By S. Sivathasan –
If the Sri Lankan nation is to go forward, the polity needs to take the Tamils into confidence. They have to move together. The Tamils in turn need to act in a manner to inspire hope and reliance among the communities. With neither party taking the initiative, there is not even a glimmer for either. So too for other minorities. This writer has asserted this position consistently since the end of hostilities.
The sheet anchor for unification is economic parity – of opportunity and reward. The whole complement of supportive factors together with capital, training and a contented hinterland of the community will have to obtain for wholesome results to be seen. The spread needs to be equitable.
Lessons to Learn from Germany
Modern Germany provides quite a few lessons for Sri Lanka. The comparison may look odious, but the parallels are very telling. West Germany (WG) and East Germany (EG) were split up in 1945. The compartments were watertight. This arrangement stood till 1989. In the eighties in Sri Lanka, the writ from Colombo did not always reach the extremities in the North East. The situation persisted till 2009. The collapse of the Berlin Wall in October 1989 brought East and West together. In Sri Lanka the Tamil offensive collapsed in May 2009. But have North and South come closer? No. Why?
Germany, described as a geographical expression or a collection of principalities till the Napoleonic wars up to 1812, was welded into a nation in 1971. This nation had 91.5% Germans, 2.4% Turks and five other ethnicities forming 6.1%. In contradistinction, Sri Lanka at independence had 71% majority community and 29% minorities of other ethnicities and different religious persuasions. In a century was there ever an earnest effort to build a national consciousness?
Instead what was done? Minority strength was reduced from 29% to a questionable 25% through legal repatriation and forced expatriation. Their voice has been whittled down and is being further muzzled in representative assemblies. Following that frivolous questions are asked most abrasively, why can’t a Tamil say he is a Sri Lankan and not a Tamil? Why can’t a Muslim say he is Sri Lankan? Why should a Christian think first of his religion? How can they, when they are cast out as outcastes? Why should they when they are pressed into the most marginalized nook? Frivolous questions have cost the country trillions in rupees and lakhs in lives.
Economy of East Germany
See what the Germans have done. At the time of reunification in mid1990, per capita income in East Germany was Euros 9,400. West Germany had Euros 22,000. In 2012, East Germany more than doubled her income to Euros 23,700. In the same year, West increased it to Euros 33,400. East and West growing apace with the East moving more than evenly. Recent reports say that disparities between the two economies have very nearly disappeared. How did this come about?
West Germany went about proactively implementing affirmative policies and programmes to take East Germany on board and to sail together. In the 25 years after reunification, the West ensured that investors spent $ 2.02 trillion on infrastructure, housing and businesses. What was the outcome?
In East Germany productivity levels in 1989 were 25% that of West Germany. Now it is 75%. At the commencement itself, between 1991 and 1997 per capita income in EG grew 60%. This level was comparable to the ‘German Miracle’ for the same duration 1950 to 1956.
When EG was divested of millstones – MILTARY OCCUPATION – round its neck, it bounced back with remarkable resilience. East Germany also had the benign patronage of West Germany which was intent on the success of their ethnic compatriots.
Sri Lanka and Tamils
It is axiomatic that where ethnic diversities exist and regional disparities prevail, the effort of the majority community should be redoubled to strike an equitable balance. Such an attempt was never made when the end of the war called for fresh responses after 2009.
Taking GDP growth in Provinces as a measure of economic performance, it is noted that between 2008 and 2012, Western Province where the capital is located had a GDP share of 45.4% in 2008 and 43.4% in 2012. The Northern Province, the main theater of war and destruction had the lowest share among all 9 Provinces, at 3.2% in 2008 and 4.0% in 2012. The government’s concern to redress the balances of the old is nowhere evident.
Military Presence in East Germany
The four Allied Powers were engaged in military occupation in the period 1945 to 1990. Military strength was heavy and their presence to rub defeat in, was most irksome to the Germans. The hegemony of Russia and the imposition of the Soviet system in governance and in the management of the economy were most constricting on East Germany. With Gorbachev’s Perestroika, there was a reduction by June 1989. The Russian Ground Forces had left Germany by June 1994.
Contrast in Sri Lanka
In Sri Lanka, a redundant military is yet to move out. The internal war lasting decades, ended in May 2009. Military occupation of the North at one per 5 citizens, vexes the Tamils grievously. Heavy military expenditure after war ended six years ago, merely to spite the Tamils takes the country nowhere. To borrow a phrase describing Soviet Union’s overspending, continuing the same practice will ‘spend Sri Lanka into the grave’.
Does that approach portend the beginning of a new economic order, or the commencement of an era of reconciliation? Sri Lanka needs a sea change about downsizing the military, redeploying it outside the North and crucially curtailing defence expenditure. Most importantly, the ethnic entities have to address their tasks at redemption singlemindedly.
Paul / October 9, 2015
The writer has totally ignored the fact that W Germany was a very prosperous nation before re-unification because the US gave it about $130bn in economic aid after WW2.
salam / October 9, 2015
S,Sivathasan / October 9, 2015
Not without studying Germany for 60 years have I written what I wrote. A person of education and culture will never make silly, annoying and patronising comments.
Vibhushana / October 9, 2015
I am going to show you something that is quite profound. So please bear with me till the end of the explanation.
Refer to the above article please. Observe 8% drop in Tamils in the Eastern province after 1911. This was during British colonial rule. Did the British legally or forcefully repatriated Tamils? So what is going on?
Compare this with the picture of Eastern province just 200 years ago. There were no Tamil settlements what so ever. Can you see its a normal attrition?
This is the bottom line. Tamil Nadu and Ceylon is separated by just 22 km of sea. The Sinhala people who sail across there integrate with Tamils there. The Tamils who come across here does the opposite.
Its a natural process you cannot avoid. In fact since Chelvanayagam Tamils have tried to artificially reverse the process without success. You are NOT fighting against the Sinhala people but the nature itself. Its a futile and unwinnable exercise.
So just learn to co-exist the short time you live on earth. This is because when you pass you are not going to take the Tamil identity with you. Do not squabble clinging onto something that is so impermanent!
Dr.Rajasingham Narendran / October 9, 2015
Incidentally, have you read the recent report of a 2000 year old Naga settlement with Tamil Brahmi inscriptions in the Batticaloa distrct?
Vibhushana / October 9, 2015
Here is the Tamil Brahmi script.
A Tamil cannot spell “Naga” in Tamil let alone be it.
In fact Naga is a Sanskrit term.
Tamil from the north / October 9, 2015
@Vibushana, you not only pick garbage but you also live and eat it. You got your sources from Wikipedia? Bloody fool, Wikipedia is not written based on facts. You simply get an account and write your rubbish. Wikipedia is just like SLankan media, full of rubbish. Now I see where you are getting your facts.
Eusense / October 9, 2015
Your choices of words show you are exploding with hatred!
If Vibushana is wrong why don’t you present the correct version with the relevant references?
Native Vedda / October 9, 2015
Nuisance the stupid (I)
“If Vibushana is wrong why don’t you present the correct version with the relevant references?”
If you tell a lie big enough and keep repeating it, people will eventually come to believe it. The lie can be maintained only for such time as the State can shield the people from the political, economic and/or military consequences of the lie. It thus becomes vitally important for the State to use all of its powers to repress dissent, for the truth is the mortal enemy of the lie, and thus by extension, the truth is the greatest enemy of the State.
sama / October 11, 2015
I have stopped adding my thoughts to those of Nuisance getting know the creature is – beyond all levels.
He should be mentally retarded, else, he would not see things this way. Please be informed of this. Thanks
Jim softy / October 10, 2015
Only BS talking By Tamils is acceptable.
Burning Issue / October 10, 2015
Pay attention to the past debates! This imbecile Vibushana has been repeatedly told that inculcated to himself a totally fabricated history. He is not buying it because he knows what the truth is! He endeavoured with many avenues to show on these forums that the Tamils are recent arrivals with no success at all! He is a bigot full blown but you are a bigot with a mask!
Eusense / October 11, 2015
You and Vedda are not explaining the true story to me but just writing personal attacks on people like Vibushana and me. I have heard enough of you and Vedda calling people “stupid”,”bigot” “bigot with a mask”, “embecile” and some stupid “knife” story by Vedda among many others.
What I want to know is the truth, if Vibushana is wrong. If you know why he is wrong why don’t you explain to all readers. But stop making personal attacks if you want you to be taken seriously.
Burning Issue / October 11, 2015
How many times do people need to explain to you? You pretend to be thick; why?
But you are not thick; you are just masking bigotry by asking stupid questions? Get it straight in your head that war crimes and crimes against humanity should be thoroughly investigated and the culprits need to held accountable. This is necessary to establish the truth; truth is the foundation for reconciliation. Truth and accountability are basis that will prevent future such crimes.
The Tamils must be given a viable political solution in order to recognise their habitual demography and language. The Tamil speaking people must be able to excecise their right to use their language as the medium of civil administration. All these are possible within a United Sri Lanka. What do you have against it? If you are against such devolution you need to outline why not?
eusense / October 11, 2015
You have not explained anything to me at all still, other than personal attacks.
Where did I say any crimes against humanity should not be investigated? I need you to show that to me, otherwise you are an outright liar!
I always say every one involved in, and an accessary to this should be investigated and punished. Yes, then the truth will be established. But my question always has been with whom are we to reconcile with? Is it with the innocent Tamil civilians who had nothing to do with terrorism or the terrorist who suicide murdered over 1000,000 innocent civilians? Please answer this question, if not don’t respond.
What viable political solution are you talking about? Why don’t be specific and give details so that people of SL will know what you want in this solution. Once I know specifics I will let you know what my thinking is. If it is the Tamil language in the northern administration I would never mind that. As far as I know most gov. Administrative activities are in both languages. The main problem lies due to lack of Tamil individuals to be hired who are conversant with both languages. Look at Tamils who speak 3 languages and doing extreamly well in the south. Remember you will never lose learning more languages. What I feel is, people like you who complain about language barriers and do nothing about it are lazy, unproductive and lack self determination.
Burning Issue / October 11, 2015
You deserve all the personal attacks that you receive as you are playing ignorant to suit your line of questioning!
Have you heard of the term the Tamil question? You may have heard of the term the national question; surely you cannot be that stupid! If you ask who should the Sri Lankan state be reconciling with, I am afraid this is the most chauvinistic Sinhala Buddhist I have come across so far! You are not only a bigot but think that all the others are imbeciles!
Sure learning more languages is good but it should be mutual and based on willing to learn. But the Sinhala regimes have been trying to chock the Tamil people into submission. This is what is profoundly wrong. The Tamils must be given the opportunity to have say in their own affairs. Civil war started because of the disparaging fashion the power was handed over to the artificial majority in a country that was put together by the English. Hence, to stay as one nation, there should be a meaningful reconciliation and followed by a political settlement. Get it you spurious bigot!
Native Vedda / October 11, 2015
Nuisance the stupid (I)
“some stupid “knife” story by Vedda among many others.”
What is the difference between you and a knife?
Tamil from the north / October 11, 2015
Eusense the bloody nuisance, yes I am exploding with hatred towards racists like you and Vibushanam. I don’t have a problem with Sinhalese.
Native Vedda / October 11, 2015
Tamil from the north
Please bear with Vibhushana for he hears voices in his head.
He used to hear recital of entire collection of Sangam poems and thought to himself being an authority on Sangam Litrature. He concluded Sangam literature was a suspect.
You being a Tamil have you ever made an effort to learn a single poetry from Sangam period (200 BC to 200 AD)?
Honestly can you also read ancient Tamil Brahmi script?
How dare you insult our resident expert on Sangam literature and Tamil Brahmi scripts. You should tender an apology to him. Please send your apology directly into his head by voice mail.
Dr.Rajasingham Narendran / October 10, 2015
In Tamil word is ‘Naahar’, which would be also correct ponetically. Further,the word ‘Naharam’ meaning town or city also has Naga origins and assumed the ‘G’ sound subsequently (Nagaram).
Vibhushana / October 10, 2015
You have just Tamilised a Sanskrit name.
In the process you have created a new word that does not exist in the Tamil lexicon.
The Tamilisation of the word is incorrect. The “Ha” phenome does not exist in the Tamil script. The correct way to Tamilise Naga is very simple. Its as follows.
Naga > Naka
Anpu / October 9, 2015
The kingdoms of Anuradapura and Polonnaruwa were NEVER known as Sinhala kingdoms and the Naga and Tamil kings who ruled these kingdoms never called themselves ‘Hela’, ‘Sihala’, or ‘Sinhala’. There is no evidence to prove that the Nagas were Sinhalese or they became Sinhalese. Subsequent to the Cola domination of Sri Lanka in the 10th century A.D, people who identified themselves as Buddhists and Sinhalese shifted their seats of rule from the ancient kingdoms of Anuradapura and Polanaruwa towards South and Central Sri Lanka while the people who identified themselves as Hindus (Saiva) and Tamils moved their ruling structures from these same regions to the North and East of the island. It was only after the 13th century AD that the kingdoms of Kotte and Kandy were known as ‘Sinhale’ even though some parts of the Tamil areas in North and East also came under the Kandyan rule but Kandy was mostly ruled by the Kalingas of South-East India and the Nayakkars of South India with whom the Tamils did not have any problems. Also, the term ‘Sinhale’, appeared only in the 13th Century AD Chulavamsa and NOT in Deepavamsa/Mahavamsa.
In the 16th century, the Portuguese and in the 18th century, the Dutch who occupied the island brought in tens of thousands of people from South India (presently Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andara) and settled them in the Southern parts of the island as menial labourers (for growing/peeling cinnamon, fishing/pearl diving, coconut planting/plucking, toddy tapping, and for many other jobs). Within a few centuries, the Sinhala population increased exponentially when these people assimilated with the local Sinhala population by adopting the Sinhala language and the Buddhist religion. Today their decedents (6th generation) are not only claiming the ancient Sri Lankan civilization as their own ‘Sinhala’ heritage but have also become the patriots and champions of Sinhala-Buddhist chauvinism.
It was the British who re-discovered the Mahavamsa in the early 20th century and their so called European ‘Pali Scholars’ misinterpreted it, thereby creating another myth known as Arya-Sinhala. Since the Sinhala (Elu) language (mixture of Sanskrit, Pali and Tamil/Malayalam) was more of Indo-Aryan in nature, the British declared that the Sinhalese were Aryans from North India and the Tamils were Dravidians from South India. Influenced by the colonial historiography, the Sinhalese declared that they were indigenous to the island, and that the Tamils were invaders from South India.
Vetmahadeva / October 9, 2015
Further to your interest,
The study, in which 271 individuals, representing the Sri Lankan ethnic populations were typed for their mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) hyper variable segment 1 (HVS-1) and part of hyper variable segment 2 (HVS-2), provides implications for their settlement history on the island. From the phylogeny, principal coordinate and analysis of molecular variance results, the Vedda occupied a position separated from all other ethnic people of the island, who formed relatively close affiliations among themselves, suggesting a separate origin of the former. The haplotypes and analysis of molecular variance revealed that Vedda people’s mitochondrial sequences are more related to the Sinhalese and Sri Lankan Tamils’ than the Indian Tamils’ sequences. MtDNA haplogroup analysis revealed that several West Eurasian haplo groups as well as Indian-specific mtDNA clades were found among the Sri Lankan populations. Through a comparison with the mtDNA HVS-1 and part of HVS-2 of Indian database, both Tamils and Sinhalese clusters were affiliated with Indian subcontinent populations than Vedda people who are believed to be the native population of the island of Sri Lanka.The haplotypes and analysis of molecular variance revealed that VEDDA PEOPLE’S MITOCHONDRIAL SEQUENCE ARE MORE RELATED TO THE SINHALESE as well as to SRI LANKAN TAMILS. Still we have got living vedda communities of Sinhala and Tamil distributed in quite surprisingly single close proximity Vaharai to Thabahna closer distance in relation to both communities’ life style!
Vetmahadeva / October 9, 2015
VVibhushana The Garbage Digger
All references you asked to refer were All of A Sinhala Chauvinist Bull’s Shit that have dumped into html garbage, we had dumped it as absolute garbage long ago.
Vibhushana / October 9, 2015
Its from the Beeldbank National Archives – the Netherlands.
I get the distinct impression you want to live in denial. Haven’t you done much harm to yourself and others over this already?
Isn’t it time to give yourself and everyone else a break?
Vetmahadeva / October 9, 2015
VVVibhushana The Garbage Digger
we decide an article is garbage on the merit of contends relating to the basics, not by source of origin. Garbage is a Garbage never mind is a Dutch of (or) Sinhala origin!
Siva Sankaran Sarma / October 12, 2015
The Dutch national archives were infiltrated by the Sinhaloids and these fabricated records placed there a long time ago, according to Tamilnut. You can check with pseudo historians like “Paul” if you need further confirmation :D
Anpu / October 9, 2015
This what Paul wrote (Paul October 1, 2015 at 3:35 ) https://www.colombotelegraph.com/index.php/we-cannot-let-the-country-be-destroyed-leader-of-the-opposition/
There were no Sinhalese or Sinhalese language at the time of Elara and Dutugemunu.
Dutugumenu was a Naga and Nagas were Tamil speaking Dravidians. Dutugumenu’s father was Kakkai Vanna Theesan which means in Tamil the king or great man the colour of the crow. Basically the Black king. So how can a Tamil Naga father have a Sinhalese son? There was no Sinhalese language at that time, Even his mother was from a renown Buddhist Naga Family. This was between the Nagas/Tamils who converted to Buddhism and the Nagas/Tamils who were Hindus and were the establishment that was ruling Anuradhapura. The descendants of these converted Buddhist Nagas and Yakkas later evolved into the Sinhalese by mixing their Tamil dialect heavily with the Pali and Sanskrit of Buddhism, whilst the Hindus remained Tamils.
Even now you can many ancient Buddhist Naga sites down south and in the rest of country with Tamil inscriptions.
Anpu / October 9, 2015
The ancestors of around 50% of the present day Sinhalese, both low and high born, only migrated from Tamil Nadu a few centuries ago. All the former Sri Lankan presidents and prime ministers, nearly everyone beating the anti Tamil drum, are descended from these Tamil immigrants from Tamil Nadu. The Sinhalese language is around 35% to 40% Tamil in vocabulary. Its grammar syntax and lexicon is purely based on Tamil. It is not Sanskrit or Pali that gave the Sinhalese alphabet but Tamil. According to Dr. C.E. Godakmubara, the Sinhala Grammar Sidathsangarawa was based on the Tamil Grammar Virasolium in the 11th A.D. Take all the Tamil based words from the Sinhalese vocabulary , there will be no Sinhalese language. There were no Sinhalese in Lanka or in any part of the world until the Dipa Vamsa for the first time, referred to the descendants of Tamil (Hindus) who embraced Buddhism in 246 B.C. as Sihala on account of the Lion (no relevance). There is no culture called Sinhala culture. It is the Tamil culture that is projected as Sinhala culture. The 14th day of April is observed as New Year, day only by the Tamils and Sinhala people throughout the world.
This fact is strong evidence that the Sinhala people inherited this practice from their Tamil ancestors who embraced Buddhism in 246 B.C. It is stupid to deny that fact. When there was no Sinhala language in Lanka or in any part of the world before 8th A.D., it is thuggery to claim that there were Sinhala people in Lanka prior to the 8th century A.D. Just as the descendants of Tamils who embraced Buddhism in 246 B.C. claim they are Arya Sinhalese; Tamils of the Western Coast, from Ragama to Kalpitiya, after adopting Sinhala as their mother tongue, (after the introduction of free education) claim thy are Arya Sinhalese.
Paul / October 11, 2015
Stop lying disgraceful.
The Eastern Province has a land area of 9,361 square kilometers (3,613 square miles). The Tamils have had a presence in the region that goes back two millenia. Successive post-independence governments in Sri Lanka, backed by hardline Sinhalese nationalists, have attempted to deny the Tamil Hindu character of the region. They have attempted to do so through dubious efforts to distort history. This entails a highly selective read of the Pali and Sinhalese historical chronicles while suppressing the Sanskrit and Tamil literary evidence, the evidence of archeology and the records of outside travelers to the contrary.
This attempt to Sinhalize the East and to give it an exclusively Buddhist historical color is seen in the efforts of all Sinhalese Sri Lankan administration. It is a naked attempt to grab Tamil land and to de-Tamilize it using history as one tool of many to legitimize the Sinhalization of the East. The declaration of Sampur as a High Security Zone, failed attempts to secure UNESCO World Heritage status for Seruvila, the demerger of the North and the East, the Government’s Neganihara Navodaya program, and post-Thoppigala celebrations are examples. There is a veritable industry to roll back the Tamil character of the region.
This article presents some of the rich evidence that demonstrates the centuries old Tamil Hindu presence in the region. The East has been Tamil despite the efforts of independent Sri Lanka to settle Sinhalese peasants through land colonization schemes of dubious economic value.
Early Iron Age
Megalithic urn burials have been excavated in Kathiraveli in the Batticaloa district and north of Nilaveli in the Trincomalee district. This included black and red ware pottery tentatively dated to the 3rd century BCE and iron tools (Sudarshan Senivaratne, The Archeology of the Megalithic Black and Red Ware Complex in Sri Lanka, Ancient Ceylon, 1984). The ethnicity of these people can not be verified but remarkable parallels exist between these urn burials and those excavated in the Kaveri, Ponnaiyar, Tamraparani and Vaigai rivers in Tamil Nadu. Similar sites have been excavated in the Jaffna, Kilinochchi and Mannar districts. The Jaffna islands and the Aruvi Aru, Elapat Aru, Modarakam Aru and Kal Aru basins stand out. North Sri Lanka shared the same early iron age culture as did Tamil Nadu. Preliminary evidence suggests that the ‘megalithic culture’ witnessed the introduction of iron, the potters wheel, the plough, rice cultivation and minor tank irrigation.
The Siva temple at Trincomalee known as Koneswaram is of considerable antiquity despite the strenuous efforts of Sinhalese nationalist historians to deny the Tamil Hindu character of the ancient port city. The earliest reference to a Hindu temple is in fact the Pali chronicle, the Mahavamsa, where chapter 35, verses 40 to 41, indicate that King Mahasena destroyed three ‘Deva temples’ in Gokarna (Trincomalee), Erakavilla (Eravur?) and in the village of the Brahmin Kalanda to atone for his defiance of orthodox Theravada Buddhism. He reportedly built Buddhist viharas in their place. This was in the 4th century CE.
Gokarna in Sanskrit translates as the “cow’s ear” and signifies a place of Saivite Hindu worship. The place name Gokarna recurs in western Karnataka and in Nepal, where both sites boast of ancient Siva temples! The Buddhist vihara evidentally did not last long if one were to accept the tradition of the Vayu Purana dated to the 4th century CE. Chapter 48, verses 20 to 30, refers to the ‘Siva temple on Trikuta hill on the Eastern coast of Lanka’. While Sinhalese nationalist historians have tried to put a spin on the alleged Buddhist antecedents of Trincomalee, the evidence is clear that the ancient port city of Trincomalee or Gokarna was a Hindu place of worship since antiquity. Further, the Tamil Saivite saint Tiru Gnanasambandar sang of the glories of the Siva temple in Trincomalee in the 7th century. The Nilaveli inscription in the 10th century refers to a land grant made to this temple.
An 8th century Sanskrit inscription was excavated in Tiriyai. The inscription engraved in the South Indian Grantha script, refers to merchant mariners from Tamil Nadu who endowed this Mahayana Buddhist shrine dedicated to the Bodhisatva Avalokitesvara and his consort Tara. It was interesting that the inscription was recorded in Sanskrit and not in Pali. Neither was it inscribed in early Sinhalese characters. It relied on the South Indian Grantha script instead. Neither was Thiriyai a Theravada Buddhist sanctuary dominant in Sinhalese history. The Grantha alphabet was used to write Sanskrit in Tamil Nadu and is similar to the contemporary Malayalam script!
The inscriptions dated to the kings Udaya III and Mahinda IV in the 10th century refer to Tamil lands (Demel gam bim) in the eastern coast of Sri Lanka.
The Chola interlude in Sri Lanka’s history dated from 993 CE to 1070 CE. This period marked a deepening of the Tamil historical presence in the East. Inscriptions dated to this period refer to a Tamil village in Kantalai called Chatur Vedimangalam. This village, consecrated to the performance of Hindu religious rituals, had a local assembly that administered the community. (S. Gunasingham, Trincomalee Inscription Series, Peradeniya, 1974). Archeological ruins dated to the Chola period have been excavated in Trincomalee, Kantalai and Padavikulam. (S. Pathmanathan, The Kingdom of Jaffna, Colombo, 1978, page 44).
Chola-era inscriptions record the activities of Tamil mercantile communities in Padavikulam (renamed Padavi Siripura in Sinhalese). The mercantile groups referred to were the Ticai Aayirattu Ain Nurruvar (Velupillai, Ceylon Tamil Inscriptions, Peradeniya, 1971) and the Ayyavole. Taniyappan, a mercant from Padavikulam, laid a foundation stone for a Siva temple there. A Tamil inscription by Raja Raja Chola refers to Ravi Kulamanikkeswaram Siva Temple in Padavikulam. (K. Indrapala, Epigraphia Tamilica. Jaffna Archeological Society, 1971 – page 34). A 13th century Sanskrit inscription excavated here mentions a Brahmin village in the area. The paddy fields of Padavikulam were watered by the Per Aru river (renamed Ma Oya in Sinhalese).
The Cholas also expanded a Buddhist shrine, Vilgam Vihara, which they called Raja Raja Perumpalli near Mudalikulam (renamed Moraweva in Sinhalese). Other inscriptions mention a Chola prince – by the name of Lankeshwara Devar who administered Trincomalee.
A 12th century Tamil inscription from Kantalai refers to the Siva temple of Ten Kailasam. (Epigraphia Zeylanica). Another inscription from Palamottai from the Trincomalee district records a monetary endowment to a Hindu temple by a Tamil widow for the merit of her husband. This was administered by a member of the Tamil military caste – the Velaikkarar (Epigraphia Zeylanica, Volume 4, Number 20).
Chola era inscriptions refer to a settlement of the Velaikkarar in Kottiyaaram, known today as Sampur and Mutur. Kottiyaaram was divided into two Chola administrative units i.e. Raja Raja Valanadu and Vikrama Chola Valanadu. (T.N. Subramaniam, South Indian Temple Inscriptions, Madras 1953). These examples prove without doubt that the Trincomalee district had a distinct Tamil Hindu presence in the 11th and 12th centuries, a point denied by the Sinhalese nationalist historians of today who legitimize attempts to suppress evidence of the Tamil historical presence.
The Pali chronicle, the Culavamsa, mentions that King Aggabodhi II built an irrigation tank in Gangatata in the 7th century. Latter day Sinhalese nationalists identify Gangatata with Kantalai but the link is unclear. Tamil literary sources of a later date acribe Kantalai reservoir to Kulakoddan, a Chola prince. The evidence is once again uncertain.
Magha of Kalinga
The invasion of Magha of Kalinga (Orissa) in 1215 CE deepened the Tamil historical presence in the East. Chapter 83 of the Culavamsa refers to Magha’s garrisons in Kottiyaaram, Trincomalee, Kantalai, Kattukulam and Padavikulam. The temple of Tirukovil in the Amparai district was built by Magha (Ceylon Tamil Inscriptions, page 6). Archeological evidence indicates that the Siva temple in Kokkadicholai in the Batticaloa district dated to his time i.e. the 13th century.
The Tamil lands of what is today Amparai and Batticaloa were traditionally divided into several principalities or ‘pattus’. These included Manmunai-pattu, Palukamam-pattu, Natukaatu, Eravur-pattu, Porativu-pattu and Koralaipattu. Pattu in Tamil, Kannada and Malayalam denotes a territorial division consisting of several villages ( T.V. Mahalingham, Administrative and Social Life under the Vijayanagara, P 81). Medieval Tamil texts dated to the 15th and 16th centuries, such as the Mattakalapu Manmiyam, the Konesar Kalvettu and the Dakshina Kailasa Puranam, not to mention the later Mattakalapu Purva Caritram, provide useful insights on the political conditions in what is today the Trincomalee and Batticaloa districts in the 13, 14 and 15th centuries. Sinhalese nationalist historians question the historical rigor of such textual evidence but the same critique could then be applied to the traditional Buddhist chronicles in Sri Lanka such as the Mahavamsa, the Culavamsa and the Pujavaliya!
The Vaiya Paadal, a late Tamil historical text dated to the 17th century, refers to the Brahmin Cupatittu who ruled Tiriyai, a Aanasingam who administered Kattukulampattu, a Maamukan who ruled Verukal and Thampalakamam, and a Mayilan who ruled over Kottiyaaram in the 1400s CE. The arrival of the Portuguese in the 16th century and of the Dutch in the 17th century led to turbulence in the eastern districts of Ceylon. Many of the old Tamil principalities sought protection from the Kandyan kings. But this does not deny the early Tamil presence in what is today the Eastern Province. Muslims from Sri Lanka’s west coast fled to Kandy to seek protection from the Portuguese and were resettled on lands in what is today Amparai. The Kandyan kingdom was itself a multi ethnic one. The last four kings there were infact from Thanjavur in Tamil Nadu! One Kandyan king built the Siva temple in Thampalakamam in the early 1700s.
While Buddhist remains in the East such as Deeghavapi and Seruvila do exist, these do not detract from the early Tamil association with the region just as the Tamil Hindu historical presence in the deep south of the island does not remove from the Sinhala character of the latter. I have highlighted a few of the many pieces of evidence that proves that the Tamil presence in the East is of considerable antiquity. The Tamils were a clear cut majority in that region until post-independent governments resettled Sinhalese in the region. Sinhalese Buddhist nationalism endeavors to suppress the historical evidence, but facts are stubborn. The Tamil Hindu historical claims to the East will not be forfeited regardless of the attempts by Percy Mahinda Rajapakse to transform the ethnic character of that land.
Recent findings of Naga inscriptions in a Hindu Temple in Batticaloa in the Tamil Brahmi dated 2500 years ago proves the ancient Tamil character of the east and that the Nagas were Tamil speaking Dravidians.
Siva Sankaran Sarma / October 11, 2015
Cool story, bro. I’d like to read the rest of it, I’ll look for the book next to The Silmarillion when I’m in the book store :D
Paul / October 11, 2015
Oh it is the Garbage that has stolen a Tamil Brahmin’s name and identity from the former Sri Lankan forum to post his anti Tamil venom. It will only be cool when you start posting in your own identity and not under a stolen name and identity
Siva Sankaran Sarma / October 11, 2015
Please “Paul”, regale us by copying and pasting another chapter from your epic collection of We Thamizh fairy tales :D
Native Vedda / October 11, 2015
Wee Thamih Senior Journalist Siva Sankaran Sarma Menon
“Please “Paul”, regale us by copying and pasting another chapter from your epic collection of We Thamizh fairy tales :D”
It is said Mahawamsa is the Pali version of modern day erotic poetry. If you want erotic entertainment please read first few chapters of Mahawamsa. Then of course you will have the satisfaction of self actualisation.
If you care to note there are few Tamil words and names J. R. R. Tolkien had used in his The Silmarillion;
Eru – Bullshit – compost
Ilúvatar – Eelathar – People of Eelam
Ainur – Ainuruvar – A Tamil Merchant Guild
Ayan – Brahma – The creator
Valar – Nourish
Vanyar -A Tribe – Vanniars of Tamil Nadu – Dr Ramados
still unfinished / October 9, 2015
The polity’s biggest issue is that it can’t call a spade, spade. Having given heroic image to the military in order to pretend patriotic and play a psychological sectarian politics, it’s now worried about hastily pruning the military and its presence in the NE. This aiding the economic imbalance has been a convenient outcome for pleasing the hardliners in the south.
Whilst complaining about nepotism of the first families, none of us are genuine enough to pointout the fact that it s the same reason for racial discrimination. I, my family, my relatives, my friends, my village, my district, my province, my race and then only my country. Unless the grass root is prepared to break this chain, no reconciliation what so ever.
Naykapandaram / October 9, 2015
I have reawakened……..that my great grand son’s grand son and his friends signed as witnesses to the “KANDY TREATY” in Tamil along with the King Sri Wickeramarajsinghe alias Kanthasamy in Tamil only. why dig further?
Dr.Rajasingham Narendran / October 10, 2015
He was ‘Kannusamy’
Vetmahadeva / October 11, 2015
You are exactly correct
He was ‘Kannusamy’ it should be as you pointed out
As some books suggests “Kanthasamys” wouldn’t have agreed to shoot down the follow brethren, who arrives in once the Kandy-Kingdom becomes part of Ceylon domain!
Siva Sankaran Sarma / October 11, 2015
Sri Wickrama Rajasinghe signed the Kandyan Convention? The more you know :D
Native Vedda / October 11, 2015
Wee Tamihz Siva Sankaran Sarma Menon:
” The more you know”
The less you know the more you gallop.
Please change your diet from Kollu (Horse Gram) to Punnakku. Sesame/gingili punnakku is most appropriate diet for a wee Thamihz.
Paul / October 11, 2015
In the year 1498, Vasco De Gama’s landing in Malabar (Kerala) marked the beginning of the era of foreign Intervention in the region. The Dutch preceded the Portuguese, and then the British East INDIA Company had been on the Malabar Coast since 1684. It was from Malabar that the Portuguese came to Sri Lanka. They found two different ethnic groups living in Sri Lanka in two different land areas, the one living closer to the Malabar/Coramandal coast had a similar language, religion and culture to the Malabar. Without any hesitation, they called them Malabar even though there was a Tamil King and the people spoke Tamil when they arrived. The Dutch who preceded them continued to call them Malabar and the British also called them Malabar but later when they realized that it was a mistaken identity, that they were not Malabar but Tamils, they corrected it. Similarly, due to Buddhism and the Buddhist culture, they also called the Sinhalese as the descendants of the Siamese people.
In fact it was the Europeans who first misinterpreted the Mahavamsa and believed that the Sinhalese were Aryans and labelled the early Prakrit language as Sinhala. Today, due to the latest scientific discoveries in the fields of archaeological, epigraphical and anthropological research, the modern historians such as Prof. Leslie Gunawardane, (professor in history and a former Vice Chancellor of University of Peradeniya) and many other qualified historians do not a that the Sinhala language or the Sinhala race existed during the early historic period.
is enough archaeological evidence to prove that the Tamils have also lived outside the North & East (even in down South) but there is NO evidence what so ever to prove that the Sinhalese lived in the North & East. The census of Ceylon conducted in 1881 also indicates that the two Tamil provinces were inhabited almost exclusively by Tamils in the late nineteenth century (Census of Ceylon, 1881). The Sinhalese population constituted only 1.8% of the total population of the two Tamil provinces in 1881; Sinhalese accounted for only 0.51% of the total population of the Northern Province, and 4.2% of the Eastern Province.
me also mention that in the recorded history of Sri Lanka and the epigraphic evidence found till today, nowhere it mentioned that there was a mass influx/settlement of Tamils from South India to the North & East of Sri Lanka or there was a mass exodus of Sinhalese from the North and East to the South. In other words, that all the Sinhalese living in the North & East simply pack their bags and went to the South leaving all their lands to the newly arrived Tamils without any protest? Most of the Sinhalese have their ancestral native place name also as a part of their name, known as Vasagama. Is there any Sinhalese person from any part of Sri Lanka who can come out and say that his Vasagama is a name from any part of North or East? Even those Sinhalese who are living in the North and East today were colonized after 1948 by DS Senanayake. The so called Sinhala history scholars will never fail to say that the East was under the Kandyan Kingdom. It is true that some parts of the Eastern province came under the Kandyan Kingdom from time to time but it makes no difference to the Tamil position in regard to the inhabitancy of the Eastern province. The Tamils would have had and yet have no objection what so ever to the benevolent and accommodating rule of the Kandyan kings whether they were Kalinga or Nayakkar, and see no inconsistency in the Tamil claim to the Eastern province even under the Kandyan rule. On the other hand, I have never come across a Sinhala person or family that claimed an Eastern province habitant or origin. If you speak to the Sinhalese living in the Eastern province, each one of them will say that their grandfather or great grandfather is from the South where as there are any number of Tamils who hail from the East and proudly proclaim their habitant and origin.
Archaeological Remains and Historical Evidence
Until the Brahmi script was introduced to South India Sri Lanka Region (SISL), no writings or inscriptions was found available and therefore we do not know much about the history of the very ancient people of Sri Lanka (beyond 3rd century BC). Long before the Pali chronicles were written, the ancient 2nd century BC Brahmi stone inscriptions found in Sri Lanka mentions the word Dameda (Damela). The earliest inscriptions and also the early Pali chronicles attest to the presence of the Tamils (Demedas/Damilas) in the Early Historic Period. In fact, Dameda (Damela) is the most mentioned ethnic group in the epigraphy of Ceylon, with mention in five cave inscriptions. These inscriptions refer to the Tamil Vishaka (merchant), the Tamil householder Samana (residing) and a Tamil navika (or sailor). These inscriptions are further corroborated by a reference in the Mahavamsa which contains the expression “Damila Assandviks” i.e. those (Tamils) who brought horses in water-craft, horse merchants. For example, the Mahavamsa says the Damila rulers Sena & Guttika were sons of a horse merchant. Both Dipavamsa and Mahavamsa neither says Sena & Guttika were invaders (came from outside) nor from South India. They were Damilas and natives of Sri Lanka, sons of a horse merchant. There were Nagas and Damelas (Cholas, Pandyans and Chera) in South India and Sri Lanka (SISL region) even before 2nd century BC as per Sangam literature but unfortunately there is no written inscriptions till 2nd century BC. During the ancient period the Nagas and Damelas (Tamils) living in both South India and Sri Lanka (Nagapuram, Nagarkovil, Nargapattinum, Nagadivpa, etc) were considered as the natives, the ancient inhabitants of the region. During the Early Historical Period, South India and Sri Lanka were not considered as two different countries. The Nagas and Damelas not only occupied both South India and Sri Lanka but they were also moving back and forth between Sri Lanka and South India and also they had a shared interest in Buddhism. According to Prof Deraniyagala, the excavations in both Sri Lanka and South India revels that, not only the Flora and Fauna but many other manmade structures, burials, Brahmi inscriptions, etch were all identical and he says, there were frequent people movement during the ancient period.
According to the Mahavamsa, the Naga King Dutugemunu had to conquer not just one Tamil king (Elara) but 32 Tamil Chieftains around the Anuradhapura principality alone. He also killed around sixty thousand Tamils in the war. How could there be 32 Tamil chieftains in the area of Anuradhapura alone, if there were no Tamils or Tamil settlements? Similarly, King Valgambha had to fight seven Pandian chieftains to reassume sovereignty at Anuradhapura. If you read the book written by Robert Knox, when he escaped from prison, he had to go through several places and when he came to AnuradaPura, he says it was fully occupied by Tamils (NOT Sinhalese). That means even recently, during the 17th CAD (colonial period) Anuradapura was inhabited by Tamils. Many Tamil place names in Anuradapura even today revels the above fact.
On the other hand, not a single stone inscription, cave writings, structures, or anything else (artefacts) found in Sri Lanka during the ancient period says anything about Hela/Sihala/Sinhala. There was NO such race/tribe/nation called Sinhala/Hela during that Early Historic Period. When Buddhism was under attack in the Tamil country, in order to protect Buddhism in Sri Lanka, the Mahavihara monks assimilated all the Buddhists of Sri Lanka belonging to several different tribes (Naga, Damila, etc) into one group and called them Sihala. The word Sinhala/Hela first appeared in the Pali chronicles only in the 4th century AD and that also ONLY twice in the beginning chapters of the entire Deepavamsa/Mahavamsa. The first few chapters of the Pali chronicles are nothing but fiction created by its author. Prince Vijay, Sinhabahu, Kuweni and the Lion story was a creation of the Mahavamsa author, there is no evidence for their existence. The events that took place in India against Buddhism during that period prompted the Mahavihara monks in Sri Lanka to come up with a plan/strategy to protect Buddhism. Due to their strong devotion to Buddhism and desire to consolidate and protect this religion in Sri Lanka they decided to write the Pali chronicles Deepavamsa/Mahavamsa making Sri Lanka a Dammadeepa (chosen land of Buddha where Buddhism will prevail for 5000 years) and creating the Sinhala race by assimilating all the Buddhists from different tribes/ethnic groups into one race and making them the sustainers of Buddhism (Gouthama Buddha’s chosen people) to protect Buddhism in Sri Lanka for 5000 years until the next Maithriya Buddha arrive. It is the mahavihara monks who assimilated all the Buddhists from many different tribes together and called them Sihala (followers of Mythical Vijaya). There is NO historical evidence what so ever to prove Vijaya’s arrival with 700 men or to say there were Sinhalese during the Early Historic period. To date, no archaeological evidence has been found to prove ‘Sihala’ existed or anything about Vijaya’s arrival. The terms ‘Sinhale’, ‘Hela’, ‘Sinhaladvipa, etc appeared very much later. Not a single stone inscription, cave writings or any other artifacts found during the ancient period say anything about Sihala. Not a single ancient king of Anuradapura/Polonnaruwa kingdom claimed that he is a Sinhala or Arya. None of the ancient Sri Lankan Kings or their kingdom was known as Sinhala. The Naga kings Devanampiya Tissa and Dutugemunu were NEVER known as Sinhala (there is no evidence what so ever) in fact, his father was a Naga with a Tamil name Kakaai Vanna Theesan. Nagas were Tamil speaking Dravidians. His mother came from a well known Naga Buddhist family from what is modern Kelaniya. Due to ignorance the present day Sinhalese are talking about a non-existent ancient Sinhala heritage. The ancient Buddhist heritage built by the Naga/Damila belongs to both Tamils and Sinhalese. The ancient Buddhist remains in the North East are the remnants left by the Tamil Buddhists and not anybody else. They are part of the Tamil heritage that has to be protected and preserved by the Tamils. The Tamil Buddhists have even contributed to the Buddhist scriptures Tripitika. The Tamils are also one of the main contributors for the formation of the Sinhala race. According to Prof. Sudharshan Seneviratne, there is no mention of the word Sinhala or Sinhala ethnicity in the thousand odd short inscriptions that come to us from this period. On the contrary, a vast majority of the host of clan names and titles that we come across in these inscriptions only show affinities with the clans of the ancient Tamil country.
The early foreign traders from Arabia, Persia, Rome, China and so on called Sri Lanka by many different names but NONE of them mentioned about a Sinhala or Tamil Kingdom because the Northern Kingdom of Anuradapura/Polonnaruwa were ruled alternatively by either a Naga King or a Damila King or by others. Only from around 10th to 13th CAD, the Buddhists (Sinhalese) moved from the Northern Anuradapura/Polonnwara kingdom to the South (Kotte/Kandy and many other kingdoms) while the Hindus (Tamils) moved from Anuradapura/Polonnwara kingdom to the North East (Jaffna Kingdom and Vanni Chiefdoms). The Tamil Kingdom in the North (Jaffna kingdom) and the Sinhala Kingdoms in the South (Kotte, Kandy, etc) came into existence only after 13th CAD (after Anuradapura/Polonnwara kingdoms). Even the Sinhala biased archeologist/researcher Dr. Senarat Paranavithana says, the vast majority of the people who today speak Sinhalese or Tamil must be ultimately be descended from those autochthonous people of whom we know next to nothing.
It is arrogance if the Sinhalese tell the Tamils of North East who have roots in Sri Lanka from the ancient Anuradhapura/Polonuwara period that they have no homeland in Sri Lanka and go back to Tamil Nadu if you cannot accept Sinhala-Buddhist language, religion and culture as the significant culture of Sri Lanka including the Tamil NorthEast.
Pseudo-Historians and Bogus Scholars (charlatans)
In any historical research, it is natural to change the views and assumptions, because up to now, we have no definite answers to so many unanswered questions in the fields of Archeology, history, anthropology, epigraphy and etymology in Sri Lanka. Furthermore, daily we stumble across several new findings and they contribute to new historical vistas. Therefore, based on new facts, one’s earlier conclusion has to be compromised to adopt changes. History is a continuous process of investigation without any end in sight. For example, for the last 40 years, the Sinhala Buddhist Chauvinists, the Pseudo-historians and bogus scholars (charlatans) have built up a very strong love and affection towards the Tamil PhD student Karthigesu Indrapala due to his 1965 PhD thesis which was not in favor of the Tamils. When the well renowned and recognized former History professor of the Jaffna University, the same Prof. Karthigesu Indrapala retired from his profession after 30 years of research as a Senior Archeologist/Historian/epigraphist and a University Don, he settled down in Australia. All those who kept on using the PhD student Karthigesu Indrapala’s 1965 PhD thesis as a guide in all their writings must have had a heart attack when they read the book what Prof. K. Indrapala published in 2005, 40 years after his 1965 PhD thesis where he says his PhD dissertation is completely out of date that even he does not have a copy of his 1965 PhD thesis what he wrote 40 years ago as a PhD student. Therefore, it is absolutely natural that people change their opinions upon new findings.
Secondly, history is a social science and not science like Physics or Mathematics where logic can be used to arrive at conclusions. Logic is not a reliable tool for finding the truth. Logical assumptions based on unobserved facts leads to falsehood and that is what a few pseudo-historians are trying to do. Let me give an example, If you see the Sri Lankan parliament Hansard in 200 years time from now you will find the Governor of Jaffna during the early nineteen nineties was a Sinhalese (Mr. Tyrone Fernando), the Government agent of Jaffna during the same period was a Sinhalese (Mr. Lionel Fernando) and the army/Navy commanders of Jaffna were also Sinhalese. If the Pseudo-historians or bogus-Scholars use logical assumptions to analyze the history of Jaffna after 200 years from now, they will come to the conclusion and will conveniently argue that the population of Jaffna 200 years ago was Sinhalese. This is why we should never trust the history written by some Pseudo-historians based on unobserved facts/logical assumptions and NOT on archeological evidence.
Siva Sankaran Sarma / October 12, 2015
Cool story, bro. Now the next chapter please :D Are you planning a compilation by any chance? It can be placed next to the brothers Grimm collections :D
Vibhushana / October 10, 2015
Today if someone sign a treaty some will sign in English other in Sinhala. Some would use English because its the language of commerce.
Similarly Tamil was the language of commerce then. That is why Moslem merchants used Tamil. Altogether 15 Signatures of the Kandy treaty was in Tamil.
This does not happen any longer since English is now the language of commerce.
Paul / October 11, 2015
The Tamil language was used, as it was the court language and the so called Sinhalese king of Kandy and many of the nobles were all Tamil speaking Nayakars from South India. As for the Muslims, please get it into your thick head it is a religion and not an ethnicity. Only in Sri Lanka it has become an ethnicity, as this suits the immigrant Dravidian Tamil converts to Islam to deny their Tamil Hindu origins and ethnicity by hiding under a fake Moorish/Aran Islamic heritage and this also suits the Sinhalese to keep up and encourage the Muslim elite in the island to spread this lie, as it helps them to divide and rule the Tamils. A little bit if Arab does not make you Arab. Now coming to the Muslim traders it is only the Dravidian Tamil Muslims in South India and Ceylon who used Tamil as their language, as they were Tamils. Arab Persian or other Muslims ethnicities did not use Tamil, they used their own language. GOt it.
Sengodan. M / October 10, 2015
I note here that the discussion is straying totally out of the topic of discussion. The most important question is how to build a united country with equality for all in every respect and especially so the economic aspect. The manner in which West Germany helped to build East Germany has to be emulated if we are to build reconciliation in the proper sense of the word. In the first instance there should be a great reduction in the military presence in the North and East. The talk of around 3000 ex- LTTE cadres being at large by the military is all bull shit. They are telling this lie simply to continue their overwhelming presence and intrusion into all spheres of civilian activity which has to be curbed if democracy is to thrive.
CHANAKYAN / October 10, 2015
In what you have written – the very first comment on the article – you have captured the true essence perfectly. You have also presented your understanding so clearly to benefit readers and to instruct commenters.
kali / October 10, 2015
To Set Out In The Direction Of Redemption:
*** With all due respect your comparison of Germany to Sri Lanka smacks in the face for a number of reason.
Before I amalyse your Article let me tell you where you have gone wrong and why the comparion hasnt even taken off.
1) Germany is a Country of Germans untill Jews arrived and for a while made up of Germans and Jews. Hitler changed all that by getting rid of the Jews.
But Sri Lanka is made up of Tamlis , Sinkalams and Muslims. We are like the “Sooran”.You cant chop all the Tamil heads off.
2) If the Sri Lankan nation is to go forward, the polity needs to take the Tamils into confidence. They have to move together.
*** First of all the Guilty of Genocide have to be punished.
Econimic PARITY without Political Freedom is meaningless. I will rather die penniless.
3) The Tamils in turn need to act in a manner to inspire hope and reliance among the communities. With neither party taking the initiative, there is not even a glimmer for either.
*** You are too bloody right we are in a CUL DE SAC. Stuck. Beggars cant be choosers. You takee what they give you unless the West and India are preapred to calve out our share.
4)The sheet anchor for unification is economic parity – of opportunity and reward.
*** NO my friend NO that comes after REDEMPTION.
5) Lessons to Learn from Germany
Modern Germany provides quite a few lessons for Sri Lanka. The comparison may look odious, but the parallels are very telling. West Germany (WG) and East Germany (EG) were split up in 1945.
*** I have already told you Germany is the wrong choice. The only thing that connects Sri Lanka with Germany is the word ” GENOCIDE”
6) Why can’t a Tamil say he is a Sri Lankan and not a Tamil? Why can’t a Muslim say he is Sri Lankan? Why should a Christian think first of his religion? How can they, when they are cast out as outcastes? Why should they when they are pressed into the most marginalized nook? Frivolous questions have cost the country trillions in rupees and lakhs in lives.
*** Let me tell you why. It is like saying why cant a Girl say I am a Boy because we are both born to the same mother and father. My friend we have different GENITALS.
7) Economy of East Germany:
*** Dont compare Germany with Suinhala Lanka. Two different countries both in terms of size and innovation.
8) West Germany went about proactively implementing affirmative policies and programmes to take East Germany on board and to sail together. In the 25 years after reunification, the West ensured that investors spent $ 2.02 trillion on infrastructure, housing and businesses. What was the outcome:
*** Stabilty both political and Econommic Stability is a prerequiste which Germay has in plenty and Sinhala Lanka is BANKRUPT. Who would want to invest except China to install listening devices.
9) When EG was divested of millstones – MILTARY OCCUPATION – round its neck, it bounced back with remarkable resilience. East Germany also had the benign patronage of West Germany which was intent on the success of their ethnic compatriots.
*** I agree but only if the North & East of Sri Lanka have Economic Indepedence.
10) Contrast in Sri Lanka:
*** Where Colonisation is the ulterior motive.
11) Does that approach portend the beginning of a new economic order, or the commencement of an era of reconciliation? Sri Lanka needs a sea change about downsizing the military, redeploying it outside the North and crucially curtailing defence expenditure. Most importantly, the ethnic entities have to address their tasks at redemption singlemindedly.
*** I am not sure what you mean by Singlemindedly. But if you mean GO IT ALONE. Look where we ended up at the UN. No where. The CRIMINAL MR still enjoys state of the Art Security provide by MS & RW.
Barathan / October 10, 2015
In intellectuality and comprehension Kali beats the character Aviveka Puranakuru of Father Beschi – (Veeramamunivar).
P.Rajeswaran / October 10, 2015
This article has been meticulously crafted with supporting facts & figures for the arguments in the reasoning process. The parallels drawn between Germany after the collapse of the Berlin Wall and Sri Lanka after the collapse of the civil war are almost identical situations where one grasped it to merge, reciprocate and prosper but the other refused to reconcile and rehabilitate and turned a failed state.
The writer has nowhere made any disparaging comments against any communities. On the contrary he has asserted the need for the polity and the nation to move forward with mutual understanding and confidence in each other with the visionary aim to build a prosperous united Sri Lanka. It is really encouraging to read articles from some intellectuals, educationists, writers and many more in these columns on the dire need at the moment for a concerted action for a genuine and truthful reconciliation process.Only this will bring about an everlasting peace in the country.
It is disheartening to read the comments of a few who are still struggling to come out of the Mahawamsa mindset which has made ethnic accomodation impossible for them. Sinhalese historians and archaeologists such as Deraniyagala, Gunawardene and Seneviratne are considered as principled, impartial and unbiased writers who have made immense contributions. It is worth reading their works before making any comments related to history of Sri Lanka.
Thank you Mr.Sivathasan
S,Sivathasan / October 10, 2015
Thank you for the compliment and the very pertinent remarks. Readers may be surprised to know that these clear thoughts are conveyed in such fine style by a person aged 83.