23 October, 2021

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The Clash Of Identities

By Kamaya Jayatissa

Kamaya Jayatissa

Nothing of me is original. I am the combined effort of everyone I’ve ever known.”– Chuck Palahniuk

My perspective is the one of a 25 year old who was born in Sri Lanka during the war and who came to France at the age of 1; one who is considered or seen as a French in her country of birth but who is expected to behave as a Sri Lankan; one who also happens to “belong” to both the ethnic and religious majority of the island.

In a country comprising mainly of Buddhists, one would think that Sri Lanka would be more tolerant, more understanding and open to other people’s beliefs and cultures -yet, though I may not know much about the ground reality, when I hear about anti-Muslim demonstrations, when I hear about discriminatory behavior and attitude towards Tamils, or when I do not hear at all about Burghers, I do not see much effort towards understanding and certainly not much tolerance in my country. Though this is not to be generalized, what I sometimes notice are various forms of marginalization, frustration, and sometimes even extremism from all sides. It seems to me that one of the main challenges in post-war Sri Lanka is therefore to resolve the current clash of identities.

While the recent post-war efforts of GoSL have been commendable –though it may not quite be “in every sense” as John Ging said- to build a sustainable peace in Sri Lanka, much effort remains to be done in terms of ethnic reconciliation, in conjunction with both political and socio-economic reconciliation.

Ultra-nationalism, within both the Sinhalese and the Tamil communities led to frustrations on both sides; especially within the Diaspora(s). For minorities, this frustration was mainly built on ethno-religious stigmatization, social discrimination or sometimes even rejection; feelings that often exclude and marginalize communities even further. This led minorities to perceive, sometimes wrongly, the slightest change as a potential form of discrimination. Paradoxically, it gave a sense of somewhat auto-proclaimed superiority to the majority.

Maybe because I grew up away from the conflict, maybe because I was educated in France, maybe because I am naïve enough to believe in a better Sri Lanka, I never really made any ethnic distinction between Sri Lankans. On the contrary, I always considered myself, first and foremost, as a Sri Lankan. And yet, how many times was I asked –especially in France- whether I was a Sinhalese, a Muslim or a Tamil? Though I never really understood why, I realized that people gave a tremendous importance to this ONE question and I kept on wondering “…but aren’t we all Sri Lankans? Or does my Sinhalese and Buddhist legacy gives me a legitimacy that my Tamil, Muslim or Burgher friends do not seem to have? ” If so, I still wonder how.

Of course, we all have our own identity(ies). The very notion of identity itself will be defined differently depending on each individual/group, making its interpretation subjective to each individual/group. We are different from each other and at the same time we carry diversity within ourselves. Each of us is indeed a unique combination of various identifications that are not equally significant to us. Far from been static, this notion transforms itself throughout the different stages of our life. But can we build a collective identity based on what intrinsically defines us as an individual? How comes that in such a small island, people do not feel as if they belonged to one nation, to one Sri Lanka? How come that members of the Diaspora, especially the second and third generation are most of the time considered as non-Sri Lankan in their country of origin?

The LLRC Report itself, in its Section III on “Reconciliation”, says that “The development of a vision of a shared future requires the involvement of the whole of society. […] A culture of respect for human rights and human diversity needs to be developed creating an environment where each citizen becomes an active participants in society and feels a sense of belonging, of being Sri Lankan.” Yet, in post-war Sri Lanka, the very concept of Sri Lankan-ness, or of Sri Lankan consciousness, a concept which is yet to materialize, is often seen as an idealistic vision. Few are those who actually believe in it. I for one believe that future generations, both in Sri Lanka and within the Diaspora, have the ability to build a more united country, one that will incorporate socio-economic disparities but also our religious beliefs, political affiliations, cultural similarities and differences; one that will give us a broader, therefore stronger sense of belonging –including national belonging- through solidarity and appreciation of cultural diversity; one that will ultimately include both our individual and collective identities. Mutual respect and understanding should therefore be our common denominators as Sri Lankans.

An idealistic yet feasible tentative approach to build a Sri Lankan identity would be to create and maintain an inclusive society. What I mean by that is that we should adopt a multi-dimensional approach that will ultimately promote both social integration and social cohesion. This means further participation in public affairs by all communities, including perhaps the Diaspora(s). This also means engaging in a process of reconciliation by maintaining the security of all individuals, but also respecting the Rule of Law, equality of rights, justice and equity in the distribution of wealth and resources; thereby achieving the realization of the legitimate rights of all citizens.

The role of education –not only in its broader sense but mainly the education received at school, the one that should place all children on an equal stage- is here predominant, not to say crucial. I believe that it is the instrument that can provide the opportunity to learn values of respect and appreciation of diversity through the promotion of multiculturalism, pluralism, and ultimately respect for all forms of identities.

In a post-war situation, the restoration of trust among and within communities is also a prerequisite for reconciliation. But can there be a restoration of trust without forgiveness from both sides? Any discussion of accountability must recognize the need for mutual accountability. Yes, there was a war, and an extremely violent war which lasted for over three decades and which scars are still to be healed, but we have to go forward, we must go forward and avoid repeating the same mistakes.

Sri Lanka did win the war but it still did not win the peace and the harmony that goes with it. With the end of the war, we now have a second chance to build a sustainable peace in Sri Lanka. This can only be done through mutual or common understanding, through dialogue and eventually trust between all communities. This requires forging a sense of belonging, a national unity amidst diversity and ultimately a culture of peace (to use the phrase of the former head of UNESCO, Frederico Mayor). Post-war Sri Lanka is the chance for the younger generation –both within Sri Lanka and among the Diasporas- to build a better Sri Lanka.

*Kamaya Jayatissa, President of What’s Next!, is a PhD student in International Law at the Sorbonne University, Paris.  She holds a Master Degree in International Law from the Sorbonne and a Diploma in International Governance and Sustainable Development from Sciences Po, Paris.

The event was organized by What’s Next!, an independent forum comprising of post-graduates and young professionals of Sri Lankan origin residing in France. What’s Next! seeks to promote a sustainable peace in Sri Lanka through intellectual exchange and multicultural dialogue.

 

*Photo Inoka Jinasena

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    KJAY: Quote”I believe that it is the instrument that can provide the opportunity to learn values of respect and appreciation of diversity through the promotion of multiculturalism, pluralism, and ultimately respect for all forms of identities.” Unquote

    What’s new pussycat? Woah, Woah

    I’ve got flowers;
    and lots of hours;
    to spend with you.

    So go and powder your cute little pussycat nose!
    Pussycat, Pussycat- Tom jones

    Contradictions do not exist. Whenever you think you are facing a contradiction, check your premises. You will find that one of them is wrong.

    To say “I love you” one must first be able to say the “I.”

    Individual rights are the means of subordinating society to moral law.

    The smallest minority on earth is the individual.

    Those who deny individual rights cannot claim to be defenders of minorities. :)

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      Thanks! Refreshing and good to think with!
      A little naive and therefore hopeful..
      The disapora is good to think!

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      Spot on Mr.Wullionbinju. There is no place for the individual nor for minorities in third world banana republics like Sri Rajapakistan.

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    You started it all wrong by saying;”I hear about anti-Muslim demonstrations.”

    Tell us how many anti Muslim demonstration you’ve heard during 1) the last year and, 2) last twenty five years? As far as I know; the answers for 1) is two the most but no injuries and for 2) less than ten again no injuries.

    So, instead of looking up to make a mountain out of a mole hole you should do some research on Muslim infighting in Sri Lanka and how it is threatening the prevailing peace.

    Just to give hang of it: In February 2009 a 150-year old shrine was destroyed by Thawheed in the city of Ukuwela, in the central hill country of Sri Lanka. Conflict in July 2009 between Thawheed and the Qadiri Sufi order, in the southwestern town of Beruwala, led to two deaths, more than 40 people injured, and 132 arrests. Read this and more after.
    http://folks.co.in/blog/2012/07/18/the-wahhabi-invasion-of-sri-lanka/
    Leela

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      Leela Quote”You started it all wrong by saying” Unquote.

      For 800 years the Arabs came over to Ceylon for “Pepper Corn and Cinnamon” this was before the Portuguese/Spanish drove the Arabs back and became the nation/world builders.
      First come first served is the norm.Bahrain is a product.

      Who IS Sinhalese?? Babuwa from Bihar? Like Bedouin
      Most common words like “tuwaya,mesaya, almaria etc are common in Spanish/Portugese usage and does not is not Sanskrit/Pali.

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      Leelo, if I remember.. I have heard a few more than 2 clashes .. from my school days on..

      In Galle alone there were Muslim clashes several times. However I have to check it again to add here the references, unlike you usually drop things without supportive reference..

      this is to be contd.

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    Leela: Ooohhh!… “Iss Pyaar Ko Kya Naam Doon”

    Who IS Sinhalese??

    Even in this age of the press and script we don’t know what our grandparents had in mind so to believe a manifesto written 400-500 after the death of Gautama beggar’s belief. Only the untouchables of India are requested to embrace Buddhism so that they may not follow Islam and add to the war scenario that still exists.

    Vijaya was a bandit known to many an Indian bandit. Your grammar is very much similar to Spanish like the Spanish Tiles=Sinhala Ulu.

    Tyrants you got an identity crisis not the author of the article who is still searching for an Identity even with an European Nationality.

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    I feel like she wastes too much time in Facebook.

    I’m Latif.

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      This comment was removed by a moderator because it didn’t abide by our Comment policy.For more detail see our Comment policy
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      latif: Quote”feel like she wastes too much time in Facebook”Unquote

      And what is that, pray tell? Your inferential skills are clearly below the belt.

      That’s not a very imaginative response, halfwit. Her “dad” would kill you even faster than I would.

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    What’s with the slew of articles from confused diaspora children recently. Some want SL to change others have solutions. No one wants to fix the problems within the Diaspora itself.

    Stop pontificating. You try going through the difficulties of living in third world country and see if you wouldn’t mind bending the rules to get ahead.

    Just be grateful your parents got you out. Now stay out.

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          Why can’t you stick to the content of the article? – CT

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        Controller CT
        Whats Up; Havent you been to a gig not to know [Edited out]
        or have you been purchased by rajopakistan?
        [Edited out]

        Part of his comment was removed by a moderator because it didn’t abide by our Comment policy.For more detail see our Comment policy
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          Why can’t you stick to the content of the article? – CT

          This comment was removed by a moderator because it didn’t abide by our Comment policy.For more detail see our Comment policy
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          This comment was removed by a moderator because it didn’t abide by our Comment policy.For more detail see our Comment policy
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    Whether one is born or migrated at a very young age to the West,,Srilankan diasporians will always be asked where they or their parents come from.

    Kids with light skin colour, resulting from Srilankans marrying whites will be spared this question to a certain extent.

    Yet there is a strong possibility that these mixed race kids will eventually form a coloured ethnic group in the West as same as in SA.

    Inhabitant in Srilankan do not need to confront this question of explaining their nationality.

    With the current modernization program in place in Lanka. with rapid economic growth, infrastructure development and foreign investment in tourisn, agricuture and manufacturing industry, Srilnakan inhabitants are heading for a descent standard of living.

    Whilst the West is heading for zero growth or declining growth,the younger generations are moving towards the hospitality job market or no jobs at all.

    Srilanka on the other hand has a shortage of professionals and it will need people from overses to meet the ever increasing demand.

    Srilankan diaspora youngters like this girl/lady will be potential candidates to fill this demand, if they want to put their education and talents to a meaningfull and productive application,

    Besides they do not need to explain their nationality to anyone in the work place or at social gatherings,

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    As a PhD student of Law, please take note of:

    Reports of these bodies are with the President hidden from the public:
    A List of Commissions of Inquiry and Committees Appointed by the Government of Sri Lanka (2006 – 2012), 12 March 2012, http://www.scribd.com/doc/85007346/A-List-of-Commissions-of-Inquiry-and-Committees-Appointed-by-the-Government-of-Sri-Lanka-2006-%E2%80%93-2012

    Successive Sri Lankan governments have been doing the same for decades:
    Sri Lanka: Twenty years of make-believe. Sri Lanka’s Commissions of Inquiry, 11 June 2009, https://www.amnesty.org/en/library/info/ASA37/005/2009/en

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    Post-independence history will help the author help the country:

    http://www.scribd.com/doc/104705097/Conscientious-Sinhalese-Tell-LLRC

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    The author, a student of law, will find this helpful in understanding the problem:

    ‘’…. pending country visits by eight UN Special Procedures Mandate Holders’’
    – POST-LLRC HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS IN SRI LANKA, March 2012
    http://lnwnewsbackup.files.wordpress.com/2012/03/post-llrc-human-rights-violations-in-sri-lanka-march-2012.pdf

    ‘’These independent experts serve as the eyes and ears of the UN human rights system. This book provides concrete evidence of why the system works and ways it can be improved’’ – Catalysts for Change: How the UN’s Independent Experts Promote Human Rights, 13 July 2012, http://www.brookings.edu/research/books/2012/catalystsforchange

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    You were born in Sri Lanka and grow up in france since year 1. But you are writing and providing advice for promoting multiculturalism in SL. You have spent your whole life time in france. What do know about Sri Lankan culture? Religion? Socio-economic and Political dynamics? Have read any research articles on the above issues in SL?

    You said there is discrimination against race and religion in SL. Do you have any evidence regarding this during last 25 years?I will give few examples

    Foreign Minister-Lakshman Kadiragamar
    High Education Minister-A.C.S. Hameed
    Secratory of the Ministry Finance – Dr. Paskaralingam
    There are huge number of minority people in high positions such as universities, SLAS, Foreign services etc. How do you say there is a racial discrimination in SL

    How about discrimination in France? what are your parents and majority of Sri Lankans doing in France? Can you 10 people who work in excecutive and policy level jobs? Learn from your parents and their generations about discrimination in so called western countries France, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand etc. Be critical and open mided if you want to be good policy analyst

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      A few from the ethnic minorities who do not speak against the discrimination are cited by you – the purpose is served when people like you quote them.

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      You should think before you leap.
      Are n’t you disccriminating the author’s parents?
      If you are qualified, Sky is the limit in France.
      On behalf of her beloved parents who have lived in France for the last 25 years, I would like to confirm that though the author has had her education in France she is very well aware of the culture, Religion, Socio-economic and Political dynamics in Sri Lanka.

      Bravo Kamaya!

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        I had no any intentions to insult author’s parents. My pointis that the discrimination in Western countries is greater than in Sri Lanka. Qualified skilled immigrants do not get suitable jobs in these countries because of discrimination.I am talking about Canada and Australia. I know that there are professionals who got their Ph.D’s from Canada, UK, or Australia do not get the suitable job for them

        If this lady says those western countries are better than SL why she is worrying about SL. She should live there and should not attempt to teach about equity for Sri Lankans. You know that there are various ethnic groups live in Sri lanka and majority of them do not bother their identity. They bother their living standards. Do not put the jams again into the minds of these minority people. This is what some sinhala and tamil politicians did after independence. Take care your own buisness in France. We look after Sri Lanka

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        You said the author studied at France and lived in France for 25 years whole. How does she know Sri Lankan culture and socio-economic background? At least Can she speak Sinhala or Tamil? Does she learn about Sri Lankan culture through on line (internet)?

        The true story behind with identity is foreign funding. These western NGOs are willing to fund these non-sense topics. Can author find some money to build good schools, hopitals, and social services for poor people who come from different ethenic groups such tamils, sinhalease, muslims and other ethnic groups. Majority of these people do not care about their identity,their origin, 13+ or Seperate country. All of these are dreames of Politicians, INGOS, and Disporas (i.e particularly tamils ). These poor people in all ethnic groups needs good living standard. There are numerous socio-economic problems in war affected areas as well as other areas. Try implement policies to reduce poverty among different ethnic communities. It is worth than finding identity of different groups.

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          some truth is in it what you are saying. but not only the politicians, the mind sets of the average people should change in order to bring the folk forward. Politicians are there to pave the way ones thoase who want to rise up. The problem that you are pointing out is common to many developing countries. Lving on the west, I do think there are some discriminations against ones those cant speak their local langague but they are PhD or high qualified in their specific fields, however, this is not the only factor when their applications are being rejected. If you analyse the profiles of those who cant get jobs – I ll bet you .. you will realize that their profiles are not match withthe JDs (job Descriptions/requirements)of the advertised positions. I know this very well – I have got dozens of English, German, French, Italian friends some of them are with post doc qualifications, but their applications for the positions are rejected just for the reason thatthey cant speak one targeted language (meaning if you are proficient in English and German, but not in Italian and French for example). And as PhD level candidates are well aware of the fact (focusing on natural sciences), post doctoral or similar positions are easily sucessful if you have obtained closely related methodologies described in the JDs. There are also cases known to me, even if you are MBBS holder (SL), significant numbers have failed to continue their jobs as Med profesisonals in the UK and Australia. Today the expectations for those ACADEMIC position are very competitive. Even if you have publications on hight IF journals, there are cases that they reject the applications, becasue of the reason, they have someone else with much closer qualifications – fitting best with the JD. This is unfortunately the reality for life scientists today. This is common to Europe, America, Canada and Australia.

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          Of course the young girl had her entire education in France whist visiting Sri Lanka every year since she was 3 years.

          As a grown up student she spends her summer holidays over 3 months in Sri Lanka every year. Unlike the present Sri Lankan children (in international schools)and their parents very proudly say that their children can not speak Sinhala, let me confirm that the author is very fluent in Sinhala.

          The true story is, she has contributed and still contributes her expertise free of charge, lot of her valuable time & money helping Sri Lankan schools, orphanages, Sri Lankan students, Tsunami victims, disabled soldiers in her modest way without any publicity and without any foreign funding.

          Hence the author did not have to learn Sri Lankan culture on internet.

          Thank you

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      What a comment ?

      Quoting from yours:

      “Can you 10 people who work in excecutive and policy level jobs? Learn from your parents and their generations about discrimination in so called western countries France”

      What a basis to raise this quesiton. Many those who migrate to France, Germany, Netherland, Belgium, Swituzerland and Denmark get isolated at the beginning just because of the local langagues regardless of what qualification the immigrants bring with. And if the have not had qualifications obtained in the home country, nodoubt, they have to do any kind of jobs that the unqualified workers are offered. So they keep doing so to surive facing high costs in those countries.

      Sure, most of them are not qualified ones to be able to work as white collar jobs in those countries, but this is not the same with their second generations. All these countries, you will find doctors, engineers and other high professionals from the second generations are doing well today.

      I personally agree with the author that ours are a country where discrimination of all forms clearly display. Just because our ministers or FMs were tamils or muslims mean not that we dont have them in our society. Among the sinhalese too there exist discrminition.jJust imagine the manner many of the affordable how they treat their domestic servants… I got to know the basics from our univesities at the beginning, we got t know how varied charactors our folks have been – coming from diffefent walks of lives. Ones got selected from urban schools to the Universites are far diffefrent by all means from the rural uni students.

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    ‘’… the challenge for human rights and civil society groups is to keep hope alive in the people who are not receiving either the fruits of development or justice. …The government’s Action Plan to implement the LLRC report with its large gaps can only be taken as a preliminary document that needs a second look and much review …’’ –
    Dual Reality And International Pressures, 8 October 2012, https://www.colombotelegraph.com/index.php/dual-reality-and-international-pressures/

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    ‘’ As post war Sri Lanka experiences a high level of militarization, the northern province of the country continue to face serious humanitarian and human rights problems. Three years after the end of a protracted conflict and war that ravaged the country for quarter of a century, the people and communities are struggling to attain a sustained peace and reconciliation. This warrants intensified efforts in building peace and reconciliation among people and communities, observed an international ecumenical solidarity team that visited the war-devastated northern regions of Sri Lanka from 28 July to 1 August. … challenges remain as large populations of severely traumatized people require psychosocial support in order to become reintegrated into the community. Several hundred war widows and orphaned children struggle to attain the necessary day-to-day support. “The rampant militarization process taking places in the northern provinces and the presence of armed soldiers in each and every corner even in remote villages will hamper the process of normalization of the unity and reconciliation, as the militarization process is threatening human security in northern Sri Lanka,” he( a member of the visiting team) added. …..’’ – Post war Sri Lanka needs trust and confidence for peace and reconciliation, World Council of Churches, 3 August 2012, http://www.oikoumene.org/en/news/news-management/eng/a/article/1634/ccia-solidarity-team.html

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    Dear Kamaya and all others at What’s Next,

    ‘’ With all the media focus on the militarization of the Northern land, some issues of bread and butter concern have escaped the attention. … the rural Tamil North is years away from development. … Housing is as much a priority for the war ravaged people as agriculture and basic amenities like hospitals, schools, roads and other communication facilities. The ranks of jobless are swelling by the day and most of them are not skilled workforce. … The government is doing a great disservice to itself and the people with its excessive exuberance for automation/mechanization of whatever work is taken up. Machines can do a job better and with speed, no doubt, but every machine that is brought in means loss of more jobs for the locals since they are mostly unskilled. And it is a gain for the skilled workforce from the South. …. The President made an aerial survey of the erstwhile war zone on 25 September. He flew over the area in a helicopter. It enabled him to see for himself how post-war reconstruction has not touched the villages, and how it is ending up in creating rich islands and southern enclaves in a damage-strewn landscape” –
    North atop a new volcano, ://www.ceylontoday.lk/40-17996-news-detail-north-atop-a-new-volcano.html

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    what’s going on. all these people from france have an identity crisis.
    i don’t know why you people are bothering about sri lanka. it’s a hellhole and everyone regardless of the ethnicity want to get the hell out of there. my advice to you people is to consider france as your home and be happy.

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      Because they can get more and more funding to do research on identity. The author and her group can fly Sri Lanka and other countries, write non-sense, and conduct workshop. Nothing change in identity and poverty among sri Lankans. But author and her associates can enjoy their life

      Rama we should not allow these people to sell our own identity and poverty to Western NGOs

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        This is nonsense. Some like you seem to be just jealous of young ones like Kamaya… :(

        Author is just 25 and grew up in France and as read she is now a PhD student. Courage of this kind of authors should be commendable than leaving contra- comments to them. Many being on the lanken soil- seem to be doing nothing but stay scared still before undemocratic activities of the current rulers. How many of the lankens in the same status seem to have the courage of bringing about focused issues in the country today ?

        There is a truth that some in the country are in the opinion that many of the academics at lanken Universities stay further calm and quiet even if they can publish a lot contributing the rebuild of the war torn nation. This revealed through recent FUTA demonstrations. For the research publications, I believe they dont have enough funds, but there are also many areas they can easily publish or communicate the on going topics on their specific fields, of course, if they want to.

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    It is not a clash of identity among ethnic groups. All of these problems are out comes unwise, greedy, politics of sinhaha, tamil, and muslim politicians. Please ask these selfish, power greedy poloticians to think about genuinely on poverty reduction among different ethnic communities. Then nobody can sell their poverty to conduct research on non-sense ethnicity. Sometimes the author can find her own identity in France

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      Surely, she has already found it.

      But people of your ilk to be far from even trying to identify who you are :(

      I truly know by my own exp – that many being on the west – when paying visits back to their origial countries (for me home country), they notice themselves that many of the locals are far from the upadates of the own country – they are not well aware of even alarming issues. This is unfortunately the truth with many of the youth today in the country (13 – 30 year olds). Not only youth from urban areas but also ones from rural remote areas behave the same. They in general dont respect their own parents or teacher. The development of the lanken youth of the mentioned age range is no means comparable to those of previous times. As I read somewhere lately, every 4th among the youth is said to have dealt with drugs today, teachers in general complain that they can t control over their classes unlike had been to our times (3 decades ago) I really dont know whether this is because of the IT revolution and phone culture introduced to the nation – but I personally believe that the mentioned can only be one among the many other factors.

      Sorry, this should be added to this, because the topic is aimed at “clashes of identities”- nevertheless I thought myself this is worth adding to this forum.

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    Before talking about international politics,you should think about your family.you are in this position not because of anything,because of your great mother,hope you will look after her at least in the future,thank you

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    I know personally,her mother took all of them to Paris.now they are having a Gala time in France & she is suffering in Sri Lanka,no point talking about international politics,why don’t you fix your family first.
    Hope they can remember while working at the embassy how she suffered to give her a good education,time has come to appreciate that ……..over to you kamaya

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    If any one want to sympathise with the Muslims should visit the Muslim countries and face first hand experiences
    of how they treat other religious followers in these Muslim countries. They are arrogant and have no such compassion
    towards other religions or ethnicities. No so called Compassion for the women or girls who they think they could violate
    any time or in any place they want to. The person who has no knowledge of who “Sinhalese” are, try to educate than show your mighty Ignorance at this day and age. We are into 20th Centuary not in the Centuary you are in. So please
    Have the decency to google and learn about other countries, religions and the people than showing your small minded ness . We have the right to live in our country with our ways just the way Muslims live their lives the way they want in their countries. If they think they have the rights to claim what has been in centuries in Buddhist cultural triangle,well no Buddhist through Compassion will allow that to happen. Thank you for Miss. waduge for lighting up this problem to the
    Sleeping Sinhalese.
    Minnie.

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