housemaids in the Gulf are not Tamil but Sinhalese or Muslim. In fact, the number of Sri Lankan workers overseas may be higher than 2 million. The number 2 million are those registered with the Bureau of Foreign Employment. It excludes students, legal immigrants between 1971 and 2011 etc.

        A lot of Sinhalese had legally immigrated overseas and left Sri Lanka for economic reasons between 1971 and 2011. Many left as students to the West and have since remained there.

        There is a significant Sinhalese worker population in South Korea, Singapore and Malaysia now which exceeds recent Ceylon Tamils in all three countries [I exclude the wave of Jaffna Tamils who moved to the Straits settlements in the early 1920s].

        Many of the Sinhalese hardliners commenting here are likely diaspora Sinhalese resident overseas, such as yourself! We in Sri Lanka otherwise have restricted access to CT. I am one of the few Sri Lanka residents able to comment on Colombo Telegraph using a proxy server.

        There is another point. A significant number of Indian Tamils of estate origin have reclassified themselves as Sri Lankan Tamils between 1971 and 2011 which is a perfectly legitimate decision. This is witnessed in the parallel reduction in the number of Indian Tamils between 1981 and 2011.

        If the census categories of Kandyan Sinhalese and Low Country Sinhalese can be combined, the categories of Indian Moor and Ceylon Moor be merged, if the categories of Dutch Burgher and Portuguese Burgher be combined, why not Sri Lankan Tamil and Indian Tamil? Its an artifial divide and who really cares whether ones ancestry is Indian or Jaffna? We speak the same language, do we not?

        These various factors explain the 11.2% Ceylon Tamil percentage both in 1971 and in 2011. I can provide you the hard data but as I said – its an independent article in itself.

        The Buddhist population was 69% in 1981 which rose to 70% in 2011 – which indicates a parallel immigration overseas for economic reasons. This has got many Buddhist hardliners worried at the commensurate rise in the Muslim [religion based] population between 1981 and 2011 – from 7.4% to 9.7%.

        Its Sinhalese, like Dayan Jayatilleke with their duplicitous majoritarian mindset, that repeatedly try to de-emphasize and intentionally reduce the number of Tamils in Sri Lanka. I call that census negationism! Dayan prefers to use flawed CIA data [based on incomplete census data of 2001 which excluded the North and East] and not the Government of Sri Lanka census data of 2011! Its surprising that you are falling into that same trap!

        The hardline Government of Sri Lanka has no reason what so ever to exaggerate the number of Sri Lankan Tamils. They will on the otherhand want the number deflated and reduced – for obvious reasons. Why are you trying to reinforce that diabolic intention of theirs?

      • 3

        I just replied to your response.

        Let me add more data. You speak of the Tamil war dead. What about the Sinhalese war dead – 25,000 in 1971, 60,000 between 1987 and 1990 [JVP insurrection] and Sinhalese troops killed by the Tigers – perhaps 20,000 – largely youth in the prime of their reproductive age?

        • 3

          Sri Lankan Tamil

          “What about the Sinhalese war dead”

          Demela, I have consistently raised this issue million times in this forum and elsewhere.

          Many readers are uneasy about discussing the whole sad past for different reasons, almost divided along ethnic lines.

          JVP which also had had a big hand in causing death would not demand a thorough investigation.

          The death of Tamils could not be investigated for JVP, state, rulers and cronies and their supporters were deeply involved in those war crimes. Since late 1980s JVP sympathisers enrolled themselves in the armed forces in large numbers and possibly they are in senior positions. Would the JVP betray its share of war criminals just for the sake of Tamils?

          Three commissions investigated war crimes that had taken place between late 1987 and 1991. Those commission reports are gathering dust instate archive. Chandrika wanted to prosecute men in connection with 30,000 or deaths. Anurudha Ratwatte refused to charge them simply because the army was fighting a war against LTTE. Any prosecution might destabilise army morale, he argued.

          Until a proper investigation is carried out we will be discussing this issue over many moons or until cows come home. All investigation should cover the period from 5th April 1971 to date.

          Race, religion and region should not matter.

          “Sinhalese troops killed by the Tigers – perhaps 20,000 – largely youth in the prime of their reproductive age?”

          What did they join the army for, party time at Paranthan junction?
          Those who enrolled themselves voluntarily be it JVP, LTTE or members of armed forces they did so knowing full well they were going to die.

          One loss of life is one too many.

          Address as to why Tamil and Sinhala youth took arms to change the state structure. It shouldn’t take a few seconds if you are not Tamil/Sinhala racist.

          • 1

            I fully endorse this View.

  • 4

    Mr Sivathsasan

    I think we need to examine the whole package of the Indo Lanka agreement of 1987. 13A is one of its components. But Rajiv G knew that Colombo will not implement any devolution arrangement and I think that’s why he brought in other provisions to the ILA. One of the most attractive provisions is that confining the SLAF to their barracks in the NE. IPKF was deployed to provide security for the people of NE. As a result of this GOSL ‘could not’ govern [ie could not derail devolutional process] in the NE. This arrangement should have brought about a lasting peace in NE and I am sure RG would have brought about more and more devolution to the NE. My question is: why did the LTTE crack this pot of honey. Why did they start fighting India? My feeling is that Prabaharan is one of most idiotic creatures one can think of. Tamils are now going through hell because of his irresponsible and loony behaviour. There is point in blaming India; India engineered a golden opportunity but we squandered it.

    You are highly respected and a man of integrity. I wish to hear from you, “why did the LTTE mess up things?”

    • 0

      The last sentence in the first paragraph should be:
      “There is NO point in blaming India; India engineered a golden opportunity but we squandered it.”

    • 3

      LTTE should have given India and Rajiv a chance to make it work or Fail.
      Atleast that would have proved how difficult it is to implement any devolution In the Island.

      Premature rejection of the 13A, their quest for sole reprenstative status, subsequent eviction of Tamil muslims from the North , the alleged killing of Indian PM,The massacre of Sinhala civilians,/Monks and Policeman in captivity were some of the major transgression which must be condemned.

      Tamils were in a quandary about LTTE’s determination/single minded foolishness at the same time their short sightedness and very poor Geo-political accumen/knowledge,Leave alone their brutallity towards “enemies”, perceived or otherwise, within and outside.

      These acts made Tamils loose the moral high ground and legitimacy of the struggle.

      Even today Tamils don’t want to talk about it.
      Except for Wiggie who occasionally ventures into the subject in passing, These were perceived as “transgressions” by hard core nationalist Tamils.

      Yesterdays events are today’s history.Todays events are tomorrow’s history.The continuium of life.These historic baggages remain a major hindrance even after the demise of LTTE.

      Interospection is an important exercise.Should learn from mistakes and improve upon .

      • 1


        True to real perceptions. Why not develop them into a comprehensive presentation? Better earlier to spur some interaction and thought.

    • 1

      I too have thought of the same. What a miss!

      • 2

        The IPKF arrived in July/August ’87, the Loony Tigers of Tamil Eelam blasted the 1st land mine under an IPKF jeep within 2 months in Oct. Later in the same month, in one of most barbaric and provocative acts the LTTE displayed about 50 dead IPKF soldiers who were half / full naked and burnt. Until then the IPKF had not killed a single person or raped anyone in the NE. Loonies got their objectives achieved when the IPKF started killing civilians in retaliation.

  • 1

    In 1981 Thamil population was 1,886,900 (12.71%). In 2012 Thamil population was 2,270,924(11.21%) a decrease of 1.5%.

    In 1981 the Hill Country Thamil population was 818,700 (5.51%) but in 2012 the population was 842,323 (4.16%) a drop of 1.35%.

    In 1981 the population of Muslims was 1,046,900 (7.05%). In 2012 the population was 1,869,820 (9.23%) an increase of 2.18% over 1981.

    In 1981 the Sinhalese population was 10,979,400 (73.95%). In 2012 the population was 15,173,820 (74.88%) an increase of 4,194,420 persons (0.93%).

    The figures for 1946 Census:

    Sinhalese 4,620,500 (69.41%)
    Ceylon Thamils 733,700 (11.02%)
    Indian Thamils 780,600 (11.73%)
    Thus the combined Thamil population was 1,514300 (22.75%)
    Ceylon Muslims 373,600 (5.61%)

    Sri Lanka’s population grew at an average rate of 1.0 percent from 1981 to 2012 with the total reaching 20.277 million from 14.846 million.

    The Muslim population almost double between 1946 and 2011.
    The losers were Thamils due to emigration following 1983 riots and deaths due to war.

    The share of population in north had dropped to 5.23 percent of the total by 2012 from 7.4 percent in 1981. In the east it had grown to 7.63 percent from 6.49 percent.

    Out of about one million Tamils who fled the fighting and are living abroad, at least 80 percent were from Jaffna.
    If not for the war, the population of Jaffna would have been over 1.4 million.

    Source: URL http://www.sangam.org/2012/08/images/12lbojune17population.gif

  • 1

    Mr Sumanthiran MP says “The government should abide by the Constitution and ensure the full implementation of the Amendment before thinking of revisiting it to consider devolving police powers to the provinces” in this article – 13A is not an Appendix – M.A. Sumanthiran http://www.ceylontoday.lk/89-65852-news-detail-13a-is-not-an-appendix-ma-sumanthiran.html

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