23 October, 2017

Brief History Of Sri Lanka And Resolution Of Conflict Looks Nearer

By G. K. Nathan

Dr. G K Nathan

Dr. G K Nathan

Legendry history of the Island, known as Lanka to Sinhalese and Eelam to Tamils, starts with epic of Ramayana based in two countries India and Lanka or Eelam. There are places in the Island linked to the epic and folklore tales are told by peoples about these places in the Island by both ethnic groups. The places linked to Ramayana are venerated and respected by all; even though there are perceived differences between the Sinhalese and Tamils, as they speak different languages and pursue Buddhism and Hinduism, respectively. Genetic studies show commonalty in the evolutions of peoples, taking all aspects of life of both Sinhala and Tamil peoples show that there are many common features between the two Nations. The strategic location of the Island in the East – West Sea route, in the Indian Ocean, attracted foreign visitors to the Island from the beginning of Common Era (CE). It is known to foreign visitors by different names as: Taprobane, Serendip, Zeylan, Ceylon and in 1972 the Island was renamed as Sri Lanka using the Sinhala name, but in Tamil the Island is referred to as “Illankai” a derivative from the word Eelam, Illam.  Even in this modern era,  Sri Lanka remains as a strategic location as seen from the stands taken by China, India, the USA and the UK on the conflict.

Peoples’ antiquity in Sri Lanka has been a point of contention, beside the numerical strength of Sinhala and Tamil peoples; the best way to pursue, the unresolved rights of a Nation, is to use the UN International covenant on civil and political rights (ICCPR). Nevertheless, political leaders of the majority Sinhala community have used the claim of antiquity and their numerical strength to decide the rights of other minorities, in particular that of the Tamil Nation.  Examination of the antiquity of the Sinhala and the Tamil Nations in Sri Lanka will be guidance to others to enforce a justifiable solution to the long standing conflict in Sri Lanka.      Relative geographic location of countries in the region is undoubtedly a good indicator of the probable migration patterns between neighbouring countries to determine the antiquity of claimants in Sri Lanka.  Fact that the West coast of the Island is separated from the Tamil country in South India by Palk Straight, only about 20 km apart at the narrowest point is a good pointer as to who would have been the first visitors? The geographic location of the two countries points to Tamils as the first settlers in the Island. Tamil Brahmi script found in Tissamaharama, Southern coast of the Island further proves the antiquity of Tamil settlement based on language dating back to 120 BCE.  In comparison, Sinhala language only appears in inscription dated between 8th to 9th centuries CE, which shows Tamil, was in use, almost a millennium before Sinhala language came into use in Sri Lanka.  Also there is evidence that people lived in the Island, as early as, 125,000 years ago and during this period the subcontinent and the Island were at times were bridged; making land communication a distinct possibility; further prove that migration of people between the Island and the southern subcontinent has occurred far back in history.  Mahavamsa, the chronicle compiled in the 6th century CE by Buddhist monks, used Pali a North Indian language which came into use with introduction of Buddhism in the Island. Mahavamsa, the main source of Sinhala history failed to refer to practice of Buddhism among Tamils in the Island and as well as flourishing of Buddhism in South India, where many very rich Tamil Buddhist literature were created.  Many scholars have rejected fanciful story of landing of Vijaya in Ceylon. According to H W Codrington the story given in the Mahavamsa about the advent of Vijaya has been copied from earlier legends found in Jataka stories. Considering the proximity of the Island to South India, this story has a very small element of truth and only some Aryans from the North of India did come and settle in Ceylon, and mingled freely with the Dravidians of Ceylon and South India. Codrington remarks that the resulting position was – though the Sinhalese language was of North Indian origin – the social system of the Sinhalese is that of the South.  Perhaps use of Pali in Buddhist writings may have influenced development of Sinhala language to be identified as of North Indian origin, but the genetic study of Tamils and Sinhalese, referred to above confirms this interpretation.  Unfortunately, the politicians of Sri Lanka, to gain popularity among Sinhala Buddhist perpetuated the myth; which has turned for the worst led by Sinhala Buddhist chauvinists Bodu Bala Sena (BBS) with the support from members of ruling hierarchy. While the moderate Sinhala elements’ voices are lost in the loud noise, the BBS declares “Sri Lanka is Sinhala Buddhist country” and attacks on Mosques, Hindus temples, Christian churches and religious symbolisms are on the rise, with no action taken against perpetrators.  Britain’s action at the time of Independence in 1948, contrary to past history brought separate “countries” together in the hope that there will be amity between peoples.  Looking back at that decision to unify the country rather than decentralization of power at the time of Independence has been proved wrong, needing urgent remedial action to restore peace in the Island.

Divided Island in the Pre – Colonial Period

Details of pre-colonial history of the Island was mostly based on records kept by Buddhist monks who lived in monastery and kept regular records under the patronage of rulers, which is known from Mahavamsa written in the 6th century CE, also played key role in consolidating Buddhism among people. Mahavamsa is the only source that most Sinhalese believed contrary to other facts, leading them to accept that Sri Lanka is a Sinhala Buddhist country. The colonial occupation of Sri Lanka and studies conducted during that period proved otherwise. The emergence of modern scientific methodology and the record keeping by colonial rulers of the Island showed otherwise that Tamil people lived in the Island long before the arrival of others into the country. Furthermore, evolution of Sinhala language at the end of first millennium CE casts doubt on the antiquity of Sinhala people and it challenges the Sinhala Buddhist mythology.

The Tamil country was identified as “Coylat Wanees Country” in an engraving done by Wilhem Broedelet in 1692 based on a map drawn by Robert Knox in 1681 and published in London in his book “An Historical Relation of the Island Ceylon”. This showed that the Tamils occupied a larger area than that was propagated by present day Sinhala Buddhist chauvinists that the Island belonged to Sinhalese, as the original settlers. On the contrary the map given below identified three separate countries as: Tamil, Hill and Southern countries. The Tamil country covered most of the coastal areas: North West, North and East of the Island, but the depths of the interior boundaries were fluid. Tamils occupation of coastal area was understandable, as a seafaring nation sea route provided them the best mode of transport and related economic activities for a living.

Interest in the spice trade for which the Island was well known, attracted the colonialists; the Colonial history of the Island starts with the landing of Portuguese in Ceylon, in 1505 and ends with the promulgation of unitary constitution at the time of independence in 1948. About four and half centuries of colonial rule, was almost equally divided between the three colonial rulers in the given order: Portuguese, Dutch and British; each ruled for about one and a half centuries.  During the colonial occupation, the differences between the truth about the Tamils in the country and Mahavamsa myth was expounded.  The number of Kingdoms or “countries” that were in existence in the Island was identified with defined boundaries; in particular the Tamil Kingdom and spread of Tamils in the North and the East is proved beyond doubt, from the records of the Colonial rule. The colonial occupation also exposed the falsehood in the claim by political leaders that the Island is a Sinhala Buddhist country, contrary to facts shown here. The above diagram done independently shows that Tamil people lived in the North and the East from time immemorial.  Sir Hugh Cleghorn, British Colonial Secretary, June 1799 further confirmed when he said: “Two different nations, from a very ancient period, have divided between them the possession of the Island: the Sinhalese inhabiting the interior in its Southern and Western parts from the river Wallouwe to Chilaw and the Malabars (Tamils) who possess the Northern and Eastern Districts. These two nations differ entirely in their religion….” Why did Britain fail?

RNAll three colonial powers ruled the former Sinhala and Tamil Kingdoms, as separate and independent “countries”; only after the fall of Kandyan Kingdom to the British, that the Island was unified as one country by the British for administrative convenience.  In 1833, the first official survey conducted by R. L. Brohier showed the ethnic distributions which resulted in identification of five provinces, of which North and East provinces were demarcated as Tamil provinces, the other three Central, South and West as Sinhala provinces.  Positive development as the result of unification of the Island as one country led to the development of links with highways and railways, which increased mobility and interaction between the peoples.  Tamil labourers from South India were brought to work in tea and rubber plantation. Also, the country was divided into nine provinces, though North and East were reduced in area, remained as Tamil provinces and referred to as Tamil homeland; total area a little less than third of the country.  Also recruitment of both Sinhala and Tamil peoples for running of the Colonial administration, brought the peoples who were living in their own enclaves, close together, increased understanding between them, strengthened the trust in each other.  Steps taken to devolve power by the British to the peoples, ignoring the past political structure and independent countries that existed prior to the arrival of Colonial rulers sowed the seed of dissent between the two nations. Tamils’ protest began with boycott of the State Council election in 1931, in 1936 demanded 50-50 representation between Sinhala and other minorities and opposed the promulgation of a unitary constitution at the time of independence in 1948, drawn by Pan-Sinhala ministry  that was boycotted by the Tamils. The British constitution failed to recognize the multiethnic, multilingual and multireligious composition; disregarded the two millennium long historical facts and the opposition from the minorities.  British decision that denying the two-third majority in the parliament and the protection provided to the minorities rigths in section 29(2) “no such law shall, (a) prohibit or restrict the free exercise of any religion; or (b) make persons of any community or religion liable to disabilities or restrictions to which persons of other communities or religions are not made liable; or (c) confer on persons of any community or religion any privilege or advantage which is not conferred on persons of other communities or religions, or…”  is sufficent has been proven wrong.

Post Independence’ History, Justifies the Right to Self Determination

British artificially created a country bringing Tamil and Sinhala Nations together for administrative convenience, but failed to provide protection to rights of minority Nation. A few of the countries so created by other colonialists have survived the test of time due to acceptance of equality among all Nations which made up the unified country. In many cases artificially created countries, splintered or in the verge of splintering into independent Nations because of one Nation, usually the majority, subjugating and oppressing the other nations within the country.  Recent examples of splintering of former unified countries are: USSR, Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, The Sudan, Eretria and East Timor from Ethiopia and Indonesia, respectively. There are peoples within China, India, Sri Lanka and Indonesia wanting to exercise their rights to Self-Determination, which is being denied by the dominant power. The pre colonial history of Ceylon (Sri Lanka) outlined above shows peoples in the Island lived as separate countries for centuries, even during colonial occupation, but British denied that right to the Tamil Nation when granting Independence.  Perhaps British decision may have been influenced by Hindu-Muslim rivalry in the Indian sub-continent, what British tried to prevent at the time of Independence, happened a few decades later in Sri Lanka.

Expectation the British had of the Sinhala majority to respect the minority rights was not met. Instead, the first act was disenfranchisement in 1948 of Indian Tamils, who were brought to develop the hill country plantation sector that was then the backbone of economic activities. British Silence and failure of India to condemn the communal act and initiate remedial action did not augur well for the future of minorities in Sri Lanka. Disenfranchisement of Hill country Tamils was immediately followed by start of state aided colonisation of Tamil homeland in 1949 and the introduction of Sinhala Only Act in 1956. Peaceful protest of Tamil Nation against denial of their legitimate rights was met with successive pogroms against Tamils. The first three acts, immediately after independence revealed the agenda of Sinhala majority government of ethnic cleansing, which resulted in waves of migration of Tamils to foreign countries. The Tamil diaspora has become a bone of contention to Sinhala government in their pursuit of making Sri Lanka a Sinhala Buddhist country. The minority representation in the parliament was more than one third at the time of Independence as a guarantee, to safeguard rights of minorities, but the above acts decreased to less than one third in the first general election of the parliament after independence. Two decades after independence the Sinhala representation increased to 80%, which facilitated further marginalization of Tamil Nation through parliamentary process; these despicable acts against the Tamil Nation occurred because the world turned a blind eye and continues, even today.  Tamils after being marginalized in the parliament, only option left to them was non-violent Gandhian style protest demanding equal rights, which was met with more violence and pogroms against them, often aided by the hierarchy of the ruling political party. Also Tamil youths were deprived of educational and employment opportunities, which led to Tamil youth militancy. The Tamil people endured the worst “Black July” pogrom in 1983, a watershed event in the history of Sri Lanka, in which over 3000 people were massacred and properties destroyed, Island wide. Victims since Independence have neither been meted out with justice nor paid any compensation for the losses.

Knowing the Truth – First Step to Reconciliation

The final military conflict between the Sri Lanka armed forces (SAF) under the command of President Mahinda Rajapaksa and directed by his sibling Gotabhaya Rajapaksa, as defence secretary  and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) ended on 18th May 2009. The world took a peep at death and destruction that occurred during the conflict via international media and reports presented by Human rights organizations, which made the world to take a another look.  United Nation Secretary General (UNSG) at the conclusion of his visit to Sri Lanka on 23 March 2009 issued a Joint Statement with President of Sri Lanka which “underlined the importance of an accountability process” and the Government of Sri Lanka agreed that it “will take measures to address those grievances”.  The UN Panel of Experts on Accountability in Sri Lanka (PoE) was appointed by the UNSG and their report lifted the lid on atrocities that occurred during the conflict, whereas, President Rajapaksa maintains to date that the war was conducted against “terrorists” with “zero casualties”.  The PoE found credible allegations, which if proven indicate that a wide range of serious violations of international human rights law and international humanitarian law were committed by both combatants.  The information available on last stages of military conflict is shocking and the UN panel of experts estimated that about 40,000 people perished. There was criticism from member countries for the failure of UN operation in Sri Lanka, to prevent what supposedly happened; which resulted in UNSG appointing a UN Internal Review Panel to investigate the UN operation in Sri Lanka and its failure during the conflict to examine the short coming of UN operations. In a short period the report was completed and estimated the number of deaths at 70,000, much more than the PoE number. Both Panels appointed by the UNSG did their estimates without visiting the country as the Government of Sri Lanka (GSL) refused to grant them permission and facilitate the process. The Social Architects group of academics based inside the country carried out a survey in both Tamil provinces and came to a conclusion that 118,036 people were killed during the last stage of the conflict from September 2008 to May 2009.  The Lesson Learnt and Reconciliation Commission (LLRC), appointed by GSL to investigate final stage of the conflict, as part of the agreement with UNSG, failed to give a number for the civilians killed. Bishop of Mannar in his submission to LLRC raised the discrepancy between data available prior to the beginning of conflict and the number that was incarcerated, 282,380 people at the end of the conflict; there was a discrepancy of 146,679.  Taking into consideration thousands of people migrated to the West as refugees, the figure 116,036 looks very close to the truth.  President Rajapaksa before the final onslaught, ordered all the UN and NGO personnel to evacuate the war zone and he claimed that the war was conducted with “zero casualty” this was often repeated, all the reports available other than LLRC say a different story. The veracity of this number need to be confirmed, which can only be done by setting-up an Independent International Inquiry (III), which will reveal whether breach of International human rights and humanitarian laws have occurred.  The call for III is being pursued by UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, Ms Navi Pillay, David Cameron Prime Minister of the UK who recently announced at the Commonwealth Heads of Government meeting in Sri Lanka and many others have joined in the call.

The history of more than eight decades long struggle for Tamils’ rights started with boycott of State Council Election in 1931 and continues to date without recognition of Tamils’ rights, but solutions looks faraway. The “Unfettered Genocide of Tamil Nation”, a book published by Karnataka State Open University (Mysore 570006, India, 2013) records the struggle of Tamils’ right prior to Independence to the present. Many key countries have responded positively, while Sri Lanka remains intransigent about implementing any of the recommendations to solve the long standing Sinhala-Tamil conflict. The UK as the former colonial power has moral and fiduciary responsibility for placing the Tamils at the mercy of Sinhala chauvinist who never accepted the Tamils as equal in the Island. The USA as the only superpower together with other countries have passed two resolutions the first one at 19th session (Promoting Reconciliation in Sri Lanka – A/HRC/19/L.2) and the second one at 22nd session (Promoting Reconciliation in Sri Lanka – A/HRC/22/L.1) at UNHRC, to uphold human rights of peoples in Sri Lanka, to start with implement parts of LLRC report. So far remains unfulfilled. India as the immediate neighbour of Sri Lanka, a regional power, one of the world economic powers and a country with over 80 millions Tamils living in the country has every right to intervene to settle the conflict in the region, as it threatens India’s internal security and its own stability.  India acted in 1987 and signed the Indo-Lanka Accord which remains unimplemented; also one should take note that India intervened in 1971 and liberated East Bengal and in 1983 supported the Tamil youth militancy by providing military training.

In comparison to Sri Lanka, the British parliament recognized the differences of peoples within the United Kingdom; devolved power to Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales. The UK has gone one step further and set an example with respect to Scotland, by granting the people of Scotland, the right to hold a referendum and to decide its right to be independent country or part of the UK, which will be decided next year. Scottish and British peoples, the differences are very little compared to differences between Sinhala and Tamil Nations of Sri Lanka. In Sri Lanka differences are far greater because of ethnicity, religion and language. It is up to the International community that a referendum of Tamil Nation in Sri Lanka is held to determine their wish, which will bring once and for all peace in the region. The responsibility is in hands of International community, but the UK, India and the USA have greater moral responsibility and need to show leadership.  The US President Barack Obama paying tributes to Nelson Mandela at the memorial service in South Africa to- the largest gathering of world leaders from about one hundred countries, including President Mahinda Rajapaksa of Sri Lanka on the World Human Rights Day-  reminded of Nelson Mandela’s  achievement and said that “his death is an opportunity for the world to promote a legacy of racial reconciliation”. The inspirational speech delivered by President Barrack Obama, gives hope to the subjugated Nations and warning to leaders who fail to honour and respect the human rights of others.

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Latest comments

  • 3
    1

    it does look nearer . :)

    • 3
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      It does, the resettling of our historical boundaries. Perhaps we will then have the peace that so eludes us.

      • 0
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        http://www.dailynews.lk/features/revival-sinhala-london

        ”Having identified the traditional history of the Sinhala language dating back to the 9th century, he became mindful of the fact that the Sinhala language had been in touch with and influenced by ‘Vedda’, the original language of the pre-Aryan population of Sri Lanka (Veddas).”

        • 3
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          Zapato Silva, `Aryan` is another word for Iranian whom the ladies man Dudley gave citizenship to. Dont rely on free education.
          ________________________________________________________

          In Iranian context the original self-identifier lives on in ethnic names like “Alani”, “Ir”. Similarly, The word Iran is the Persian word for land/place of the Aryan.
          As a translation of Latin Ariānus for Ariāna (“the eastern part of ancient Persia”), Arian(es) has long been in English use. Aryan is of recent introduction in comparative philology.
          The English word “Aryan” is borrowed from the Sanskrit word ārya meaning ‘Noble’;[1] but apparently, it was initially used as a national name to designate those who worshipped the Vedic deities (especially Indra) and followed Vedic culture (e.g. performance of sacrifice, Yajna).[1][12] The Zend airya ‘venerable’ and Old Persian ariya are also thought to be national names.[1][13]
          The first Portugese encounter with Lanka in 1505 Lankan had no clothes but the borrowed Amude-
          1 English; Shirt Spanish: Camisa; Sinhala: Amude/Camisa
          2 English: Shoe; Spanish: Zapato; Sinhala: Amude/Sapatu
          3 English: Towel Spanish: Toalla; Sinhala : Amude/Toalla

          Its normal that the first word is amma then personal effects. Therefore you the Bihari bandits had no clothes like the Toque macaque incest Monkey of the south.

    • 4
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      Aryan only Buy and Sell- like electric condoms. Even Rajaporkistan cant do a cleaning job with out the Iranian/Persian/Indo European/Aban. In Iranian context the original self-identifier lives on in ethnic names like “Alani”, “Ir”. Similarly, The word Iran is the Persian word for land/place of the Aryan.As a translation of Latin Ariānus for Ariāna (“the eastern part of ancient Persia”), Arian(es) has long been in English use. Aryan is of recent introduction in comparative philology.

  • 1
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    Fake history.

    Tamils are SOUTH INDIANS. Otherwise how can they speak the language of south India?

    Muslims and Sinhalas are truly Srilankan. They speak a UNIQUE language UNIQUE to SL.

    Of course when SL is happy when Tamils are unhappy.

    IF Tamils have an iota of DIGNITY left in them, they should LEAVE SL.

    Things will get far worse for Tamils in coming years. Get out now in one piece or suffer. The amount of abductions, killings, intimidations, rapes, abuses, denials, etc. against Tamils have affected 2 million Tamils and it will affect ALL Tamils in coming years. Why suffer? Just Leave SL with dignity before it is too late.

    • 9
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      machang Fathima aka Lorenzo- do you know the meaning of dignity?

    • 4
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      Muslims speak Tamil for the most part. Some now speak Sinhala also. Muslims in the East are just Tamils who converted to Islam. Muslims in other areas are mostly Tamil , followed by Sinhala and Arab admixture–
      Sinhalese are from Bengal, Orissa and South India. –Sinhala is a North Indian language heavily influenced by Tamil and earlier Dravidian languages.– You always repeat the same old nonsense but the fact aren’t going to change to suit you.

      • 1
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        Muslims of the East were there long before the Tamils gradually migrated there under the Dutch and the English occupation, having been sent there by the King in Kandy, when they lost their trade to the Portuguese. It is quite likely that some Tamils and Sinhala converted subsequently, as their house names would suggest.

        • 5
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          Ram, please read a bit of history especially around the time when the Portuguese entered Sri Lanka in 1505. Then you will know what did the Portuguese did with the Muslims who were virtually controlling the Colombo district! May be those Muslims from Colombo were pushed down to the East from Colombo by the Portuguese! Please do not concoct anything without giving it a bit of thought.

        • 4
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          So why do Muslims in the East speak Tamil if they are not Tamil? So why do the Eastern Muslims phenotypically look just like the non Muslim Tamils? –Muslims were not in Lanka before Tamils, Islam came with Arab traders . These Arabs took on multiple Tamil and Sinhala brides and converted many Tamils, all in a bid to swell the Muslim ranks to attain power and influence for the Arabs. The vast majority of Lankan Muslims are Tamil and Sinhala. These Muslims are the usefull idiots furthering Arab cultural hegemony even though they are treated like shit in the Arab countries.

    • 2
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      You [Edited out] fartima fuckshimba instead of barking in the CT why don’t you get lost to Arabia. No one likes you in Srilanka neither the Tamis nor the Sinhalese. The Tamils and the Sinhalese will kick your Muslim arse all the way to Mecca. If you don’t shout up.

      • 0
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        FAT FUCKS…. is not a muslim ! he is does not have the guts or a backbone to come out with his own name (or at least something justifiable)

    • 2
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      ” Muslims and Sinhalas are truly Srilankan. They speak a UNIQUE language UNIQUE to SL.”
      Can you please tell me what is that UNIQUE language ? ? ?
      It is really surprise how your comments were MODERATED ? How they allow those words used in ALL your comments were published ?
      I think this is the standard of the CT.

    • 3
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      If you are Lorenzo, you are a Tamil Nadu Parawa fishing Tamil. When did you become Sinhala? Further Muslims too speak Tamil. When are you going back Thoothukudi?

      • 2
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        Sivanathan you Sinkalam: Just like you became a Tamil overnight. Just taking a Tamil Name doesnt change your identity.

    • 0
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      A name like that I guess you have no idea about anything. why don’t you make up a name at lease sound real.

    • 2
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      Fat” Mama ” Fuk U Shima

      Tamils are South Indians but you are Half Animal half Human and that is why you will be able to live in Wilpathu if you are cramped for Space when we reunite North & East after March. Sonia has already booked a one way ticket to Rome and may be you might want to join her her phone number is 000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000.

  • 5
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    Excellent Dr Nathan.

  • 3
    1

    Dr. Nathan, an excellent piece from then to now ( yesterday ).

  • 4
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    Drama Buddhist of Lanka even Microsoft has a complete dictionary borrowed from Standard English. Asoka is even more Drama;Chandragupta Maurya (340 BC – 298 BC) was the founder of the Mauryan Empire and the first emperor to unify India into one state. He ruled from 322 BC until his voluntary retirement and abdication in favour of his son Bindusara in 298 BC.[2][3][4]Bindu had many wives….
    _____________________________________________________________
    Even the diehard European wouldn’t accept Turkey as European and Iran (Aryan) is unthinkable.
    Aryan died with Hitler and his square head German researches with the end of WW2. Hitler stole the Hindu script Swastika and have patent righted 1489 items of Sanskrit. The Sinhala Buddhist Supremes’ (schedule class) have hijacked Sanskrit of the Hindu Brahmin.
    _____________________________________________________________
    Western notions of an “Aryan race” rose to prominence in late-19th and early-20th century racialist thought, an idea most notably embraced by Nazi ideology (see master race). The Nazis believed that the “Nordic peoples” (who were also referred to as the “Germanic peoples”) represent an ideal and “pure race” that was the purest representation of the original racial stock of those who were then called the Proto-Aryans.[4] The Nazis declared that the Nordics were the true Aryans because they claimed that they were more “pure” (less racially mixed with non-native Indo-European peoples) than other people of what were then called the Aryan people (now called the Indo-European people).
    In Iranian context the original self-identifier lives on in ethnic names like “Alani”, “Ir”. Similarly, The word Iran is the Persian word for land/place of the Aryan.
    As a translation of Latin Ariānus for Ariāna (“the eastern part of ancient Persia”), Arian(es) has long been in English use. Aryan is of recent introduction in comparative philology.
    ____________________________________________________________
    The English word “Aryan” is borrowed from the Sanskrit word ārya meaning ‘Noble’;[1] but apparently, it was initially used as a national name to designate those who worshipped the Vedic deities (especially Indra) and followed Vedic culture (e.g. performance of sacrifice, Yajna).[1][12] The Zend airya ‘venerable’ and Old Persian ariya are also thought to be national names.[1][13]
    The first Portugese encounter with Lanka in 1505 Lankan had no clothes but the borrowed Amude-
    1 English; Shirt Spanish: Camisa; Sinhala: Amude/Camisa
    2 English: Shoe; Spanish: Zapato; Sinhala: Amude/Sapatu
    3 English: Towel Spanish: Toalla; Sinhala : Amude/Toalla
    ___________________________________________________________

    PORTUGUESE INDIA
    The first Portuguese encounter with India was on 20 May 1498 when Vasco da Gama reached Calicut on Malabar Coast. Gama’s expedition was successful beyond all reasonable expectation, bringing in cargo that was sixty times the cost of the expedition. Vasco da Gama sailed to India for a second time with 15 ships and 800 men, arriving at Calicut on 30 October 1502, where the ruler was willing to sign a treaty. Gama this time made a call to expel all Muslims (Arabs) from Calicut which was vehemently turned down. He bombarded the city and captured several rice vessels. He returned to Portugal in September 1503.The Portuguese built the Pulicat fort in 1502, with the help of the Vijayanagar ruler. On 25 March 1505, Francisco de Almeida was appointed Viceroy of India, on the condition that he would set up four forts on the southwestern Indian coast: at Anjediva Island,Cannanore, Cochin and Quilon.[4] Francisco de Almeida left Portugal with a fleet of 22 vessels with 1,500 men. Bombay (present day Mumbai) was given to Britain in 1661 as part of the Portuguese Princess Catherine of Braganza’s dowry to Charles II of England. Most of the Northern Province was lost to the Marathas of the Maratha Empire in 1739, and Portugal acquired Dadra and Nagar Haveli in 1779. After 1510, the capital of the Portuguese viceroyalty was transferred to Goa. Until the 18th Century, the Portuguese governor in Goa had authority over all Portuguese possessions in the Indian Ocean, from southern Africa to southeast Asia. In 1752 Mozambique got its own separate government and in 1844 the Portuguese Government of India stopped administering the territory ofMacau, Solor and Timor, and its authority was confined to the colonial holdings on the Malabar coast of India. At the time of British India’s independence in 1947, Portuguese India was subdivided into three districts located on India’s western coast: Goa; Daman (Portuguese: Damão) which included the inland enclaves of Dadra and Nagar Haveli; and Diu. The territories of Portuguese India were sometimes referred to collectively as Goa. Portugal lost effective control of the enclaves of Dadra and Nagar Haveli in 1954, and finally the rest of the colony in December 1961, when it was taken by India after military action (although Portugal recognised Indian control only in 1975, after the Carnation Revolution and the fall of the Estado Novo regime).
    _____________________________________________________________

  • 5
    2

    Sinhalese are Orissa/Bangladesh immigrants.
    Tamils are the original inhabitants of Lanka Island and all of south India and in very ancient times all of south Asia.

    Tamils are Lumerians that includes Lanka, India and sunken land of the surroundings. Tamils are also the Sumerians, the world’s first human civilization and industrialization pioneers. Sumerians are thought to be extinct, but Tamils are Sumerians and it is currently under review for scientific acceptance.

    Further, Vast majority of Sinhalese are Tamils, but converted to speaking Sinhala, in the tradition of if you understand “Arasan evvazi, kudimakkaL avvazi”, meaning subjects follow the path decided by the king of that region.

    Chevvez

    • 4
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      K.Chevvez … “Tamils are the original inhabitants of Lanka Island and all of south India and in very ancient times all of south Asia.” ………. Here we go again……. “Tamils are Lumerians that includes Lanka, India and sunken land of the surroundings.” …. Here we go again and again ………. “Tamils are also the Sumerians, the world’s first human civilization and industrialization pioneers.” ……….. Here we go again and again and again … I am also to first ape spoke Tamil. ….

      • 0
        4

        Assuming he is Tamil,the Tamils who spout this pseudo history do not know better because Tamils in general are brainwashed by Hinduism so they lost a lot of knowledge pertaining to their origins.

        • 3
          0

          Above is comment from Tree Worshiping Buddhist….

          • 1
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            Avb …….. Whats wrong worshiping trees?. ……….. In Hinduism too trees are considered to be essential part of living religion. ……. By the way if you fail to protect trees the entire world is going to perish before your death… In the name of development let us destroy all trees. …….

        • 3
          0

          Hinduism spouted Buddha too!

          • 3
            3

            Not true. Buddhism was a reformation against Brahminical tyranny . Buddha simply emphasised the spiritual philosophy that existed in the SubContinent before Brahmins corrupted it.

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              It is a universally accepted fact that Buddha was a Hindu; you need to grow up!

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                No it isn’t , you are parroting Hindutva / Brahminical garbage. Foreigners called anyone who lived East of Indus as Hindus, regarless of their religious beliefs. What people call “Hinduism” is infact distinct theocratic and spiritual traditions that ended up being lumped into a catch all term called Hinduism . –Due Brahmins subsuming the religious traditions of the SubContinent and foreigners’ desire to use a convenient identifier for those who weren’t Jain, Sikh and Muslim, the term “Hindusim” stuck.

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                  Please do not make a fool of yourself.

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                    You are here calling Buddha a Hindu, and spouting Hindutva lies, you are the fool.

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              “|”Buddhism was a reformation against Brahminical tyranny “|”
              Unidentified Frying Object; Hate never fails to boomerang.
              It is only mysticism that can permit moralists to get away with it.
              ______________________________________________
              Rinpoche Karmapa the giant of Swiss or Dalai Lama wouldn’t agree with you. Om Mani Premi Hung, say it 1008 times please?? Samsara!!
              ______________________________________________
              No written records about Gautama have been found from his lifetime or several centuries thereafter. The Gandhāran Buddhist texts, the oldest surviving Buddhist manuscripts, reported to have been found in or around Haḍḍa near Jalalabad in eastern Afghanistan and preserved in the British Library today, was written in the Kharoṣṭhī script and the Gāndhārī language on twenty-seven Birch barkscrolls from the first century BCE to the third century CE. Or of First Śākya clan: Shakyamuni Buddha, thePredecessor: Kassapa Buddha Successor: Maitreya Buddha.
              _______________________________________________
              Neither are you Kshatriya, or R. Vellalar, ; BTW the mother of all step fathers was a meen karan vvt type now doing the Dimbul-pora. SENNA is anyday better because no imbili or goraka.。◕‿◕。 0-0 ☻ o-o ◕‿◕
              ______________________________________________

              Hanuman ki jai
              Ha means ‘Supreme Spirit.’
              Nu means ‘that which permeates’
              Man means ‘manifested’
              <3,:3

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        NV:
        I see a common thing between Africans and Tamils of Tamil Nadu. Both dance in funerals. How is that? Tamils came from Somalia?

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          With this comment you have proved that you are not a Tamil!

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            Burning he is aka Shankar another Sinkalam. They are all Cowards and they only cater for the Sinhalese ears.

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            how is that fool?

            TN Tamils and Afrikans are dancing in funerals. Dont you know it?

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              Sivananthan you Sinkalam you have given the ganme away you idiot. It shows how much you about Tamil Culture. Frankly Nothing you Sinkalam. Are you ashemnd of names like Appuhamy, Punchy Banda, Sanath Jayasuriya. Come on you half Animal.

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          I have never seen Tamils dance at funerals and I have attended Tamil funerals. — In any case, you speak as if being related to Africans and Somalis is a bad thing, only shows your own inferiority complex and small minded way of thinking. This is why Sri Lanka is screwed, because of small minded bigots like you. — To Racist Whites, you are just another N####r , so don’t delude yourself in thinking you are somehow better than Somalis or Tamils.

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            Idiot! SL Tamils dont dance but the TN Tamils dance. Dont you know the “SAAVU KUTHTHU”?

            Read my comments before you bark!

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              Refugee container traffic! You are not talking of Africans or Tamils in general but the ghetto’s in general who are doing the last tango. The say the dead is going to heaven and they don’t know what the hell it looks like so the last tango. Nothing wrong in that morality teaches us to live.

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              What is the point of talking about supposed TN culture when it has no beaing on the discussion at hand? Do you forget this is a site about Sri Lanka.

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              Tadpole you are kallathoni troll On free education trip.

              BTW when we first saw you in 1498 all you had was a borrowed amude from the veddha.

              Try some Gasoc it will do you good.

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                Oh! You are a PEETHA PARANGIYA!

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          Sinkalam Sivanathan: Just like you came from Animal. You are half Animal and half Human. Have you asked Sanath Jayasuriya where he came from ( may be Zimbabwe) because he looks like MUGABE without a Mustache. I can see the desperation and you are BARKING all the way to the cemetary.

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    “|”The strategic location of the Island in the East – West Sea route, in the Indian Ocean, attracted foreign visitors to the Island from the beginning of Common Era (CE). “|”
    ____________________________________________________________
    I disagree with the drama: the Arabs of northern Africa came to Kerala because the Jewish and Syrian communities were living there as refugees from Roman times. “Did they bother about Lanka `NO” because the journey was for silk and “pepper corn” the currency of Spain. The Spanish/Portugese was an accident and then came the Cinnamon and the king of kotte (very fair complexioned tamil his only left relative a bachelor died a couple of decades ago) and his salagame subjects. The first Portuguese encounter with India was on 20 May 1498 when Vasco da Gama reached Calicut on Malabar Coast. Vasco da Gama sailed to India for a second time with 15 ships and 800 men, arriving at Calicut on 30 October 1502, He returned to Portugal in September 1503. On 25 March 1505, Francisco de Almeida was appointed Viceroy of India Bombay (present day Mumbai) was given to Britain in 1661 as part of the Portuguese Princess Catherine of Braganza’s dowry to Charles II of England.
    ____________________________________________________________
    At the same time India was invaded from the north by the Mongols/Mughals of Taj Mahal fame- Aurangzeb, Shah Jahan starting 1502.The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb and also started its terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under Shivaji Bhosale. During his lifetime, victories in the south expanded the Mughal Empire to more than 1.25 million square miles, ruling over more than 150 million subjects, nearly 1/4th of the world’s population, with a combined GDP of over $90 billion.Neither Bhosale nor the Mughal’s ruled the whole of South india or Tamil Nadu in full- except Thanjavur[edit]
    H.H. Choladesadhipati Srimant Rajasri Maharaja Kshatrapati Sri Shivaji Raje Sahib Bhonsle Chhatrapati Maharaj, Raja of Tanjore
    _____________________________________________________________

    trekking backwards. The Arabs who specifically ruled Spain and Portugal for 800 years until 1486 Isabella the Catholic, Mother: Isabella of Portugal; Father John 11 King of Castile (English Heritage). The Reconquista (“reconquest”)[a][b] is a period of approximately 781 years in the history of the Iberian Peninsula, from the first Islamic invasion in 711 to the fall of Granada, the last Islamic state on the peninsula, in 1492. The Reconquista corresponds to, and is named for, a period of expansion of the Christian states of the peninsula at the expense of the Muslim states, collectively known as al-Andalus. It comes after the period of the Visigothic kingdom, which had collapsed under pressure from the armies invading from Africa. These two periods together constitute theMiddle Ages of Iberian history. It comes before the period of the Portuguese and Spanish colonial empires after the discovery of the New World.
    The Treaty of London, signed on 18 August O.S. (28 August N.S.) 1604,[1][2][3] concluded the nineteen-year Anglo-Spanish War. The negotiations took place at Somerset House inLondon and are sometimes known as the Somerset House Conference.
    _____________________________________________________________
    Only the British ruled the whole of India and Lanka though the Dutch paved the way- the Anglo Spanish war. The Brits were generally disciplined, studied the language and favoured the underdog to get back.

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      In short both Sinhala Bandits Tamil Bandits- Kallathonis!!

      ____________________________________________________________
      。◕‿◕。 0-0 ☻ o-o ◕‿◕ (^‿◕) (@_@)

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    First thanks to Dr. Nathan to the link on Sinhala Tamil DNA.
    ____________________________________________________________________

    That said the writer is getting his thesis confused and all tangled up.
    ______________________________________________________________________
    a) show commonalty in the evolutions of peoples, taking all aspects of life of both Sinhala and Tamil peoples show that there are many common features between the two Nations
    _______________________________________________________________________
    b) The geographic location of the two countries points to Tamils as the first settlers in the Island. Tamil Brahmi script found in Tissamaharama, Southern coast of the Island further proves the antiquity of Tamil settlement
    ____________________________________________________________________

    First indicates commonality and next talks of two nations. Has the writer considered the possibility that descendants of the old Tamil settlements might be current Sinhalese speakers.
    _______________________________________________________________________

    No different from the English being Normans (French/Viking) and Anglo Saxons (German). However, now the English are English not German (Saxon) or French (Norman) any longer. It may be possible to tease out the ancestral components by genetic analysis but thats about it.

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    Another possibility re
    _________________________________________________________________________
    Pottery shards with Tamil Brahmi script found in Tissamaharama, Southern coast of the Island further proves the antiquity of Tamil settlement.
    ______________________________________________________________________
    Its also possible the settlement was a small group of traders or artisans. This would be much like the Kittange in Galle the place where the Goldsmiths lived since at least the early 18th Century, maybe even earlier since Portuguese and Dutch times.
    __________________________________________________________________

    Just as much as you find huge amounts of Roman coins in Anuradhpura, does not imply Romans were settled there en masse.
    _______________________________________________________________
    As an aside, the Kittange Kovil has bought up quite a bit of adjoining land (including my Southern Cousins) in the heart of Galle and is renovating the temple to huge proportions.

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      The new (renovated ?) Sri Meenadchi Sundareswarar Kovil – Galle the Kovil owned by the Kittange complex which is the community house of the Tamil Chetti Goldsmiths in Galle. This community has been in Galle since early 18th century, possibly even earlier from Portuguese and Dutch times.
      ————————————————————————-
      I think the community was originally from India much like the Colombo Sea Street Brethren.

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      It is also true that the King and the bigwigs of the day had South Indians among the wives. Hence the presence of the Indian pottery shards and the like.

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        Ram you Sinkalam at least they didnt mate with a Lion

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    It can be said very confidently that it is because of the Portuguese colonization that the Sinhalese find themselves as an overwhelming majority in Sri Lanka today viz a viz the Tamil minority. As Sri Lanka`s written historical annal, the Mahavamsa, mentions, ethnic Tamils have found themselves in Sri Lanka in a political culture that promoted Buddhism from the beginning of written history. As a consequence, ethnic Tamils have assimilated into Sinhala Buddhist identity at varying rates since that time. It is no different than the invading Normans and Danes, as well as the indigenous Celts, becoming English over a period of time in England.

    The coastal littoral of southern Sri Lanka was inhabited by simple folk of South Indian origin whose main livelihood was fishing, pearling, coconut plucking, toddy tapping, cinnamon peeling and being the cannon fodder of local petty kings and chiefs in their constant fights.
    These were, by and large, Tamil or Malayalam (the daughter language of Tamil) speaking Hindus as can be attested by the `Ge` or house names of their descendants today in South Sri Lanka namely the Karave, Salagama & Durave castes, their primary function being fishing, cinnamon peeling and toddy taping. Some amongst these castes, due to their military service, had ingratiated their lineages with the dominant Sinhala Buddhists and received land grants. It is this group that has turned out to be the true villains of Sri Lankan history, not the Portuguese.

    Although most of the descendants of these groups today deny their obvious South Indian origins, true historians know the truth. If left alone, most of these coastal people would have coalesced into the Tamil minority of Sri Lanka. If that had happened Tamils might not have been the minority at all. But that is not what happened. The most important contribution that the Portuguese did to the Sinhalese was the elimination of an important social distance indicator between coastal Tamils and Sinhalese in converting both to the Catholic faith. It enabled the age-old assimilation of Tamils into Sinhalese to happen in an exponential rate.

    These new Sinhala-Buddhists, like all the newly converted around the world, overwhelmingly supported, and still support, the suppression of Tamil language and civil rights since the populist prime minister Solomon West Ridgeway Diaz Bandaranaike came to power in 1956. He himself came from an uppity coastal caste of formerly Hindu, then Catholic, and later Protestant background. He converted to Buddhism as a way to gain power, only to be shot dead by a Buddhist monk. In a nutshell, Bandaranaike`s family`s ascent to power as Sinhala elites from their lowly roots shows the hybridization that is the norm amongst the Sri Lankan ruling class. During the Portuguese times, the path to success was Catholicism and Portuguese names. During the British time most converted to Protestantism and picked up Anglo names. Today the same people are Buddhists of the first class. Their continued usage of racist supremacy as a political card displays the inner insecurity of the ethnically hybridized ruling class, but also – primarily – their crass opportunistic behavior.

    If Sri Lanka is to emerge from its current abyss, then its educated people need to look at who is leading whom in what direction. Is the tired old virulent Sinhala Buddhist rhetoric used originally by the Diaz Bandaranaike clan and now being offered anew by the Mahinda Rajapakses, JHU & BBS the right message for them? Who does this virulent and racist message benefit? It only benefits the ruling class and their hangers-on that have, like the chameleon, changed their colors to hold on to their petty perks at the cost of millions of common people. They have sacrificed the future of growth and economic stability that was Sri Lanka`s due like in Singapore, Taiwan and Thailand just for their selfish interests. Their ancestors sacrificed their kinsman for a few acres and useless titles, and today`s cabal of Rajapakses & de Silvas are burying the birthright of all Sri Lankans.

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      So what is the solution.
      ___________________________________________________________________
      Ask the ex Tamil coastal Sinhalese to go back to being Tamil/Malayalee.
      _________________________________________________________________________
      Why not the current Tamils be like “ethnic Tamils have assimilated into Sinhala Buddhist identity at varying rates since that time”.

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        Professor K.M. de Silva in his `History of Sri Lanka`, refers to the MIGRATION OF THE KARAWE, SALAGAMA AND DURAWE CASTES FROM SOUTHERN INDIA TO SRI LANKA BETWEEN THE 14TH AND 17TH CENTURIES AD. The Karawe, a maritime caste, appear to have had a disproportionate influence in the Sinhala military in medieval times.

        *******

        The Sinhalese became a majority only after the European Colonials came to Sri Lanka. In the 16th century, the Portuguese and in the 18th century, the Dutch who occupied the island brought in tens of thousands of people from South India (mainly from Cochin in the Malabar coast/presently Kerala and from Tutucorin in the Coromandel Coast/presently Tamil Nadu) and settled them in the Southern parts of the island from Puttalama up to Matara as menial laborers (for growing/peeling cinnamon – today known as Salagama caste, for fishing/pearl diving – today known as Karawa caste, coconut planting/plucking and toddy tapping – today known as Durawa caste, and for many other jobs). Within a few centuries, the Sinhala population in the South (low country) increased exponentially when these people assimilated with the local Sinhala population by adopting the Sinhala language/culture and the Buddhist/Christian religion and getting converted to Sinhala Buddhists and Sinhala Catholics. Today their descendents (6th generation from the South) are not only claiming the ancient Sri Lankan civilization as their own ‘Sinhala’ heritage but have also become the patriots and champions of Sinhala-Buddhist chauvinism. They have become distinct, ‘North Indian Vijaya’s Lion-blooded Sinhala Aryans’, the Nationalist Patriots and guardians of the country (Sri Lanka) and its Religion (Buddhism), the job that Lord Buddha assigned to the Hindu God Vishnu as per the Mahavamsa. If these so called “Sinhaputhra/Boomiputhra of Heladiva” had remained as Tamils, (without assimilating with the Sinhalese) today the Tamils would have been the majority in Sri Lanka or if they had assimilated with the Veddas instead of Sinhalese, today the Veddas would have been considerably a large population in Sri Lanka.

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          “|” ‘North Indian Vijaya’s Lion-blooded Sinhala Aryans’,”|”
          There is no aryan but iranian in translation like the parses.
          Was the fire not kindled to no return by kussi amma nuwera Sirima Ratwatta?? Hide and squeak!!

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          Did Poonambalam, Bothale walauwe Don Barthalamews Stephen Senanayake (not Dudley) and SWRD Tamil Nilaperumals Bandaranayake who contributed greatly to start this conflict claim to be not so Sinhala???
          Even Vijaya married from Nadu and bought so many service castes who are now considered ‘true’ Sinhala. Muggalan, Gajabahu bought many more….

          This chap has not heard of the KARAVA NAVIKA of ANURADHAPURA ABAYAGIRI VIHARAYA, THE ORIGINAL RELIC TEMPLE.

          Many kings and chiefs became Christian and thats how the Karava elites and other elites became Christian. As for the normal Karava folk, Jesus picked fishermen to lead his mission, he also fished and was the son of a carpenter. The coastal folk with their ancient lineage of the region; Shamanism, Balli Thovil, Devil Dancing were also Buddists, Hindus and Christians.
          So who are the traditional chiefs and guardians of the Island’s Vishnu Mahadevalaya (Dondra); the four great Karava clans.

          Presidents aunty married a Karava family hailing from King Bhatiyathissa of Kataragama. Vijayabahu’s commander who chased away the Cholas was Kurukulattaryan, the Prince with the Golden anklet. The only Regent of the Kandyan kingdom was Kuruwita Rala.

          Even Vijaya married from Nadu and bought so many service castes who are now considered ‘true’ Sinhala. Many ‘Sinhala’ kings were Tamil mixed, others Tamil; Nayakars, Perumal Buvenakabahu, Alakeshwara…. Some others were Lankan Hindus; Vijaya, Rajasinghe 1 and many Polonaru kings had the Kovil and the Temple beside the palace. Likewise there were always many Sinhala speaking coastal people within those clans, similar to how today some speak Sinhala and others (posh) speak English, some even Tamil. The Tamils of SL and India used the Vallam (no outrigger) and the Sinhala used the oruwa, Tamil ships/dhonies had no outrigger, but the Sinhala ships had it similar to the Borabudhur ships.

          How long can you prmote this theory that Eoropeans bought people to fish in an Island country……………… when it’s oldest Royal symbols are the Fish and Conch………..sacrificing a queen to calm a documented tsunami, whose son also had the fish as his symbol (Saddhathissa).
          These Europeans were mainly in to meat, so where are the heardsmen they bought over ???

          Likewise the Salagama are not just cinamon peelers, cinamon cultication is a respected tradition of the Island, foreigners came here for that not any other crop, others had Brahmin ststus. The Durava too are coconut planters and warriors. What about the great and ancient Deva found in the remotest parts of SL, whose God we worship as Saman. You think they were the only makers of jaggrey and treacle, did they have exclusive rights, secret know how, or kitul plantations??! Many more to mention.

          Promoting an exclusive plains theory in an Island country is not sustainable and can be evil.

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        Emptiness you fool!!! 2 legged good 4 legged bad!!

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        sbarrkum: Aslam Alayakum

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      Rajapaksa’s are born Catholics of Malaccan origin. Their Malaccan relatives were banished by Islamic Rulers of Malacca for helping the Portuguese conquest of Malacca. They converted to Sinhala-Buddhists for Political mileage. President Mahinda Rajapakse’s poor ancestor became an informant to the British during the late 19th century anti-British local uprising around the Hambantota salterns. This information led to the capture of Karava Mudaliyar Amadoru and other leaders. The British rewarded the informant with the name Rajapakse (British gave this name to people in who helped them), appointed him as an Arachchi and granted him 600 acres of land at Hungama for his service. The area was a Veddah territory of Giruwa pattu and the name of the land was Degampotha. This land was sold off in stages by Rajapakse Arachchi’s descendants to finance their indulgences leaving only Medamulana. Later, the land owning Sinhala-Buddhist Rajapakse family hailing from the south joined the Govigama caste around 1930s, long after D. S. Senanayake and other aspiring political families acquired the Govigama identity created by the mudaliar families of the De Saram clan and emerged as the dominant political force in the Hambantota district. Today, the family controls around 70% of the national budget.

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    Another aspect that is often missed is that if the Portuguese had not arrived, Sri Lanka would be predominantly Islamic on par with the Maldives! These BBS that attacks the churches have no idea! There would be no Sinhala but Tamil speaking people with Islam as the major religion!

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      But the Isalm was stopped spreading further in the South by the Hindu Vijayanagar Empire of the Telugu nayaks. But Jaffna Tamils want to become Catholic morons. That is why they hang on to the Catholic Criminals and LTTE!

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        Tadpole (゜゜)~ Hindu Vijayanagar Empire of the Telugu nayaks.”|”
        ______________________________________________
        • He never fought to win an empire: inspired by Vidyaranya, a saint at the Sringeri monastery to fight the Muslim invasion of South India. Established 1336- Disestablished-1646 and the Mongols/ Mughals arrived up north 1502.
        ______________________________________________
        Shivaji’s contemporary, the poet Kavi Bhushan stated: Had not there been Shivaji, Kashi would have lost its culture, Mathura would have been turned into a mosque and all would have been circumcised”.[58]
        ______________________________________________
        Nineteenth century Hindu revivalist Swami Vivekanada considered Shivaji a hero and paid glowing tributes to his wisdom.[77] When Indian Nationalist leader, Lokmanya Tilak organised a festival to mark the birthday celebrations of Shivaji, Vivekananda agreed to preside over the festival in Bengal in 1901.[78] He wrote about Shivaji :[77]
        “ Shivaji is one of the greatest national saviours who emancipated our society and our Hindu dharma when they were faced with the threat of total destruction. He was a peerless hero, a pious and God-fearing king and verily a manifestation of all the virtues of a born leader of men described in our ancient scriptures. He also embodied the deathless spirit of our land and stood as the light of hope for our future.
        ______________________________________________
        Maratha Empire, 1680-1818 was the paramount power in the Indian sub-continent in 18th and early 19th century, until it was usurped by the British East India Company.- Most British Authors agree that Maratha infantry was equal to that of British infantry after the Third Anglo-Maratha war in 1818, Maratha agreed to serve British Empire, and Britain listed Maratha as one of the Martial race.[49]
        ______________________________________________
        • Shivaji Bhosale (Marathi [ʃiʋaˑɟiˑ bʱoˑs(ə)leˑ]; c. 1627/1630[2] – 3 April 1680), was an Indian warrior king from the 17th century. An aristocrat of the Bhosle Maratha clan, Shivaji, in 1674, carved out an enclave from the declining Adilshahi sultanate of Bijapur that formed the genesis of an independent Maratha kingdom with Raigad as its capital.He revived ancient Hindu political traditions and court conventions, and promoted the usage of Marathi and Sanskrit, rather than Persian, in court and administration.
        ______________________________________________
        Shivaji’s legacy was to vary by observer and time, but began to take on increased importance with the emergence of the Indian independence movement, as many elevated him as a proto-nationalist and hero of the Hindus. Spoke highly of his religious policy. He also brought converts like Netaji Palkar and Bajaji back into Hinduism. The last Marathi king was the maharaja of Thanjavur.- The Marathi inscriptions of the Thanjavur temple dates the capture of Thanjavur to January 1676.
        • Ekoji I (1676–1684). Half-Brother of Chattrapati Shivaji Maharaj
        。◕‿◕。

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          Donkey!
          Try to know about Vijaya nagar! You fart from some useless books you read.

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            You are a tadpole in a jar. i spent a decade India, Afganistan NSEW and almost decade in China NSEW. Never a tadpole like you in Toronto which I visit regularly.

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              I think you were smuggling drugs and not learn anything!

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            Spaniards know more about Vijaya nagar than your dream.The Portuguese built the Pulicat fort in 1502, with the help of the Vijayanagar ruler.

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              Spanish knows? hahaha
              Your Parangi birth is a mixed problem. Why are you crying here? Go to Lisbon!

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        No Sivanathan you Sinkalam: A vaccum was created when Buddhist beacame BBS long time ago.

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        The Battle of Talikota (Kannada: ತಾಳೀಕೋಟೆಯ ಯುದ್ಧ, Telugu: తళ్ళికోట యుద్ధము) (26 January 1565), a watershed battle fought between the Vijayanagara Empire and the Deccan sultanates, resulted in a rout of Vijayanagara, and ended the last great Hindu kingdom in South India.

        So the Europeans have to be credited for indirectly saving Hinduism and Buddhism.

        Yes Jaffna Tamils should only put ash pottu, wear the wetti, eat only sambaar, idli, masala-wadai and speak no English and drive no cars.

        That LTTE criminal was HINDU.

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          Bin lardens tainted knickers try breaking the stone at Jerusalem- that’s where your place is not in the sub-continent. Even the staunchest socialist European thinks that the (Mughals/Mongols) Iranians/ Turks are Asian not European.
          Why are the world rulers Anglo American’s called `Boston Brahmins` not Christian or Islam??

          1. Vijayanagara Empire was run by the Brahmins: priests and scholars. They are not mullahs to spout satanic verses.
          2. 1674-1818- Martha Empire of the Deccan run by the Kshatriya: kings, governors, warriors and soldiers. Was specifically to drive away the Muslim murders. Last Baharat Battle with the British- The Maratha army especially its infantry was praised by almost all the enemies of Maratha Empire, ranging from Duke of Wellington to Ahmad Shah Abdali.
          3. A large portion of the Maratha Empire was coastline, which had been secured by a potent navy under commanders such as Kānhōjī Āngré. He was very successful at keeping foreign naval ships, particularly of the Portuguese and British, at bay.[9] Securing the coastal areas and building land-based fortifications were crucial aspects of the Maratha’s defensive strategy and regional military history. Marathas though were poorly led by their Generals but their regular infantry and artillery matches the level of Europeans, he also warned other British officers from underestimating Marathas in battlefield. He cautioned one British general that: “You must never allow Maratha infantry to attack head on or in close hand to hand combat, as in that your army will cover itself with utter disgrace”.[Even when Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington became Prime Minister of Britain he held Maratha infantry in utmost respect, claiming it to be one of the best in world at the same time however he noticed the poor leadership of Maratha Generals, who were often responsible for their defeats.[48] Most British Authors agree that Maratha infantry was equal to that of British infantry after the Third Anglo-Maratha war in 1818, Maratha agreed to serve British Empire, and Britain listed Maratha as one of the Martial race.
          4. Go see the Maratha Armour at Hermitage Museum, St Petersburg, Russia. They had to buy guns from the British that were the mistake. India has the mother of all weapons today- no fear.

          “That LTTE criminal was HINDU. “
          Yes a conman and died a coward because he was no warrior but – Vaishyas: cattle herders, agriculturists, artisans and merchants.

          Next Equinox NaMo means Maratha Empire in power- soft spoken language they know who they are!!

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            BTW from 1818 only the British ruled the whole of Tamil Nadu/Hindu no mussie no Portuguese or Dutch- therefore the temples remain and the pilgrimages from the north to south. So you see the complete automobile industry left by the British Morris, Austin Ford etc During the dark days the spare parts were smuggled from there to SL for its British cars.

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            That British army was mostly composed of Madras Seapoys.

            The last ‘Bharat wars’ were the Anglo-Seikh wars, Sikhs under Ranjit Singh, Ranjodh Singh and Ajit Singh would have won if not for the Rajputs Singhs(Kshatriyas) who despised the Sikhs giving peasants equal status.

            For their betrayal and siding with the Brits Gulab Singh Dogra, Lal Singh and Tej Singh got Jammu & Kashmir which they ruled till Indian indipendence.

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      No! because for 800 years the north african arabs travelled to Kerala rarely to lanka and the mongols/mughals did not rule the whole of the south because of stiff resistance from Marathi’s of the Deccan.

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    Why can’t all the commentators present these narrations history at Royal Asiatic Society for the benefit of general public of Sri Lanka? All what we learnt at school from history books “Apey Urumaya” (our heritage) authored by Prof. GC Mendis are being challenged by the commentators…..
    Sbarrkum refers to the Kovil “Kittange” in Galle. Dutch government is spending millions of Euros to conserve Galle Fort. There are some Sinhalese in Galle with the family name “Thuppahige” (in Ukwatta, Gintota, Galle and I have read somewhere (may be in Paul E Peiris’s “Dutch in Ceylon”)that Tuppahige has been derived from “Tupases” meaning Dutch descendant. There were Fereiras in Galle and I recall the late Mr. Anton Fereira of Kaluwella, Galle, saying that his ancestry was traced back to 1538. And we know that some settlers in Galle District had originally come from Kerala…………… When we have such facts and stories can recognizing mutual heritage also be a point to be considered for reconciliation?

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      Sirima had `Our Heritage` book changed when she took over first time in 1960.
      You can take a `burro`(spanish for donkey) to water……drink.
      ___________________________________________________
      After 1510, the capital of the Portuguese viceroyalty was transferred to Goa. Until the 18th Century, the Portuguese governor in Goa had authority over all Portuguese possessions in the Indian Ocean, from southern Africa to southeast Asia. In 1752 Mozambique got its own separate government and in 1844 the Portuguese Government of India stopped administering the territory ofMacau, Solor and Timor, and its authority was confined to the colonial holdings on the Malabar coast of India. At the time of British India’s independence in 1947, Portuguese India was subdivided into three districts located on India’s western coast: Goa; Daman (Portuguese: Damão) which included the inland enclaves of Dadra and Nagar Haveli; and Diu. The territories of Portuguese India were sometimes referred to collectively as Goa. Portugal lost effective control of the enclaves of Dadra and Nagar Haveli in 1954, and finally the rest of the colony in December 1961, when it was taken by India after military action (although Portugal recognised Indian control only in 1975, after the Carnation Revolution and the fall of the Estado Novo regime).
      ________________________________________

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    There are extreme,racist elements in both Sinhala and Tamil communities.This is not the time to analyse as to who came first to SL.This is not the time to dig the the dirt from the past.Willingly or unwillingly the Tamils living in SL has to live in SL.They are the ones who bore the brunt of the war.They have lost their brothers,sisters,sons and daughters in the war.What we should do now is we should work towards permanent peace so that there wont be loss of lives any more.The Tamil diaspora living a comfort life is propagating hatred and war.Even if the ones who lost their beloved ones want to forget the past,the Tamil leaders keep reminding the past for their own political mileage. Accusing each other is not going to bring harmony among the people.Idiots like GK Nathan could write pages and pages about reconciliation,definitely that is not going bring true reconciliation.

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      “|”to bring harmony among the people.”|”
      In fact they are between the devil and the deep blue sea of the fisherman’s clan.(^‿◕)

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    Nathan, No matter what you can write in webspace, you cannot change the history of Sri Lanka, Heladiva or Illankai (NEVER Eelam!!!!!!!)
    If you think you can alter Sri Lanka’s History by writing blabbering nonsense, then I can tell India was discovered by my grand uncle!!!!
    And that Eelam was swept out with Sri Lanka’s broom into a garbage dump.

    Wake up and stay out of ganja and drugs!!!!

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      Nuke: You are damn right mate. You cant change the History of Sri Lanka. The Tamil Kingdom and a Sinhalse Kingdom. Empires come and and Mahinthas was the shortest in History. It will be gone by March 2014. Just 4 years old which is 48 Months. MRs empire dead at birth or more precisely Still Born because it was not conceived properly and born out of wedlock.

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    Dr.Nathan: The resolution to the Conflict is only 3 Months away. If Congress wins again in India I accept Colonisation will be Complete. But if BJP ( 182 seats predicted) win and the Iron Lady holds balance of power this is how the Sri Lanka map is going to look. North & East will be reuinted and enough power devolved to function as an Autonomous State with our own International Airport , KKS Harbour , Power to attract foreign Investment same as Tamil Nadu. But if the majority dont agree Eelam them just like Wimal the Wansa is lamenting. MR to the HAGUE to be punished for his sins. Basil has already been punished by God and he cant Rape any more.

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    Dr.Nathan:

    We will rise from the ashes just like the Jewish State.

    Nanthikadal = Auschwitz

    We will wipe away the tears of Krishanthi & Isaipriya and many more .
    Set up Simon Wiesenthal Commitee to hunt down who took part in the Genocide to their Graves including Karuna the Traitor who is hiding behind enemy lines.

    NO MORE NANTHIKADAL NO MORE TAMIL BLOOD. This will be the lasting Monument to our suffering for the last 64 years.

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      I heard the kovanam of your thesiya thalaivar is still floatin in Nanthi kadal!

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