15 December, 2017

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Requirement Of Middle Path & Mindfulness In Politics

By Laksiri Fernando

Dr. Laksiri Fernando

Some or many of the Buddhist principles can be applied to resolve most of our problems, if employed in a non-sectarian fashion. For example, the methodology of four noble truths can be taken as a scientific approach in resolving social or political problems. In this sense, the concept of Dukkha is about the identification of problems/issues in an objective, in depth and a logical manner. It is said that a proper understanding of a problem is a major part of its solution.

We often name problems as corruption, poverty, crime, torture, underdevelopment, racism, terrorism, separatism etc. That does not mean that we understand them properly. Understanding a problem with its vicissitudes and demarcations is necessary for problem solving. It is not about other’s corruption that we should be concerned about, but corruption as a whole. A holistic approach is necessary.    

The next step obviously is to investigate, identify and analyse the reasons and causes for those problems in the same rigour. That is the most profound task. Those are what the Buddha identified as Samudaya. More pertinently, Hethu-Pala or cause-and-effect was the logical theory that he put forward in this respect. What do we mean by Nirodha in the modern-day context or scientific investigation?

It is not only the conviction that when there is Dukkha, there is Nirodha. It is also about the possibility of having different paths toward resolving a problem. This is closer to what most social scientists seek to investigate through scenario analysis or SWOT analysis. Magga therefore is the finally selected path, with conviction, realism and analysis. It is like our road map for solutions. The middle way or the middle path was what the Buddha put forward in this context, in general terms, as the best path or Magga. It is one of the most intricate.

Middle Path

Do we in Sri Lanka, as a pioneer and a prominent Buddhist country, follow the middle path? We were at least overtly doing so in the past. But not any longer. This middle way was prominent in the economic and foreign policy areas during the fifties. But when it came to the language policy or ethnic relations, it terribly failed. The reason was the ethnicity taking over the treasured religious or philosophical principles.

Let us ruminate on the foreign policy area. In the early period after independence, there was an obvious alignment with the West. That was a result of the colonial heritage or mentality. That was one reason why the Soviet Union blocked our membership in the UN until 1955. Even during this period there were instances where efforts were made to strike a balance. The rubber-rice pact with China was one such effort prompted by some economic imperatives. However, during the Kotelawala period, the foreign policy again became one sided. His lopsided policy was reflected at the Bandung conference.

Most prominent advocate of a middle path in foreign policy was SWRD Bandaranaike. He also was the promoter of a mixed economy to mean again a middle path. A mixed economy might be the best even today, taking best out of both the private sector and public enterprises. However, Bandaranaike terribly failed on the language policy and ethnic relations, paving the way for the first major communal riot in 1958. Although Mrs. Bandaranaike apparently followed a middle path in foreign relations, the same cannot be said about economic matters or ethnic relations. Her closed economic policy tilted towards an extreme, even on the foreign front. It was not detachment, but isolationism like in Burma after 1962.

Dudley Senanayake was undoubtedly a successful promoter of a middle path. Even on ethnic relations, he could maintain a measure of compassion like U Nu in Burma (1947-1962). His personality also was in the direction of a middle path.   

The same cannot be said about JR Jayewardene, the successor to Senanayake in the UNP. On all three fronts of economic policy, foreign affairs and ethnic relations, his policies were lopsided and to the extreme. Even on constitutional matters it was the case, until he was forced to accept devolution and language rights of the Tamil speaking people in 1978. 

Some Other Roots

The wisdom of moderation also can be traced to other philosophies. For example, Robert Ellis has written ‘A Brief Western Philosophy of the Middle Way’ highlighting the works of David Hume and Emmanuel Kant. This is a recent work (2011). However, Ellis’ inspiration initially came from Buddhism, rejecting (black and white) dualism in logic and theory of knowledge.   

Even one can trace some Western roots of the middle way to Aristotle who said, ‘virtues in contrast to vices are judicious means between contrary extremes.’ However, most of his logical analyses were dualistic. In recent time, Charles Hartshorne is another one who has come up with the ‘Wisdom as Moderation: A Philosophy of the Middle Way’ (1987). It is important to note how he has begun his exposition.

Starvation is not good, overeating is not good. Caution can go too far; so can boldness. Some persons are kind to friends but neglect their civic duties or obligations to strangers; some support good causes but are unkind to their personal associates.”

Although Hartshorne’s work is philosophical, it equally appeals to common sense and personal life, as revealed in the above quotation.

Among our own academics, David Kalupahana is one who has been the most prominent in explaining both the philosophical and practical aspects of the middle way (‘Mulamadhyamakakarika of Nagarjuna,’ 1986). As he has pointed out, ‘noble eightfold path’ (NEP) perhaps constitutes the main thrust of the middle path. This has extremely practical relevance in good governance, if implemented or practiced faithfully.

NEP and Good Governance

There are many expositions on the noble eightfold path by Annie Besant, Bhikkhu Bodhi, Walpola Rahula, Henepola Gunaratana, Nayanatiloka etc. As a list, it is simply the following, taken from Ven. Walpola Rahula (‘What the Buddha Taught,’ p. 41).

  1. Right Understanding
  2. Right Thought
  3. Right Speech
  4. Right Action
  5. Right Livelihood
  6. Right Effort
  7. Right Mindfulness
  8. Right Concentration   

In her ‘Freedom from Fear’ (p. 67), Aung San Suu Kyi implied that while these principles are primarily for personal liberation from suffering, they also have a practical value in politics. This is more pertinent in the case of good governance.

Most importantly, there is a close relationship between these principles and what we understand as universal freedoms and human rights. Freedom of conscience, freedom of thought (including religion), freedom of speech, freedom of action and the right to life (or live) closely go with the first six noble principles, emphasising the other side of the coin, the ‘responsibilities or duties.’

It is an underlying principle in human rights discourse that when there are rights, on the part of the people, there are corresponding duties on the part of the rulers and those who govern a country. It is the connection between the ‘rights holder’ and the ‘duty bearer.’ This does not mean that the citizens are absolved from duties and responsibilities, but more emphasis is placed on the rulers within a system of democracy. Because they are elected on a social contract. This is also the Buddhist theory on ‘Maha Sammatha.’ 

Then what is the relevance of the last two principles in the list: the right mindfulness and right concentration in politics?

Right Mindfulness

All over the world today, there is much recognition about the Buddhist concept of ‘mindfulness.’ More correct understanding should be on the ‘right mindfulness’ and not mere ‘mindfulness.’ The lack of concentration is the primary reason for ‘defused’ mindedness or ‘wrong’ mindedness. Both are interconnected.

A polity or politics, normally is like a human mind, confused without a focus. Sri Lanka’s Parliament, like many others, perhaps might be the most symptomatic of this confused status. The right concentration through meditation helps a person to achieve right mindfulness and other qualities such as right understanding, right thought, right speech and right action. Could that be the case in respect of the polity as well? Could politics be meditative in any significant sense? Could mindfulness meditation be practiced in achieving better results in our administration? (However, meditation should not be implemented like what the IGP allegedly did to a ‘minor employee’ in the police department!).   

A first step in meditation might be to understand the different, contradictory, conflictual and confused thoughts that comes to a person’s mind. The reasons behind them. Some of these thoughts could be illusionary or delusionary. This is also the case in politics. However, a polity is not one mind, but thousands and thousands of minds, while many millions are dormant. A polity cannot sort them out or understand them like in a person’s mind.

What might be possible is for some observers to monitor the events, like observing the thoughts during meditation, sort them out, separate what is real and illusionary, and try to make sense out of what is happening, and publicise them for others and possibly political actors to adjust their behaviour in the right direction. One may argue that this is what is done by the media. This is partly the case as reportage or reflection. But mostly the media is part of the confused thought processes that adds to the confusion.

If we take a good daily newspaper, it is like a snapshot of the political/social mind of the nation. In the case of a website or a web-newspaper, it is more dynamic even new ‘thoughts’ are being uploaded through news, articles or comments in some cases. The question however is whether these processes add to the confusion or help sort them out?

One advantage under modern technology is to almost instantly expose the wrongdoers or bluffers in politics. For example, if Parliamentary debates are fully broadcasted to the people, then the people could make a judgement about who is correct, who is wrong, who is bluffing, who is contributing etc., not to speak of lying. For that to happen, there should be a better understanding about the noble eightfold path or any such moral codes from other religions or secular philosophies. 

Conclusion 

In liberal philosophy, there is the notion that freedom of expression, dialogue or even arguments could help finding the truth, and contribute to human progress. Also, is the notion that the exposure of false notions or consciousness help human progress. Naming and shaming are two devices in this process. This is often called the ‘free market of expression.’ This is partly correct but not totally. The form is emphasized, but not the content very much.

The ‘free market of expression’ has not managed by itself to stop wars, nuclear arms race, environmental denigration, man-made disasters and more importantly the prevalence of despicable poverty, malnutrition and underdevelopment in the world. Because there is no ‘right mindfulness’ in these discussions or dialogues, not to speak of violent fights and confrontations. Instead of arousing and aggravating confrontations on disputed issues, the Buddhist way could be considered as a path of resolving them through brining realism to the political mind. This is the importance of the middle path, the noble eightfold path and the right mindfulness, if practiced properly. Otherwise, a similar criticism is valid for Buddhism. It is preached, not practiced.                

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Latest comments

  • 2
    2

    I am appealing to the President and all the parliamentarians to read this and to get into a right path of thought action for the sake of peace and prosperity of all citizens(that includes their families and friends!) in the country.

  • 4
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    “” In this sense, the concept of Dukkha……..major part of its solution.””

    The realistic value of all this is that there is sweet nothing the populace is capable of- even the great Spanish of today need to be cared for and they know that but the buruva country can never accept that because they were the people carted along by the portuguese.

    As history has proved only wielding the stick can make the donkey populace move forward. Who would do it is very tricky as the dynasty builders have entangled the island into geopolitics near and far. Thannava is the curse that thrives like a lotus eating parasite.

    What did the holy man naked fakir (admired by the world) leave behind?/ War and still at War.

    • 0
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      Timbuttu, long time no see, where had you been over the few weeks ?

      I AGREE WITH Dr Fernando, but I really dontthink lankens in general are into realize it.

      See how many of them would stay bound to Rajapakshes even today, even if former first lady s vehicle is proved to have been used by the murderers that took the life of that young sportler – Thadjudeen. She has been a mother 3 same age young sons, but her to have been known the kind of killings is no means acceptable to anyone with a little brain, but people have still been taking the side of Raja.. can you imagine?

      The ball is on the side of PEOPLE. so long people have been beehaving like KIRIMAETI GILINA KIMBULA- crocodiles that have been stuck with clay in their bellies.. nothing will change for the betterment of this TORN island That is THE truth.

  • 0
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    No need of middle path or tolerance. Just follow Trump. Incite Nazis and says there are Nazi people who walk with “very nice people” carrying torches singing “jews will not replace us ” and the Nazi slogan “blood and soil”. Then pivot to statues of Confederate heroes which suddenly popped up in the White Rebel south in the 1950s as a reaction to Desegregation, Brown vs Board, CRA. Throw some red meat and play the dog whistle. You WIN. Try to equivocate Nazis who killed 6 million Jews and over 25 million Slavic Europeans Hitler said were subhuman(like Trump’s first and third wives who are slavic) and say everyone has bad elements. You WIN. No need to be tolerant anymore. Declare it open season on minorities and refuse to call white terrorism terrorism but only Islamic terrorism by that word.

  • 3
    1

    Most academics and so-called scholars preaching democracy and human rights are all BS. that is soem westerncountries need because, their assasinations, and war did not work. they mostly made the world lawless. Just read how Indian and Chona were ruling during the ancient times. Even in china, when the country was disarray for some natural disaster, emperor was thinking what did I do wrong ?. I heard the same concept exists among some arctic native people as well as Australian aborginies. Most Asians kings ruled the country with Dasa Rajadharma and What Ranil preached Lichchavi -Malla type govt is the truth. Anyway, Ranil is a big liar. He talk something and does something. Even right now he is saying Two ministers resigned in his govt without doing anything wrong and he uses govt money to correct his image. I hope public remember what a thief Ranil is.

  • 2
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    Broascasting or telecasting of PArliamentary proceedings are very important. then general public can understand what they are talking. Just now, I heard SSLBC, Mangala Samraweera saying Shiranthis Rajapakse was staying in a King’s suite in a PAria Seven Star hotel and the price per night was $ 20,000 and she stayed three days. Then an anouncer says they wasted Rs. 2.5 Crores of public money. There should b some truth but the figures are lies. Because room rent aone comes to Rs NINE CRORES. when calculated.

  • 1
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    Religion doesn’t go hand in hand with politics although politics enshrines religion as well . Politics is everything. Because they say that Religion is the opium of the masses. Hindus have a great bible called “Thirukkural” written by an illiterate person named Thiruvalluvar, which teaches the entity of man’s life and how to live it whether in politics or in private life. It is not attached to any religion. I wish to quote one example of his verse about politics:
    Verse 555 ” Allatpaddu Aattathu alutha kanneer entre
    selvaththai theikkum paddai”
    which means – Will not the tears, shed by the people who cannot endure the oppression which they suffer become a saw to waste away his wealth( the kings wealth – here the government’s wealth)
    There is also a saying
    Right view
    Right thinking
    Right speech
    Right action
    Right living.
    Right effort
    Right concentration
    If these are observed there will be righteousness, peace and prosperity in the country.

    It is over 70 years, social problems or political problems have not been solved. For seventy years both the UNP and the SLFP ruled the country with various leaders and they could not or did not find the right path to solve the longstanding problems, the resultant was a 30 year civil war with death and destruction and where did the Buddhist principles go?

  • 1
    6

    Laksiri refers to Aung San Suu Kyi’s book ‘Freedom from Fear’. She implied that while these principles are primarily for personal liberation from suffering, they also have a practical value in politics. This is more pertinent in the case of good governance.
    Prior to the advent of Aung, the Burmese Junta governed Burma with the sole aim of enriching themselves. They created a Burman only armed services and police and bought loyalty off perks and impunity. They created the Rohingya problem and brainwashed the people into a siege mentality. Due to international pressure the Junta gave up power but made sure that the corrupt structure is in place. They made sure that their agent charlatan monk Wirathu is protected. They made constitutional changes which makes Aung can never be President.
    Aung became a prisoner of the Junta outside her original prison.
    So there we are – the Junta using Buddhism to enrich themselves.

    • 4
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      K. Pillai: You are talking BS. It is the christian media that is reporting. Just study how the church under their “New millinium project for Asia” how they are destroying the buddhims based culture all over the Asia. Rohingya and similar problema are occuring all over Asia. Take thailand, Mongolia, vietnam, south Korea and Sri lanka. All those coutries have christians-created problems. In the christian countries muslims are cornered. that is why muslims have become Wahabis. See how muslims are being bahsed every year in some very democratic countries.

    • 6
      1

      Even if the reasonable Sinhalese want to get together with its largest neighbour the northern Demala would sabotage it.
      This is the reason as to why the originals Tamils of Colombo have always disliked the con-man northern villager with animal instincts.
      SJVC’s son Chandrahasan understood it clearly therefore like LK he lived with a Sinhala Buddhist who was his legal secretary.

  • 1
    7

    Dr Laksiri:

    Religion is not the answer to the ills that have encapsulated Sri Lanka. It is Prabhakaran. He was very meticulous in the way he set-up and ran the administration. Imagine a figure like Prabhakaran being the leader of Sri Lanka and the real prospect of the country charting a future that would have been a lot different than the chaotic governance. The endemic corruption, the unruly and greedy behaviour of politicians across the divide with scant regard for the welfare of the people is pathetic and shameful.

    It will be foolish to assume or believe that even a ray of hope is anywhere near. The 17A was unceremoniously dumped and whether it is the 18A, 19A or even the 30A, these rascals will find a way to circumvent any previous legislation for their own greed. This is but the stark truth that has ravaged Sri Lanka. Pitting the races against each other, unfettered greed and corruption has torn apart a country which could have otherwise been a model, as it was during its infancy. Only fools will believe that these are the saviours. They have dumped SL into a deep pit and will continue to keep pushing deeper into that pit. Really I am baffled. This is a small, tiny island and these idiots can’t manage it properly. Where do you think SL is heading to?

    • 5
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      jancee

      “Imagine a figure like Prabhakaran being the leader of Sri Lanka and the real prospect of the country charting a future that would have been a lot different than the chaotic governance.”

      Champa too wants to sell this island as vacant possession by electing the Chief national hangman Gota as the next president of my ancestral land.

      Had Thiruvengadam Velupillai Prabaharan the psychopath been given the responsibility of running the entire country he would have needed several efficient industrial incinerators to clear/dispose 21 million bodies.
      You too like to have this island vacant possession.

      Please note Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini didn’t run trains on time. He said “War is to man what maternity is to a woman. From a philosophical and doctrinal viewpoint, I do not believe in perpetual peace.”. Perhaps Thiruvengadam Velupillai Prabaharan trusted Mussolini’s words.

      • 1
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        Native Vedda:

        Instead of being a monkey jumping from branch to branch, get your grips. Unsurprisingly, this is a trait SLankan politicians are only all too familiar. Could it be that they may have learnt a thing or two from you. Jumping and abandoning ships is an art perfected by SL politicians and it has become so sickening that spitting on them alone would not address the issue. And they spread the cancer to even Karuna. It is not as if you are such a dumb that you have slept through the murders of more than 70,000 of their own race without a tinge of remorse. If, by any chance Prabhakaran had to install incinerators to roast these rascals to rid the island of such parasites, I wouldn’t have the least hesitation in telling him to dump you in there first and that may have helped your proposition – start with vacant possession, a clean slate so to speak. Even Moses got so riled up, if you know what I mean.

        • 4
          0

          jansee

          Go fight your little battle with your fellow little islanders Champa, Shenal, sach, Bloody Nuisance, KASmaalam, somass ji, Hela, ……………………………… and have your baby talk with them, not with me.

          • 0
            5

            Native Vedda:

            What a farce you are. You have drawn your battle lines with all those you have mentioned. Doesn’t your pea brain enlighten you that you have to fight your battles with them if you want to. A coward like you should not drag me into something that has got nothing to do with me. If at all I have to draw my “sword” I will gladly do it on my own. Typical hypocrite.

            • 3
              0

              “”jansee”
              I eat tiger brain but you have your jaffna demala brain in the drain? Ha ha he
              The chinese say you never use toilets but do it behind trees.

              “” If at all I have to draw my “sword” I will gladly do it on my own. “”
              Sword of the dead and rotting terrorist? WhooHooo.

    • 7
      1

      “”He was very meticulous in the way he set-up and ran the administration. “”
      A drug smuggler, gun dealer, despot mass murderer an animal like Kim Jong-Un the bumpkin without the ultimate weapon.
      “”Where do you think SL is heading to?”” without the northern demala the future would be brighter.

      • 1
        6

        timbuttu:

        Hahaha, you are a hilarious donkey, aren’t you? According to news, the DAILY CONSUMPTION of drugs in SL amounts to 450 million rupees and with those involved having links to strong political connections.. You think Duminda Silva was selling sweets? Prabhakaran was a lot better. He may have dabbled in drugs but he did not sell these drugs to his own people. But is that how it is in Sri Lanka?

        Talking about gun dealing, the Avant Garde case should be nailed onto your head. Such a deceit carried out by those in power. You are a fool. Do you expect Prabhakaran to fight his enemies with flowers? When girls are raped by sadistic people who have no human decency at all, just by the likes of you, what kind of punishment do you think they deserve?

        Prabhakaran, a despot murderer? What do you call then the over 70,000 Sinhalese ruthlessly murdered by a sadistic Sinhalese army? Of course, you guys either don’t have balls or don’t bother about your own race that to this day there has been no accountability for these gruesome murders of your own kind, what more by guns carried by guys of your own race and shamelessly you feel fit to preach me. How many did Prabhakaran gun down?

        • 1
          1

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  • 1
    1

    Mr Fernando,

    I am not against your point of view, which, in a nutshell, ” …. Some or many of the Buddhist principles can be applied to resolve most of our problems …..” & your conclusion ” …It is preached, not practiced” says it all.

    SL prides it self as a Buddhist nation but with a largely intolerant society towards other ethnic minorities & religions and rampant curruption. We have a Ministry of Buddhist Affairs, obviously, to promote & safeguard Buddhism, with a tradition of the ‘Maha Sanga”, as well as, other self acclaimed ‘patriotic’ monks taking an active role in politics but in the process, seem to have come to the conclusion that Buddhism & the Sinhala race are integrated & the Sinhalese as the guardians of Buddhism. We have a MP who doles out money (wonder whose money?) to build Buddha statues at each street corner, an IGP who forces meditation on the entire Police force (while on duty), obviously based on Buddhist culture & a ‘Yahapalanya’ Govt. where the President has stated that Buddhism will have prominence over other religions. In my understanding of Buddhism, it promotes tolerance, equality, non discrimination & kindness to all living beings, yet we see intolerance, corruption, intimidation, discrimination, violence & greed from the highest level. So do Buddhists in SL have their own interpretation of Buddhism or is it sheer hypocrisy?

    Religion is a personal belief &, undoubtedly, if we follow our religious principals, the country will benefit form a righteous society. There is no need bring religion into politics, instead, the country should be governed by a constitution where justice, ethics, fairness, equality & non discrimination are foremost. However, with a predominant Buddhist population, the SL constitution can be based on Buddhist principals, just as other countries are influenced by the Christian, Hindu or Islamic faiths.

  • 6
    2

    jansee,

    “”Hahaha, you are a hilarious donkey, aren’t you?
    and you a not so smart sloth keep to that stupid palm tree Phew!!.

    “”According to news,……… did not sell these drugs to his own people. But is that how it is in Sri Lanka?””

    According to FBI reports in the EU and the confessions of demala mules who carried the stuff to the EU – the route was the same via new delhi, bombay and several EU stops with point man established at Italy.
    Kuddu duminda et al may enjoy a few luxuries but the demala ran a war machine air, land and sea with that loot. How come demala businesses in the UK have a 2 billion turnover in the white money business of today?? just corner that struggled to keep up?

    “”Talking about gun dealing, the Avant Garde case should be nailed onto your head. “
    Greedy offshot village bastards! It was official business as Dick Cheney was doing.

    “”Prabhakaran to fight …. with flowers? When girls are raped …….they deserve?””

    The demalas raped their own kind Ha ha he he you always did it under the palmyrah tree. Karuna, KP Pilayan etc confirms it.

    “”Prabhakaran, a despot murderer? What do you call ……Sinhalese army?””

    In a democracy the majority elected the sinhalese while tamils were undoubtedly terrorist of a village still hiding behind the some porriki jaffna tamils of the world but not the majority. You are not ceylon tamil as ceylon was a name given by the portuguese and the portuguese made you slaves of tobacco plantation.

    “”Of course, you ….did Prabhakaran gun down?””

    Jaffna tamils got hydrocele and prostate cancer now. Fatty had his brain axed Ha ha. and his son shot himself in suicide style.

    The demalas were doomed at nandikadal ad infinitum.- finito.

  • 0
    2

    There is vast gap between realization of Buddhism and Philosophy want to be in-depth study by Professor of Fernando?
    Well, Buddhist theory of Knowledge also be helpful him an approach that will apply for society at large.
    The key approach is his World Outlook?

  • 2
    1

    What is the current strength of the Maha Sangha in SL ? Is it 2 million or much more?.
    If every Clergy can convince at leat 10 SriLankans to follow the middle path the SL scociety will be an envy of the world in every aspect.

  • 3
    0

    Careful Dr Fernando.

    ….Most prominent advocate of a middle path in foreign policy was SWRD Bandaranaike.

    Aah yes, SWRD was the one smart cookie who blind-sided JR with a deft move; One minute, Polwatte Protestant, next thing it was Budham saranang gachchami.

    Will we ever see the day when grown men and women in this blessed country can bring their talents together to build a land fit for heroes without resorting to godly point scoring.

  • 1
    0

    Dear Dr. Fernando,
    Your Buddhists thoughts may be yield some results if they are real Buddhists, unfortunately they are Sinhala Buddhists. How can you expect desired changes from politico Sinhala Buddhists. We need new generation of leaders to see the problems in a different way.

    • 1
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      For a start, Prof. Laksiri can take the middle path and advocate federalism, now that Srilanka supreme court has ruled that federalism is not division of the country.

    • 0
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      V.Sivalingam, I would not like to call Laksiri Fernando a humbug. He presumably believes that you can eat the cake and still have it also! Sinhalese people, at least a vast majority of them, don’t want to lose their ‘chance’ grip on Tamils. So, they cook up one excuse after the other to see that they do not lose that ill-gotten advantage. You’d recall that at the beginning of the ethnic divide, Tamils were chased out of Colombo in particular and the South in general. The slogan then, in 1958, was, ‘Go back to your roots!’, in Jaffna. Today, we hear an entirely different slogan. We are again told to get back to our roots, not in Jaffna, but in South India. Jaffna Tamils are not from Tamil Nadu, period. But I digress. Federalism is a viable alternative to govern any multi-ethnic country. Rational Sinhalese agree and hope that their unjust and unruly brethren will wise up soon. Laksiri Fernando has faith in that rationale. However, something is holding him back. I could guess what it is. But, to be fair by LF, I would let him speak for himself!

      • 1
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        We have experienced this in UK where fair minded Sinhalese are afraid to speak out for justice. When a problem is highlighted, at the beginning there will be several Sinhalese supporting the correct action. Unfortunately the assault by racists are such that, as the problem is dragged on, except for a handful of highly principled Sinhalese, the rest fall by the wayside, some even somersaulting.

  • 0
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    After defining everything, Laksiri can now take the next step in comparing and contrasting his beloved “yahapalanaya” with the four noble truths and the middle path. We are eagerly awaiting it.

  • 0
    1

    Can Dr GS explain how federalism is middle path………..?

    • 1
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      I am sorry for your mental state. Federalism is the middle path between unitary state and Independence. It is middle way between two separate rule and one shared rule.

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