24 April, 2024


What Is Wrong With Our Ailing Tea Industry & Where Does Its Cure Lie?

By W.A Wijewardena

Dr. W.A Wijewardena

Dr. W.A Wijewardena

Tea should have a wider angle than a mere beverage

At a panel discussion following an evening presentation organised by the Institute of Certified Professional Managers or CPM in Colombo last week, a questioner from the audience put an interesting poser to Anil Cooke, CEO of Asia Siyaka, a leading tea brokering company in the city.

The questioner, apparently dismayed by the current gloomy situation faced by the country’s tea industry, asked Cooke: “Why should I invest in Sri Lanka’s tea plantations?” Cooke was quick to correct the questioner before answering his question. He said: “Tea should not be taken as a plantation crop or even an industry. It should be viewed as a beverage. It faces all the problems which any beverage faces and its salvation too lies in the salvation of beverages in a global sense.”

Cooke here has looked at tea from a wide angle, an angle which many concerned about it normally miss out. However, Cooke’s wide angle can be developed further into a wider angle. In that wider angle, tea is not only a beverage, but also an essential ingredient for manufacturing medicines, cosmetics and perfumes – three industries which are growing faster than the growth of the global output.

Tea marketing in Sri Lanka is still where it was left by British planters

When tea is considered from this wider angle, it boils down to a problem of long-term strategising, marketing, inventions and innovations. It is in these four areas where Sri Lanka has failed.

The country, while boasting of producing the best tea in the world called the ‘Ceylon Tea’ has not moved even a single step forward from where the industry was left by British planters.

Ceylon TeaIt has continued to grow tea, manufacture orthodox black tea and sell to consumers in a selected number of countries either in the form of ‘bulk tea’ or tea in ‘teabags’. Hence, when the market prices depress due to oversupply, adverse regional political turmoil or global economic recessions, the tea growers back at home are forced to undergo enormous economic hardships.

If the period is long, many of them become bankrupt. This is specifically true with low country tea smallholders who at present produce about 65% of the country’s tea output. Their woes are then capitalised by interested political parties which create a political issue out of the economic issue faced by the country.

The vicious cycle of price fluctuations

The present situation in Sri Lanka is such an economic catastrophe. The average tea price per kilo was $ 3.51 or Rs. 459 at end 2014. This has now fallen to $ 2.80, according to the latest market reports. Despite the depreciation of the Sri Lanka rupee from Rs. 130 per dollar to Rs. 145 per dollar between these two periods, the rupee earnings have been just Rs. 407 per kilo, recording a fall of Rs. 52 or 11%. This price is pretty much below the estimated cost of production amounting to Rs. 434 per kg.

If the tea producers are to be elevated to the income level which they had enjoyed at end 2014, the rupee has to depreciate to a level of Rs. 165 per dollar. However, given the increases in labour charges and other expenses during this period, even this level of income support may not be sufficient to sustain the tea growers.

Hence, the country has been embroiled in a vicious and expanding cycle of price depression, cost increases, currency depreciation, political capitalisation and further depression of prices. This vicious cycle and political capitalisation do not allow the country to go for long-term strategising for curing the ailments faced by the tea sector.

Rising costs in a background of low yields

Sri Lanka’s tea suffers from both the high cost of production and low yields. No commodity can compete in the world market unless it reduces its average cost. That reduction comes from increasing the yield levels.

According to Food and Agricultural Organisation or FAO of United Nations, Sri Lanka’s tea yield standing at 1532 kg per hectare is only marginally higher than the world average of 1518 kg per hectare.

Thus, Sri Lanka is ranked 26th position in terms of the global tea yields. This has to be compared with high yield countries such as Malaysia (with a yield of 6778 kg or Number one position), Kenya (2177 kg or 13th position) India (2143 kg or 14th position) or Tanzania (1573 kg or 24th position).

Accordingly, in a background of high costs and low yields, any fall in the international price of tea will make Sri Lanka sick because it has no back-up resources to go through the crisis. Since price changes occur frequently in cycles, Sri Lanka’s tea industry, though it is the second highest foreign exchange earner after garments, is driven to a high level of vulnerability.

The need for raising industry earnings

Sri Lanka cannot increase its tea yield levels overnight. However, it can increase industry earnings by diversifying its use. The diversification can be in the beverage sector itself as a novel drink, on one hand, and into non-beverage industry sector as an ingredient for producing pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and perfumes, on the other. Both require investments in better marketing and continued research and development.

Britons popularising tea as a panacea for all illnesses

Tea was promoted by British planters and tea traders by using ingenious marketing methods. When Ceylon tea began to face competition from other tea producing countries in late 19th Century, it was presented to British and European tea drinkers as a uniquely branded product. A separate tea culture was developed with British and European aristocracy meeting frequently over a cup of tea and discussing many topics of interest.

Thus, tea was associated with exchange of new ideas and the British and European aristocracy could not do without it. It was the aspiration of the nouveau riche to become a part of this high society tea culture.

Tea was presented to them as ‘a brain tonic’, ‘delicious drink’, ‘panacea for all illnesses’ or ‘a drink that improved one’s digestion’. In the late 19th century, there was another marketing campaign to popularise tea among the working class as well. Since they did not have the wherewithal to buy tea, arrangements were made for them to buy once-brewed tea from aristocrats at bargained prices.

Unlike coffee, tea leaves could be reused to brew tea again and again; though it reduced the tastes in subsequent brewing, the working class people compensated for the loss of taste by allowing the reused tea leaves to be brewed longer. Thus, through a weaker taste cup of tea, even the working class people were introduced to tea drinking. The ultimate result of these ingenious marketing campaigns was to promote tea as a universal beverage. Thus, Ceylon got the market for its tea without labouring anything on its part and remained passive in targeting new consumers.

Remaining apathetic when competitors have been active

But the competitors to tea ‘as a beverage’ were active all the time in reaching out to new consumers. One such competitor was the soft drink manufacturer, Coca-Cola, which was penetrating the global market almost with an aggressive tone.

It had a long-term vision to promote Coca-Cola as the world’s number one drink. In 1986, the Chairman and CEO of the Coca-Cola Company, Roberto Goizueta, made a historic speech before Coca-Cola sales representatives. He said: “Right now at this point in time in the United States, people consume more soft drinks than any other liquid, including ordinary tap-water. We’ll take full advantage of our opportunities. Someday, not too many years into our second century, we’ll see the same wave catching on markets after markets on to eventually the number one beverage on earth will not be ‘coffee or tea or wine or beer’. It will be soft drinks – our soft drink”.

So, the Coca-Cola Company took note of the declining consumer tastes for traditional liquids which was naturally happening and reoriented its strategic vision to cut a notch for itself in the new opportunity set that was offering to it in the market. Having such a long term vision is a must for any commodity producer. Sri Lankan tea manufacturers and exporters were all the time happy about living in the nostalgic past of ‘Ceylon Tea World’ – an icon for which they would even fight unto their death – while the market was slipping away from them gradually quite unknown to them.

History of changing marketing strategy of Coca-Cola, the main competitor for tea

Thus, Coca-Cola started to rope in the young of the world as its consumer base in its new marketing strategy. In fact, the history of Coca Cola, ever since it was invented by pharmacist John Pemberton in 1886, was a story of changing strategies – all relating to new marketing techniques.

Initially, it distributed free samples of Coca-Cola to Americans throughout the continent by engaging travelling sales representatives because if someone is to be roped in as a Coke fan, he should first taste its flavour and savour in its unparalleled deliciousness.

This is similar to the marketing strategy used by old Ceylon’s tea traders to send teams of sales reps in late 19th century in decorated bullock carts to Ceylonese villages and offer the wide-eyed villagers free cups of tea posing it as a delicious medicinal drink. Coca-Cola then offered its liquid in a specially designed bottle that took the shape of a cocoa fruit to give it a unique appearance.

Then, it created the ‘six-pack Coke’, which in later years was emulated by beer manufacturers. This was followed by an offer of Coke in bottles of three different sizes, normal, king size and family size.

It was during World War II that it made its major marketing breakthrough. Coke was offered to GIs fighting on war fronts far away from their home country so that they felt as if they were fighting in their home backgrounds. But to ensure an uninterrupted supply, bottling plants were shifted to war fronts, a decision which carried enormous risks with it. But it paid dividends because those returning GIs were unquestionably loyal Coke fans and so were their children who were known as ‘baby-boomers’.

Now that generation of captive Coke fans was dying out, it was necessary for Coca-Cola to reach out to the next generation of youngsters to assure a continuously safe market for its products. That was the essence of the vision unveiled by Chairman Roberto Goizueta in the Sales Convention held in 1986: Rope in the youngsters throughout the globe to the ‘Delicious World of Coke’ by the turn of the new century.

Should tea marketing ignore the new taste buds of youngsters?

This changing marketing strategy of Coca-Cola is an eye-opener for Ceylon Tea. It is losing the market among the young people not only in the wider world but also back at home. It still offers tea as a beverage in its traditional form: tea shops would brew tea in hot water, add sugar and milk and serve tea as a hot drink.

Even on a very hot day, this is the way tea is served and therefore it is not a beverage for all seasons. It may be an acceptable form of serving to old tea addicts but not for the young people. Hence, when the old generation dies out, so will Ceylon Tea which has failed to cultivate a new generation of fans.

That is why tea is losing ground in the world markets with frequent fluctuations in prices. When the prices fluctuate, so will the incomes of the tea growers back at home. As such, it is essentially a marketing issue for Ceylon Tea when it is presented to the market as a beverage. It calls for innovative marketing tactics targeting the young generations so that they could be served chilled and bottled tea to their taste. At events where young people gather such as sports events, it is this bottled tea that would have a competitive edge over its main rivals.

Tea as an ingredient in pharma, cosmetic and perfume industries

It is time now that tea should be taken out as a comforting beverage. Its health properties have been carefully documented by W.W.T Modder and A.M.T Amarakoon in their 2002 book titled ‘Tea and Health’.

They have, in terms of reported scientific research, reconfirmed the 19th century rule of thumb marketing slogan used by British tea traders that it was a ‘panacea for all ailments’. But further research has to be done in order to use tea extracts in pharmaceutical developments.

Furthermore, India has successfully used tea for the development of 150 varieties of perfumes as reported by fragrantica.com website.

In this game, Sri Lanka may have missed the bus to India but scientific research into perfume and the cosmetic industry does not have a limit on the new opportunities available. What is necessary is to have a long-term strategic vision for Sri Lanka’s tea industry. That vision should offer tea as an innovative beverage, on one hand, and use tea extracts in pharmaceutical, cosmetic and perfume industries, on the other.

Both these new horizons need further research and development in biotechnology. That ‘need’ can be filled by research outfits like Industrial Technology Institute or ITI with its state-of-the-art facilities in its new abode at Malabe.

Thus, it is time for the Government, industry doyens and research outfits to get together and map out a suitable long-term strategy to rescue Sri Lanka’s ailing tea industry.

*W.A Wijewardena, a former Deputy Governor of the Central Bank of Sri Lanka, can be reached at waw1949@gmail.com

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Latest comments

  • 0

    How about appointing Jaliya Wickramasuriya? It seems he i settled in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. Such a businessman should nit be overlooked!

    Also, how about appointing Udayanga Weeratunga? He is somewhere in Russia or Ukraine. It seems he is happy to come to Sri Lanka if his safety is guaranteed. The government should bring him to Colombo to manage this issue.

    • 4

      Dr. Wije. all very well and good about tea markets and the backwardness of tea industry in Sri Lanka which is FUNDAMENTALLY BACKWARD in many ways.

      But, the ‘ailing’ tea industry is a myth to keep the plantation workers in perpetual subjugation – on low wages.

      Indian Origin tea plantation workers have been denied the right to own the land they have worked for generations. This is a human rights outrage that is built into the British Plantation Economy which was slave-like and remains so today, with planters being virtual demi gods on the plantation.
      Meanwhile tea pluckers are kept in a culture of dependency in the archaic plantation economy even as they are exploited by their so called representatives – orrupt trade Unions and politicians.

      Tea exporters have being buying up super luxury apartments galore in Colombo high rises, and then screaming about falling profits.

      Time for the Tea plantation economy to be restructured so the LABOUR is rewarded and the tea economy made equitable.

      • 1

        SL tea labourers are paid higher than other tea labourers around the world

        We could still pay even more and affect the production cost helping to destroy it further along with the livelihood of the tea labourers

        • 1

          SL policy is to maintain a relatively fixed exchange rate for political reasons. Devaluation can reduce real cost of labor and real cost of investment. This will help SL to be competitive with other countries but both previous and current governments’ approach is to borrow $ and feed the country. SL policy makers/economists have been turning blind eye to this for several years.

          • 0

            SL ‘policy’ makers know only to destroy
            They nationalised local plantations before the British owned
            The next government too reaped the benefits and ran them down
            Finally to re-privatize them to large Indian conglomerates
            These are traitors and fools
            Now complain about Muslims thriving

            This is what they do to pioneers and revivers of the industry;

            • 0

              [Edited out]
              Please write instead of posting links – CT

            • 0

              Prof. Bernard Dissanayake, specialist lecturer Management and Training has made a critical examination of Sri Lanka’s privatization policies contrasting them with the successful transfer of a foreign-owned tea plantation to a family of local entrepreneurs who made it a successful business enterprise in less than a decade. This, Prof. Dissanayake believes, should serve as a lesson to all politicians who tend to sacrifice the country’s long-term interests to meet narrow political goals.

              In 1949, Vincent Soysa, his five brothers and two sisters purchased Gartmore Estate Maskeliya from a Scottish family (the Andersons). The Scots were the pioneer tea planters in the former British colonies of Ceylon, India and Malaya. The purchase of Gartmore by a Sri Lankan family, the year after independence represented a significant development trend in the island’s economy. It was purely a market-based transaction devoid of political consideration or influence.

              Professor Dissanayake notes that though there were many other such transfers of foreign-owned plantations in the post-1948 era, politics and bad management policies often decided their fate. According to him what is unique in Gartmore is that it started as a joint family business and remains so under a good cooperate management style based on strong co-operative family traditions.

              Says the Professor: “Gartmore is unique in more than one sense and displays a management style of its own based on co-operation and joint ownership, using modern management practices.”

              Before the Soysa family purchased the estate, its original owners, the Andersons had gone back to Scotland after entrusting the plantation to the Colombo Commercial Company (CCC) to manage, but the actual running of the estate was in the hands of a paid superintendent, a Scottish national – Major Forbes.

              After taking charge of the estate’s management, the CCC constructed a new factory to replace the factory built in 1930, improved the road network within the estate, adding several kilometers of new roads to the upper, hitherto inaccessible areas of the estate. This was sound investment but it incurred at a very heavy expenditure to the Anderson Family and as a result severely reduced their annual income and for some years receiving nothing.

              Further the state of the crop after tea blight was poor and so was its management. Thus crop- yields dwindled eventually; the owners decided to sell the estate and requested the gents to sell it on open bidding.

              Though the CCC was responsible for managing the estate, the company’s core competency was in engineering and not in plantation management.

              Thus the company had apparently entrusted the full management to Major Forbes, who was thinking of buying the plantation himself. It is suspected that he purposefully neglected the crop, to show losses so that he could purchase the estate at a low price. In his effort to degrade the estate and reduce us market value the Scottish superintendent was ably assisted by the head kangani who had a strong grip on the resident labor force.

              The Soysa brothers discovered these facts during visits made to the estate in order to assess its worth prior to bidding, says Professor Dissanayake. The entry point to the estate was particularly neglected to drive away prospective buyers. Before bidding for the purchase began for the estate, the Soysas got the estate valued by the best visiting agent available at the time: a German named Stewart. The most important point here, according to the Professor is that the Soysas never sought or received any political or other non-market influence or patronage for this transaction.

              “They used their business skills, native intelligence and risk assessment to arrive at the final value of the estate, while using the visiting agent’s technical report. Each family member contributed an equal share out of his or her own personal savings rather getting a bank loan. This itself was a sound decision for initiating a business project of this nature.”

              The sale of the estate was opened for bidding by any interested party. Finally the entire transaction turned out to be commercially transparent devoid of manipulation either in the part of the seller or the buyer.

              The Scottish superintendent Forbes who earlier tried to manipulate the value in the hope of buying the estate for a song failed miserably. The owners, the Anderson Family received the full value of for the estate, based on the prevailing market value.

              With a very high degree of dedication and commitment, the Soysas using mostly their own bank savings, and not depending on bank loans brought the estate to full production level within a few years of their acquisition.

              By the mid 1950s having completed all major re-development work, the estate reached full production capacity and began to manufacture tea that fetched high price in the market.

              Today the company gives all tea pluckers an incentive bonus beyond a certain limit of tea leaves picked. Those who are entitled to receive the bonus get it either from the superintendent or chief clerk personally, in the field while at work.

              Gartmore is one the local enterprises that effectively weathered unwholesome political pressures that this country has experienced throughout the past 57 years.

              In the mid 1970s, political meddling and `socialist’ nationalization policies nearly ruined the plantation. A local politico – in blatant violation of a clear set of government guidelines drawn for estate takeovers – had tried to take over the Gartmore Factory, which was not included in the plantation’s 185 acres that were to come under state control. A wise decision made by an Administrative Service Officer, S.B. Senanayake in response to a complaint made by Soysa brothers, saved the nation a thriving enterprise from rack and ruin by political machinations. Senanayake promptly instructed the Kandy Office that was headed by the local political not to take over the factory.

              The UNP government that took over in 1977, decided to dispose of the 185 acres of tea to a group with no particular experience in tea planting, but having strong political links to the party in power. Not only private sector ventures born out of such privatization programs perform pathetically but they also continue to depend on political patronage and state support in the form of subsidies, Dissanayake points out.

              He regrets that such corrupt forms of so-called privatization in developing countries such as Sri Lanka have effectively prevented them reaping the full benefits of market reforms of which privatization is one element. He sees that they effectively undermine the spirit of enterprise and real economic growth.

              “The fact that Gartmore survived all these can only be attributed to the pioneering spirit of Soysa family members. The lack of national policies to support indigenous entrepreneurs in Sri Lanka is in complete contrast to what is found in India, Malaysia or Singapore. In these countries governments had active policies to nurture and promote indigenous enterprises in production sector.”

              – Asian Tribune -A family business that survived political tsunamis
              By Janaka Perera

  • 2

    problem with sri lanka is that bunch of self centered ,unintelligent people manage out countries political systems by using thugs , they control all main part of sri Lankan economy and they will never let country to be developed to give masses better living conditions , and they are ruling the country by manipulating poor sri lankans with big lies , sad this has been going on since the independence , when will that stop? No idea we don’t have any educated people in the parliament to manage our country all educated left the country and who ever is left in the country they are corrupted to the core. Loaf of bread decide out Vote ?

  • 0

    The tea industry is dying li;ewise the ailing nation since Jan .08 2015

  • 2

    Dilmah is very successful. Although they project a brand of a bygone era.

    The owner of Dilmah often appears with his with the “Ceylon tea” concept that appeal to the older generation.

    The young and hip people mostly do not drink tea however. They prefer coffee. The upcoming Y generation will make tea something their grand mothers used to drink.

    I think “Ceylon Tea” should be made into a cool and hip brand that young people associate with.

  • 2

    Appreciate your citing Anil Cooke and your further expansion of the theme. Makes me wonder what we have done to take our country forward since independence in a pioneering manner. It is always too little too late.

    The yield figures for Malaysia are astounding. If we have such yields, we can reduce the acreage under tea by two thirds and use these lands to create forests. Our rain fall in catchment areas will improve and soil erosion Iin the hill country can be reduced as a result.

    I wonder what the Tea Research institute does? Does it exist yet?

    Dr.Rajasingham Narendran

  • 0

    Anil Cooke was dead right..Tea is a beverage and has to be regarded as an integral part of the Beverage Industry, not as an extension of the Plantations Industry. Linking it with the Plantations inextricably is a historic mistake. To answer the question ‘Why should I invest in Sri Lanka’s tea plantations?’, it should be re-worded as ‘Why should I invest in the plantations in Sri Lanka?’. The plantations consist of mixed crops, tea being just one of them. The Regional Plantation Companies, which presumably are the investment opportunities referred to by the questioner, have a number of assets the value of which have to be assessed individually and collectively to judge their value to make a decision whether to invest in them or not. If it is tea he seeks, the investor could consider the tea industry as a separate entity and put his money in the tea trade, either in tea factories, buyers and sellers companies, or even a brokers company. Or if the investor is interested in tea plantations as in the original question, then buy a tea estate by itself. Would that solve his problem?
    Comparing yields in different countries is futile. SL has a vast area of valuable old seedling tea which is still productive but low yielding, but recently planted VP tea have yields comparable to yields to elsewhere. The TRI still exists but their thinking is in a groove. They need to think out of the box to be of any value.

  • 0

    The failure of tea marketing is best exemplified by the fact that instead of tea, a Milo flavoured drink called Nestea is often the only beverage offered by shops selling tea to the Sri Lankan tea drinking public. This is popular with shopkeepers as it comes out of a machine and saves time and energy making tea. In the entire Colombo-Kandy road, you will find that there are less than seven shops which is willing to offer tea if a tea drinker refuses to accept Nestea. The Tea industry should prevent Nestea using a name with tea in it as the product cannot by any imagination be called a tea. Just as Coca Cola tried to rather unsuccessfully (compared with India where the local soft drinks were taken over by the multinationals) replace Aliya beema, Nestea is being marketed by a multinational pretending to offer tea to the Sri Lankan tea drinker and in the process destroying the Sri Lankan market and appreciation for good tea.

  • 0

    “Thus, Sri Lanka is ranked 26th position in terms of the global tea yields. This has to be compared with high yield countries such as Malaysia (with a yield of 6778 kg or Number one position), Kenya (2177 kg or 13th position) India (2143 kg or 14th position) or Tanzania (1573 kg or 24th position).”

    i think this is the answer to the problem.The yields must be increased using the same labour so that the average cost declines.The other diversification into markets such as perfume etc also should be followed at the same time,but the root cause of the problem is in the yields.The author should try to eplain to us how come malaysia has such a high yield in comparision we are a joke.Is it due our trees being too old?then we are buggered.Uprooting the old ones and planting new ones is a strategic decision as a part of a wider corporate plan,to decide whether we should be in the tea industry at all,or be a niche player in the future selling high quality tea to a niche market.

    controlling the costs are a must whatever direction you go in the future.labour costs must be kept to a minimum and surplus labour used to do new treeplanting and increase the yields,without any new labour being used.If thondam and crowd start their political blackmail again it should be made clear that we are ready to let the tea industry die a natural death and they can find some other jobs for their people.many of the young indian tamils don’t want to work in the industry anymore and sinhalese have never wanted to do that hard work from time immemorial.So in the future are we to get down workers from india and bangla desh on a two year contract basis.These are all questions to be asked in a wide corporate plan,which i think we are not doing.

    • 0

      Doesn’t Malaysia have only one or two estates of comparatively recent origin? Is that why their yields are reputed to be high..but will the author confirm the source of this information please.

  • 0

    The way to strengthen the “TEA INDUSTRY” in this Country is to start by having an international Tea Auction here.

    We have many talented blenders and tasters who own world renowned brands. They need a mix of competitive teas to grow their brands.

    Listening to old fogeys like Merril Fernando ( who built his brand using Ceylon tea board money…long story) and such people and as others have so rightly said doing nothing concrete to enhance the plantations since the days of the Raj, are the main problems.

    People like Anil Cooke should be allowed to have a free reign to bring in new thinking without having to bow to the so called seniors who have done nothing but allow everything to stagnate.

    • 0

      The way ahead for the Tea Industry is to have vertical integration..with the tea growers, marketers, buyers and sellers joining together in a single enterprise. Some RPCs have done so already, like KV Plantations with Mabroc, Kahawatte with MJF etc. MJF is a young fogey who has very successfully established a truly Sri Lankan Brand Dilmah which has a premium value round the world..rather like a premium wine. And there is a large market for it.

  • 0

    I wonder why not much has been said about the working and living conditions of those who produce the tea and fair wages. Many of the young are leaving for Colombo and the towns and the Middle East at great risk to their future.

    They said in 1974 that nationalization would wreck tea. Thee was some harm owing to political meddling but the industry survived. Much improved for education in the plantations after nationalization so that a small educated middle class emerged.

    Privatization under President Premadasa wrecked the industry through lack of reinvestment and poor maintenance.

    The good name of “Ceylon Tea” label has been systematically undermined by unscrupulous practices including shipping of sweepings.

    There is need to modernize and very little has happened usefully. But our once thriving support industries too lost their initiative to India.

    There is certainly need for an export based industry to address changing tastes and lifestyles. Research is needed at various levels.

    I am no expert in any aspect, but trust that the issues are not too complex to handle so that attitude more than expertise is our key problem.

  • 0

    I need to contact anyone of the Soysa family members the owners of GARTMORE ESTATE.
    Thank you
    Feroze Ghaffoor
    ph:077 98 98 625 or 077 99 76 072

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