23 September, 2017

Concerning Us And The “Naga”

By Darshanie Ratnawalli

 Darshanie Ratnawalli

Darshanie Ratnawalli

Just last week my mother shouted me down when I told her that the god “Sakra” of the Buddhist canon was the same as the Aryan god Indra.

“Indra, the most vividly realized Vedic god, embodies the powerful Aryan warrior…the continuing popularity of Indra, which is reflected in a large number of tales told about the heroic deeds, and even more so about his ability to change his shape at will, his trickery and his sexual adventures…  His fame…is still well reflected by his prominent and active position in the Pali canon where he is called Sakka (Skt. < Śakra).” – (pages 55, 83, Witzel and Jamison:1992[i]full text

I questioned her concern about Sakra: did she perchance think that he was an integral part of Buddhism proper? She answered, yes the Pali canon described the realities, events and beings actually experienced by the Buddha; the Sakra whom the Buddha actually met and conversed with was therefore integral and not some Vedic flotsam; kindly stop holding such ‘mitya dristi’. Was she aware, I asked, of how many Vedic continuities there are in the canon? What about the Buddha’s attitude towards women or more glaringly his attitude towards the Asuras? According to the Pali canon, Rahu, the Asura, listened to a sermon of the Buddha which brought enlightenment to many in the assembly, but not to him, who, as an Asura, was unfit. Where did she think that came from if not from Buddhism’s anchorage in the Vedic myth pool?

“…one of the most characteristic aspects of Brahmanic mythology is the ceaseless rivalry between the gods (Devas) and their kin, the so-called Asuras. Perhaps hundreds of mythic episodes in Vedic prose texts begin with the sentential formula “The Devas and the Asuras were in contention”.”- (p60- 61, ibid)

Reflect mother, I told her, if the Buddha’s lifetime (400 BC in actuality) had fallen a thousand years earlier, the Asura Rahu might have qualified for instant enlightenment. For, at its earliest chronological layers [represented by the Rigveda (1700-1200 BC[ii])], Vedic thought regarded both Devas and Asuras as gods. It was only later in the post Rigvedic texts, that Asuras become demon like. (p8, Witzel:2001[iii]full text)

I brought all these creatures – my mother, the god Sakra and the Asura Rahu – into this article for a purpose: to introduce the common Indo-Aryan myth pool and some of the most prolific and widespread creatures to come out of it, the Nagas. By ‘common Indo-Aryan myth pool’ I mean the shared lore and ideologies that belong particularly to the cultural milieu of peoples who spoke and speak the Old Indo Aryan, Middle Indo Aryan and New Indo Aryan languages. Of course, the fact that it was a dominant cultural milieu meant that even people belonging to other speech communities waded into this pool and took its creatures to their cultural bosoms. On the other side of the coin, some of the most fecund and multiplying creatures in the IA myth pool may have crept there initially, from the myth pools of pre-Aryan populations. Kashmir for instance, “may not have been Vedic from early on”- (p7, Witzel: 1999a[iv]full text)

“The prehistory of Kashmir is little known… the Vedic texts, which know of the neighboring Indus valley do not mention Kashmir by name. It is first mentioned by name only by the grammarian Patañjali (150 BCE)… The native Kashmiri texts (Rājataraṅginī, Nīlamata Purāna…), however, know of the previous populations, the Piśāca ‘ghouls’ and the Nāga ‘snakes’ (that can change into human shape at will). These are common Indian names for ‘aboriginals’; cf. the Tib.-Burm. Naga tribe on the Burmese border. Yet, these designations may retain some historical memory. The chief of the Piśāca is called Nikumbha (Nikumba in Milindapañho), and the Nagas have such ‘foreign’ names such as

Karkoṭa, Aṭa, Baḍi, Bahabaka, Cāṭara, Cikura, Cukkaka, etc. The list of some 600 Kashmir Naga names in the local Nilamatapurana contains many such non-Sanskritic names; they have not been studied…”-   (P6, Witzel: 1999b[v]full text)

The Naga Cult

Even if we were illiterate peasants living in rural Sri Lanka, using only a small transistor radio for entertainment, there are certain Naga allusions that we would not be able to escape. Such as: the Naga raja named Ananta (I can’t recall how he first came into my consciousness. Not through reading.); Mucalinda, a poison called Hala-hala (from popular songs); Erandati and her mom Vimala, Maniakkikha, Chulodara-Mahodara and, of course Naga Deepa. For illiterate peasants in Kashmir, it’s even worse. “Down to the present day, the word nag is used in used in Kashmir to indicate the source of a river or rivulet”– (p220, Jean Philippe Vogel:1926[vi]full text). Even if the peasant Kashmiri was a Muslim, he could not escape the accumulated weight of centuries of Nagas.

““From early times”, Sir Aurel Stein says, “considerable importance must have been attached to their worship, as is proved by the long account given of them in the Nilamata, by the numerous temples erected near the more famous springs, and the popularity and undoubtedly ancient origin of the pilgrimages directed to the later. The belief in Nagas is fully alive also in the Muhammadan population of the valley, which in many places has not ceased to pay a kind of superstitious respect and ill-disguised worship to these deities. The popular conception of the Nagas, as now current, represents them under the form of snakes, living in the water of the springs or lakes protected by them””- (p220, Vogel:1926-full text)                       

 In Kashmir, Nagas still live under the surface. Literally. Or is it metaphorically? “…Anatnag or Anantanaga, in Kashmir as the name indicates (the modern name of the place is Islamabad), is connected with the worship of the world-serpent Sesha.”– (p198, ibid).

Ironically you could not escape the Nagas even in China and Japan.  Under the mythical skin of every dragon lurks a Buddhist Naga.

 “…another important source of Naga lore, namely, the narratives of the Chinese pilgrims, those fervent Buddhists who undertook the long and dangerous journey to India to visit the sacred relics in the holy land of their Faith. Fa-Hien (A.D. 399-414) was the earliest of these pious palmers, but it is especially the great Hiuen Tsiang (A.D 629-45), whose itinerary contains a wealth of legendary lore regarding the Nagas. The Chinese writers usually refer to the Nagas under the name of ‘dragons’ and it cannot be doubted that the character of the dragon, as it appears in the folklore and literature of China, is partly derived from the Indian conception of the Naga.”- (p94, ibid)

The earliest sources where the cult of the Nagas is attested are the Vedas. They “were orally composed (roughly, between 1500–500 BCE) in parts of present day Afghanistan, northern Pakistan and northern India”[vii] by tribes speaking Vedic Sanskrit and other Old Indo-Aryan (OIA) languages and dialects and designating themselves and their language as “arya”[viii].

“A much neglected topic also is that of snake worship. First of all, it is difficult to draw a clear line between the concepts of snakes (sarpa) and the half-human nāga. These deities, subterranean counterparts of the heavenly gandharva, represent the other, chthonic side of humans after death (as opposed to the heavenly one, as pitṛs). Famous persons such as Dhṛtarāṣṭṛa appear also as Nāgas. Just like the Gandharva/Apsaras they intermarry with humans… Snake worship as such has been attested since the RV (Rigveda). While the word nāga occurs only from the AV (Atharvaveda, around 1200/1000 BC[ix], my parentheses) onwards, snakes are mentioned already in the RV…It is interesting to record that many of the snake names occurring in the AV still are those of snake deities in modern Bengal where the worship of a special snake deity, Manasā is prominent. Others, such a AVP (a version of AV, my parenthesis[x]) Śarkoṭa, survive in the name of Karkoṭa/Kārkoṭa, one of the major Nāgas of Kashmir and Nepal”. – (p84, Witzel and Jamison: 1992-full text)

@ http://ratnawalli.blogspot.com/  and rathnawalli@gmail.com


[i] “Vedic Hinduism” by S. W. Jamison and Michael Witzel (1992)- Full text

[ii] For the dating of the Rigveda, see p3, Witzel:1999, “Substrate Languages in Old Indo-Aryan (Rigvedic, Middle and Late Vedic)” full text

[iii] M. Witzel, 2001, Autochthonous Aryans? The Evidence from Old Indian and Iranian Texts.Full text

[iv] M. Witzel, “Aryan and non-Aryan Names in Vedic India. Data for the linguistic situation, c.1900-500 B.C.” – (Full text) in: J. Bronkhorst & M. Deshpande (eds.), Aryans and Non-Aryans, Evidence, Interpretation and Ideology. Cambridge (Harvard Oriental Series, Opera Minora 3). 1999, 337-404.

[v] Witzel, “Early Sources for South Asian Substrate Languages” (Full text),  Mother Tongue (extra number), October 1999, pp.1-70

[vi] 1972, 1926, English, Book, Illustrated edition:Indian serpent-lore; or, The nāgas in Hindu legend and art”-(full text) by Vogel, J. Philippe (Jean Philippe), 1871-1951.

[vii] See page 2 of M. Witzel:1999, “Substrate Languages in Old Indo-Aryan (Rigvedic, Middle and Late Vedic)” –(full text)

[viii] See page 3 of M. Witzel, 2001, Autochthonous Aryans? The Evidence from Old Indian and Iranian Texts.Full text

[ix] For an approximate dating of the Vedic Corpus see pages 5-6, M. Witzel, 2001, Autochthonous Aryans? The Evidence from Old Indian and Iranian Texts.Full text

[x] See pages 3 and 57 of  M. Witzel:1999, “Substrate Languages in Old Indo-Aryan (Rigvedic, Middle and Late Vedic)” –(full text)

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Latest comments

  • 5
    2

    Ken

    I am relying on you.

    Thanks

    • 4
      1

      Native

      “you are researching into the mental indices of the mediocre”

      you were already warned by none other than Ms Radhika Coomaraswamy for pointing out child and adolescent mental disorders. I am not keen to contribute more because (Child and adolescent mental services (CAMS) is not a fully developed specialty in Sri Lanka. We should not provoke young people into discussion on polemics because people with CAMD have a tendency to overreact with a potential for self harm!
      Ken

      • 3
        1

        ken robert

        Thanks I will remember your advice.

        By the way OTC has not responded to my simple question.

        Communal Politics Under The Donoughmore Constitution 1931 – 1947

        Jane Russell

        As I promised to Rajash here is the link to the book,

        http://www.noolaham.net/project/37/3675/3675.pdf

        Please read it and see for yourself whether OTC’s constant haranguing about racism has any merit in it. Jane Russell deals with it in a completely different context.

        • 1
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          N V and Ken;

          You both missed and messed at something there.
          now a days also Here We have Naagas and Vipers {Snakes [ SARAPaYO]} in our society.
          Not that tribal or Casts but a cult.

          Anyway thanks to miss Dharshanee for the informative article.

        • 0
          1

          Native

          I have downloaded the article. I will read it soon!
          ken

          • 2
            1

            ken

            It is a book.

        • 2
          1

          NV,
          Thank you for the link.

          FAO OTC – It looks like you have not read the book. Communal Politics Under The Donoughmore Constitution 1931 – 1947 Jane Russell.

          Chapter XII – Tamil Communalism in Reply P243.

          Chapter title says it all. It says Tamil communalism in reply. So according to Jane Russell, GG did not start communal politics. You wrote GG started communal politics and you repeated this over and over again. So you are the one lying repeatedly thinking it will become true.

          • 2
            1

            Anpu

            I was sitting on this link for months and reading OTC, Banda and mechanic keep going on about Tamil racism. By the way I have a copy of the book as well.

            Tamils too are racists for different reasons. We can discuss it some other time.

            Now you know how racists manufacture their own history.

            Please see below Dawn Dale’s comment at
            June 1, 2014 at 2:39

            She writes

            “my imagined theory is these Naga.s were a Buddhist tribe that came to SL or converted to Buddhism while Yakkas didn’t assimilate as easily”

            What do you deduce from above comment if you are layman have no access to knowledge and information?

            • 1
              1

              NV,

              Last night, I read Dawn Dales comment that you are referring to and thought she is another one twisting history (or lying).

              Thanks again NV and OTC (for referring to Jane Russell).

              • 2
                1

                Anpu

                This book was quoted by OTC, with a large dose of commission and omission.

                Now you have the book and OTC rambling. Look at what he said and what Jane Russell wrote.

                OTC misquoted and distorted the entire theme in order to suite his/her views.

                Please read the entire book and let us know how OTC twisted Jane’s version of colonial history.

            • 1
              1

              Dear “Veddha”,

              You wrote “Now you know how racists manufacture their own history”

              Here are some examples.

              1. Addressing Manoharan you said on May 25, 2014 at 2:16 pm
              “You have great sense of History. I envy you…..The stupid Tamils suffered last time when IPKF arrived because the Sri Lankan armed forces who were supposed to defend this island were found hiding behind their women folks and VP’s fat bottom”

              2. Then addressing Banda 20 April 2014 you claimed “This is only a part of your observation. The rest of your narrative deliberately ignored the following acts of cruelty and hatred: Disenfranchisement of more than 1.2 million people”

              3. Addressing Ram On May 27, 2014 at 10:51 am you wrote
              “Sri Lankan serving army officer who was holding a diplomatic post alleged to have boasted how he hacked VP dead”

              All of them are FALSE.

              1. The SLA were confined to Barracks by the Indo Lanka Peace accord that allowed the IPKF into SL.

              2. a) The Citizenship Act was held to be non discriminatory by the Privy Council, UK (the highest court in the British Empire)

              b) 9 out of 12 Tamil MP’s of GG Ponnambalam’s Tamil Congress voted for the Act.

              c) The Indian Tamils were British subjects a major part of which qualified for Citizenship and they became Sri Lankans.

              d) Even today a near million of Indian Origin Tamils live and vote in the Sinhala heartland of the Hill Country.

              By your own Definition you are a Racist.

              Isn’t that Sanctimonious Pathological Lying?

              Kind Regards,
              OTC

        • 1
          2

          Veddha aka Tamil separatist,

          Re “By the way OTC has not responded to my simple question”

          Ha ha haa the Sanctimonious humbug. Trying to resurrect your reputation which I shredded to pieces with factual extracts from your own posts? What a coward to hide under a different thread?

          Addressing Manoharan you said on May 25, 2014 at 2:16 pm
          “You have great sense of History. I envy you…..The stupid Tamils suffered last time when IPKF arrived because the Sri Lankan armed forces who were supposed to defend this island were found hiding behind their women folks and VP’s fat bottom”

          Note your disparaging language. The TRUTH is that The Sri Lankan forces were CONFINED to barracks in May 1987 by the same Indo Lanka Accord that allowed the IPKF to come to Lanka! Your knowledge of History does not even cover 1987!

          What a Sanctimonious Lying Humbug you are!

          Then addressing Banda you claimed “This is only a part of your observation. The rest of your narrative deliberately ignored the following acts of cruelty and hatred: Disenfranchisement of more than 1.2 million people”

          All that twisted and convoluted wording refers to the Ceylon Citizenship Act No. 18 of 1948.

          This is a TYPICAL Tamil Separatist argument advanced by virulent Tamil Separatist propagandists like Usha Sriskandaraja of the TGTE.

          You are doing the same thing.
          Underneath that facade you are a Tamil Separatist.

          How, when and where were 1.2 million people disenfranchised?
          Do you mean ALL the Indian Origin Tamils got deported?

          There are a million Indian Origin Tamils now resident in the Sinhala Heartland of the Hill Country.

          The Citizenship Act was passed under the Soulbury Constitution which had section 29 to protect minority rights. The Act was passed with 9 out of 12 Tamil MP’s of G. G. Ponnambalam’s Tamil Congress voting in favour of the Citizenship Act.

          The Privy Council held that the Citizenship Act was nondiscriminatory in the KODAKAN PILLAI, vs P. B. MUDANAYAKE PRIVY COUNCIL APPEAL NO. 7 OF 1952

          I gave you the link to the complete judgement in my post that you ran away from.

          Why are you hiding your comments under an irrelevant topic? You should have looked at me response under the CORRECT web page which you deserted.

          Go and read my response in the CORRECT webpage here. It has more details about your character.
          https://www.colombotelegraph.com/index.php/tna-wants-gosl-to-disclose-reasons-for-diaspora-designation-under-ihl/comment-page-1/#comment-1310140

          BTW, thank you for the Electronic copy of Dr Russells book. It makes my future work easier. All this time I was laboriously retyping from the printed book.

          Kind Regards,
          OTC

          • 2
            1

            OTC,

            Here we go again…….

            “BTW, thank you for the Electronic copy of Dr Russells book. It makes my future work easier. All this time I was laboriously retyping from the printed book”.

            Still you have to type. You cant copy and paste from the above link.

            • 3
              1

              Anpu

              “Still you have to type. You cant copy and paste from the above link.”

              Still OTC has to read it.

              • 1
                1

                Dear “Veddha” (a disgrace to the Real Veddha)aka Tamil separatist,

                Re ” Still OTC has to read it”

                Oh don’t worry about that. I have done it long ago and have used her book as reference material in writing my comments. But you have not been able to develop any argument using it as a reference. The implication is clear.

                But more importantly, prove that you are not the Sanctimonious Lying Humbug that your own posts paint you to be and describing you as a Sanctimonious Fraud is not accurate.

                Ken Robert, Anpu, Burning Issue, I have read your comments here. Let’s put your INTEGRITY to the test.

                what do you have to say?
                Is the “Veddha” a Sanctimonious Liar?
                If not why?

                Kind Regards,
                OTC

            • 0
              1

              Re “Still you have to type. You cant copy and paste from the above link”

              Technology has advanced beyond that.

              Kind Regards,
              OTC

              • 2
                1

                OTC,

                Please tell me how to copy and paste text from this book http://www.noolaham.net/project/37/3675/3675.pdf

                Thanks in advance

              • 2
                1

                Off the Sleeve, Is that advanced technology called ‘touch-n-stick’?

                • 1
                  1

                  Dear Cloudbread,

                  Re “Off the Sleeve, Is that advanced technology called ‘touch-n-stick’?”

                  Stick around then you will see.

                  If you have followed my comments you should have known that I do not make idle claims.

                  Here is an example of the results of the Technology that you apparently are ignorant of.

                  Quote from Dr. Jane Russell
                  deprecated the minority coalition and “50-50”. On more than one
                  occasion he torpedoed G. G. Ponnambalam’s attempt to speak on
                  behalf of the Muslim community in favour of the “balanced
                  representation”. In 1939 he said : ‘The Muslims in my province do not want an island-wide electorate as they say that they cannot control all the other places where Muslims reside; that seat would be obtained by ‘certain Mohammedans in Colombo who by reason of wealth and influence would be able to capture all the seats.

                  He continued: “The Tamils have no mandate from the Muslims to
                  ask for any seats for them in any form”.“Although the Muslims, and to a greater extent the Burghers and Europeans, were perfidious and fickle allies, the Indian Tamils, led by
                  K. Natesa Aiyer, were undoubtedly the most reliable members of the
                  minority coalition. Natesa Aiyer was a lawyer and journalist. Unlike Peri Sunderam, the leader of the Indian Tamils in the first State Council who was a tea planter and landowner of great wealth, Natesa Aiyer had come to power as the leader of the Indian Tamils through.

                  his organisation of trade unions. He was supported by the influential Indian Tamil daily newspaper Virakesari. His extremely effective organizational methods, and the wide publicity he received from Virakesari, had made him a formidable force in Ceylon politics. By 1933, his trade union activities had made him the bete noire of the tea planters. ‘Natsesa Aiyer’s leadership of the Indian Tamil community was far more vigorous than that of P. Sunderam, and throughout the second State Council he attempted—if unsuccessfully—to weld the Indian Tamil community into an effective political force in the Island. In terms of voters, the Indian Tamils had become a powerful community the second State Council. In 1939, of the 650,000 Indian Tamils resident in Ceylon, 225,000 had managed to circumvent the
                  Unquote

                  You may be an IDIOT to issue a challenge with ONLY your IGNORANCE to back you up, but I am not.

                  Kind Regards,
                  OTC

                  • 2
                    0

                    But, and still you seems to be a couch potato.

                    • 0
                      1

                      Conchigliati,

                      Relevance please

          • 1
            2

            “Veddha aka Tamil separatist”

            I know NV has been called many derogatory names before but never “Tamil separatist”! How did you work this out?

            • 2
              1

              Hi BI,

              Read my post and what I have linked to. Then may be you can see for yourself

              Kind Regards,
              OTC

    • 2
      1

      Ms. Darshanie Ratnawalli,

      Further confirmation that the Sinhala, Tamils, Muslims are foreigners, paras from India and elsewhere. Science sorts Myths.

      Only the Native Veddah are the True sons and owners of the Land of native Veddah. Others are illegal boatmen, Hora-oru and Kalla-Thonis.

      If you want the facts sorted out from Myths, use science, that is more definitive than the other methods.

      The data supports that the so-called Nagas, are the parental populations of Sri Lankan Tamils, Sinhala, Muslims, and Indian Tamils. They for one cluster.

      The Gujarartis and Punajabis form a different cluster. So, the Tamils and Sinhala are not related to Mr. Modi from Gujarat.

      In conclusion, the original inhabitants of Sri Lanka were the Veddahs, who have had little admixture with the Sinhalese and possibly none with the Tamils. The Veddahs are distinct because they were confined to inhospitable dry zones and were hardly influenced by the neighboring inhabitants. Furthermore, the Sinhalese and the Sri Lankan Tamils are an admixed population genetically. The Sinhalese, who first came from northwest India under the leadership of Prince Vijaya in 543 B.C., have received and exchanged a substantial amount of their genes with the populations of northeastern and southern India. The Sinhalese and the Tamils have no contribution from the population groups of northwest India. In fact, the contribution made by Prince Vijaya and his small band of 700 companions to the original pool of the Sinhalese must have been eliminated by the long-standing contribution (over 2000 years) of the population groups of northeastern and southern India.

      Furthermore, although there is a noteworthy contribution from the Bengalis (northeast India) to the present-day Sinhalese, the Tamil (South India) contribution predominates. The contribution from the populations of northeast India were diluted, probably because the Indian influence on the Sinhalese after the eighth century A.D. became predominantly South Indian (Raghavan 1964). Thus the Sinhalese of Sri Lanka are genetically more similar to the Tamils of Sri Lanka and India, who were always in close proximity with each other historically, linguistically, geographically, and culturally.

      Genetic affinities of Sri Lankan populations
      Human Biology, by Kshatriya, Gautam Kumar

      http://www.lankanewspapers.com/news/2007/6/15923_space.html

      The Genetic affinities of Sri Lankan populations – [Reproduced here on a special request made by our LNP friend MURU, this article (web site) was first found by our friend MAGHA.]
      Friday, 15 June 2007 – 11:25 AM SL Time

      Genetic affinities of Sri Lankan populations
      Human Biology, by Kshatriya, Gautam Kumar

      The population of Sri Lanka is heterogeneous and is composed of diverse ethnic groups (Table 1). (Table omitted) It is evident that the Sinhalese are numerically dominant, accounting for 72% of the total population. Next in order of preponderance are the Tamils, who constitute approximately 20% of the total population. Among other groups that inhabit Sri Lanka are the Burghers, Christians, Moors, and Malays–the descendants of culturally, religiously, and ethnically diverse groups who colonized the island from time to time (Table 2). (Table omitted) Finally, there are the Veddahs, the original inhabitants of Sri Lanka, who constitute less than 1% of the total population.

      Sri Lankan populations and the legendary origin of the Sinhalese have generated considerable interest among anthropologists to study and examine mythological and historical records in light of genetic evidence.

      Kirk (1976) and Saha (1988) studied the genetic composition of the population of Sri Lanka to determine the validity of Ceylonese mythology regarding the legendary origin of the Sinhalese people. Although Kirk (1976) found the Sinhalese to be genetically closer to Bengalis and to Indian Tamils to a lesser extent, Saha (1988) failed to recognize any genetic characteristics in the present-day Sinhalese population that are distinct from those of Sri Lankan Tamils. Later, however, Tay and Saha (1989) undertook a more detailed study on gene differentiation and genetic admixture among the Sinhalese and Sri Lankan Tamils and found that the Sinhalese have a stronger genetic contribution from the Bengalis of India than from the Sri Lankan Tamils.

      These earlier studies, which focused mainly on the Sinhalese and Tamil population, have oversimplified the historical and mythological records of Sri Lanka. Therefore the degree and the magnitude of foreign admixture might have been compromised. In light of this, the genetic affinities of the Sri Lankan population have been studied after considering a detailed ethnohistorical account of Sri Lanka.

      Materials and Methods

      The present-day Sinhalese, Sri Lankan Tamil, and Veddah populations are considered admixed populations. A number of population groups from northwestern, eastern, and southern India have contributed genes in varying proportions to the contemporary Sri Lankan populations. In addition, many more populations, such as Arabs, Persians, Portuguese, Dutch, and English, enroute along seaways or from India, have also admixed with the local populations at different periods of time. The available information on genetic data of these most likely contributory gene pools is presented in Table 3. (Table omitted) The selection of the populations was made in light of the mythological and ethnohistorical background of Sri Lanka.

      After careful scrutiny two data sets were selected, and a genetic distance analysis was performed: first, on the basis of 11 population groups

      Sinhalese, Sri Lankan Tamils, Veddahs, Indian Tamils, South Indian Muslims (Andhra Pradesh, Kerala), Gujaratis, Punjabis, West Indian Muslims (Gujarat, Bombay), Bengalis, populations of the Middle East (Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Jordan, and Iran), and populations of Europe (United Kingdom, Holland, Denmark) with 40 alleles controlled by 13 polymorphic loci and, second, on the basis of 8 population groups (Sinhalese, Veddahs, Indian Tamils, South Indian Muslims, Gujaratis, Punjabis, West Indian Muslims, and Bengalis) with 43 alleles controlled by 15 polymorphic loci.

      Genetic distances among these populations were computed by Nei`s standard genetic distances (Nei 1972) and their standard errors (SE) using Nei and Roychoudhury`s (1974) method. To determine the significance of genetic distances among the different populations, I compared the gene frequency data pairwise using the chi-square statistic (Nei and Roychoudhury 1974). The distance matrix was then used to construct a phylogenetic tree based on the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) (Li, personal communication, 1988).

      The contribution (%) of ancestral populations to the hybrid populations (Sinhalese and Sri Lankan Tamils) was calculated using the method of Chakraborty (1985, 1986), with each population considered the product of admixture of three parental populations. The parental populations for the Sinhalese have been considered to be the Bengalis, the Indian Tamils, and the Veddahs of Sri Lanka, and the parental populations for the Tamils are considered to be the Sinhalese of Sri Lanka, the Bengalis, and the Indian Tamils.

      Results and Discussion

      Table 4 shows the allelic frequencies of 40 alleles in 11 populations and 43 alleles in 8 populations. (Table omitted)

      Average heterozygosity and genetic differences along with their standard errors among the 11 population groups were estimated using Nei`s standard genetic distance among all pairs of populations (Table 5). (Table omitted) The average heterozygosity varies between 27.4% (Bengalis) and 32.6% (Veddahs). The genetic distances show no significant differentiation, as examined pairwise by the chi-square statistics (Table 6). (Table omitted) However, the dendrogram generated from the genetic distance matrix (Figure 2) reveals an absorbing pattern of clustering. (Figure omitted) It can be seen that the Sinhalese, the Sri Lankan and Indian Tamils, and the South Indian Muslims form one cluster, whereas the Gujaratis, the Punjabis, and the west Indian Muslims form another cluster. These two clusters are distinct and do not show much affinity with the Bengalis, the Veddahs, or the populations of the Middle East and Europe. In fact, the Veddahs are far apart from all the populations.

      The results of a more detailed analysis on the basis of 43 alleles in 8 population groups for average heterozygosity and the genetic distance among all the pairs of populations together with their standard errors are presented in Table 7. (Table omitted) The average heterozygosity varies between 27.9% (Sinhalese) and 32.2% (Veddahs). The genetic distances do not reveal significant differentiation, as examined pairwise by the chi-square statistic (Table 8). (Table omitted) Nevertheless, the dendrogram produced from the genetic distance matrix (Figure 3) and the clustering obtained further strengthen earlier observations. (Figure omitted) It can be seen that the Sinhalese, the Indian Tamils, and the South Indian Muslims form one cluster, whereas the Gujaratis, the Punjabis, and the west Indian Muslims form another, an almost identical clustering to the one observed in Figure 2. Here, too, the Bengalis and the Veddahs are farthest from the Sinhalese.

      Both dendrograms reveal close similarities between the Sinhalese and the Sri Lankan Tamils, between the Sinhalese and the Indian Tamils, and between the Sri Lankan Tamils and the Indian Tamils.

      Genetic Admixture.

      Table 9 presents the estimated values of admixture for the two hybrid populations (the Sinhalese and the Tamils) based on 13 polymorphic loci, fitting a trihybrid model using the ancestral frequencies shown in Table 10. (Tables 9 and 10 omitted)

      The Bengalis, the Tamils, and the Veddahs are considered parental populations for the Sinhalese. The Bengali contribution is 25.41%, the Tamil (India) contribution is 69.86%, and the Veddah contribution is only 4.73%. Thus the Sinhalese have a predominantly Tamil (India) contribution followed by the Bengalis and the Veddahs. The fusion of the Veddahs and the Sinhalese was recorded in the ancient chronicles of Sri Lanka (Dipavamsa and Mahavamsa) as early as 543 B.C., but the Veddahs were subsequently pushed to the inhospitable dry zone for a long period of time under pressure from early colonizers.

      By studying the Sri Lankan Tamils, one can see that the Sinhalese, the Bengalis, and the Indian Tamils can be considered ancestral populations. The contribution of the Sinhalese to the Sri Lankan Tamils is 55.20%. Similarly, the Bengali contribution is 28.17% and that of the Indian Tamils is 16.63%. The results indicate a predominant influence of the Sinhalese (who already have a high contribution from the Indian Tamils) and the Bengalis to a lesser extent.

      In conclusion, the original inhabitants of Sri Lanka were the Veddahs, who have had little admixture with the Sinhalese and possibly none with the Tamils. The Veddahs are distinct because they were confined to inhospitable dry zones and were hardly influenced by the neighboring inhabitants. Furthermore, the Sinhalese and the Sri Lankan Tamils are an admixed population genetically. The Sinhalese, who first came from northwest India under the leadership of Prince Vijaya in 543 B.C., have received and exchanged a substantial amount of their genes with the populations of northeastern and southern India. The Sinhalese and the Tamils have no contribution from the population groups of northwest India. In fact, the contribution made by Prince Vijaya and his small band of 700 companions to the original pool of the Sinhalese must have been eliminated by the long-standing contribution (over 2000 years) of the population groups of northeastern and southern India.

      Furthermore, although there is a noteworthy contribution from the Bengalis (northeast India) to the present-day Sinhalese, the Tamil (South India) contribution predominates. The contribution from the populations of northeast India were diluted, probably because the Indian influence on the Sinhalese after the eighth century A.D. became predominantly South Indian (Raghavan 1964). Thus the Sinhalese of Sri Lanka are genetically more similar to the Tamils of Sri Lanka and India, who were always in close proximity with each other historically, linguistically, geographically, and culturally.

      Acknowledgments: I am extremely grateful to Ranajit Chakraborty (University of Texas, Houston), w…

      Source(s)
      (http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3659/is_199512/ai_n8732666)

      • 2
        3

        Dear Amarasiri,

        Re “Further confirmation that the Sinhala, Tamils, Muslims are foreigners, paras from India and elsewhere. Science sorts Myths”

        Please re read your own reference

        Quote
        The Bengalis, the Tamils, and the Veddahs are considered parental populations for the Sinhalese.
        Unquote

        The Sinhalese are the progeny of the Veddha.

        Hence the Sinhalese are indigenes. In other words they are Native to Lanka.

        Kind Regards,
        OTC

        • 2
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          Off the Cuff , or are you Off the Butt?

          “In conclusion, the original inhabitants of Sri Lanka were the Veddahs, who have had little admixture with the Sinhalese and possibly none with the Tamils. The Veddahs are distinct because they were confined to inhospitable dry zones and were hardly influenced by the neighboring inhabitants. Furthermore, the Sinhalese and the Sri Lankan Tamils are an admixed population genetically.”

          Just read again, Off the Butt.

          1. The Native Veddah are the original inhabitants in the Land of native Veddah.

          2. There is possibly some Native Veddah gene in some Sinhala and Tamils, because of abduction of Native Veddah women by the Para-Sinhala, and their progeny. Now the Sinhala abduct Tamil women and rape them in the North.

          This raping does not make All the Para-Sinhala. Only the offspring of the product of raping, are made partial natives.

          3. In South Africa, they had Black natives, the Coloreds the Product of Wjite rapes, and Whites.

          Only the blacks are the true natives.

          Similarly, only the Native Veddah are the true natives and inheritors of Lanka, the land of native Veddah.

          So, the DNA of all Para-Sinhala and other Paras will be tested, and those who have less than 50% Native Veddah genes will be sent to South India, the land of the Nagas.

          • 1
            2

            Dear Amarasiri,

            Re “Off the Cuff , or are you Off the Butt?”

            Interesting question.
            I do sit on my Buttocks as normal Humans do.
            When I want to stand I get off my butt and stand on my feet.

            If you sit differently, how do you sit?
            On your Penis?

            I noticed that you enclosed your first paragraph within quotes. Who were you quoting? Dr Kshatriya? Please give your source.

            Re “The Native Veddah are the original inhabitants in the Land of native Veddah”

            Have you heard of Homosapiens Balangodensis?

            In prehistoric times Lanka was physically connected to India. Have you any evidence to prove that Humans from the Indian subcontinent never walked on the soil that we now call Lanka?

            Unless you can provide authoritative references to back up your claim your ramblings are as useless as a Mad Man’s is.

            Re “because of abduction of Native Veddah women by the Para-Sinhala, and their progeny”

            From what Scientific Journal did you get that juicy bit of information?
            Did Kshatriya say that?
            Please reference your source.

            You see Amarasiri, your attempt at mixing science with your hallucinations have ended in utter failure.

            Re “So, the DNA of all Para-Sinhala and other Paras will be tested, and those who have less than 50% Native Veddah genes will be sent to South India, the land of the Nagas”

            Now you are hallucinating about a Dictator’s role.
            The 21 million population must be shaking in their shoes!
            You should get help early.

            You seem to have a fixation on Rape, are you a product of rape that knows no father?

            BTW Are you a Sinhalese, a Tamil a Veddha or any other?

            Yes you claimed you are neither and was an Egalitarian, though no such race exist. Which race do you belong to?

            Kind Regards,
            OTC

  • 7
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    I have a book: A Handbook of Ceylon, written by S E N Nicholas in 1939 refers to the North of Sri Lanka as Naga Dwipa.

    • 4
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      Naga Dwipa is also inhabited by Tamil speaking people with their own customs and culture according to the book.

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        Thiru

        You do not know the authentic Srilankan history of on NagaDipa!
        please read the following!
        http://www.nagadeepaviharaya.lk/english/history.html. I was astonished that the uttering of chronicles were presented as history!
        You could always visit the viharaya, But for annadhana you could go next door to Nagapoosani amman Kovil,

        Venerable amman’s name was common name among our ancestors, Nagamma, Nageswary, Nagaraja, Nagarathinam etc. Apparently Naga women were renowned for their beauty!

        On a serious note Prof Ramachandra Dikshitar, Prof of Archeology and history at university of Madras 9(1896-1953) said the following

        “The Nagas, another tribe in semi divine character with totems as serpent spread throughout India from Takshashila in the north west to Assam in north east and to south India and in Ceylon the south. At one time they must have been powerful, contemporaneous with Yakwas (Yakshas) or subsequent to their fall as a political entity, Nagas rose to prominence in south India, Not only parts of ceylon, but ancient malabar were occupied by Nagas…remnant of naga worship still,lingering in these areas”

        Courtesy Anton Sebastian’s Complete illustrated history of Srilanka.

        claiming ownership of every one’s history is sacred dark art known to our countrymen. ( sinhalese and tamils)

        • 4
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          ken robert

          I am aware of what Prof Ramachandra Dikshitar wrote. It was huge book published in the 1950s.

          Naga belt runs from Sri Lanka to north east India comprising Tamilaham and Ceralam.

          Nagas are associated with irrigation and tanks. In this island ancient/medieval statutes depicting snakes are found near reservoirs.

      • 3
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        The Tamil speaking people of Jaffna (Naganadu/Nagadeepa) today known as Sri Lankan Tamils are nothing but Nagas. Before the 10th century AD they were speaking Prakrit and practicing Buddhism and after the 10th century AD (after Chola invasion) they started speaking Tamil and practice Hinduism.

        • 2
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          Janaka,

          Please learn the true history

          Here, the words of the Sinhala historian and Cambridge scholar, Paul Peiris represent an influential and common sense point of view:

          `..it stands to reason that a country which was only thirty miles from India and which would have been seen by Indian fisherman every morning as they sailed out to catch their fish, would have been occupied as soon as the continent was peopled by men who understood how to sail… Long before the arrival of Prince Vijaya, there were in Sri Lanka five recognised isvarams of Siva which claimed and received the adoration of all India. These were Tiruketeeswaram near Mahatitha; Munneswaram dominating Salawatte and the pearl fishery; Tondeswaram near Mantota; Tirkoneswaram near the great bay of Kottiyar and Nakuleswaram near Kankesanturai. ‘ (Paul E. Pieris: Nagadipa and Buddhist Remains in Jaffna : Journal of Royal Asiatic Society, Ceylon Branch Vol.28)”

          http://tamilnation.co/heritage/ancestry_ceylon_tamil.htm

        • 1
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          Janaka

          Srilankan tamils are nothing but nagas. Could you provide evidence to that statement?

        • 0
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          But they do look down on Tamil Nadu. The Tamil that is spoken by the Northern Tamils is claimed to be untainted, while that of Tamil Nadu has apparently been corrupted over the years.

          • 3
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            Ramu

            “But they do look down on Tamil Nadu.”

            Perhaps Tamils of Tamilnadu are generally shorter than their brethren in this island.

            • 1
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              NV,

              Perhaps the context was beyond your understanding.

              Kind Regards,
              OTC

        • 2
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          Tamil was spoken and Prakrit was written and Read, but not Spoken. So the read out Prakrit was in fact Tamil.

  • 2
    3

    Darshanie – thanks for the ariticle. v. interesting – I am really interested to know more about “naga” tribes of early SL- it seem obvious Naga.s have had more affinity with Buddhism as apposed to Yakkas- who are depicted as more difficult in lore.. did naga.s come to SL with Buddhism I wonder ? does anyone have any theories ? – remnants of both these groups are so abundant in SL lore. the masks obviously of Yakka tradition – Naga worship still prevalent in villages and association of Naga with water……

    • 6
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      Dawn Dale

      Nagas came from Naga Pattinam, Nagar Kovil, ………in South India.

      • 1
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        but what is ur theory ? – my imagined theory is these Naga.s were a Buddhist tribe that came to SL or converted to Buddhism while Yakkas didn’t assimilate as easily – hence the -ve connotations associated with Yakkas while all positive ones with Naga.s in Buddhist lore- but obviously these two assimilated at some point as there is tolerant nuance when we use words like yaka for eg when we say “ara yaka” tho talking down, it also conveys some degree of affection! – and Mask dances(thovil) Yakka dancers are rather endearing. any takers on this theory ?

        • 6
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          Dawn Dale

          “but what is ur theory ?”

          I don’t have any and I don’t intend to have one for it will become a burden to hold on to one’e own stupid theory.

          If you believe in Mahawamsa, as you do (and I don’t) Buddha visited Naga kingdoms one in the North and one in Kelaniya.

          The word Naga crops up frequently in most of Indian Ithigas, Puranas and other Sanskrit, Tamil and Pali works.

          The literature on Naga is vast and I don’t intend to master them all, I am too young for this.

          There is no such thing as a definitive book on Naga.

          “my imagined theory is these Naga.s were a Buddhist tribe that came to SL or converted to Buddhism while Yakkas didn’t assimilate as easily”

          I envy your conditioned mind which will take you nowhere except to accept what is already given to you through Sinhala/Buddhist selective history, which definitely gives you a feeling of togetherness, as I understand it you are one of those minorities within a large region who refuses to grow up, for you are comfortable talking about your manufactured history among tiny population of less than 20 million compared to estimated population of 1,596,000,000 in South Asia.

          Therefore you are free to have any theories you want to and find someone to write thrash to support it with selective references and without solid evidences.

          • 1
            3

            get over it — universe does not revolve around tamil and Sinhala– every race has its racists – likes of Usha in urs and BBS in ours. and corrupt politicians like Sambanthan and MR and Jayalalitha…. come out of your well! Even Western countries have Neo Nazi’s who have a following which is increasing BTW. Sometimes there are news items that does not involve either Sinhala or tamil issues FYI

            • 2
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              Dawn Dale

              “get over it”

              Get over what?

      • 3
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        Nagas are called as such for an ‘Urbanized lot’ probably from the root word ‘Nagar’ (hind.)/(‘Nakaram'(Tam.) meaning, ‘The township’probably the antonym from the dyslexics of ‘Nakaram’
        (Tam.) meaning ‘Hell’. As such the meaning of Naga may mean “the Urban Civic” while it may symbolically mean a “Serpent”.

        • 2
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          Apart from the Anglesized “Nagas”, the word ‘Naaga(r)’ has ommitted the the “RA” of the ending in colloquial use, subsequently making the end product “Naga” assimilating it to the “Naag” (Cobra).

    • 1
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      Firstly assume that the name ‘Naga’ alluded to the people was attested to them through their attire, the nakedness called ‘Nanga’ in samascript.

  • 4
    23

    While I want to thank the positive commentors and do not mean to discourage them in anyway, I want to post a disclaimer to the effect that the comments and the commentors on this site are not connected with me in any way. All the comments are entirely a reflection on the democracy and the discretion of this site. I haven’t solicited those comments in any way, nor am I part of any “circle” consisting of these commentors. They are completely unknown to me and I haven’t submitted my article to them. In fact, the majority of those who comment on my articles in CT are not my intended target audience and I am well aware that what I write go over their heads. I thought of putting in this disclaimer because I am aware that my intended readership gets dismayed by the comments. My suggestion to you is, do as I do, give the comment section a miss, (unless you are researching into the mental indices of the mediocre).

    • 17
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      Maybe then you should publish in the daily news ??? then no one can comment and it will reach your target audience.

    • 16
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      Fellow Forum sharers

      “My suggestion to you is, do as I do, give the comment section a miss,”

      My suggestion to readers is, do as I do, give the bigoted typing a miss.

      Please send in your comments as I do learn more from the comments than the historical thrash.

      Those codgers are still active.

      • 6
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        Oh my dear veddah, she need good fun…man..if u cant I will…

        • 3
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          J.Muthu

          “Oh my dear veddah, she need good fun…man..if u cant I will…”

          Go ahead make your day. Beware old guards are protecting her.

          Where you’ve been?

      • 1
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        Know it all but little read and thereby half educated, vedda boy is a one track minded moralist, if you understand what I mean.

        • 2
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          Wattie,

          He uses his Wisdom as a tool and whets his wits whenever and whereever it fits. Truly Native is a nostrum for the kinds of the besotted ills, wills and shills contributed in this forum.

    • 16
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      Don’t you worry Darshani Ratnawalli.
      You are like Andare in the CT forum.
      After reading serious/disturbing articles from various
      good writers many of us readers in this forum need a break.
      We find your articles are amusing us and we all have a good laugh.

      Thank you Ratnawalli for your comics.

      • 8
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        Ravana

        “We find your articles are amusing us and we all have a good laugh.”

        Bear with her she is only a child.

        • 3
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          So, do you mean the babysitter is Bandu?

          • 3
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            Samantha Ahubudu

            You are creating trouble for me, (not that I am not capable of doing it to myself). Read below what Ms Radhika Coomaraswamy wrote about our comments in another thread:

            ”However I do believe that the references to Ms. Ratnawalli’s age and sex are quite unnecessary for this debate which has gone on for over two centuries.” – Radhika Coomaraswamy

            • 1
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              So the adoptive step-mom is infact the celebrity elite Radhika Kumarasamy.

    • 9
      1

      DR,
      This is the first time I see an author trying to distance her/him self from their readers!
      This shows your immatureness. Good luck!

      • 4
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        Nuisance

        “This shows your immatureness. Good luck!”

        Didn’t you notice this when CT first published her thrash?

        She is a only child.

    • 1
      1

      Dear Darshanie Ratnawalli,

      Thank you for your writing. We need diversity, and you certainly provide that. Can you undertake the education of the Para-Sinhalese and BBS and their clones?

      I like your smile and I like your wavy hair. Thank your parents for providing the 46 chromosomes, 23 from each parent and genes, which they inherited from their ancestors. Do you know that we used to have 48 chromosomes, non-paras and paras, in common with our ape ancestors? Our chromosome 2 was formed by the fusion of two chromosomes.

      That is what science is all about. reason , observation and facts.

      Ken Miller – 2nd Chromosomal Fusion

      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oweUN-GaN3M

      Uploaded on Sep 24, 2008
      Yet more incontestable evidence for evolution.
      Any creationist explanations for this one………………anyone?
      Category
      Education

      The Collapse of Intelligent Design:Kenneth R. Miller Lecture

      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ohd5uqzlwsU

      Uploaded on Mar 17, 2008
      The Collapse of Intelligent Design: Will the Next Monkey Trial be in Ohio? Kenneth R. Miller’s presentation on Intelligent Design. Recorded January 3, 2006 in Strosacker auditorium. Kenneth R. Miller is the Professor of Biology Royce Family Professor for Teaching Excellence at Brown University.
      Category
      Education

      • 1
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        Amarasiri,

        Ken Miller – 2nd Chromosomal Fusion

        He says humans came from Apes?

        However, it is in the Old Testament, people came form Adam and Eve?

        This is very confusing.

        • 1
          0

          There is nothing to be confused about.

          In the middle of the seventeenth century, Then Archbishop of Ireland, James Usher had made a marvellous discovery. Usher had gleaned Judges I & II, Kings, Daniel, Acts, and all other books in the Biblical records to dig all the necessary genealogical data to make a startling revelation. He exposed that God created the Heaven and the Earth on Saturday evening, 22 October 4004 BC! So, everything must start from that point.

          • 1
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            Banda,

            “Saturday evening, 22 October 4004 BC! “

            Saturday is Sabbath day according to the Jews, the selected People.

            Are you sure? can you recheck your information.

        • 2
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          Darshanie Ratnawalli – can you shed light on this. Did humans come form ape or Adam and Eve. I am sure you have all evedienced to say humans originated from Buddha. ?

          • 2
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            Dear Rajash,

            Siddhartha became Gauthama Buddha.
            Sidhartha had a mother and a father grand mothers and grandfathers etc.

            Kind Regards,
            OTC

            • 0
              1

              Off the Cuff

              “Siddhartha became Gauthama Buddha. Sidhartha had a mother and a father grand mothers and grandfathers etc.”

              Very true.
              Was not born of a virgin.

              Was not God, just a man who evolved, like the others.

              So, why are the “Buddhists” making him a God?
              Why are they making big statutes of him and prating all day long?

              Why are the “Buddhists”, especially “Buddhist” Monks going berserk because of Buddha?

              Buddha Had 46 Chromosomes, 23 from his father and 23 from his mother.

              True for his ancestors, to the ancestor who came out of Africa 70,000 years ago.

              True for the Ancestors, 200,000 and 1,000,000 years ago.

              May not have been true of the ancestor about 3,Siddhartha became Gauthama Buddha. Sidhartha had a mother and a father grand mothers and grandfathers etc.5 million years ago. May have had 48 chromosomes, according to Ken Miller…..

              Ken Miller – 2nd Chromosomal Fusion

              https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oweUN-GaN3M

              • 2
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                Dear Amarasiri,

                Re “Was not born of a virgin. Was not God, just a man who evolved, like the others”

                Quite right.

                Re “So, why are the “Buddhists” making him a God? Why are they making big statutes of him and prating all day long?”

                Please refer my post on June 3, 2014 at 11:53 am above.

                Here is what I wrote there

                Today the majority are Buddhists with varying degrees of Buddhist knowledge, some with a deep understanding and many more with a nominal understanding and many in between. It is the same for those who follow other religions.

                There are about 14+ million Buddhist in Lanka. It would be foolish to assume that all of them have a deep understanding of Buddhism.

                If you think a knowledgeable Buddhist would treat the Buddha as a God, your knowledge of Buddhism is very poor.

                I and several millions of other Buddhists respect him as a Teacher. Since he is dead he cannot do anything for anyone.

                Re “Buddha Had 46 Chromosomes, 23 from his father and 23 from his mother”

                Since the Buddha is a Human, he also had 46.

                Re “May not have been true of the ancestor about 3,Siddhartha became Gauthama Buddha. Sidhartha had a mother and a father grand mothers and grandfathers etc.5 million years ago. May have had 48 chromosomes, according to Ken Miller…..”

                Why is it relevant? Please explain.

                Kind regards,
                OTC

            • 2
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              Now he has sruples with diminutive brains as his followers.

          • 4
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            Rajash

            “Did humans come form ape or Adam and Eve. I am sure you have all evedienced to say humans originated from Buddha?”

            I am not sure whether humans originated from Buddha or apes what heard about origin of Sinhala Buddhist is amazing. They were so advanced in science and technology they invented cloning and genetic engineering of human/animal cross-breeding even 2500 years before the west.

            Many suspect Sinhala/Buddhists’DNA is so unique that they are in a position to claim they have genetic make up of male lion, women, Aryan, Sakkya Muni, Ravana, Naga, Gujarati, Bihari, Kalingan, Germans, ….

            • 1
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              Native Vedda

              “They were so advanced in science and technology they invented cloning and genetic engineering of human/animal cross-breeding even 2500 years before the west.”

              They, Para-sinhala achieved this by raping Native Veddah women.

              That is why why some Para-Sinhala have native Veddah genes.

              http://www.lankanewspapers.com/news/2007/6/15923_space.html

              The results of a more detailed analysis on the basis of 43 alleles in 8 population groups for average heterozygosity and the genetic distance among all the pairs of populations together with their standard errors are presented in Table 7. (Table omitted) The average heterozygosity varies between 27.9% (Sinhalese) and 32.2% (Veddahs). The genetic distances do not reveal significant differentiation, as examined pairwise by the chi-square statistic (Table 8). (Table omitted) Nevertheless, the dendrogram produced from the genetic distance matrix (Figure 3) and the clustering obtained further strengthen earlier observations. (Figure omitted) It can be seen that the Sinhalese, the Indian Tamils, and the South Indian Muslims form one cluster, whereas the Gujaratis, the Punjabis, and the west Indian Muslims form another, an almost identical clustering to the one observed in Figure 2. Here, too, the Bengalis and the Veddahs are farthest from the Sinhalese.

            • 4
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              Dear Rajash, “Veddha”, Ken Robert, Anpu, Burning Issue and CT Readers,

              “Veddha” says “I am not sure whether humans originated from Buddha or apes what heard about origin of Sinhala Buddhist is amazing. They were so advanced in science and technology they invented cloning and genetic engineering of human/animal cross-breeding even 2500 years before the west”

              Another “Rational” Argument of an “impartial” critic!

              Puts to shame even virulent Sinhala Buddhist haters!!

              The Sinhalese evolved in Lanka. Their parent stock were the immigrants and the indigenes, including the Veddha, who were worshiping trees among other things at that point of time.

              Only idiots say otherwise.

              In the beginning their religion would have been the same as those from who they evolved. Later they converted to diverse religions at different points of time. Today the majority are Buddhists with varying degrees of Buddhist knowledge, some with a deep understanding and many more with a nominal understanding and many in between.

              It is the same for those who follow other religions.

              The “Native Veddha” appears to be overawed by the West as he says “They were so advanced in science and technology they invented cloning and genetic engineering of human/animal cross-breeding even 2500 years before the west”

              Perhaps such abject worship of the White Skin is not strange for a Veddha worshiping Trees and Rocks.

              Veddha said “even 2500 years before the west”
              That implies the West has succeeded in cross breeding Humans with Animals.

              Please provide an authoritative reference to that claim of yours.

              The “Veddha” is obviously unaware of the following.

              quote
              When the British first invaded Sri Lanka in the 18th century, the literacy rate in Sri Lanka, because of the excellence of the monastic education system, was higher than in Britain. Heinz Bechart, “Religion and Development in Asian Societies” page 4
              Unquote

              Dr Jane Russell in her book, Communal Politics, re quotes the above statement. I have quoted Dr Russell.

              With regards to Engineering, the Ignorant “Veddha” would do well to study and compare Tank Cascade Systems of Irrigation, in parallel time periods of the WORLD, with that of Lanka.

              The Veddha could perhaps explain how a Contour can be traced without accurate scientific instrumentation and knowledge of Mathematics. He could also try explaining why a Sinhalese invention in around 200 BC (a world’s first) enabled the taming of high water pressure of Large Irrigation Tanks (man made lakes) for release at near zero pressure, to irrigate agricultural land down stream.

              But non of this is material to a Tamil Separatist, hiding his ethnicity, trying his best to ridicule the 75% Majority population of which 70% are Buddhist.

              Re “Many suspect Sinhala/Buddhists’DNA is so unique that they are in a position to claim they have genetic make up of male lion, women, Aryan, Sakkya Muni, Ravana, Naga, Gujarati, Bihari, Kalingan, Germans, …. ”

              Apparently the “Native Veddha” is one of those idiotic many who cannot distinguish Science from Myth!

              Kind Regards,
              OTC

              • 1
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                OTC,

                We all must be proud of our irrigation system in Ceylon. In India too they had and have good irrigation system.

                I am wondering if OTC is Dr Sripali Vaiamon. (If not sorry)
                (1) PM Modi: He Knows What To Do. Let’s Wait And See! – by Sripali Vaiamon – http://www.srilankaguardian.org/2014/06/pm-modi-he-knows-what-to-do-lets-wait.html

                (2) Narendra Modi kicks out the Kshatriyas and Brahamins By Sebastian Rasalingam http://www.srilankaguardian.org/2014/05/narendra-modi-kicks-out-kshatriyas-and.html

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                  how much is the going rate for anti Sinhala Buddhist propaganda these days ? how much are u getting paid ?

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                  Dear Anpu,

                  I was pleasantly surprised by you linking Mr(Dr?) Sebastian Rasalingam’s writings here. He is a person I immensely admire and respect, for his fearless and forthright writings.

                  Ms Perle Thevanayagam, a Tamil Journalist who wrote to the Leader Newspaper and who now resides in the UK, writing in the Sri Lanka Guardian, describes Mr Rasalingalm in glowing terms (Perle is an active contributor to CT).


                  “I was touched and enlightened by this scholar Mr Rasalingam’s honest, erudite and simple explanation on the fate that befell Tamils and why Tamils need to change their attitudes. They are still living in the dark ages carrying with them the burden of ignorance, arrogance and narrow-mindedness.
                  …….
                  Please accept my congratulations on this excellent article Mr Rasalingam”.

                  A low Cast Tamil, who is probably an Octogenarian today, he is one of the few Tamils living, who is unafraid to write about his and his Indian wife’s first hand experiences of Tamil Society in the North and Sinhalese society in the South (Hatton and Colombo).

                  Thanks to him and a few others we have a small window to look at Tamil Society in the North.

                  Re “We all must be proud of our irrigation system in Ceylon”

                  That is the spirit that will build a Sri Lankan identity that can supersede an ethnic identity. The spirit that will make a Tamil proud of the achievements of the Sinhalese as Sri Lankans and a Sinhalese proud of the achievements of a Tamil as Sri Lankans. The same goes for the other ethnic groups.

                  This is seen today in cricket where we as Sri Lankans are proud of Muthaiah Muralitheran, T. M. Dilshan, Kumar Sangakkara and many others disregarding ethnicity.

                  But we have racists who are hell bent on spitting at our own history and twisting it to suit their ulterior motives.

                  Re “In India too they had and have good irrigation system”

                  Of course India had irrigation systems, so does many other countries. But what you find in Sri Lanka is unique because no other country at that time in history (around 200 BC) had the technology to tame the High water pressure at the base of a Deep Reservoir in order to take it out for use.

                  Sri Lanka has two arid zones, one dry zone, one intermediate zone and one wet zone. The two arid zones are in the North West centered around Manar and South East centered around Hambantota. The wet zone is in the South West quarter. The Intermediate zone circles the wet zone. The rest of Lanka is dry or arid and consists of about 66% of Lanka.

                  Dry Zone
                  Mean annual rainfall less than 1,250 mm
                  Average evaporation 1,700 mm – 1,900 mm

                  This shows a shortfall in precipitation even to overcome surface evaporation. A recipe that creates a dessert in the long term.

                  From October to January, 80% of the rain is received. The other 8 months are mainly dry.

                  What made this Land habitable is the Unique networked reservoir system built by our ancestors. It raised the underground water table, irrigated the land, made it fertile and habitable to humans and animals alike. Sri Lanka has about 15,000 reservoirs classified as small (irrigated area of 200 acres).

                  The Yoda Ela (canal) is 54 miles long, has only one embankment (which meant that it had to be on a contour line) and an incredible gradient of 6” – 12” per mile for the entire length!!!

                  Anyone with an understanding of engineering will look at all this in awe.

                  Though we have imbeciles ridiculing our historic achievements foreigners have a different view.

                  “It is possible, that in no other part of the world are there to be found within the same space, the remains of so many works of irrigation, which are, at the same time, of such great antiquity, and of such vast magnitude as Ceylon. Probably no other country can exhibit works so numerous, and at the same time so ancient and extensive, within the same limited area, as this Island” Sir Henry Ward, Governor of Ceylon (wiki)

                  BTW, I am not Dr Sripali Vaiamon. sorry.

                  Kind Regards,
                  OTC

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                Off the Cuff or Off the Butt?

                “The Sinhalese evolved in Lanka. Their parent stock were the immigrants and the indigenes, including the Veddha, who were worshiping trees among other things at that point of time. Only idiots say otherwise. “

                Interesting but not factual. Do not count raped Native Veddah women and their offspring. The fact remains that the Sinhala and Tamils are Para. Test their DNA, and sen them yo Nagaland, South India.

                Does the Sun go around the Earth? 25% of Americans think so…

                In conclusion, the original inhabitants of Sri Lanka were the Veddahs, who have had little admixture with the Sinhalese and possibly none with the Tamils. The Veddahs are distinct because they were confined to inhospitable dry zones and were hardly influenced by the neighboring inhabitants. Furthermore, the Sinhalese and the Sri Lankan Tamils are an admixed population genetically. The Sinhalese, who first came from northwest India under the leadership of Prince Vijaya in 543 B.C., have received and exchanged a substantial amount of their genes with the populations of northeastern and southern India. The Sinhalese and the Tamils have no contribution from the population groups of northwest India. In fact, the contribution made by Prince Vijaya and his small band of 700 companions to the original pool of the Sinhalese must have been eliminated by the long-standing contribution (over 2000 years) of the population groups of northeastern and southern India.

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                  Dear Amarasiri,

                  I have already replied you in the thread you created. What made you post in this thread? Confusion precipitated by sitting in an awkward posture?

                  Re “Interesting but not factual”

                  Because you say so?

                  Re “Do not count raped Native Veddah women and their offspring”

                  From where did you get that tid bit? From a Veddha woman you visit? Please provide authoritative evidence for any claims you make.

                  You have a perverted sense of Justice.
                  The Victims of Rape do not lose their rights in the civilized world.

                  Re “Does the Sun go around the Earth? 25% of Americans think so”

                  Even if I accept your word it’s irrelevant.
                  You may believe Americans are Sinhalese but only another idiot like you will believe that.

                  Re your next para “In conclusion, the original inhabitants of Sri Lanka were the Veddahs,………Prince Vijaya and his small band of 700 companions to the original pool of the Sinhalese must have been eliminated by the long-standing contribution (over 2000 years) of the population groups of northeastern and southern India” relies heavily on the Mahavamsa.

                  Strange, you have ended by quoting the Mahavamsa of Rev Mahanama!

                  Sri Lanka has 15 million Sinhalese. They cannot be found in large numbers elsewhere. Please explain how that happened.

                  Kind Regards,
                  OTC

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                    Off the Cuff or Off The Butt

                    “Strange, you have ended by quoting the Mahavamsa of Rev Mahanama!”

                    It was quoted by somebody else. Amarasiri reported their quote.

                    It does no mean that it is true on Mahawansa. Only data that can be repeated and measured.,

                    ” Sri Lanka has 15 million Sinhalese. They cannot be found in large numbers elsewhere. Please explain how that happened.”

                    500 years ago, perhaps there were a million Sri Lankans.

                    Well over 75% of the Sinhala have genes from South India. Whether they are Naga or not, is a separate study.

                    Tamil Nadu has 75 million people. They cannot be found in large numbers elsewhere.

                    All the data show that Sinhalese are an admixture of South and East India, and not West or North India,

                    Very few admixture with Native Veddah, except the rapes.

                    Mahawansa was referred, because the author referred to it…

                    Certainly, Msahawansa still fools people who do not know…

                    Aristotle and the Church did to stop fooling people on the Geocentric model, gradually after Copernicus, Galileo and Kepler…, bur 25% of Americans are still fooled…

                    Still 25% of Americans Are fooled…

                    On Evolution. 44% are fooled…

                    On Monk Mahanama , Mahawansa, probably over 50%. are fooled.

                    Mahawnsa also says Buddha flew to “Adams Peak” among other lies and imaginations.

                    https://www.colombotelegraph.com/index.php/mahavamsa-an-insult-to-the-buddha/

                    Mahavamsa- An Insult To The Buddha!

                    Wonder if ours might have been a wiser, and a more ‘humane’ society, had our ‘ancient’ history, been based on Aesop’s Fables, instead of the Mahavamsa. For if not for the Mahavamsa, the Sinhalese may not have been endowed, with the reputation, of “Sinhalaya Modaya (The Sinhalese are Fools)”!

                    Read What Buddha Said:

                    By converting the philosophy into a religion, Buddhist monks, also converted the Buddha, into a ‘God’, and themselves, as his ‘Messengers’, who must be revered and worshiped; totally disregarding the Buddha’s words-

                    “Believe nothing, in the faith of traditions,
                    even though, they have been held in honor,
                    for many generations, and in diverse places.

                    Do not believe, a thing, because many people speak of it.
                    Do not believe, in the faith, of the sages of the past.
                    Do not believe, what you yourself have imagined,
                    persuading yourself, that a God inspires you.

                    Believe nothing, on the sole authority, of your masters and priests.
                    After examination, believe what you yourself, have tested
                    and found, to be reasonable, and conform your conduct thereto.” The Buddha

                    A case in point, as it is recorded nowhere, of the Buddha having said, is that alms must be offered to monks, in one’s home or at a temple, seven-days, three-months and one-year after a death, in one’s family.

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                      Dear Amarasiri,

                      You wrote “It was quoted by somebody else. Amarasiri reported their quote”

                      Ha ha haa. Amarasiri is just a brainless idiot!

                      A parrot repeats what it hears without understanding what it says.
                      Amarasiri repeats what he reads without understanding what he writes. An Idiotic excuse from an Idiot sitting on his penis!

                      Re “It does no mean that it is true on Mahawansa. Only data that can be repeated and measured “

                      You are writing gibberish! What else to expect from an idiot!

                      Re “500 years ago, perhaps there were a million Sri Lankans. Well over 75% of the Sinhala have genes from South India. Whether they are Naga or not, is a separate study. Tamil Nadu has 75 million people. They cannot be found in large numbers elsewhere”

                      Another instance that proves you are an Idiot.

                      Of course Tamil Nadu has 75 million Tamils, a concentration of Tamils not found anywhere else. That’s why Tamil Nadu is the Origin of Tamils. Similarly Sri Lanka has 15 million Sinhalese, a concentration of Sinhalese not found anywhere else. That’s why Lanka is the Origin of Sinhalese. This is an Universal truth when Mass migration is absent.

                      You could not understand the Logic behind my question and kicked an own goal. Idiotic!

                      Re “All the data show that Sinhalese are an admixture of South and East India, and not West or North India, “

                      The Sri Lanka Burghers are a genetic mix of Portuguese, Dutch, German, British, Swedish, Norwegian, French and Irish with Sri Lankans. The Burghers did not come here they Evolved in here.

                      Similarly the Sinhalese Evolved in Lanka by mixing with natives of Lanka. They did not come here.

                      You are struggling to disprove it.

                      Re “Very few admixture with Native Veddah, except the rapes.”

                      Your brain seems to be in your Penis as your arguments are Penis centric.

                      You have still failed to provide any references to affirm your claims.

                      Re “Mahawansa was referred, because the author referred to it… “

                      Then you are a fool to do so as I pointed out at the beginning.

                      Re “Certainly, Msahawansa still fools people who do not know… “

                      It has fooled you.
                      You quoted the speculative aspects of the Mahavamsa without knowing what you were doing.

                      All your subsequent aimless Ramblings are irrelevant to the question of the Sinhalese evolving in Lanka.

                      You are still to respond to my comment of June 4, 2014 at 12:31 am.

                      You seem to be worshiping Ms Sharmini Serasinghe who could not defend what she wrote. To an idiot her clever writing would be exhilarating not withstanding her inability to defend.

                      Here is my comment that she failed to answer.
                      https://www.colombotelegraph.com/index.php/mahavamsa-an-insult-to-the-buddha/comment-page-1/#comment-824840

                      You can follow the rest starting from there.

                      BTW whose genes do you carry?

                      Kind Regards,
                      OTC

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                      “Ms Sharmini Serasinghe who could not defend what she wrote”

                      Ha, ha, ha…..
                      This is one of the BEST Jokes I read after many years.
                      This imbecile ‘Off the Butt’ is under the impression that an erudite writer such as Ms Sharmini Serasinghe will respond to his utter stupid questions. I realized that it is foolish to engage with this retard whose arguments have no sense, he talks something that is not relevant to the subject, only idiots will argue with this buffoon.

                      My advice to NV & Amarasiri, keep away from this undesirable OMI. You can clearly see that what he raves and rants has no meaning, simply blabbering pure bull crap.

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                      Dear James,

                      Couldn’t copy anything from Chola Pandyan to contest my writing as you did extensively and got caught badly at this link?

                      https://www.colombotelegraph.com/index.php/there-arent-two-equal-nations-or-more-in-sri-lanka-rejoinder-to-laksiri-fernando/comment-page-2/#comment-957725

                      Re “Ha, ha, ha….. This is one of the BEST Jokes I read after many years. This imbecile ‘Off the Butt’ is under the impression that an erudite writer such as Ms Sharmini Serasinghe will respond to his utter stupid questions.”

                      Do you mean that you also think that a human baby can walk out from the Vaginal Opening of the Mother, as Sharmini claimed?

                      Sharmini at least would be writing with the knowledge of her own body. Which female that you had occasion to be intimate with, had an opening so large, that a human baby could walk out of it?

                      Your wife or the other bimbos you know?

                      To someone who cannot think on his own and depends on the Chola Pandyan’s of this world to do their thinking, it is no surprise to find them glorify Sharmini as Erudite. A skilled and clever writer she is, as I have acknowledged many a time, but ERUDITE she is not.

                      Kind Regards,
                      OTC

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      “my intended target audience” My Foot!!! LOL!!!

      Her intended target audience must be a handful of racists and those at Angoda. Instead of writing in a reputed forum such as the CT she should dump all this rubbish in place like lanka web where she may get some applause.

      “My suggestion to you is, do as I do, give the comment section a miss,”

      This shows that she is reading every word that the commentors make on her articles.

      No doubt, her jokes are a good entertainment, for a change we need some jesters on CT and DR a good one.

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      who is ur intended readership – why do they get dismayed ? are they more concerned about comments than ur articles ?
      Don’t get distracted about racist comments on the forum that is the nature of the CT readership – v.biased and ‘little bit'(?) anti Sinhala Buddhist – but does it really matter ?
      how about some background on Nagas of early SL ? that would be an interesting article

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        Dawn Dale

        What kind of “intended target audience” can you expect for a half learned journalist engaged in cheap racist polemics twisting, turning and manipulating the history of the country and behave like a foul mouthed Watti-ammah criticizing the well learned and world reputed academics by calling names. Her articles are not fit even for the (you know who…).

        Her intended target audience must be some low-life dirty racist minded parasites who cannot see/think beyond their nose and depend only on these crappy articles (that are not fit for a civilized forum like CT) to get some moda choon (Moronic orgasm). The rest of her intended target audience must be at the Angoda mental institute

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      It seems DR cannot take criticism. She wants everyone to accept what she writes as fact where as most of it is crap with no value at all. But on the other hand one cannot expect anything else from DR as in the past respected scholars has been called names by her.

      Here again she is calling any one who does not accept her crap as people with low intelligence.

      It’s clear she only wants positive comments, so that she can dwell on reading those comments to fulfill here wildest of fantasies.

      I would like to request DR keep a track of no of positive & negative comments you receive on your so called articles and analyse the feedback.

      No of “Dong” votes (that’s pseudo name for ‘Red’-Voted down, invented in collaboration with esteemed commentator Ela Kolla & Mike)on your own comments is a good starting point. Currently it stands at 2 Ding and 15 Dongs.

      Where is Dr. Jagath Asoka ? he has gone in to hibernation since “From Siddhartha Gautama To God” probably her got too much of a hammering.

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      Dear Ms.Darshanie Ratnawalli.

      You are Hot. You generated 94 responses! Wow!

      “My suggestion to you is, do as I do, give the comment section a miss, (unless you are researching into the mental indices of the mediocre).”

      Can you be a good sport, instead of being childish? Have you played any sport? Have you not lost any game? Talk to your mother or 3rd grade teacher.

      Anyway, if the Nagas ( The paras) in the Land of native Veddah cannot behave, the Native Veedah want them to go back to their homeland, Nagaland aka South India.

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      Duslexically, you are vulnerable to unsolicited comments democratically.

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      Darshanie,

      Read the following link and tease your brain with the superlinear dependences.

      http://ulagank.tripod.com/vedictamil/rigveda-tamil-2.html

  • 1
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    Fascinating article. Thank you.

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      paul

      “Fascinating article”

      Typo on your part.

      Titillating article perhaps.

    • 4
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      Paul,

      You are a privileged one as you seem to be one of the intented targets! Retnavel is inimitable that is for sure!

  • 7
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    Thank you bringing this important subject of Naga cult. Naga cult is something entwined with Indian and Srilankan Culture, onomastics, architecture as well as mythology.

    I think Naga cult was a unifying factor for Hinduism and Buddhism mostly because of heavy borrowing of Mythology by the latter from Hinduism.

    Buddhism, being a egalitarian religion annexed the local tribes and their culture in its belief systems. On the other hand, one could see the remnants of this fantastic tribe/ cult in many aspects of Indian/hindu culture and civilisation, more so in south indian mythology onomastics and architecture.

    I am deliberately avoiding to equate the Nagas to either Dravidians or Proto Indo Aryan culture. Although Prof Deraniyagala apparently argues the connection between Nagas and proto Indo Aryan culture.

    Again I want to emphasise the division of aryan and dravidian/ proto Indo aryan culture is arbitrary as genetic, archaeological and linguistic evidence suggests indigenous origin of indo aryan language albeit the script for the languages(brahmi) could have been borrowed from maritime traders outside India.

    This brings to the author of bibliography mentioned by Dharshanie. Michael Witzel, Prof of Sanskrit is a controversial figure among the historians and lay readers like myself.

    His fixation with aryan invasion theory is legendary, and he has contributed to multiple debates with Indian scholars. I could see a parallel in Prof Paranavitana and Mahavamsa chronicles. Likewise Prof Witzel’s whole case is based on his reading the Rig-veda as a history book. However Rig Veda is a mixture of history and metaphor, just as The Bible. He thinks Indra was an Aryan war lord. So in order to counter the prevailing Western view, Prof Witzel writes his views funded by his university.

    Native’s elders should have plenty of suggestion between connections of Nagas and dravidians !

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    Ken

    “Native’s elders should have plenty of suggestion between connections of Nagas and dravidians !”

    You are setting me up against my elders.

    They believe I am immature to deal with history and they also believe a rebuttal for pseudo historians with an agenda and an attitude is waste of time and energy and unnecessary.

    However, they are reasonably tolerant with my intermittent outbursts.

    I think I have a small collection of articles on Naga which I am proud to say I stole (copied) from my Elders.

    Let me dig my collection box and come back to you.

    By the way my Elders too believe the dichotomy between Dravidian and Aryan is a futile exercise.

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      Tell us, where on earth your elders’ collection box is kept for you to dig? Your elders were living in caves and hollows till the last century. Other than 1500 year old Mahawamsa, Vedda has nothing to show of their history.

      It is sad that Vedda of Sri Lanka is one of the stupidest of all humans who lived in the wild until very recently. Australian and New Zealand aboriginals are perhaps the smartest even with inventions like boomerang. You have nothing of the sort.

      • 4
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        mechanic

        “Tell us, where on earth your elders’ collection box is kept for you to dig?”

        Would you like to burn the box so that you can erase all our history, heritage, ancestral right to this island and our contribution to civilisation as we know it?

        You silly bugger we are not that stupid like Tamils to keep our rare books and ola manuscripts in a huge building close to a notorious police station.

        Sorry we will not give you the pleasure of burning or destroying our resources.

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          Tongue in the ar*e answers won’t do vedda. Learn to whack from your axe.

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            mechanic

            “Learn to whack from your axe.”

            I am not going to stop you while you are doing it to yourself fantastically well.

            Why are you chaps so obsessed with ar*e and toilets? Fetishism for both is not very healthy.

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    Dear Ms. Darshanie Ratnawalli

    RE: Concerning Us And The “Naga”

    Thanks for writing about Naga mythology originating from Baharat..

    What do you think what will be revealed if one were to analyze the DNA of the Nagas, Yakas, Veddah, South Indians, North Indians, Neanderthal, Denisovans, Para-Sinhala, Para-Tamils , Africans and other humans, as well as Cobras, Tigers and Lions?

    We can find if the Naga are native or Para as per native Veddah terminology.

    The Darwinian facts would be revealed. Thank you science, Thank you Molecular Biology

    Anyway Hinduism and Buddhism have a lot of Myths in common as Buddhism copied from Hinduism. A good book to read, but Banned in India, because of factual information, is The Hindus.

    List of books banned in India, with the latest.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_books_banned_in_India 2014

    The Hindus: An Alternative History Wendy Doniger An organization called Shiksha Bachao Andolan had brought a civil suit against the publisher, Penguin India, in 2011 for alleged inaccuracies, libel and alleged plagiarism. In early 2014, the publisher agreed to recall and destroy all copies of the book.[78]

    “Don’t miss this equivalent of a brilliant graduate course froma feisty and exhilarating teacher.” -The Washington Post

    We are guests of the Planet. The Paras are guests in the land of Native Veddah and they are expected to behave. If not, Paras please go back to South India. Your DNA is proof. The facts and data are clear. The Sinhala, Tamils, Muslims, Portuguese, Dutch, English, Malays and Chinese are all Paradeshis, Paras who came by Illegal boats. Hora-Oru and Kalla-thonis. The Para-Sinhala correctly called the Portuguese Parangios, even though they themselves were Parangi, of an earlier era. Not in my backyard phenomenon, because you were in somebody’s backyard to begin with, it was in the Native Veddah’s backyard, in the Land of Native Veddah.

    Just because the Para-Sinhala or Para-Tamils or para-Muslims, use others names, rent them, it does not make them their owners. Buddha, Asoka, Yasodara, Sugatha, Sita, Raman, Ganesh, Siva, Thomas etc. are all Para Names, as far as Native Veddah are concerned.

    The expectation of the Native Veddah from the Para was to behave in egalitarian manner in keeping with the Native Veddah ethics. Unfortunately, the paras have wrecked havoc with their racism, Caste discrimination, Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam, Christianity and other myths. Yes, it is the expectation that the Para leave for South India or East India, India with 1,200 million Natives of India can certainly accommodate the 20 million Para Cousins from the Land of Native Veddah. That is less than 2% of India’s population.

    Therefore, the Native Veddah cordially requests that the Prakrit speaking and Dravidian speaking or derived Paras, get back to their native South India, East India and India, and leave the sacred land of Native Veddah. Prakrit and Dravidian Paras, please go back to your native land, India, Maha-Baharat. Check you DNA and please go to South India and connect with your cousins.

    • 2
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      Reading a bit from here and a bit from there, Amaraya thinks he knows about everything under the sun. Bugger has definitely passed the half mad stage.

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        mechanic and avatars,

        Are you one of the Para-Sinhala with 48 Chromosomes?

        Wait for Darwinian evolution to overcome your deficiency and end up with 46 Chromosomes.

        That is what science is all about. reason , observation and facts. Ken Miller – 2nd Chromosomal Fusion

        https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oweUN-GaN3M

        Uploaded on Sep 24, 2008 Yet more incontestable evidence for evolution. Any creationist explanations for this one………………anyone? Category Education

        • 2
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          Amaraya, Nevermind you do not understand the complex gene and chromosome structure and etc, google copy and paste about it to supplement your learning curve. I forgot, you should submit your own chromosome compatibility to that of chimpanzees as well.

          • 1
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            mechanic, aka para-mechanic and avtars,

            Science busts Para Myths! The Earth still goes around the Sun…

            Read:

            http://www.lankanewspapers.com/news/2007/6/15923_space.html

            The results of a more detailed analysis on the basis of 43 alleles in 8 population groups for average heterozygosity and the genetic distance among all the pairs of populations together with their standard errors are presented in Table 7. (Table omitted) The average heterozygosity varies between 27.9% (Sinhalese) and 32.2% (Veddahs). The genetic distances do not reveal significant differentiation, as examined pairwise by the chi-square statistic (Table 8). (Table omitted) Nevertheless, the dendrogram produced from the genetic distance matrix (Figure 3) and the clustering obtained further strengthen earlier observations. (Figure omitted) It can be seen that the Sinhalese, the Indian Tamils, and the South Indian Muslims form one cluster, whereas the Gujaratis, the Punjabis, and the west Indian Muslims form another, an almost identical clustering to the one observed in Figure 2. Here, too, the Bengalis and the Veddahs are farthest from the Sinhalese.

    • 1
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      “Paras who came in illegal boats?”. It is doubtless true that Veddas were in Sri Lanka before anyone else but what makes you think that the boats the migrants, traders and invaders arrived in were “illegal”? Illegal in whose reckoning?

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        Illegal becomes in the context that when Kuveni like beckoning could entice an entourage of 700+1, and same did the rest of the Island’s traversing udder juggling bikini women enticing myriads of other concoction into the ethnicity.

  • 3
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    The “naga” name and origin is Sanskrit. That should automatically rule out Malabar connection.

    • 2
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      NAGAS (CHERA/SERA), PANDYANS/PANDU AND CHOLAS/SOLA (DAMELAS)

      The evidence of the presence of Nagas in Sri Lanka during the early historic period and how they freely assimilated with the Pandu (Pandyans) through marriage is fully corroborated by the ancient artifacts, inscriptions literary work and the Pali chronicles. The Pali chronicle Mahavamsa projects the Non-Buddhists as Damelas (foreigners/invaders) but still it could not help linking the Pandyans of Tamil country even in the genesis of Sinhalese in Sri Lanka indicating the strong presence of Pandyans (Pandu) during that period. Let us not forget that the Nagas were not unique to Sri Lanka, in the early historic period, the Nagas not only occupied Nakanatu/Nagadipa in Sri Lanka but also Nagar-Kovil, Naga-Pattinam and a few other places in South India and as per Prof. Indrapala, both Nagas and Damelas were also moving back and forth between Sri Lanka and South India.

      Today the Nayar (Nagar) from Chera (Kerala) are believed to be the descendants of Nagas. Dr. G. C. Mendis ‘Early History of Ceylon’, p. 23, Northern Ceylon is indicated as the Nagadipa which corresponds to Serentivu in Tamil.

      **‘The Sera or Chera (presently Kerala) is the Dravidian equivalent of the Nagas. Chera Mandala has the same meaning as Naga Mandala” – ‘Anthropology in India’ (Bharatiya Vidiya Bhavan Publication).

      The Arab traders/merchants who first landed in the North of the island called Serentivu/Serendipa as Serendip.

      Let me give some examples of the Naga Kings who bore the Naga clan names,

      The first Queen, Anula (47-41 BC) was the widow of Chora Naga and Kuda Tissa. She made Siva, the palace porter as her consort. Subsequently she poisoned Siva and lived with an Indian carpenter, Vatuka, a firewood carrier Dharubatissa, and a palace priest named Neeliya, all of whom she poisoned, till she finally ruled the country alone and continued to live an infamous life. She was burnt alive by Kuttakanna Tissa, the second son of Cula Maha Tissa, who found that he had the backing of all of the people of Lanka to put an end to such an ignominious sovereign. King Candamuka Siva (44-52 AD) the Son of Ila Naga married Damila Devi. Looking further, Khallata Naga (109BC) son of Saddha Tissa, Cora Naga (63BC) son of Valagamba and grandson of Saddha Tissa (incidentally he was the husband of Anula (48BC) whose first paramour was Siva), Ila Naga (36AD), Mahallaka Naga (136AD), grandson of Vasabha (67AD) and brother-in-law of Gajaba (114AD), Kudda Naga (188AD), grandson of Mahaliaka Naga, Siri Naga I (184AD), likewise grandson of Mahallaka Naga, Abhaya Naga (231AD), son of Siri Naga I, Siri Naga II (240 AD) grandson of Siri Naga I, Maha Naga (565AD) etc, and King Siva (515 AD) the Uncle of Kirti Sena.

      The kings belonging to the Tissa and Lambakarana dynasties that ruled the ancient Buddhist kingdom of Anuradhapura were Prakrit speaking Nagas. Dutugemunu, the national hero of Sri Lanka, was a Naga king belonging to the Tissa dynasty. His mother Vihara Maha Devi was the daughter of the Naga king of Keleniya, and his father Kavan Tissa, was the great grandson of Maha Naga, who established a kingdom in Mahagama in Rohana. Maha Naga’s older brother, Devanampiya Tissa, a contemporary of Emperor Asoka, was the first king of the Tissa dynasty. Some of the Tissa kings who proudly bore Naga clan names were Khallata Naga (Dutugemunu’s nephew), Cora Naga, who was one of the many victims poisoned to death by the amorous Queen Anula, Mahadathika Maha Naga and Ila Naga. Yasa Lalaka Tissa was the last king of the first dynasty that ruled the Anurdhapura kingdom.

      A few known names of the Naga poets of Sri Lanka who contributed to ancient Tamil literature are Elaththu Pootha Thevanar (whose compositions are included in anthologies known as Nattrinai, Kurunthokai and Puranaanooru), Mudingarayar, Musiri Asiriyar, Neelakandanar and Ela Nakar.

      On the other hand, the old Tamil names found in South India – Sri Lanka region are very similar to those Prakrit names (do not end with an ‘N’ or an ‘M’). For example, some of the names of ancient Sri Lankan Tamil kings (mentioned in Mahavamsa) were Sena, Guttika, Elara, Pulahatha, Bahiya, Panayamara, Parinda, Dathiya, and so on. Similarly in South India, the names of the ancient Tamil kings, for example some Chola kings were Kulothunga Chola, Vikrma Chola, Aditya Chola, and so on. Some Pandya kings were Kulasekara Pandya, Vira Wickrama Pandya, Parakrama Pandya, Sundara Pandya, and so on. Some Chera kings were Kulashekhara Varma, Rajashekhara Varma, Rama Varma Kulashekhara, Goda Ravi Varma, Bhaskara Ravi Varma, Vira Kerala, Rajasimha, and so on.

      Neither the epigraphy nor the Pali chronicles mention the ethnic background of the Buddhist kings of Sri Lanka. Since we cannot identify the ethnicity of them from the names, if not for the Mahavamsa, we would have never come to know that these non-Buddhist kings (such as Sena, Guttika, Elara) were Tamils. Similarly, some or most of the Theravada Buddhist kings of Sri Lanka (whose ethnicity is not known) also would have been Tamils but we will never know.

      This only proves that the present day Sinhalese and Sri Lankan Tamils originate from both Prakrit speaking Nagas, Tamil speaking Damelas (Pandyans & Chola), and all the other tribes that lived in the island other than the Veddas.

      According to historians, it was only during the 9th century AD, the term Nagas totally disappeared from the stone inscriptions and the two major ethnic groups Hela/Sihala and Demela clearly appeared. Historians believe that the Nagas were assimilated into the two major ethnic groups Hela/Sihala and Demela. The Archeologist/Historian Dr. Parnawitharana says, “We know next to nothing about the pre-historic autochthonous people of Sri Lanka. They could have been the ancestors of the present day Sinhalese and Tamils.” As per Prof. K. Indrapala, ‘The Sinhalese and Tamils of Sri Lanka are descended from the common ancestors who lived in the country in prehistoric and proto-historic times and have a shared history going back to over two thousand years’. If we agree with these historians, the people who call them Sinhalese and Sri Lankan Tamils today originate from the same stock. What is seen from the evidences is that the Tamil identity of Sri Lanka was not only parallel to the Sinhala identity but also parallel to that of the Tamils of Tamil Nadu. It is not merely an extension of the Tamil identity of Tamil Nadu. The Sri Lankan Tamil social formation is an evolution and is a result of people interacting with the land of Sri Lanka throughout its phases of history.

      Analyzing the Sinhala writings called Vittipota, W.A. De Silva states that from very early times the island was colonized by people from all parts of India. Therefore those inhabiting this country should not say that they belong to some one particular family or race.

      The Sinhalese argue that they are unique to Sri Lanka (there is no other Sinhala Nadu) and therefore Sri Lanka is a Sinhala country. We should not forget that the Arab/Muslim traders married local (Sinhala/Tamil) women and therefore their decedents share the same ancient ancestry of the Sinhalese/Tamils. Since the Malay and Portuguese did not bring their womenfolk but married local women, even the Malays and Burghers also share the same ancestry. The fact is, as a race, not only the Sinhalese but also the Sri Lankan Tamils, Sri Lankan Muslims, Burghers, Malays and Veddas are all unique to Sri Lanka, they have no other place on earth, the only difference is they adopted a single language where as the Sinhalese adopted Sanskrit, Pali, Tamil, Vedda, a very few words from unknown origin and later Portuguese, Dutch, English and developed a new language (due to their heavy mixing).
      **
      http://books.google.ca/books?id=YYbRUoIzLK0C&pg=PT113&lpg=PT113&dq=Chera+or+Sera+(in+old+tamil+sarai)+is+the+Dravidian+equivalent+for+Naga&source=bl&ots=zOvVqt2TIh&sig=FtcZQ7YcSJW-pxq6wm3wTYZN2Gg&hl=en&sa=X&ei=z-aLU5-VKKSe8gGq6ID4Dg&ved=0CDQQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=Chera%20or%20Sera%20(in%20old%20tamil%20sarai)%20is%20the%20Dravidian%20equivalent%20for%20Naga&f=false

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        Thiva,

        Thanks.

        But the DNA analysis of present day Sinhala, Tamil , South Indians and Native Veddah tells that the Veddah were distinct, but the others were the same group. So, the others must have their roots in “Nagas”, and therefore originated in South India.

        This again confirms that Sinhala and Tamil are foreigners, Paradeshis, Paras in the Land of Native Veddah.

        Science separates facts from myths.

        Some information, for your information is given below, regarding the Sinhala and Tamils.

        d) The Veddah are the offspring of Para-Vijaya and Kuveni. Is there any DNA data to support this? No. Some may have, because of rapes. Another Monk Mahanama Imagination.

        Sri Lanka’s indigenous inhabitants, the Veddas — or Wanniya-laeto (‘forest-dwellers’) as they call themselves — preserve a direct line of descent from the island’s original Neolithic community dating from at least 16,000 BC and probably far earlier according to current scientific opinion.

        1 Even today, the surviving Wanniya-laeto community retains much of its own distinctive cyclic worldview, prehistoric cultural memory, and time-tested knowledge of their semi-evergreen dry monsoon forest habitat that has enabled their ancestor-revering culture to meet the diverse challenges to their collective identity and survival. Further reference: Here some credible data and reference of the genetic Admixture. The Native Veddah were the original inhabitants of the land, well before the foreigners, the parades-his, came from South India.

        http://www.lankanewspapers.com/news/2007/6/15923_space.html

        The Genetic affinities of Sri Lankan populations – [Reproduced here on a special request made by our LNP friend MURU, this article (web site) was first found by our friend MAGHA.] Friday, 15 June 2007 – 11:25 AM SL Time Genetic affinities of Sri Lankan populations Human Biology, by Kshatriya, Gautam Kumar Genetic Admixture. Table 9 presents the estimated values of admixture for the two hybrid populations (the Sinhalese and the Tamils) based on 13 polymorphic loci, fitting a trihybrid model using the ancestral frequencies shown in Table 10. (Tables 9 and 10 omitted).

        -Amarasiri

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    Dr. Ambedkar, Indian statesman, lawyer, Scholar says the Naga people were Dravidian Tamils.

    DRAVIDIANS AND NAGAS ARE ONE AND THE SAME PEOPLE

    Who are the Dravidians? Are they different from the Nagas? Or are they two different names for a people of the same race? It is a fact that the term Dravidians and Nagas are merely two different names for the same people. It is not to be denied that very few will be prepared to admit the proposition that the Dravidians and Nagas are merely two different names for the same people and fewer that the Dravidians as Nagas occupied not merely South India but that they occupied the whole of India—South as well as North. Nonetheless these are historical truths.

    Nagas and Dravidians are one and the same people. Even with this much of proof, people may not be found ready to accept the thesis. The chief difficulty in the way of accepting it lies in the designation of the people of South India by the name Dravidian. It is natural for them to ask why the term Dravidian has come to be restricted to the people of South India if they are really Nagas. Critics are bound to ask: If the Dravidians and the Nagas are the same people, why is the name Nagas not used to designate people of South India also………….

    The word ‘Dravida’ is not an original word. It is the sanskritized form of the word ‘Tamil’. The original word ‘Tamil’ when imported into Sanskrit became ‘Damilla’ and later on ‘Damita’ became Dravida. The word Dravida is the name of the language of the people and does not denote the race of the people. The third thing to remember is that Tamil or Dravida was not merely the language of South India but before the Aryans came it was the language of the whole of India, and was spoken from Kashmir to Cape Comorin. In fact, it was the language of the Nagas throughout India. The next thing to note is the contact between the Aryans and the Nagas and the effect it produced on the Nagas and their language.

    Strange as it may appear the effect of this contact on the Nagas of North India was quite different from the effect it produced on the Nagas of South India. The Nagas in North India gave up Tamil which was their mother tongue and adopted Sanskrit in its place. The Nagas in South India retained Tamil as their mother tongue and did not adopt Sanskrit the language of the Aryans. If this difference is borne in mind it will help to explain why the name Dravida came to be applied only for the people of South India. The necessity for the application of the name Dravida to the Nagas of Northern India had ceased because they had ceased to speak the Dravida language. But so far as the Nagas of South India are concerned not only the propriety of calling them Dravida had remained in view of their adherence to the Dravida language but the necessity of calling them Dravida had become very urgent in view of their being the only people speaking the Dravida language after the Nagas of North had ceased to use it. This is the real reason why the people of South India have come to be called Dravidians.

    The special application of the word Dravida for the people of South India must not, therefore, obscure the fact that the Nagas and Dravidas are the one and the same people. They are only two different names for the same people. Nagas was a racial or cultural name and Dravida was their linguistic name. Thus the Dasas are the same as the Nagas and the Nagas are the same as the Dravidians. In other words what we can say about the races of India is that there have been at the most only two races in the field, the Aryans and the Nagas.
    DR.B.R.AMBEDKAR

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      Thivia

      Did your incle from france tell you this . I dont think the nagas will be defecating in the open like the T nadu dravidians .

      Cheers

      Abhaya

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        “Did your incle from france tell you this . I dont think the nagas will be defecating in the open like the T nadu dravidians .”

        But, you do it in creed like a humble Sinhalaese.

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      who cares whether they were tamils or not ? what is the relevance to the discussion ?

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      Thiviya,

      RE” DRAVIDIANS AND NAGAS ARE ONE AND THE SAME PEOPLE

      The Native Veddah were the original inhabitants of the land, well before the foreigners, the parades-his, came from South India.

      The results of a more detailed analysis on the basis of 43 alleles in 8 population groups for average heterozygosity and the genetic distance among all the pairs of populations together with their standard errors are presented in Table 7. (Table omitted) The average heterozygosity varies between 27.9% (Sinhalese) and 32.2% (Veddahs). The genetic distances do not reveal significant differentiation, as examined pairwise by the chi-square statistic (Table 8). (Table omitted) Nevertheless, the dendrogram produced from the genetic distance matrix (Figure 3) and the clustering obtained further strengthen earlier observations. (Figure omitted) It can be seen that the Sinhalese, the Indian Tamils, and the South Indian Muslims form one cluster, whereas the Gujaratis, the Punjabis, and the west Indian Muslims form another, an almost identical clustering to the one observed in Figure 2. Here, too, the Bengalis and the Veddahs are farthest from the Sinhalese.

      http://www.lankanewspapers.com/news/2007/6/15923_space.html

      The Genetic affinities of Sri Lankan populations – [Reproduced here on a special request made by our LNP friend MURU, this article (web site) was first found by our friend MAGHA.] Friday, 15 June 2007 – 11:25 AM SL Time Genetic affinities of Sri Lankan populations Human Biology, by Kshatriya, Gautam Kumar Genetic Admixture.

      Table 9 presents the estimated values of admixture for the two hybrid populations (the Sinhalese and the Tamils) based on 13 polymorphic loci, fitting a trihybrid model using the ancestral frequencies shown in Table 10. (Tables 9 and 10 omitted).

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    Almost all the sources (Sanskrit & Pali texts), the Mahabaratha, the Ramayana, the Vedas, the Mahavamsa, and the Buddhist scriptures Tripitaka says that the Nagas were non-human beings. Nagas are a primeval race of divine serpent-people that play an important part in religion. They are half human and half snake, and are still worshipped as the bringers of fertility, especially in southern India. Nagas are believed to live in palaces (Patala) in the underground city Bhogavati. They are considered the protectors of springs, wells and rivers. They bring rain, and thus fertility, but are also thought to bring disasters such as floods and drought. Their ruler is Sesha. Some of the nagas are: Ananta (symbol of eternity), Vasuki, Manasa (fertility goddess and protector against snake-bites), and Mucilinda. The entire Mahavamsa brands the Nagas as non-humans/supernatural beings. According to the Buddhist scriptures Tripitika, the Nagas were non-humans from a different celestial world. The Mahasamaya sutta in the sutta pitika says that when Buddha was living in the great forest at Kapilavatthu, both good and evil Non-humans from different worlds came to see him. Here, Buddha says, so many Yakkhas, Nagas, Rakshas, Asuras, Supannas, devas and Brahamas got together and so the Arahants of Buddha rejoiced with them, the Non-humans.

    However, the kings belonging to the Tissa and Lambakarana dynasties that ruled the ancient Buddhist kingdom of Anuradhapura were Prakrit speaking Nagas. Dutugemunu, the national hero of Sri Lanka, was a Naga king belonging to the Tissa dynasty. His mother Vihara Maha Devi was the daughter of the Naga king of Keleniya, and his father Kavan Tissa was the great grandson of Maha Naga, who established a kingdom in Mahagama in Rohana. Maha Naga’s older brother, Devanampiya Tissa, a contemporary of Emperor Asoka, was the first king of the Tissa dynasty. Some of the Tissa kings who proudly bore Naga clan names were Khallata Naga (Dutugemunu’s nephew), Cora Naga, who was one of the many victims poisoned to death by the amorous Queen Anula, Mahadathika Maha Naga and Ila Naga.

    In the early historic period, the Nagas not only occupied Nakanatu/Nagadipa in Sri Lanka but also Nagar-Kovil, Naga-Pattinam and a few other places in South India and as per Prof. Indrapala, the Nagas were moving back and forth between Sri Lanka and South India. A few known names of the Naga poets of Sri Lanka who contributed to ancient Tamil literature are Elaththu Pootha Thevanar (whose compositions are included in anthologies known as Nattrinai, Kurunthokai and Puranaanooru), Mudingarayar, Musiri Asiriyar, Neelakandanar and Ela Nakar.

    The Sri Lankan Nagas might have been a dark coloured tribe that would have shared a common ancestry with the South Indians. Historians believe that the Nagas were assimilated into the two major ethnic groups Sihala and Demela. The Archeologist/Historian Dr. Parnawitharana says, “We know next to nothing about the pre-historic autochthonous people of Sri Lanka. They could have been the ancestors of the present day Sinhalese and Tamils.” As per Prof. K. Indrapala, ‘The Sinhalese and Tamils of Sri Lanka are descended from the common ancestors who lived in the country in prehistoric and proto-historic times and have a shared history going back to over two thousand years’. If we agree with these historians, the people who call them Sinhalese and Sri Lankan Tamils today originate from the same stock.

    The ancient Sri Lankan heritage, the Vevas (tanks/reservoirs), Dagobas (dome enshrining sacred relics), the development of wet rice cultivation, a rudimentary tank system, iron technology and all other massive ancient structures were constructed by the Nagas.

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      Hi Mark
      thanks for the interesting infor. what about the Yaksas ? any infor on them ?

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        The Yakkas were the same Nagas who wore a Bakamuna whenever and wherever needed, like the likes of modern day Sinhalese.

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    hanks for the article on Naga(s). It appears these tribals have inhabited the whole of India and Ceylon. The state of Nagaland bears testimony to the fact Nagas populated India for several centuries. Nagaland is a state in the far north-eastern part of India. It borders the state of Assam to the west, Arunachal Pradesh and part of Assam to the north, Myanmar to the east and Manipur to the south. The state capital is Kohima, and the largest city is Dimapur. It has an area of 16,579 km2 with a population of 1,980,602 as per the 2011 census, making it one of the smallest states of India. As for Naga names why go further? After the mythical Vijaya the kings who ruled Ceylon up to 10th century were all Nagas.
    Mahanaga,
    Chora Naga,
    Mahallaka Naga,
    Cula Naga (aka Khujjanaga) Son of Kanitta Tissa
    Kuda Naga (aka Kunchanaga) Brother of Cula Naga
    Siri Naga I – – Brother-in-Law of Kuda Naga
    Abhaya Naga – – Brother of Voharaka Tissa

    As is self-evident the numerous kings who had the affix Tissa (Theisan) to their names are also Nagas.
    Duttugemenu (aka Dutthagamani Abhaya) is a Naga prince both on his paternal and maternal lineage. His mother Viharamadevi is the daughter of King of Kelaniya (Kalyani). His father is the grand son of Mahanama, brother of Devanampiya Theisan (son of Mutasivan).
    Manimekalai one of the 5 great Thamil epics written in the second century AD by a Buddhist poet Seethalai Saththanar refers to Nagas. A shipwrecked Thamil merchant by the name Shaththan get washed off the coast of Nagarmalai peopled by Nagas. The Nagas captured and tried to eat him, but since he knew to speak their language he manages to escape.

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      ” The Nagas captured and tried to eat him, (a Tamil)”

      That would make the Nagas a tribe of cannibals. Yet, in these very columns, Tamils were claimed to have descended from the Nagas, as you imply by the way you spell the name Devanampiyatissa.

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        Devanam Piyatissa was the King Asoka himself, not the one from the concocted story of the deer hunting veddah Thevanam Piyadasa of Mihintale.

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      Thanga

      ‘Naga Tribe

      The Naga TribeThe Naga people were the aboriginal inhabitants, who ruled the coastal districts of mostly the Western and Northern Ceylon, particularly the Jaffna peninsula from the 6th century BC to 3rd century BC. The interchangeable names Nagar and Naka or Naga, meaning Cobra or Serpent were applied to and self-described by these snake – worshiping people.”

      The Nagas are still Paras. They came from South India, the Native Land of the Nagas, to Lanka, the Native Land of Native Veddah, who were there 25,000 years before that.

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    [Edited out] names the Sakra (Sakkara) as the ‘Sugar Daddy’ of the mythical mounds of Sumer. It is a myth copycat in the Jatakas of the punnakku version of the Teporabana-Bushism from the Dilmun Civilization of Eastern Arabia to the Epic of Gilgamesh, Akkadian and the Cedars of Lebanon.

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