26 July, 2017

Are You Perhaps A “Naga?”

By Darshanie Ratnawalli

 Darshanie Ratnawalli

Darshanie Ratnawalli

I had a dream. Professor K. Indrapala was standing before me in a supplicating attitude. I asked him sternly “Are you perhaps a Naga?”, whereupon a bashful, almost hunted look flitted across his face and in the fraction of the second it took me to flick my eyelids over my stern eyes, he turned into a snake and disappeared through a crack in the floor. “Wait a minute”, I said to myself, for I was still in the dream and in the grip of fantastic logic, “that was all wrong! A Naga who has taken human form transforms back on two occasions; neither of which arose just now. Why did he transform?”

Let me explain. My dream was weaved from the Indo Aryan myth pool[i], the Buddhist portion of it. Deep in its most ancient recesses lives a disrobed Buddhist monk, who got himself ordained without disclosing that he was a Naga. He was expelled by the Buddha when disclosure came accidently. His story is told in the Pali Vinaya Pitaka. In his human form, the Naga asked for and received ordination (from the fraternity of monks) with the aim of obtaining a human birth through adherence to the noble precepts. One night in the Jetavana Monastery, when his cell mate had stepped out, the Naga fell asleep. The other monk came back to find the whole cell bulging with snake coils. Later, in front of the customary assembly of monks, Lord Buddha said to the Naga; “Ye Nagas are not capable of spiritual growth in this doctrine and discipline”. After the Naga had gone away, all sad and sorrowful, the Lord declared; “There are two occasions, O Bhikshus, whereon a Naga, having assumed human shape, shewth his true nature; when he hath sexual intercourse with a female of his species, and if he thinketh himself safe from discovery. Let an animal, O Bhikshus, that hath not received the ordination not receive it; if it hath received it, let it be expelled”– (p110/111, Jean Philippe Vogel:1926[ii] full text). To insure against this contingency an entrant into the Order is asked even today, “Are you perhaps a Naga?”- (p4, M. W. De Visser: 1913[iii] read page)

To get back to the dream: while still in it occurred to me that a Naga who has assumed human form may revert to true form for a third reason; to escape. For instance take the Naga king Takshaka, who can trace his origin to a very ancient level of the Indo-Aryan myth-pool- “he is one of the few Nagas whose name is mentioned in the Vedic literature[iv]” (Vogel:1926, p203)- and who many believe to have given his name to Takshila (ibid, p205)- and who is supposed to have had his abode first in the Khandhava forest and then in Kurushettra (ibid) as well as in the under-ground Naga Loka (p30, ibid) and also in Bhogavati, a Naga city of variable locality (ibid, p201), and whose wife was apparently carried off by Ravana (ibid, p204), and who according to Saddharma-pundarika also appears in the Naga entourage of Buddha on the Vulture Peak (ibid, p190). Takshaka also stars in a story in the Paushya-Parvan (ibid, p30, p61) an archaic chapter of the Maha Bharata, where he takes human form as a naked mendicant and steals a pair of earrings from a Brahmin. When the Brahmin is about to seize him, Takshaka reverts to his serpent form and escapes through a fissure in the earth to the subterraneous Naga world, Pātāla (which is now the Sinhalese word for the criminal underworld).

Why would Professor Indrapala wish to escape like Takshaka though? What did he steal? He stole some Nagas from the Indo-Aryan myth pool and made them into an actual people, a distinct ethnic group who spoke some other language initially, but once within the precincts of the Tamil country in south India got gradually assimilated into the Tamil speaking group, and after they had become Tamil speaking Nagas (only then, mind you, not before, Indrapala would caution) crossed over to Sri Lanka and turned the Jaffna Peninsula into Nagadipa and settled in all parts of the island, taking care to preserve the memory of their lineage by sometimes using ‘Naga’ as a personal name. (Indrapala: 2005[v], ps. 71, 102, 162,163, 165, 172, etc).

Let me just reproduce two of his sentences;

“As is well known, the Jaffna peninsula is the area referred to as Nagadipa (the island of the Nagas) in the earliest literary sources. The people known as the Nagas were the group inhabiting that area in the EIA. They have to be considered as the earliest settlers there. That the Nagas were also among the people on the opposite coast, in southeastern Tamil Nadu, is known from the earliest Tamil sources and from surviving place-names, including the well-known place-name of Nagapattinam (the Port-town of the Nagas)…”- (p71,ibid).

Nothing could be more correct and respectable as that first sentence. The second and third sentences however are indicative of the deterioration that must have intervened between Professor Indrapala’s sudden retirement from Academia and his re-emergence from obscurity with Indrapala:2005, his first published book, some twenty odd years later.

If he hadn’t escaped from my dream in that highly evocative way (so expressive of the semi-divine/demonic, magical, ‘were-human[vi]’ nature of the Nagas of the Indo-Aryan myth pool), I would have explained to Professor Indrapala, that even by the time the Nagas appear in the Vedas, they occupy the realm of mythical beings. For example, a Brahmana text (chronological horizon between 1200 BC-500 BC) describes a ceremony to be performed before laying the foundation or entering a new house, where the ten quarters (disas) are described as presided over by ten regents, who have to be propitiated by offerings (Vogel:1926, p198). The regent for the downward direction or the Nether world is Vasuki, a principal Naga king. A hymn of the Atharvaveda (1200/1000BC) mentions an ancient myth in which the cosmic principle Viraj likened to a cow, is milked by two chief representatives of various beings such as men, gods, asuras, serpents, etc. A principal Naga King of the myth-pool, Dhritarashtra Airavata together with Takshaka are the two representative milkers of the serpent race and what the milking produces is poison.(ibid, p204)

There have indeed been scholars who have speculated that Nagas were a people of a remote antiquity who entered the stories and texts as fantastic beings. But those Euhemerus (A Greek bloke from the 4th century BC who believed that Greek Gods were once mortal men) inspired scholars have generally not found acceptance among their peers;

“Regarding the origin and significance of Naga worship, there prevails a very marked diversity of opinion. The views expressed by James Fergusson in his large book, Tree and Serpent Worship (1868…1873), have often been quoted, and have no doubt exercised considerable influence, but will hardly find any adherents among really competent scholars of the present generation. According to him the Nagas were not originally serpents but serpent-worshippers-an aboriginal race of Turaman stock inhabiting Northern India, who were conquered by the warlike Aryans…”-(p2, ibid).

Professor Indrapala escaped from my dream before I could teach him to appreciate the Naga stories in terms of a modern analogy. Think of an original movie and its remakes. Take the Naga king Dhritarashtra Airavata of the Atharvaveda hymn. Many centuries later, he appears in a Pali remake. Under the Pali form of his name, Dhatarattha, he stars in the Bhuridatta Jataka as ‘the lord of many Nagas’ whose residence is in the river Yamuna. Dhatarattha deputes Naga youths as ambassadors to the king of Benares to ask for the hand of the king’s daughter. The king deems this an unsuitable match, which is odd because he himself has married a Naga maiden while in exile between the river Yamuna and the sea and the present princess wooed by Dhatarattha is the result of that union. However, Dhatarattha sends a host of Nagas to terrorize Kasi and the King of Benares has to yield.-(ibid, p155, 156, 212)

Professor Indrapala stands apart. He is not just another scholar suggesting a historical inspiration for the origin of Naga lore. His interpretation can be likened to a man three-thousand years from now, who watches a Sri Lankan remake of X-Men and postulates a historical presence for X-Men in Sri Lanka.

@ http://ratnawalli.com /  and rathnawalli@gmail.com


[i] In the first episode, Concerning us and the “Naga”  I defined ‘common Indo-Aryan myth pool’ as “the shared lore and ideologies that belong particularly to the cultural milieu of peoples who spoke and speak the Old Indo Aryan, Middle Indo Aryan and New Indo Aryan languages” and added the extra provision; “Of course, the fact that it was a dominant cultural milieu meant that even people belonging to other speech communities waded into this pool and took its creatures to their cultural bosoms”. The concept of “myth pool” comes to me courtesy of Sephen King, my favourite novelist who has absorbed it from his teacher and mentor Burt Hatlen; “…what Burt Hatlen calls ‘the myth-pool’-that body of fictive literature in which all of us, even the nonreaders and those who do not go to the films, have communally bathed.”– (Dance Macabre)

[ii] 1972, 1926, English, Book, Illustrated edition:Indian serpent-lore; or, The nāgas in Hindu legend and art”-(full text) by Vogel, J. Philippe (Jean Philippe), 1871-1951.

[iii] The introduction (The Naga in Buddhism, with regard to his identification with the Chinese Dragon, p1-34 [read text]), The Dragon in China and Japan, M. W. De Visser, 1913 .

[iv] For an approximate dating of the Vedic Corpus see pages 5-6, M. Witzel, 2001, Autochthonous Aryans? The Evidence from Old Indian and Iranian Texts.Full text

[v] K. Indrapala, The Evolution of an Ethnic Identity, The Tamils in Sri Lanka, C. 300 BCE to C. 1200 CE

[vi] Were-human is the antithesis of a werewolf. While a werewolf is a human who shape-shifts into a wolf, a were-human is a non-human who has the ability to assume human form.

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  • 8
    2

    Am I reading the mumblings of a Malinda’s dream.

    • 3
      4

      Dear Darshanie Ratnawalli,

      RE: Are You Perhaps A “Naga?”

      Dream on about the Nagas and the DNA of the Nagas..

      Question 1: Are You Perhaps A “Naga”, can ask the Southern Indian?

      Question 2: ”Are You Perhaps A “Para-Naga? can ask the Paras in the Land of Native Veddah?”

      1. “I had a dream. Professor K. Indrapala was standing before me in a supplicating attitude. I asked him sternly “Are you perhaps a Naga?”, whereupon a bashful, almost hunted look flitted across his face and in the fraction of the second it took me to flick my eyelids over my stern eyes, he turned into a snake and disappeared through a crack in the floor. “Wait a minute”, I said to myself, for I was still in the dream and in the grip of fantastic logic, “that was all wrong! A Naga who has taken human form transforms back on two occasions; neither of which arose just now. Why did he transform?”

      2. “Let me explain. My dream was weaved from the Indo Aryan myth pool[i], the Buddhist portion of it. Deep in its most ancient recesses lives a disrobed Buddhist monk, who got himself ordained without disclosing that he was a Naga. He was expelled by the Buddha when disclosure came accidently. His story is told in the Pali Vinaya Pitaka. In his human form, the Naga asked for and received ordination (from the fraternity of monks) with the aim of obtaining a human birth through adherence to the noble precepts. One night in the Jetavana Monastery, when his cell mate had stepped out, the Naga fell asleep. The other monk came back to find the whole cell bulging with snake coils. Later, in front of the customary assembly of monks, Lord Buddha said to the Naga; “Ye Nagas are not capable of spiritual growth in this doctrine and discipline”. After the Naga had gone away, all sad and sorrowful, the Lord declared; “There are two occasions, O Bhikshus, whereon a Naga, having assumed human shape, shewth his true nature; when he hath sexual intercourse with a female of his species, and if he thinketh himself safe from discovery. Let an animal, O Bhikshus, that hath not received the ordination not receive it; if it hath received it, let it be expelled”- (p110/111, Jean Philippe Vogel:1926[ii] –full text). To insure against this contingency an entrant into the Order is asked even today, “Are you perhaps a Naga?”- (p4, M. W. De Visser: 1913[iii] – read page)”

      1.Science has come up with with CLARIFICATIONS and SOLUTIONS for THESE MYTHS and DREAMS.

      2. Scientists say, based on DNA analysis of South Indians, East Indians, Sinhala, Tamils and Muslims came from Southern India. So, the Nagas or Nagas may be the same people, and were called Naga because they worshiped the Naga, the Cobra or “Snakes”.

      3. The “Naga People” worshiped Naga and “Buddhist People”, Worshiped “
      Buddha, the Shiva People Worshiped Shiva etc.?

      4. The Naga People lives, in the form of DNA in their bodies of the people of South Indians, East Indians, Sinhala, Tamils and Muslims came from Southern India,

      5. The analysis of the DNA of Paras in the Land of native Veddah and the DNA of Veddah will confirm that.

      Further confirmation that the Sinhala, Tamils, Muslims are foreigners, paras from India and elsewhere. Science sorts Myths.

      Only the Native Veddah are the True sons and owners of the Land of native Veddah. Others are illegal boatmen, Hora-oru and Kalla-Thonis.

      If you want the facts sorted out from Myths, use science, that is more definitive than the other methods. The data supports that the so-called Nagas, are the parental populations of Sri Lankan Tamils, Sinhala, Muslims, and Indian Tamils. They for one cluster.

      “In conclusion, the original inhabitants of Sri Lanka were the Veddahs, who have had little admixture with the Sinhalese and possibly none with the Tamils. The Veddahs are distinct because they were confined to inhospitable dry zones and were hardly influenced by the neighboring inhabitants. Furthermore, the Sinhalese and the Sri Lankan Tamils are an admixed population genetically.”

      References:

      Genetic affinities of Sri Lankan populations Human Biology, by Kshatriya, Gautam Kumar http://www.lankanewspapers.com/news/2007/6/15923_space.html

      • 4
        4

        Amarasiri:

        You are good at posting garbage.

      • 0
        0

        Amarasiri,

        In your points, 7 & 11 what is/are your source/s to prove that Sinhala are from South India?
        Have you considered this?

        “New genetic markers may be able to provide a perspective on the origin of the Sinhalese.In order to address these, we analysed the above mentioned 30 Alu polymorphisms in a sample of 121 Sinhalese collected from Colombo, Sri Lanka (Papiha et al.,1996b; Papiha and Mastana, 1999). In addition, Alu frequency data from Bengali (89) and Tamil (101), North and Western Indian populations (from the above study) were used for evaluation of genetic variation, affinities and genetic admixture. Overall pattern of allele frequencies is comparable to Indian populations but significant differences were observed at number of loci. Overall pattern of genetic relationships points towards substantial Bengali contribution as shown in DA distance derived dendrogram (Fig. 6) and admixture analyses. A number of genetic admixture calculations were carried out using Tamil, Bengali, Gujarati (Patel), and Punjabi as parental populations. Admixture calculations were performed using two different methods- point estimates and maximum likelihood method. In all combinations, Bengali population seems to have higher contributions 57.49% (95%CI 36.89-78.59) compared to 42.51% (95%CI 0.7 – 9.15%) of Tamils by point estimates. Maximum likelihood method increased the Bengali contribution to 88.07% (95%CI 0.1-100%). When three parental populations were used Bengali contribution remained strong (50-66%) followed by North Western (20-23%) and rest contributed by Tamil. “
        Source: Molecular Anthropology:Population and Forensic Genetic Applications by Sarabjit Mastana 2007

        http://www.krepublishers.com/06-Special%20Volume-Journal/T-Anth-00-Special%20Volumes/T-Anth-SI-03-Anth-Today-Web/Anth-SI-03-29-Mastana-S/Anth-SI-03-29-Mastana-S-Tt.pdf

        • 3
          0

          Liyanage

          Thank you for the link for the interesting paper on genetic ancestry of srilankans.

          I believe there has been a seismic change on how the genetic migrational ancestry is analysed.

          please see the link for an interesting article done by a sri lankan researcher in collaboration with thailand.
          http://www.nature.com/jhg/journal/v59/n1/full/jhg2013112a.html

          My understanding based on this paper is there is no significant genetic difference between sinhalese and tamils, furthermore tamils and sinhalese are more related ot each other in comparison to mainland indians be it indian tamils or bengalis for that matter.

          I am not a clinical geneticist or human genetics researcher, But I feel there has been undue importance given by academics ( including indian and srilankan) on mythology of mahavamsa, which is compromising quality research in this important area.

          recently I highlighted a paper on genetic variants of cytochrome P450 D6 in srilanka
          ihttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3897131/

          In my opinion autosomal alleles are better left out in analysing genetic ancestry.
          Ken

          • 1
            0

            Ken

            Thank you for your reply and the links to two research papers. When you claim “tamils and sinhalese are more related to each other in comparison to mainland indians be it indian tamils or bengalis for that matter”, are you aware of any similar genetic studies performed using a sample of Indians and Sri Lankans together? Ie: a sample of Sinhala, Sri Lankan Tamil, Indian Tamil, Bengalis, Gujaratis & Keralas.

            I agree that any research must be conducted in a totally independent and impartial manner. With all due respect to Sri Lanakan researches, I would rather have them done by the foreigners whom had no knowledge of Mahavamsa.

            • 1
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              Liyanage

              are you aware of any similar genetic studies performed using a sample of Indians and Sri Lankans together?

              Earlier studies did compare between indians and Srilankans Examples.
              http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8543296 (kshtriya study)
              This study is widely quoted in the media and it looks at percentage of contribution south indian and bengali genes by analysing a single point mutation at two chromosomal(non sex chromosome)areas. This study showed close similarities between sinhalese and Srilankan tamils in comparison with for example sinhalese and bengali population.

              Limitations of this study is that the methodology in analysing migrational genetics. Archeo genetics has changed since the use of mitochondrial genome and sex chromosome analysis in comparison to analysing single point mutations in autosomal (non sex) chromosomes.

              mitochondria are an independent organ[organelle] inside cell and it has the ability to replicate autonomously, by virtue of existing outside the nucleus of a cell. Therefore mitochondria are transmitted from mother to mother ( matrilineal transmission) in comparison to sexual mixing of other genes. This matrilineal transmission gives us a unique opportunity to look into single point mutations of mitochondria and use its variability to construct a phylogenetic tree ( that is oldest marker to new markers by analysing the data and mapping it accordingly)

              Second criticism against Kshatriya study is that it makes certain assumptions based on Mahavamsa as you noted.

              I did search hard for any other studies looking into mitochondrial analysis of sri lankan genome. However I could not find anything substantial.

              However current evidence based on the Lanka Ranaweera etal is quite good in concurrence with archaeological findings. This is because the identification of mitochondrial markers in srilanka, it is easy to compare with rest of the indian population by analysing the evidence that is already available.
              http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genetics_and_archaeogenetics_of_South_Asia

              Digressing from sri lankan genetics, genetic study on mainland indians and Andaman islanders has revealed that there is no genetics evidence of aryan invasion or sudden migration as postulated by indo aryan linguists. Archeological findings back up this by the findings in northwestern south asia.

              Soure: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0002929713003248
              on a lighter note, this an account on a blog from maldives
              http://maldives-ancestry.blogspot.co.uk/

              Thank you
              ken

    • 9
      5

      Another old professori K. Indrapala turned into a snake and disappeared into a hole. This sounds like a wet dream. Must have been very pleasurable.

      • 0
        1

        This comment was removed by a moderator because it didn’t abide by our Comment policy.For more detail see our Comment policy https://www.colombotelegraph.com/index.php/comments-policy-2/

      • 1
        1

        PERVERT!

  • 6
    11

    Thats quite a comical claim isn’t it really?

    A Tamil could not have called him/herself a ‘Naga’ in the first place. The Sanskrit term can only be phonetically sounded ‘Neke’ in old Tamil. I haven’t heard any Neke’s in Sinhale!

    I think I know what these Tamils are up to. They read the Mahavamsa front to back first. They are so keen to read it, some of them go to sleep with it.

    They read from the Mahavamsa of a people called ‘Naga’ tribe lived in Ceylon before the arrival of Vijaya. They imagine the Nagas to be Tamil. After creating the hallucination using the book they run around claiming Mahavamsa is mythology, go figure!

    If anything that these Tamils cannot handle, I think is education. The more we educate them with our free education the dumber, arrogant and uncivil they seem to get.

    • 9
      2

      Why not conclude your sentence with the following ……..and Vibushana is a bi-product of a dumbass Sinhala chauvinist.

    • 7
      3

      Vibhushana

      Are you standing upside down or sitting on your brains? All what you have said above about Tamils is actually not the Tamils but the Sinhala Modayas of your ilk.

      The Nagas are from Nagapattinam and Nagakovil in Tamil Nadu. These ancient cities still exists in Tamil Nadu. The Nagas may have come from North India but they settled in Nagapattinam and Nagakovil in Tamil Nadu. It is from Tamil Nadu they travelled to Jaffna and established the Naga kingdom and called it Nagatheevu (Nagadeepam).

      • 4
        7

        It is from Tamil Nadu they travelled to Jaffna and established the Naga kingdom and called it Nagatheevu (Nagadeepam).

        Well, given that you have acknowledged Mahavamsa as an authentic source, which other source are you referring for this information?

        If Tamils used a Sanskrit name, that kind of automatically debunk Tamil being a “classical language” – isn’t it? Surely both cannot be true at the same time.

    • 10
      2

      Ken roberts

      Any history yet?

      Any way this child is craving for love, affection and care from old historians?

      • 1
        0

        Native,
        Could lend a hand in case what you are saying was true.
        Please don’t hesitate to contact me.

        Ravana was good at it after all, wasn’t he.

        • 5
          0

          Ravana

          You are asking for trouble. You should very well know that the Aryan Rama from ‘common Indo-Aryan myth pool’ cross the Palk strait with logistical support from Dravidian monkey engineers and kick the hell out of you.

    • 7
      3

      So Vibhushana,
      For you Tamils get educated and become arrogant and get uncivilised. Sinahelese cannot live with tamils. Is that what you are saying?

    • 3
      3

      Vibhushana

      ARE YOU a NAGA or PARA?

      Who is the indigenous Sri Lankan?

      The Native Veddah Aethho. All others are paras. Para-Sinhala, Para-Tamils, Para-Muslims and all the other Paras.

      Don’t believe this as fact? They carry proof in their bodies, as DNA. Test their DNA. Science Sorts Myths.

      http://www.hindustantimes.com/news-feed/colombodiary/who-is-the-indigenous-sri-lankan/article1-42063.aspx

      COLOMBO DIARY | PK Balachandran, PTI
      January 30, 2006

      First Published: 18:21 IST(30/1/2006)
      Last Updated: 18:21 IST(30/1/2006)
      Sponsored
      – See more at: http://www.hindustantimes.com/news-feed/colombodiary/who-is-the-indigenous-sri-lankan/article1-42063.aspx#sthash.Qei1NDgP.dpuf

      One of the most contentious issues in the ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka is the question of indigenousness. Correct answers in by AMARASIRI ( )

      1. Which community is indigenous and which is not? ( Veddah, and others are Paras)

      2. Are the Sinhalas the only indigenous people or the first to arrive in the island?( They are para like the others)

      3. In other words, are the Tamils outsiders or later entrants? ( They are Paras too like the Sinhala)

      4. Is Sri Lanka a multi-ethnic country or is it essentially a Sinhala country with the other groups being a mere historical add on?

      ( Multi-Ethnic Para Country)

      5. When the conflict between the majority Sinhalas and the minority Tamils became the central issue in post-independence Sri Lankan politics, both sides used “history” to buttress their respective cases. ( Yes, Both are Paras and debating which Para came after native Veddah)

      6. Influenced by the colonial historiography of the 19th and early 20th centuries, the Sinhalas declared that they were indigenous to the island, and that the Tamils were invaders from South India.

      ( The Sinhala and Tamils are Paras, foreigners, in the Land of native Veddah)

      7. They said that the Sinhalas were Aryans from North India and the Tamils were Dravidians from South India. ( Both Sinhala and Tamils are Deavidians/Naga from South India. The DNA in them proves that. The Tamils used Dravidian Tamil, and the Sinhala used Prakrit Sinhala. However., Prakrit Sinhalese have about 40% of its words from Tamil)

      8. The Tamils, on the other hand, argued that they were indigenous, with the North and the East as their traditional homeland. ( Yes, the para Tamils settled there, when they came from South india)

      9. They also contended that they were part and parcel of the ancient Tamil culture of South India and had little or nothing to do with the Sinhalas who lived in the rest of the island. ( Partly true and Partly False. The Sinhala are from South India and they spoke Dravidian before that)

      10. But renowned Sri Lankan historians and archeologists like K Indrapala, Siran Deraniyagala, Leslie Gunawardena and Sudarshan Seneviratne, contend that Sri Lanka has been multi-ethnic and multi-cultural from prehistoric times. ( True. They were all South Indians. Check their DNA)

      11. They add that both the Sinhalas and the Tamils are from the same South Indian-Sri Lankan (SISL) gene pool. ( Correct. The DNA confirms it).

      12. They reject the mass migration or invasion theory so popular among colonial and post-colonial historians.
      They say that people, cultures, languages, religions, artifacts and technologies moved in small ways from place to place over long periods of time. ( A more likely scenario)

      13. And these movements have not always been in one direction, as many seem to think. ( Yes, Sinhala married Tamils and vixce versa)

      14. Sure, there have been invasions, but invasions have not been the dominant mode of movement, they say. ( It could be both)

      15, Trade, cultural, religious and political movements and linkages have played a more important role in social transformation than military conquests or mass migration. ( Most likely)

      17. Sri Lankan and Indian historians like Romila Thapar also reject the theory of the displacement or annihilation of local populations by foreign ethnic groups. ( Likely)

      18. There has been “language replacement” but rarely ever physical annihilation or replacement of populations, they say. ( Most likely, as they are both from South India)

      19. In his seminal work, The Evolution of an Ethnic Identity: The Tamils of Sri Lanka: C 300 BCE to C 1200 BCE (The South Asian Studies Centre, Sydney 2005, Prof K Indrapala says the present-day territories of Sri Lanka and South India comprised a single region in which the pre-historic ancestors of the modern Sri Lankans and South Indians roamed freely with the sea dividing the two land masses acting as a unifier rather than a divider. ( True the DNA analysis of both Para-Sinhala and Para-Tamil confirms that. )

      20. The Tamils have been in the island of Sri Lanka since long.
      “The earliest inscriptions and the early Pali chronicles attest to the presence of the Tamils (Damedas/Damelas) in the EIA (Early Iron Age),” says Indrapala. ( Both Paras, para-Tamil and para-Sinhala from South India were there in the Land of native Veddah Aethho, AFTER the Vedddah were therefor well over 30,000 years)

      21, “The Demedas in Sri Lanka in the centuries BCE (Before Common Era or AD) need not, therefore, be considered as outsiders.” Indrapala says. ( Yes. Both the Demalas and Sinhalas are Paras.)

      22. The Ila (or Hela or Sila as the ancient Sri Lankan inhabitants were known) moved back and forth between Sri Lanka and South India just as the Demeda or Demela (Tamils) did. ( Yes, They were the SAME South Indians)

      23. “The idea of looking upon the Demedas as aliens was surely not prevalent in the Early Historical Period (EHP). ( Yes, because BOTH were PARAS)

      24. nThe earliest extant chronicle of the island, namely, the Dipavamsa, does not refer to the Damila rulers of Anuradhpura (Sena and Guttaka) in its list as invaders. Nor does the Mahawamsa, the most important ancient Sinhala chronicle.
      The Mahawamsa describes Sena and Guttaka as ‘sons of a horse-freighter’ (assanaavikaputta).”
      Sena and Guttaka, who had conquered Anruradhpura and ruled it for 22 years, were described in the Mahavamsa as having ruled “justly” Indrapala points out.
      ( Historically correct and supportable)

      25. Duttagamini-Elara conflict
      The account of the armed conflict between the Sinhala hero, Duttagamini, and the Tamil prince, Elara, in the Mahawamsa, has formed the basis of 20th century perception of the relations between the Sinhalas and the Tamils in ancient Sri Lanka.
      But Indrapala and other modern historians consider this interpretation invalid.
      They point out that the Mahawamsa had portrayed Elara as a just ruler who was admired greatly by Duttagamini.
      The latter had noted that Elara was a protector of Buddhism, and admired him for being just to friend and foe alike.
      Duttagamini even built a memorial for Elara and asked Sinhala Buddhists to worship at it. (Data supports it)

      26. “The idea that the Demela were foreign intruders and the Hela fought to liberate their people is nonsensical,” Indrapala concludes.
      Cultural and political symbiosis
      Sinhala and Tamils kings of Sri Lanka and South India cooperated in peace and war.

      Getting tired of sorting the Myths between the para Sinhala and Para Tamils, in the LAND OF NATIVE VEDDAH.

      It was not uncommon for a Sinhala king of Anuradhapura to seek the help of a Tamil prince in South India in war or to gain a throne.
      Sinhala kings routinely recruited Tamil mercenaries from South India. Many of these settled down in the island.
      Likewise, Sinhala princes aligned with Tamil Nadu rulers in their internecine wars.
      In the reign of the Sinhala king Sena II (853-887) a Sinhala army sided with the Pallavas and defeated the Pandya king.
      The Sinhala king placed his favourite Pandya prince on the throne in Madurai.
      Later, after the ascendancy of the Cholas, the Sinhala kings sided with the Pandyas to contain the aggressive Cholas.
      In times of peace, the Sinhalas of Sri Lanka and the South Indian Tamils cooperated in a variety of activities including the building of the irrigation tanks in Anuradhapura and Trincomalee.
      Leslie Gunawardane has written extensively on SISL cooperation in irrigation works.
      Tamil soldiers helped construct irrigation tanks in Anuradhapura and Trincomalee areas.
      Tamil merchants in Sri Lanka contributed their mite to the building of these facilities.
      Earlier, Megalithic folk from South India had brought to Sri Lanka the domesticated rice plant and taught Sri Lankans the use of iron.

      – See more at: http://www.hindustantimes.com/news-feed/colombodiary/who-is-the-indigenous-sri-lankan/article1-42063.aspx#sthash.Qei1NDgP.dpuf

    • 1
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      Vibushana,
      Don’t you agree that (Sinhala) people who had invaded Lanka 2500 years back should have been Hindus (4000 year old religion)?
      At that time, THE book says, there were Queens in Lanka. Don’t you agree those aborigines (Nagas?) must have been fairly civilized people to have a structured society with Queen/King?
      What sort of population Lanka had to have a structured society with Queens, 100,000 ? 200,000 aborigines (Nagas?).
      Those aborigines(Nagas?) should have been Hindu believers too?

      300 years later, those Sinhalese and some aborigines who were Hindus, were courageous enough to drop their Hindu religion and embrace foreign Buddhism?
      What happen to that courage of learning and accepting new after 2000 years?

      • 4
        0

        AVB

        Stop being stupid.

        Sinhala/Buddhists are Aryans, and closely related to Germans.

        Sinhala/Buddhists are Nagas

        Sinhala/Buddhists are the descendants of Ravana

        Sinhala/Buddhists are Sinhapurians.

        Sinhala/Buddhists are the original inhabitants of this island.

        Sinhala/Buddhists are the descendants of Sakya Muni.

        Sinhala/Buddhists are the miracle babies of genetic engineering – lion-man breed.

        Sinhala/Buddhists trace their origin to Hela people from Helsinki.

        Sinhala/Buddhists partly descented from Pandu people of Madura and not Madurai.

        Sinhala/Buddhists believe the first ape spoke Sinhala and practised Theravada Buddhism.

  • 8
    3

    At last the mystery of Dharshanie’s intellectual heritage is revealed! In the first footnote she tells us that the writer who inspires her in her fearless persuit of errant academics is none other than the novelist Stephen King, who is of course well known for his academic rigour for his grip on reality.

  • 5
    0

    Congratulation to Angelo Mathew for getting a maiden test hundred in his 1st Lord’s test, following up on magnificent 147 by Kumar Sangakara. Still a long way to go hopefully we can save the match. Lot will depend on R. Herath.

    Unity is what is required in troubled times, I call upon Naga’s, Lion people, Vedda’s, Monkey people and just normal human beings (who are low in numbers) to unite and work towards chasing the plunderers out of power.

    • 4
      0

      Afzal

      “to unite and work towards chasing the plunderers out of power.”

      Its a sound advice.

      Thanks.

      Therefore send the Tamils and Sinhalese back to their homeland in Tamilnadu or Bihar.

  • 1
    1

    Invitation extended to Yaka’s as well!

    Thanks to DR we know what a mix of people we have in Sri Lanka makes the conditions for peace that much more difficult.

  • 2
    1

    Darshanee;

    I am not Joking!!.

    The real NAGAS are among us.
    Now they are Ruling us from Medamulana, Hambaya thota ON OUR ACCOUNT.
    the real naaga Culture,
    “Take THE REVANGE FROM EVERY BODY WHO ARE AGAINST THEM”, practice by THE NAAGA CLAN.

  • 3
    5

    Prof. Indrapala once told a Sydney Consulate Officer that he is Sinhalese and his parents (both) are of Sinhalese origin, and as he was born in Jaffna, most people think that he is a Tamil. According to ancient history, I learned from my Buddhist priest uncle who was a well known among many educated people Naga is a tribe of people. But Ratnavalli’s opinion forced me to think otherwise.

    Sri Lankan history is distorted by many and it supported the myth that Tamils happened to be from Naga tribe. I think it is high time for some one like Rathnavalli to research and set the records straight.

    I always read Rathnavalli’s articles with interest as she comes with various historical facts, but if she can explain who Prof. Indrapala is much appreciated.

    • 1
      0

      //Prof. Indrapala once told a Sydney Consulate Officer that he is Sinhalese and his parents (both) are of Sinhalese origin,//

      Good morning Upasiri! Everybody is dreaming. By the way, there is a Wiki link for Indrapala in the article.

  • 3
    3

    Ken

    You convinced us that these two stupid people Sinhalese and Tamils originated from the same gene pool.

    A friend maintains that the lion-man origin myth has been replaced by “common Indo-Aryan myth pool”.

    You have let us down, you haven’t updated us with new scientific pool of myths. How could you do this to us?

    Now I am light years away from some myth/truth.

    • 1
      1

      Native

      Common indo aryan myth pool!
      Can you tell me where exactly it is situated? I am keen immerse myself in this holy water. Is there a place near by this mythical pool for a bed and breakfast?
      Ken

      PS:
      “You convinced us that these two stupid people Sinhalese and Tamils originated from the same gene pool”

      Do I need to show evidence for the obvious fact? Genetic studies confirm sinhalese and sri lankan tamils are of same stock as per Lanka ranaweera et al’s paper on genetic ancestry of srilanka.

      But one twisted mind could argue that the tamils came from sinhalese and not vice versa!

      • 2
        1

        ken robert

        “Do I need to show evidence for the obvious fact?”

        I sorry I have to agree to disagree with you.

        Since I came to know about “common Indo-Aryan myth pool” I am beginning to doubt about the veracity of science, genetic research, M20, Allele, rationality, … etc.

        Do you think I should fit in with the “in people” than fighting a lone battle against the majority for a lost cause?

  • 3
    3

    Native
    Where are you?
    Please call the Hindu sage Thirunavukkarasar to charm this deadly snake masquerading as history critic!

    What did Prof Indrapala said?
    “As is well known, the Jaffna peninsula is the area referred to as Nagadipa (the island of the Nagas) in the earliest literary sources. The people known as the Nagas were the group inhabiting that area in the EIA. They have to be considered as the earliest settlers there. That the Nagas were also among the people on the opposite coast, in southeastern Tamil Nadu, is known from the earliest Tamil sources and from surviving place-names, including the well-known place-name of Nagapattinam (the Port-town of the Nagas”

    Firstly the page number mentioning the above statement is on page 86 of his book on evolution of an ethnic identity.

    Secondly emeritus prof Indrapala did say that “nagas were the group inhabiting the areas namely Nagercoil in India and Nainatheevu ( nagadeepa) of Srilanka. This could have been phrased for example “nagas were one of the groups inhabiting the island”.

    I can not find fault with the third sentence that says “they have to be considered as the earliest settlers of srilanka”

    My command in English obviously could not be compared to mastery of most venerable Buddaghosa’s mastery of Pali. But erudite Dharshanie Ratnawalli finds trivial faults in sentences and make a mole out of anthill.

    Let me also categorically say that prof Indrapala has an obvious bias in his writing while arguing a case for tamil ancestry.

    Is not it time to end this the Modi magic/ Mahinda Chinthanaya madness?
    Jai bolo Hindustan! Jai bolo Bharath matha ki jai!

  • 2
    4

    Another excellent article, though it does raise more questions.
    ” “Ye Nagas are not capable of spiritual growth in this doctrine and
    discipline”.

    Buddha arrived in Sri Lanka to intercede between the Naga Uncle and Nephew during one of their dustups. Was he unaware that they were not worthy of his intercession.?

    ” Let an animal, O Bhikshus, that hath not received the ordination not receive it; if it hath received it, let it be expelled”-

    Here, the Buddha refers to the Nagas as animals. How does that square with the claim by the Tamils that they are descended from the Nagas (in order to legitimise their claim as being island occupants from ancient times). I am sure you have seen derogatory comments from ‘learned’ people at this site about the Sinhala (the descendents of Vijaya) as being ONLY semi-human. I am pursuaded that these are mere fantasies akin to the Judaic claim to being ‘chosen’ by god.

    • 4
      0

      The link between the Tamils and the Nagas is based on assumptions without valid evidence very similar to the link between the Sinhalese and the Yaksha, Raksha, Naga, Deva is also based on assumptions without any evidence.

      Since there is no established evidence to prove that these people/tribes existed, the choice is ours,

      1. We can either believe that the entire story about Yakkhas & Nagas or Yaksha, Raksha, Naga, Deva mentioned in our ancient history is a Myth, they never existed.
      Therefore, Nagas not = Tamils, (Yakkhas & Nagas + Vijay/North Indian) not = Sinhalese, (Yaksha, Raksha, Naga, Deva + Vijay/North Indian) not = Sinhalese, All Sri Lankans (except Veddas) are from outside.

      2. We can also believe that, all what is mentioned in the Hindu/Buddhist scriptures and other sources (so called Indo-Aryan Myth Pool) are true, that there existed Non-human super natural beings that came from different celestial worlds.
      Therefore, Human + non-human = any guess (Sinhalese/Tamils???)

      3. We can also believe what some historians believe that they are tribes of human.
      Still, Nagas not= Tamils (no evidence)
      Yakkhas & Nagas not = Sinhalese (No evidence or valid assumptions).
      Yakkhas & Nagas + Vijay & Co. not = Sinhalese (No evidence or valid assumptions).
      Yaksha, Raksha, Naga, Deva not = Sinhalese (No evidence or valid assumptions).
      Yaksha, Raksha, Naga, Deva + Vijay & Co. = Sinhalese (No evidence or valid assumptions).

      Accordingly, all the claims by the Tamils and the Sinhalese will become null and void.

      • 1
        3

        Mohammed,

        What do you know about our Sinhala history? Do you know that our origin is not from Prince Vijaya but from people called “Hela”, the native tribes of Lanka who spoke the Elu/Helu language (later Sinhala)? That is why Sri Lanka was known as “Heladiva” which means the island of Hela people in the past.

        According to historical findings there were four tribes of Hela people ruling the different parts of the island, they were named as Rakshas, Naga, Deva and Yakshas. That is the reason why these four tribes were called “Siv Hela” which means four Helas, later “Siv + hela” became “Sinhala”. That is how the “Heladiva” became “Sinhaladipa”.

        There is a widespread misunderstanding among Sinhalese that we originated from Vijaya Singha who was a thug banished from North India, but unfortunately on the other hand it may be true that Vijaya Singha came to Sri Lanka with his men and mixed with the Hela people who were there by that time (Singha + hela), but our true origin is not from him but from Siv Hela people, they are our true ancestors. Furthermore as you know a great King called Ravana belonged to the Raksha tribe. So the Sinhalese descend from King Ravana who was a great king who ruled the whole Lanka in the past. King Devanampiyatissa belonged to the Deva tribe and King Dutugamunu belonged to Naga tribe. Read the Buddhist text Lankavatara Sutta and you will understand the truth very clearly.

        • 4
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          Ajith de Silva,

          The above what you have written is absolutely hilarious. Before coming to the Argument about the myth – four known tribes (Yaksha, Naga, Deva and Raksha) that existed before the invasion of Vijaya also known as ‘Siv-Hela’, let me say a few words about the terms used in Mahavamsa and from where they were derived. The scholarly monks of the Mahavihara in Anuradapura who wrote the Pali chronicles must have been very fluent in Sanskrit and very thorough/well versed with the Indian Sanskrit texts (Epics, Puranas and the Jatakas) and must have adopted all these stories (including the names) from them.

          Most of the mythical/supernatural stories and legends in the Mahavamsa were derived either from the Jataka Tales or from the Indian Epics and Puranas written in Sanskrit. For example, stories with names/terms such as Pandu, Vasudeva , Simhala, Sinhala, Lanka, Yaksha, Naga, Deva, Raksaha, etc are found/mentioned for the very first time only in the Indian epics/mythology Mahabaratha, Bhagavad Gita, Ramayana, etc. and the historians are not sure if they were true. Very much later, the Mahavamsa has also adopted it (from Indian epics) but with a different twist by including a new (Lion) story. The beginning chapters of the Mahavamsa stories which includes the names Sinhala, Lanka, and the four Deva, Naga, Yaksha, Rakshasa, tribes has NO archeological/epigraphic evidence in Sri Lanka and the present day historians do not accept any of them as true. The island was named ‘Lanka’ (influenced by Ramayana), the people were named ‘Sinhala’ (influenced by Mahabaratha), and the four tribes Deva, Naga, Yaksha, Rakshasa is nothing but a cut and paste from the Mahabaratha. Mahanama Thero who authored the Mahavamsa seems to be an expert on cut & paste. Historically it is from the Mahavamsa depiction the Sinhala race was originated.

          There is a group of Sinhala-Buddhists by the name Hela Havula (Sinhalese literary organization founded by Munidasa Cumaratunga) and some jokers such as Arisen Ahubudu who has created a new theory (Siv + Hela = Sinhala) linking Ravana to the Sinhalas and totally contradicting the Mahavamsa to say that the Sinhalas are the original natives of Sri Lanka from the four tribes (four Hela) known as Siv-hela (Deva, Naga, Yaksha, & Rakshasa) and not migrants from India as mentioned in the Mahavamsa. Their theory is purely based on the Indian epics Ramayana and Mahabaratha. Some of them even want to add the Mahayana Buddhist text Lankavatara Sutta which is based on Ramayana to Sinhala-Buddhism. It should be noted that Ramayana is also a mythology that talks of the story of Rama and Ravana that happened very much before the Buddha. Mahabaratha is even older than Ramayana. How did “Siv-hela” (four Hela tribes) become “Sinhala”? First of all, there is no any historical evidence to prove that the term ‘hela’ was used to denote any race or country. On the other hand the term ‘Siv-hela’ cannot be seen in any of the ancient inscriptions in Sri Lanka or in any of the ancient literary works. I would like to ask, from where did you get this concept of Siv(four) hela? Can you present any piece of evidence to show that the concept of Siv-hela was used anywhere in our literature or any of the ancient inscriptions? Even if you take the Sinhala Language, there is no any rule in Sinhala grammar to derive Siv+hela to sinhala. If it is so Kav+pela should become Kanpela, Pav+hela should become panhala or pansala. Your derivation from Siv+hela to Sinhala is just another non-creative creation.

          The North Indian bandit prince Vijay (the father of the Sinhala race) and his 700 men who were exiled from India landed (or rather invaded) Lanka. Do you know what happened to the pre-populations (the native aboriginals) that already lived in the island of Lanka (those that you wrongly believe as “Hela”, the four tribes of Lanka?

          Very similar to what happened to the aboriginals/natives of Australia and North America, Vijay and his men annihilated most of those aboriginals (including Kuveni) and the remnant had been driven (escaped) into the jungles and become Veddas. Later he (Vijay) married a Pandyan princess of Madurai, South India and his men were given in marriage to the Pandyan maidens. The Sinhalese people are made up of half North Indian and half South Indian and the poor Veddhas (the original natives) had to live in the jungle forever.

          The Great His-story expert of Sri Lanka Prof. Nalin de Silva has created a different theory. According to him, King Pandukabhaya started the Sinhala race by assimilating his (Lion) race with the four native tribes Yaksha, Naga, Deva and Raksha living in Lanka during ancient period.

          Yaksha, Naga, Raksha and Deva tribes living in SL from ancient time is a mystery but Pandukabhaya started Sinhala race by assimilating his race with Yaksha, Naga, Deva and Raksha, the four tribes that was there in Lanka at the time is the biggest mystery because there is NO evidence what so ever to prove it, even the Mahavamsa does not say so. It is a new theory created by the great His-story expert Nalin de Silva. With the patronage of the Buddhist Kings, it is the Mahavihara monks (not Pandukabhaya) who must have assimilated all the Buddhists living in the island and called them Sihala (followers of mythical Vijaya).

          • 3
            1

            Ajith & Prasad

            Wait a few more days until Darshanie Ratnawalli shed some light on this subject of Nagas and other so called ancient tribes of Sri Lanka. I am sure all your confusions and queries (including HILLARIOUS MYTHS) will get cleared when she completes this series of articles.

            • 1
              0

              Mark,

              You are a damn fool to believe/expect that a Sinhala-Buddhist racist Darshanie Ratnawalli to write something unbiased. She is working on an agenda with an ulterior motive to establish a Sinhala only history for the country. For her, everything related to the Sinhalese is the only truth and all others are myths.

          • 1
            0

            You should read the article written by Michael Roberts in Sri Lanka Guardian under the heading “History-Making In Lanka: Problems” http://thuppahi.wordpress.com/2014/06/09/history-making-in-lanka-problems/

  • 6
    0

    You have a dream of our innocent Indrapala becoming a snake and disappearing through a crack in the floor?
    Lady, you need to get married fast.

  • 1
    2

    What about the people of the Present NAGland in India.

    Naming of people had different styles. Some people used the system of naming a son from his father’s name. Tamils use that. during the Buddha’s time also that existed. Even though Prince Siddhartha’s clan did not use, there were many buddhist monks during the buddha’s time used what I am talking.

    for exampl, Malunkaya – puttha, Arahant Monk and the Giant soldier of King Dutugemunu – Thera Puttha-abhaya.

    Ravana was not one king. Ravana was a clan and, perhaps, there were more than one Ravana.

    My point is That Rathnawalli’s myths may not be actually myths. Each was a different person.

    It is like the west using Jr. behind the son’s name. Mac (Scottish, Pooten (dutch), kova (russian), kovich (russian) etc., other places where son or daughter part is used.

  • 5
    1

    kuveni

    “Lady, you need to get married fast.”

    She is only a child.

    Child marriage is illegal in this island.

  • 3
    2

    What is Retnaval is up to this time? She should do a research on her own family ancestry to learn as to at what point Retnaval became Ratnavali!

    • 6
      1

      Burning_Issue

      “She should do a research on her own family ancestry to learn as to at what point Retnaval became Ratnavali!”

      I suspect Irathinavalli is a descendant of Aryacakravarti dynasty (of North West Sri Lanka) which originated from a group 512 Ariyars (essentially a Brahmin priestly caste) of the Pasupata sect of Rameswaram temple.

      This priestly caste claimed to have come from Āryāvarta in the North of India, probably related to Hitler.

      She believes in Aryan’s ability to produce superior gene hence her every effort is to somehow make the Sinhala/Arya connection and deny Tamils contribution to her stupid gene pool.

  • 4
    0

    ..a dream…Professor standing before me …supplicating…sternly…bashful…hunted look…flick my eyelids… a snake…a crack…grip…recesses…disrobed…for a moment I thought I was reading something by Anais Nin; I bit the back of my quivering hand in anticipation and double-checked. It was none other than the fragrant Dharshanie taking us back to bedtime tales from old Gondwana.
    Aaaaah!

  • 1
    0

    Finally I totally agree with you. Both the Sinhalese and Tamils are Nagas. They both carry racist poison and on the look out for rats.

  • 3
    0

    This is interesting, if what Darshanie Ratnawalli says is right, the Naga concept itself is nothing but a Myth. There were no such people as Nagas, it is only a myth found in both Hindu & Buddhist texts (non-human mythical beings/snakes who can take human form).

    In that case if Darshanie Ratnawalli had a dream about Ven. Mahanama (author of Mahavamsa) instead of Indrapala, Ven. Mahanama would have turned into not just a cobra but a Mucalinda because unlike Indrapala, Ven. Mahanama has stolen (or rather borrowed) a huge part from that ‘Indo-Aryan myth pool’ to write the Mahavamsa (not only about Nagas but many other stories).

    Now, this article creates a lot of queries in the minds of people who were believing in the Mahavamsa as a book of truth. If the concept of Nagas was stolen/shared from the ‘Indo-Aryan myth pool’, then obviously the Buddha’s visit to the Nagadipa is also a myth. Professor Senarath Paranavithana was emphatic that there is no historical evidence to support this assertion of three visits by the Buddha to Lankadeepa. If Darshanie Ratnawalli is unbiased and bold, she should leave Indrapala aside and start concentrating on Ven. Mahanama and expose the Myth that he has created in the Mahavamsa by taking a large portion from the ‘Indo-Aryan myth pool’.

    Secondly, we also see many Kings ruling Sri Lanka with the name Naga. For example, some of them were Khallata Naga (109BC), Cora Naga (63BC), Ila Naga (36AD), Mahallaka Naga (136AD), Kudda Naga (188AD), Siri Naga I (184AD), Abhaya Naga (231AD), Siri Naga II (240 AD), Maha Naga (565AD) and so on and what about the place names Nagapuram, Nagarkovil, Nagapattinum, Nagakulam, Nagadivpa, etc.?

    If Nagas were not human but mythical beings adopted from the ‘Indo-Aryan myth pool’ then the above mentioned kings were not Nagas. Were they then Naga/snake worshippers? Why did they adopt such a name?

    Perhaps, Darshanie Ratnawalli should write more on this subject by taking a neutral path (unbiased) and expose the myths boldly.

    • 4
      1

      Mark

      “Perhaps, Darshanie Ratnawalli should write more on this subject by taking a neutral path (unbiased) and expose the myths boldly.”

      “a neutral path (unbiased)” Please don’t kid yourself expecting a neutral path from Aryan Sinhala/Buddhist historians. These historians are working on an agenda, hoping to erase all traces of history of minorities. This is an onerous task even established renowned historians have been chipping in and doing their best to distant themselves from South Indian historical connections and attaching them to the distant Aryan contribution.

      Aryan race is another myth that this child Irathinavalli is trying very hard to establish as truth.

  • 1
    13

    While I want to thank the positive commentors and do not mean to discourage anyone at all from self-expression, I want to post a disclaimer to the effect that the comments and the commentors on this site are not connected with me in any way. All the comments are entirely a reflection on the democracy and the discretion of this site. I haven’t solicited those comments in any way, nor am I part of any “circle” consisting of these commentors. They are completely unknown to me and I haven’t submitted my article to them. In fact, the majority of those who comment on my articles in CT are not my intended target audience and I am well aware that what I write go over their heads. Perhaps I am being intolerably rude as one dear friend pointed out. But….this disclaimer is to establish the widest distance from and renounce all responsibility for the levels of comprehension of those outside my intended target audience.

    • 3
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      Darshanie
      I am, quite probably, not one of those in your target audience. And, with out a doubt, what you write goes way over my poor head. But please, do tell me, who exactly are your intended audience?

  • 1
    5

    Hey Ram, ‘not capable of spiritual growth in the doctrine’ doesn’t mean not worth it. My dog may not be capable of spiritual growth in the doctrine but I have no doubt who I’d give the one remaining place in the life-boat to if we were in a Titanic situation and I had to choose between some people and my dog. Nagas in the Buddhist part of the IA myth-pool were the most devoted of the Buddha’s disciples and followers and the Bodhisatva was born as Naga in numerous previous births.
    Also Mark you don’t steal from myth-pools, you take communal baths in it, and that’s how it happens. You will know more before my Naga series is over. I promise.

    • 6
      0

      Darshanie Ratnawalli child,

      While you are with the dog it is not the dog which is suffering from Pavlov Effect but “historians” like yourself have been demonstrating classical conditioning.

      You have all the necessary and sufficient conditions such as neutral stimulus, unconditioned stimulus, unconditioned response, conditioned response to create history out of myth, ignorance, stupidity and bigotry.

      • 3
        0

        Native

        Come on, are you trying to teach Pavlov’s experiment to a kindergarten child? We should let the children use their imagination. X-men, Stephen King, CIAM pool etc etc
        ken

        • 4
          0

          ken robert

          Sorrrrrrrrry

        • 4
          2

          (1)
          Pavlov and his “explanations” ended with B. F. Skinner who brought everything of the Pavlovian school to a reductio ad absurdum.

          (2)
          Darshani Ratnawalli has been going at Dr. Indrapala for quite sometime. So, in her dreams she may be having the fear that Indrapala (the ruler of Indra, a Naaga) would appear in his true form and take vengeance from her. In fact, most South Asians would desist from harming a Naaga as they are believed to hold the act in memory and come back to take vengeance.

          But also, note that this dream is even more complex. The Naaga rising from the ground was also a phallic symbol – a simple “Shiva Lingam”, And indeed, thr Nagaposhani temple in Nagadeepa is today a significant fertility temple.

          So this is a very mixed feminine dream.

          There are lots of myths that people like to believe, even today. Many believe that Saibaba can do miracles and make things appear from nowhere! Rural people in Italy have every year claimed to see a church cross bleeding on Easter Eve, or the Holy Ghost appearing in person and help them. So, in the 5th century BCE, to believe that Naagas could take human form is no big deal. Even today our villages have seen Mahasona or Reeri Yakaa appearing in person.

          As to the Nagas being a myth – and that myth is the basis of the totamism. Many who believed in the myth (and why not – most of our beliefs are NOT based on empirical “facts”) “belonged” to the Naga tribe. So we have many kings with names ending in “naaga”, and we have Naagapura or Nakpur (which became Nallur later on, when Tamil appeared on the stage) . Today there is a Hindu Kovil in Nakpur, and many Tamils would say that it has always been Nallur (the “good city”) and that the Kovil been there since the time of Agasthiya!!!

          What Dharshanee doesn’t like is the fact that Indrapala did not say that the Nagas probably spoke some sort of early Prakrit, but he insisted on Nagas being Tamil. I am sure some nagas did speak. But they were probably a minority whose descendants did not go and scribble on the Sigiri wall, just as the veddahs did not go and scribble on the Sigiri wall (because they are so well brought up!). Ergo, Darshani Ratnawalli is ready to claim that there were neither Tamils, nor Veddahs in Lanka of the 8th century, because there are only Sinhala verses on the Sigiri wall?

          • 3
            0

            Kautilya

            “Pavlov and his “explanations” ended with B. F. Skinner who brought everything of the Pavlovian school to a reductio ad absurdum”

            Is it a new theory blossomed for Medamulana school of behavioural Psychology? Kautilya! you have disappointed me, a five year child should be able to Google and find the fallacy in your statement.

            “What Darshanie doesn’t like is the fact that Indrapala did not say that the Nagas probably spoke some sort of early Prakrit, but he insisted on Nagas being Tamil”

            Could you provide some evidence where exactly did Prof Indrapala said so?, please leave the mythology to dharshanie, she is doing an excellent job in creating new mythology to reinstate sinhala supremism!
            I am wondering whether you are losing your marbles!

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    Freud wrote about dreams and specifically snake dreams a long time ago. You should read about it.

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    [Edited out]

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    I am tired of hearing that the veddhas are the orginal inhabitants.Mr.Prasad What makes you think that sinhalese are indians?

    Mahavansa says about a ritarded indian prince called vijaya who is a lion-human hybrid that somehow landed in sri lanka and gave rise to the sinhalese. One man mixing with thousands of people? A hybrid reproducing is impossible.

    According to mahavansa that retard called vijaya married kuveni and had 2 children, Jeewahatha and Disala who are the descendants of Veddhas. Do you still think that the veddhas are the original inhabitants?

    Pandukabhya wasn’t the founder of Sinhalese, he was a sinhalese of yakka origin.
    Who was the founder of sinhalese? No one, they were always in the island. The original inhabitants.

    Angampora the oldest martial arts practiced in sri lanka. If veddhas are the original inhabitants why don’t they practice this and the sinhalese do?

    I hate when people say sinhalese are indians, especially when sinhalese deny that they are native. I personally think that those people should go to india and have fun experiencing racism. Your betrayal about your origin proves my point that you are native because Kuveni betrayed her own people and you are one of hers.

    Mr Ajith de silva,

    Both dutugemunu and devanmpiyatissa are of yakka tribe because they are both descendants of pandukabhya.

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    As per human kind evaluation theory. we Caucasoid evolved in central and euro Asian regions.the other two in Africa and Mongolian regions/ homo-serpiens of three categories migrated all over and formed different,different civilizations and ethnic groups.as such genetic affinities research results mentioned here in comments must be true as our ape patriarch were same.As such we are not Indians. as one mentioned here people live in Europe must have genetic affinities with us and people of Iran Afghanistan India, Bangladesh Andaman islanders Australian aborigines too must be our relatives,as such we should start discussion on pallavas invasions in here and locals civilization.nagas tribes live in burma still but they do not worship nagas instead eat naga flesh as special food in their auspices occasions. as such worshiping something or some living being did not categorized local inhabitant as yakka, naga, rakshaya or deva.that was animistic culture did all the wonders. civilization, traditions and rituals springs with animistic belief. even sinhalese think yakks reeri is god shiva as both appear in same form. with human skull garland and those custumes are same.that is why sinhalese do not worship siva but other Hindu deities.only the malabar community worship and build siva temples here.if yakkas worshiped yakka rakshayas sive temples should have been built everywhere here but you can find only a few.as such naga concept is a total myth,

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    Many people here have seem to have got the mystery of Sinhalese genetics wrong. Let me straighten it up for everybody. Sinhalese are more genetically related to Bengalis. Around 72% of Sinhalese have Bengali as parenteral population, with 16% Tamil as parenteral population and 12% Gujarati as parenteral population. Also by genetic distance Sinhalese are closer to Bengalis than to Tamils.

    These are according to the more accurate and far more widely accepted researches and tests conducted on Sinhalese from different regions on the country. You may double check what I am stating here.

    My claim is further proved by the fact how the y-DNA haplogroups R2a and R1a1 are found highly among sinhalese. R haplogroups and its subclades are largely found in Indo-European speakers. Sinhalese have a total of around 50% in R2a and R1a1 which further proves the similarity to the Indo-European speaking Bengalis.

    Sinhalese being closer to North-Indians is further proved by looking at the general skin pigmentation of the 2 populations.
    In 2008 a study looked at SLC24A5 polymorphism which accounts for 25-40% of the skin complexion difference between Europeans and Africans and up to 30% of skin colour variation in South Asians. The study found that the rs1426654 SNP of SLC24A5, which is fixed in European populations and found more commonly in light skinned individuals than dark skinned individuals (49% compared to 10%), has a frequency of 50% in the Sinhalese and 30% in Sri Lankan tamils.

    Sinhalese are generally considered to be lighter skinned than Tamils and these studies which looked for SLC24AP polymorphism further proves that. (Mainly Sinhalese from the center of the Island who are mixed lesser than the Sinhalese nearer to the coasts are also considered fairer skinned than other populations in the island in general.) Therefore these findings put the Sinhalese closer to North Indian Indo-European speakers in genetics, skin pigmentation and language.

    Regarding the alphabet what I have to say is that the North-Indian Devanagari script evolved later from the Brahmi script which has influenced all alphabets in India. Since the bulk of ancestors of the Sinhalese moved before the innovation and use of Devanagari script in North-India they never saw the use of it in the Sinhalese language. There are also other North-Indian non-devanagari alphabets like the Gujarati and Orissan alphabets.

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