19 September, 2020

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13 A, Sinhala Buddhist Hegemony, Regional Autonomy And Sri Lankan Politics

By Arthagnani

Once again the country is faced with a debate about the devolution of power to the Northern Provinces, which has   a substantial Tamil speaking majority. Various objections have been raised about the means of doing this including the 13th amendment to the Constitution. One main objection, it appears, has been that the establishment of a Provincial Council will eventually lead to secession and the emergence of Eelam.

The vigor and the ferocity with this project was pursued by the LTTE can justifiably lead to this conclusion.

On its face, this may appear to be reasonable fear among the Sinhala nationalists according to one reading of the recent history of the island. The vigor and the ferocity with this project was pursued  by the LTTE can justifiably lead to this conclusion. However,  another reading of this history also is a plausible one. If one traces the history of the last 50 years or so one can see a different progression: there  were successive attempts to give some measure of regional autonomy to the northern  provinces by the central government: the BC pact, the Dudley-Chelva pact and so on. During this period the specter of a sovereign state for the Tamils did not arise. The only interest of the Tamil leadership was to create a relatively autonomous Tamil speaking region in a unitary state. Even then one must point out that G.G.Ponnambalam, often defined as the father of Tamil communalism, as well  as the “uncrowned king of the Tamils,” was not too happy with this idea. He proclaimed in opposition to the Federal Party’s program, “the traditional homeland of the Tamils is Sri Lanka.” And not just the Northeast, In 1949, he even joined the Senanayake cabinet. He, in alliance with the UNP, went to the elections in 1952 , on an anti-federalist  platform of national unity and soundly routed the Federal Party in all but one  constituency in the peninsula.

These pacts  and many other similar ones were repudiated as a result of protest by Sinhala nationalist forces. The Sinhala nationalist bandwagon moved on, from the Sinhala Only legislation and culminating in the Constitution of 1972. Even at that juncture the cry  for a separate state was not raised except by C. Suntheralingam. He is a special case. He was like a disappointed and heartbroken lover who had been jilted by a trusted and  much-loved woman  — in this case the Sinhala dominated compradore- bourgeoisie led   by the Senanayake clan! He had worked tirelessly for a united Sri Lankan  nationalism and was a vigorous opponent of GGP and his “fifty-fifty” plan. He had indeed used his mathematical skills to create  the pan -Sinhala ministry in order to teach GGP that his theory of “balanced representation”  will not work in practice. In any case his proposal for Eylom , spelt with phonetic fidelity to Tamil, did not get any tracking and he was dismissed as a quack.

The separatist demand arose only after the various pacts creating limited autonomy were repudiated and various other repressive measures were undertaken both by the coalition government of Sirimavo Bandaranaike and that of the JRJ government. The escalation of Tamil demands followed the escalation of the repression of Tamil society, legislatively, administratively and violently.  I think it is reasonable to claim that if the legislations aimed at delegitimizing the Tamils and undermining their rights as citizens, entitled to equality and the protection of their distinct identity as a separate culture, were not undertaken by the government–encouraged and goaded both by the intelligentsia of the country as well as by the religious hierarchies–the separatist cry would not havebeen heard.

It is now clear that the separatist movement is dead, for all practical purposes, once and for all, defeated both militarily and politically as can be seen in the speeches of the Tamil leadership. It is time for the Sinhala nationalists to pay more attention to the real history instead of constructing   paranoid fantasies. Amirthalingam and his associates were assassinated by the real separatists because he and his party were ready to settle for regional autonomy. And once they were silenced by death, the others were intimidated into playing along with the ideology of Eelam. In assessing Tamil aspirations in the new era, one must discount the antics of the overseas Tamil community in London,Toronto and New York. The latter group may make a lot of speeches and statements, and wave flags, but their political effectiveness is extremely limited, if not nonexistent. Enlisting various political entities to vote against Sri Lanka in international forums is an utterly fruitless exercise as the Palestinians will tell you.

If therefore the elections are held in the North and the elected representatives, whoever they may be, are given reasonable powers and authority to manage the affairs of the northern Tamils, the separatist sentiments would be effectively stymied. Even then, if one or other separatist moves are made by the Northern Provincial Council, the newly strengthened and emboldened Sri Lankan army and navy and air force would be able to deal with them effectively, and no doubt with the necessary ruthlessness and dispatch. After all the government’s  military establishment is going to be permanently and strategically garrisoned in the North for the foreseeable future. Indeed the Sri Lankan government and its military wings are, to all appearances, readying themselves for this eventuality. Besides the garrisoning of the Sri Lankan military in strategically located regions in the North they are also building roads–a surefire military instrument as the ancient Romans understood!!

Actions have reactions, actions of a particular kind have commensurate reactions. The sustained attack on Tamil interests and rights–I’m not talking of the pogroms — have resulted  in certain reactions from the Tamil community. The change in the character of the actions will no doubt  receive a commensurate reaction. If the government of Sri Lanka and its votaries take the necessary steps — legislative, administrative and practical and discursive — to incorporate the Tamils of Sri Lanka into the national polity the secessionist moves will be forever undermined. Insofar as successive waves of repression and violence, by mobs as well as the military in the early days of the conflict, led to the emergence of the separatist movement and the LTTE, it is possible that even a few statesman-like gestures and democratic moves towards equality and justice for the Tamils may starve the few tendrils of the separatist movement that continue to exist.

II

I cannot understand why the intelligentsia cannot see this. Some of  them raise the issue of primordiality: the Sinhalese lived in Jaffna at one time and  the Tamils have no right to live there and claim the territory as their own. One commentator even thinks that certain phonetic changes in the names of the various places in the North delegitimize the rights of the Tamils!! How trivial can one get?Another claims that  the proximity of the North to Tamil Nadu poses great danger to the Sinhala  state, once the Tamils acquire a measure of autonomy for the northern provinces. This is the fevered hallucination of those who have drunk too deeply of the potion dished out by the authors of the  various chronicles and their latter day interpreters. I’m sure that Tamil Nadu  is not capable of raising an army and invading northern Sri Lanka to create an autonomous Tamil state or create a state affiliated with South India. The Cholas and the Pandyas and the Kalingas are not going to rise again, though some of their descendents in TN may make a lot of noise, in chaste Tamil, to fulfill their local political aspirations, but they are merely verbal warriors.

Among the more idiotic objection to autonomy for the Northern Province  is that the 13th amendment  was “imposed” on Sri Lanka by India. Notice here the issue being raised is not whether it is just or unjust or whether it going to be effective or ineffective or even whether it is economically feasible, but that Rajiv Gandhi flew through the skies, like another famous visitor of old, and forced JRJ’s hand.

Again, how trivial can you get? This is truly an objection without any substance since the amendment is in its essential elements is no way different from those in the BC pact or the Dudley-Chelva pact. Furthermore, why should we object to things or ideas or people coming from India? Our people from Vijaya onwards  came from India, our religions came from India, our  languages came from India, our caste and kinship systems came from India  and even some of military aid to defeat the LTTE came from India! The noble truths of Buddhism, the defining feature of Sinhala identity, we are told, were brought by another visitor from India too. Why should one then object to a comparatively trivial thing like the 13th amendment coming from India?

It is indeed very surprising that the learned intellectuals, undoubtedly  learned in many disciplines, are continuing to act like modayas, eating the kavun of racism and tribalism with such gay abandon, while the country’s resources, intellectual and social and emotional , as well as our  material treasure, are wasted in maintaining the state with a large disgruntled and terrorized community in their midst. Instead seeking to undermine the separatist movement they seem determined to feed and nourish it in both their discourses  and the programs they propose. Indeed some members of the intelligentsia have become professional racists seeking  every opportunity to demean the Tamils and undermine Tamil interests, all the while claiming to be good Buddhists. Oh Buddha what crimes are committed in thy name? It is time that these  modayas  realized that whatever historical reconstructions they can come up with, whether the Tamils are early immigrants or later immigrants, whether there are Sinhala  place names in the Jaffna peninsula or not, whether there is  Buddhist statuary in Kanderodai, and whatever archaeological artifacts may be produced to justify the politics of Sinhala  Buddhist hegemony, and whatever casuistry they construct , the Tamils are going to be there in the Northeast in substantial numbers and the government of Sri Lanka, of whatever stripe, cannot hope to contain them and subdue them indefinitely. Moves and attempts to do this will certainly cost a great deal to the Tamils but it will also cost a great deal to the Sinhala Buddhists too.

The work of some members of the intelligentsia in Sri Lanka in fact constitutes a betrayal of their calling. Julien Benda argued a long time ago that the responsibility of the intellectuals was to “seek their joy in the practice of an art or science or a metaphysical speculation and to be committed to the value of reason”.  He further argued that  an intellectual should speak in a “transcendental manner”; that is, seek to transcend parochial loyalties and  particularized identities and search for universal truths. Clearly many members of our intellectual community finds itself unable to even follow these precepts even in a minimal manner.

The lesson from the recent history of Sri Lanka is so very simple that even the least  among the intelligentsia will be able to understand it: to repeat ,certain actions of the Sri Lankan state in the past led to the cry of separation; certain acts today may well destroy this demand, and depending on these actions, it may not be raised again in the foreseeable future. I may add that the last thing the Sri Lankan Tamils would want is to substitute domination by an impoverished South India  for Sinhala domination, even though they speak the same language!

It is possible that President Rajapakse, unlike the small-minded and rather sadistic army of lawyers, economists, sociologists, engineers, journalists, historians and various political pundits, not to speak of the nuttier parliamentarians — understands this.

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Latest comments

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    I wonder why VP’s pictures are adccompanying this articl?I would have thought that Amirthalingam’s would be a better choice.

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      VP outlived all of them so his pictures are most appropriate.

      VP is the only one who died for Tamil Elam. Others died fearing it.

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      I too would have wanted tom use Amirthalingam’s portrait there …

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    Arthagnani! Try something else you sick b_____

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      Cunning:(Is that the correct spelling?)

      A very sound,analytically brilliant and insightful response, and cuningly worded too!

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    Good analysis. The LTTE is long gone. Sampanthan and the TNA have already and publicly – including from the floor of Parliament – have confirmed they are agreeable to a workable arrangement based on an undivided island. Whether Sri Lanka will have peace or disorder depends on the Sinhala majority – now lead by the Rajapakse Brothers.

    Senguttuvan

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    In all countries and communities it is the extremist who call the tune. The rest assume a lackadaisical attitude and are mere onlookers. The so called shakers and movers are the fanatics and extremist who know how to make anoise and stir up emotions.

    Our leaders need to realise the above and objectively consider the votes obtained by these rascals who try to hijack the nation. Do they have any backing from the people, have they done anything for the country, do they talk sense or are they simply making a noise?

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    A very descriptive article pointing out as to what went wrong where and by whom.If there are intellectuals in the country the substance of this precious article is enough for them to open their eyes and ears and shut their mouths.Unfortunately for us Sri Lankans the majority of our educated and uneducated people think from their hearts and not use their brains to rationalise. Therefore they fall prey to the utterings of those minions with big mouths and small brains labelled themselves as guardians of that great RELIGION BUDDHISM and the Sinhala race.The people should understand that they are ones who brought disrepute to Sri Lanka as a pariah State.

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    President Rajapakse (and his brothers) and ALL citizens should read the following a few times to digest it properly and ACT:

    Prospects For Post Conflict Reconciliation And Development In Sri Lanka: Can Singapore Be Used As A Model? (Text of a presentation as part of the Global Asia Institute Speaker Series (2010), National University of Singapore), Prof John Richardson, 5 November 2013, groundviews.org/2010/11/05/prospects-for-post-conflict-reconciliation-and-development-in-sri-lanka-can-singapore-be-used-as-a-model/

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      Arthagnani
      Well said.

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    Oh!, What a good picture ! Blood sucking vulture V.P can smile, like a dog.
    This writer should understand, those days of VP the dog /arms-twisting India/Western-US INGO mafia, are now over once & for all because of SINHALA BUDDHIST NATIONALISTS who overwhelmingly pursued war option & saw the decimation of LTTE. Now there is no place for any Donkey/Monkey on INGO mafia payroll to roll back the historical victory over evil in this Sinhala Land.
    No any damn 13A, no any damn devolution other than existing Municipal/ Town/ Village Councils, any body can get elected to parliament & join GOSL as cabinet ministers & work for community they claim to represent, whole Sri Lanka belong to all the Sri Lankans , no any part of it reserved for any community.
    On the other hand most hilarious thing is , those who holds brief to minorities are the people who try to identify separately them as Ceylon Tamils etc; away from ‘One Sri Lankan Family’ & ask for separate areas /privileges & thereafter they cry foul when they are identified as such/ as they asked for (Separated from Sinhalese/Muslims) & not treated as Sri Lankans or as equal citizens ( but special citizens) .

    Aren’t these guys mad ? How can Sri Lankans work with these mad guys ??

    All these hue & cry is that some Ceylon Tamil politicos need political power & to live like “Maharaj’s of yester year in India among Tamils.

    Sorry, Tamil politicos should better know, that won’t happen , until last blood drop of Sinhalese people runs in the system.

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    Nothing of this will happen as long as politicians are divided into tribal camps – Tamil National Alliance, Muslim Congress, etc. That is the root cause of the problem.

    The longer they don’t realize it, the longer there will be no change. War winners can wait any longer but the war losers cannot. They, not winners, must change. Otherwise lets carry on like this forever! Winners have nothing to lose.

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    The etymology of the place-names in the north was not thought of as a part of ethno-nationalism till recently. It is an old, valid historical subject, and could become a part of nationalism if you try to force one name and exclude the other. The exclusive-Homeland people have that attitude. The colonials practiced ethnofacism and the anglo-people of Colombo continue to refer to Kurunegala as Kernigalle, Mannarama as Mannar etc!

    However, names like Mannarama,(Mannaram), Madakalapuwa,(Mattakkalappu), Ranamaduwa, (Iranamadu), Sinhalawadiya (Chenkaladi), Gokanna (Gokarna for Trincomalee) and thousands more simply show how close the Sinhalese and Tamils have been, and how long they have been in co-existence. All the southern names are already ‘tamilzed’ in the southern railway name boards, and no one bothers about it, and it is NOT used as a political bone of contention. But if an equivalent process is attempted even at historically important places, it is protested as ‘sinhalization’.
    Ponnambalam was right when he said that the whole of Sri Lanka is a homeland of the Tamils, and by working with the UNP he accepted that the Sinhalese are in it (Senanayake was a great politician who could work with both sides, adroitly neutralizing Bandaranaike for a while). Today, Tamils are even more widely distributed in Sri lanka and not confined to the North. In fact, since the opening of the railway in 1905 and long before any ethnic conflicts, Tamils who became sufficiently affluent in the North moved to Colombo, and if they became even more affluent, they moved to Europe, and more recently to Canada and Australia. But Ponnambalam was labeled a `traitor’ by V Chelvanaygam in 1949. That is the extreme language of pathological nationalism identified by Koenigsberg in his 1987 book on the psychology of nationalism. Tigers also identified other Tamil leaders as traitors and proceeded to execute them.

    Excessive nationalism is a disease. Sri Lanka caught the disease because of the politics of Ponna, Banada, Chelva and others. But they couldn’t have done it but for the fact that every time the minorities protested, the majority replied with greater violence. (J.R.Jayawardena was in that with K.M.P.Rajaratne pushing violent reaction). Such violence was countered by more violence from each side. Then Tamil nationalism put out a small 10% people in harm’s way against a virtual 80% majority militarily. Even if the Tigers had won the Eelam IV war and had Rajapaksa lost, there would have been another three decades of continual war.

    When we were young people everyone in my circle were fellow-travelers of the LSSP because we thought LSSP leaders were principled men who would ensure democracy (a good sign of democracy is how minorities are treated). Their `parity of status for Sinhala and Tamil’ seemed to be a great gentlemanly act. We soon learned that this was a sham, a tactic adopted for the short-term revolutionary end (because the GCSU demographics needed parity), and because they did not care about the electoral outcome. Their ethnic politics was not honest, and was a pretense based on `end justifies the means’. The left could have solved the ethnic problem if it had been on the democratic path right from the start instead of planning to power-grab by Bolshevik-revolutionary methods.

    I am afraid the 13th amendment, even if fully applied, would do little to ensure minority rights and good governance in Sri Lanka. The rule of law would be even more enfeebled by even more politicians having a finger in the pie, now at the provincial level.

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      to Chandre Dharmawardana,

      accepting the truth is the first step, but using it as a cover for your further sinister moves ain’t. at least Ponna, Banada, Chelva and others are not known have hosted such hostile prejudices and enmity towards others as you do on April 18, 2013 at 2:40 pm:

      The BBS is a political movement crystallizing around extremist advocates of anti-Islam which is a symptom of the increasing anger of the populace to the open face of islam, with loud-speaker prayers five times a day, tent-like dresses and other cultural practices going back to the middle ages, enclaves of Saudi-funded Muslim quarters appearing in municipalities like Beruwala or Kattankudy. (creating inter-Muslim feuds), as well as the increasing demand for the Sharia law.

      The same back lash has happened in `liberal’ democracies like Denmark, Canada, and France. In the US, the covert attack on Muslims is led by the US government using the `home-land security act’. How Muslim communities have been attacked using government agencies has been documented in the `dispatches’ series by investigative journalist Rick MacInnes-Rae of the CBC (see http://www.cbc.ca/dispatches/). The US government ensured that Muslim communities are broken up, Mosques closed, and the IRS deployed to heavily tax such establishments to bankruptcy or raise interminable questions about their tax status forcing them to use very expensive defense lawyers.

      The reaction in France has been firm, open and legislative, with the Hijaab banned,;and public Islam is forced to `avoir le visage conformant a la culture francaise’. Denmark and Canada have introduced similar, but less over-whelming legislation to satisfy the demands of majorities.

      Where Sri Lanka has failed is in its failure to maintain law and order, , and in not introducing suitable legislation that would calm the fears of the majority. The latter is a consequence of the government depending on Muslim MPs to maintain its strong showing in parliament.

      What should Sri Lanka do? It too should debate the matters openly and pass what ever legislation is believed to satisfy the wishes of the people.
      The quality of these laws (that is, there level of justice) will depend on the level of education of the legislators, their level of exposure to the wide world, , and on the foresightedness of the legislators who should also ensure that foreign vested interests (be they religious or political) should not be allowed to pump money into the country and buy up support for foreign religious movements or political movements. However, once the laws are passed, the laws have to be strictly enforced without corruption.

      The existence of the similar or more virulent Islamophobic movements in far more affluent (allegedly liberal) western countries with catholic or Protestant majorities proves that we have to look beyond Buddhist militancy to understand the phenomenon. So, it is NOT a case of `preaching’ and sermonizing by `good monks’ (as emphasized in this article), or `vigils’ against the BBS by English-speaking holier-than-thou individuals that would help. We need more definitive steps.

      What is needed is
      eliminating the sociological causes behind the phenomenon; viz.,:
      eliminating the destabilizing influx of funds from rich Middle-eastern religious movements,
      tempering the rapid propagation of social modes new to Sri Lanka that shock the people (hijaab, loud-speaker prayers, or for that matter loud-speaker Pirith). Such legislation exists not only in the West, but also in places like Singapore.
      Converting movements like the BBS into social safety valves where they are allowed to vent their views while the government MAINTAINS LAW AND ORDER AT ALL COSTS,
      Recognizing that quasi-religious movements also have large economic agendas, and the BBS seems to have attacked economic targets (halal, Muslim shops) even more than religious targets!

      and you come to preach others? nationalism is bad. but you are the worst kind of ethnofascist nationalist undercover which is apparent in your writings. and you try to cast others as nationalists.

      Mannaram(Mannarama), Mattakkallappu (Madakalapuwa), Iranamadu (Ranamaduwa), Senkaladi(Sinhalwadiya), Thirukonamalai (Gokanna for Trincomalee) etc., simply show how close the Sinhalese and Tamils have been, and how long they have been in co-existence and how you are now trying to sew the seeds of owning all the places for yourself. I changed the orders because i felt like that! we’re writing in english after all. If the english speakers want to call kurunegala (kurunaahal) and mattakkalappu (madakalapuwa) the way they want it, so be it. what’s your problem, you can always call nallur the way you want in sinhala and print name plates for buses, no one should object. and tamilizing southern names doesn’t amount to trying to own those places, unlike you have been pushing your sinister agenda in subtle ways. calling Lanka ilankai will also be a problem for you?

      Let us say Chelva called Banda traitor, then what did you imply about whole ethnic groups?

      your playing of rasalingam card is also very well known for your justification of the militarized north by saying elsewhere Thus we see that the lower castes welcome the army since it does NOT practice caste discrimination. who suggested that caste discrimination is still so prevalant in jaffna born’s as it was the case between uda-rata and pahath-rata’s and in the case of colonial discrimination of low caste sinhalese? when your society progresses, others’ does too.

      i will not project myself as a pseudo-etymologist (or coffee break researcher as some put it), or pseudo-historian as you try do in being the forensic expert that judges real forensic examiners’ expertise. so i will leave etymology and history to those who are professional at it.

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      did you see how Tamilnet is trying to distance the closeness of Tamil and Sinhala names by including letters Z and H to every thing and by making it difficult to pronounce ?

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    Dharmawardena says:

    “Their `parity of status for Sinhala and Tamil’ seemed to be a great gentlemanly act. We soon learned that this was a sham, a tactic adopted for the short-term revolutionary end (because the GCSU demographics needed parity)”
    If MrCD is too young to remember the the events prior to the parity of status resolution in Parliament introduced by the LSSP and CP,he shouold read-up on the history of the island. Even a simple study in the newapaper archives will be educational.The concept of parity of status(mind you,STATUS,not usage)was the official policy of all political parties before circa 1955/56.The SLFP too accepted it and SWRD,when he formed his party was intent on building a truly national political movement.In fact in the early days of the movement the SLFP had several Tamil supporters and even elected.I bel;ieve, two of them as Vice-Presidents.
    Mr CD’s attempt to malign the LSSP, of that time any way, is a kind of special pleading that has no basis in facts — worthy of a lawyer and not of a scholar!The LSSP’s promotion of parity of status for Tamil and Sinhala was a continuation of a decades old policy shared by all social forces in the country at one time — even some who later became fanatic promoters of Sinhala ONLY

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      Thank you for the comment. Examining facts is not a question of If MrCD is too young to remember the the events prior to the parity of status resolution. No one should rely on memory, it is important to go to the sources.
      The statement The concept of parity of status(mind you,STATUS,not usage)was the official policy of all political parties before circa 1955/56 is incorrect as a “simple study in the newapaper archives will show.

      But look at Hansard, column 748, 1944 where J. R. Jayawardena envisages Sinhala as the national language and Tamil as only a provincial language. He also expresses fears of submersion by the vast Tamil majority across the ocean. Till 1956 politicians (including those in the left) made theoretical noises but tacitly assume that anything except English is impractical. Bandaranaike saw the political opportunity in a country governed by a language understood by less than 3% of the population. The Left regarded language as a distraction from the “main struggle”. N.M.Perera even argued that free education etc., should all be delayed till the revolution which was the first priority.
      But D. S. Senanayake’s (perhaps very wise) policy of keeping delicate questions tightly under his wrap held sway till he died. Banda did not make headway till Kotelawala went to Jaffna and made heedless remarks, then came to Colombo, realized his error, and reversed himself. Banda used the opportunity to insist on overnight Sinhala Only. THe ITAK spoke of federalism in English, but the Tamil-Language material was specific about Arasu. The LSSP held firm and argued for parity of status and held onto this till 1964. The public stance of the left during that period seemed one of talking the high moral ground, but left insiders were very clear about the tactical reasons for the policy. Soon as they changed tactic in 1964 they jettisoned the policy, and those who still sought a revolutionary path split off and attached the letter R before or after their splinter name. Marxist ideology (a false two-parameter model of a complex system) couldn’t handle the new third parameter (ethinic sentiments) and floundered totally. So, today the left-over old Left has no electoral or working-class support.

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    If this is a Tamil-specific power devolution. Hiow it will works for Tamils living Kurunegala, Colombo, Kandy etc ?

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    Sri Lankan Tamils would want is to substitute domination by an impoverished South India for Sinhala domination, even though they speak the same language!-

    Above is the point. Sri Lanka has better living conditions in comparison to Tamilnadu, Tamil motherland, where even the human hyegine is an issue. So, Tamils want to build the Tamilnadu in Sri Lanka.

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      The trouble with these blog is that it gives an idiot like Softy to take the debate inti irrelancies in order to address their own emotional problems!

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    I must nevertheless agree with Mr.Dharmasena on the following:

    “Then Tamil nationalism put out a small 10% people in harm’s way against a virtual 80% majority militarily. Even if the Tigers had won the Eelam IV war and had Rajapaksa lost, there would have been another three decades of continual war”
    A victory for the separatist cause would only have been a temporary one.Sooner or later the Sinhala forces would have mobilised enough strength to re-conquer Eelam.A state that represents 80 % of a roused and resolute population has unlimited resources both in manpower and economic power whereas ethnic based armed struggles(as oppopsed to a class based ones, such as Mao’s) has only very limited resources in manpower and money..In fact the LTTE had to face this limitation and resort to recruiting children, in the end.And young women in their child-bearing years thereby contributing to the decline of the Tamil poulation the northeast.

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    Sorry –Dharmawardena,NOT Dharmasena!
    No politics of re-naming intended.I will leave it to others!

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    If CD looks further in the Hansard he will find that V.Nalliah introduced an amendment to JRJ’s motion that Tamil should also be an official language and this was accepted unanimously by the State Council.
    The rest of CD’s comments are inspired re-interpretaions of events that cannot be corrected here.He also seems to have an imperfect understanding of Marxism inspite of his youthful flirtation with the LSSP.It is of course true that Marxists stress the economic transformation of society but is wrong to think that it is the only issue on which they are interested.
    Ah well; this a fruitless debate.

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    Continuing
    with history lessons:
    I still suggest that Mr CD consults the newspapers of the day.He will read that both the SLFP and the UNP had to pass special resolutions to depart from their two-language policy to adopt Sinhala Only.This i lead to a walkout of the Tamil members of both the UNP and the SLFP and both parties became not only a Sinhala Only Party but parties of Sinhalese only.He would also profit from reading the LSSP’s programs and manifestos.
    But, carry on CD: Rewrite history which is common practice in SL practiced not
    only by amateurs but also professional Keep poisoning the political discourse. I am sure and your cohorts will not rest until you have converted the Tamils to the status of the Veddhas!Good Luck!

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    The Tamils have failed to earn the trust of the Sinhalese. Their Tamil politicians are dictated to by India and the west. When 60% of tamils live in Sinhala areas tamils want a mono ethnic area with land security with a thesavalam law. They have no problem in buying land in the sinhala areas. This is wholly immoral. The tamils have always wanted the cake and to eat it. 13th amendment should be done away with. The provincial council s have been a failure as expected. It was forced on sri lanka for the interests of India not for the tamils or sinhalese.

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    SRI LANKAN

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    Intolerance of the customs, culture, religion etc. is one of the main causes between the Sinhalas and Tamils in Sri Lanka. In ancient time, there were always wars between them just because of these problems. Both the Sinhalas and Tamils have their problems. I still hope that Sinhalas and Tamils can be friendly to each other, anyway, this is the country for all of the people living on this land. The war can make the things more serious. In my opinion, I hope they can union together, after all, each country can face the problems outside. Why don’t they give up the hatred between each other and overcome the difficulties outside? This can be more beneficial to them.
    But anyway, the Government is formed by almost the Sinhalese. When they are predomianted in this country, the minorities will be managed by them. War or peace mostly depends on them.

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    Intolerance of the customs, culture, religion etc. is one of the main causes between the Sinhalas and Tamils in Sri Lanka. In ancient time, there were always wars between them just because of these problems. Both the Sinhalas and Tamils have their problems. I still hope that Sinhalas and Tamils can be friendly to each other, anyway, this is the country for all of the people living on this land. The war can make the things more serious. In my opinion, I hope they can union together, after all, each country can face the problems outside. Why don’t they give up the hatred between each other and overcome the difficulties outside? This can be more beneficial to them.

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    The confilct is caused by the intolerance between each other.

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